“Benin/Togo” also describes DNA from Ghana & Nigeria

Tracing African Roots

I have created a new page featuring the AncestryDNA results for West Africans from the following countries: Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo & Benin. I will create a new section for the remaining part of West Africa (Upper Guinea) shortly. The number of results I have collected so far might be minimal but already my survey findings turn out to be quite insightful. I also provide some statistical data, analysis and relevant context. Follow this link to view the page:

In addition I also discuss the implications these findings might have for Afro-Diasporans in an attempt to improve proper interpretation of their West African regional scores, in particular for “Ivory Coast/Ghana” and “Benin/Togo”. One of these implications I will also discuss in greater detail in this blog post:

“Benin/Togo” is also predictive of Ghanaian & Nigerian DNA

The so-called “Benin/Togo” region seems to be quite…

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The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob

A Watchful Servant

the name

Have you ever wondered about the name and pronunciation of the true living God? Why do we hear different names referring to the same God?

It is because God’s name has been mostly forgotten, and we are left with four Hebrew consonant letters and what seems to be no certain pronunciation.
There are several attempts using different vowel combinations to come up with “the name” but can we know which is correct?

I found seven different spellings in the Hebrew text of the Old Testament.

YHVH

The first six are different vowel arrangements around the four consonant letters.
In Hebrew there are actually no vowels. With the revival of modern Hebrew, they developed vowel markers to make the pronunciation of words as they believed they should sound. That is what the little dots and dashes represent.

Based on usage (5,658 times), it would seem that YaHVaH would most likely be correct…

View original post 2,406 more words

Benin & Togo DNA #

Benin Togo Nigeria and Ghana area

Volta–Niger languages

The Volta–Niger family of languages, also known as West Benue–Congo or East Kwa, is one of the branches of the Niger–Congo language family, with perhaps 50 million speakers. Among these are the most important languages of southern NigeriaBeninTogo, and southeast GhanaYorubaIgboBiniFon, and Ewe.

Volta–Niger
West Benue–Congo
East Kwa
Geographic
distribution
West Africa, from Eastern Ghana to central Nigeria
Linguistic classification Niger–Congo

Subdivisions
Glottolog None
{{{mapalt}}}

Some important branches of the Volta–Niger and Benue–Congo families are concentrated in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Benin.

These languages have variously been placed within the Kwa or Benue–Congo families, but Williamson & Blench (2000) separate them from both. The boundaries between the various branches of Volta–Niger are rather vague, suggesting diversification of a dialect continuum rather than a clear split of families, which suggest a close origin

The constituent groups of the Volta–Niger family, along with the most important languages in terms of number of speakers, are as follows (with number of languages for each branch in parentheses):

Volta–Niger  
Akpes (1)
Ayere–Ahan (2)
Gbe (21: Fon [2 million], Ewe [3 million])
  yeai  
Yoruboid (Igala [1 million], Yorùbá [22 million], Itsekiri[800,000])
Edoid (27: Edo [Bini, 1 million])
Akoko (1)
Igboid (7: Igbo [18 million])
 noi 
Nupoid (12: Ebira [1 million], Nupe [1 million])
Oko (1)
Idomoid (9: Idoma[600,000])
Ukaan (1)

The Yoruboid languages and Akoko were once linked as the Defoid branch, but more recently they, Edoid, and Igboid have been suggested to be primary branches of an as-yet unnamed group, often abbreviated yeai. Similarly, Oko, Nupoid, and Idomoid are often grouped together under the acronym noi. Ukaan is an Atlantic–Congo language, but it is unclear if it belongs to the Volta–Niger family; Blench suspects it is closer to Benue–Congo.

Volta–Niger languages

The Volta–Niger family of languages, also known as West Benue–Congo or East Kwa, is one of the branches of the Niger–Congo language family, with perhaps 50 million speakers. Among these are the most important languages of southern NigeriaBeninTogo, and southeast GhanaYorubaIgboBiniFon, and Ewe.

Volta–Niger
West Benue–Congo
East Kwa
Geographic
distribution
West Africa, from Eastern Ghana to central Nigeria
Linguistic classification Niger–Congo

Subdivisions
Glottolog None
{{{mapalt}}}

Some important branches of the Volta–Niger and Benue–Congo families are concentrated in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Benin.

These languages have variously been placed within the Kwa or Benue–Congo families, but Williamson & Blench (2000) separate them from both. The boundaries between the various branches of Volta–Niger are rather vague, suggesting diversification of a dialect continuum rather than a clear split of families, which suggest a close origin

The constituent groups of the Volta–Niger family, along with the most important languages in terms of number of speakers, are as follows (with number of languages for each branch in parentheses):

Volta–Niger  
Akpes (1)
Ayere–Ahan (2)
Gbe (21: Fon [2 million], Ewe [3 million])
  yeai  
Yoruboid (Igala [1 million], Yorùbá [22 million], Itsekiri[800,000])
Edoid (27: Edo [Bini, 1 million])
Akoko (1)
Igboid (7: Igbo [18 million])
 noi 
Nupoid (12: Ebira [1 million], Nupe [1 million])
Oko (1)
Idomoid (9: Idoma[600,000])
Ukaan (1)

The Yoruboid languages and Akoko were once linked as the Defoid branch, but more recently they, Edoid, and Igboid have been suggested to be primary branches of an as-yet unnamed group, often abbreviated yeai. Similarly, Oko, Nupoid, and Idomoid are often grouped together under the acronym noi. Ukaan is an Atlantic–Congo language, but it is unclear if it belongs to the Volta–Niger family; Blench suspects it is closer to Benue–Congo.

To be continued

Transatlantic journey from West Africa to beyond

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