The history of slavery in West Africa

 

atlantic-slave-trade-02

This post covers different perspectives of the slave trade in Africa and looks at who the people were.

Ghanaweb extract below

Early European Contact and the Slave Trade

When the first Europeans arrived in the late fifteenth century, many inhabitants of the Gold Coast area were striving to consolidate their newly acquired territories and to settle into a secure and permanent environment. Several immigrant groups had yet to establish firm ascendancy over earlier occupants of their territories, and considerable displacement and secondary migrations were in progress. Ivor Wilks, a leading historian of Ghana, observed that Akan purchases of slaves from Portuguese traders operating from the Congo region augmented the labor needed for the state formation that was characteristic of this period. Unlike the Akan groups of the interior, the major coastal groups, such as the Fante, Ewe, and Ga, were for the most part settled in their homelands.

The Portuguese were the first to arrive. By 1471, under the patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator, they had reached the area that was to become known as the Gold Coast because Europeans knew the area as the source of gold that reached Muslim North Africa by way of trade routes across the Sahara. The initial Portuguese interest in trading for gold, ivory, and pepper so increased that in 1482 the Portuguese built their first permanent trading post on the western coast of present-day Ghana. This fortress, Elmina Castle, constructed to protect Portuguese trade from European competitors and hostile Africans, still stands.

With the opening of European plantations in the New World during the 1500s, which suddenly expanded the demand for slaves in the Americas, trade in slaves soon overshadowed gold as the principal export of the area. Indeed, the west coast of Africa became the principal source of slaves for the New World. The seemingly insatiable market and the substantial profits to be gained from the slave trade attracted adventurers from all over Europe. Much of the conflict that arose among European groups on the coast and among competing African kingdoms was the result of rivalry for control of this trade.

The Portuguese position on the Gold Coast remained secure for almost a century. During that time, Lisbon leased the right to establish trading posts to individuals or companies that sought to align themselves with the local chiefs and to exchange trade goods both for rights to conduct commerce and for slaves whom the chiefs could provide. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, adventurers–first Dutch, and later English, Danish, and Swedish– were granted licenses by their governments to trade overseas. On the Gold Coast, these European competitors built fortified trading stations and challenged the Portuguese. Sometimes they were also drawn into conflicts with local inhabitants as Europeans developed commercial alliances with local chiefs.

The principal early struggle was between the Dutch and the Portuguese. With the loss of Elmina in 1642 to the Dutch, the Portuguese left the Gold Coast permanently. The next 150 years saw kaleidoscopic change and uncertainty, marked by local conflicts and diplomatic maneuvers, during which various European powers struggled to establish or to maintain a position of dominance in the profitable trade of the Gold Coast littoral. Forts were built, abandoned, attacked, captured, sold, and exchanged, and many sites were selected at one time or another for fortified positions by contending European nations. 
Both the Dutch and the British formed companies to advance their African ventures and to protect their coastal establishments. The Dutch West India Company operated throughout most of the eighteenth century. The British African Company of Merchants, founded in 1750, was the successor to several earlier organizations of this type. These enterprises built and manned new installations as the companies pursued their trading activities and defended their respective jurisdictions with varying degrees of government backing. There were short-lived ventures by the Swedes and the Prussians. The Danes remained until 1850, when they withdrew from the Gold Coast. The British gained possession of all Dutch coastal forts by the last quarter of the nineteenth century, thus making them the dominant European power on the Gold Coast.

https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/history/slave-trade.php

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Below extract from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dwayne-wong-omowale/myths-and-misconceptions-_1_b_9637798.html

In the first place, the Portuguese initiated what eventually became the Trans-Atlantic slave trade mainly through slave raids along the coasts of Africa. The first of these raids came in 1444 and was led by Lançarote de Freitas. The problem with raiding for slaves was that it was extremely dangerous. For instance, the slave trader Nuno Tristão was killed during an ambush. Slave raiding proved to be an extremely dangerous way to obtain slaves, but buying slaves was much safer and took less effort on the part of the Europeans. Therefore, the first phase of the slave trade began not with a trade, but with a series of raids. This point is especially important because although the slave trade was on some levels based on a partnership between European buyers and African traders, the slave trade did not begin as such.

Moreover, the partnership between the traders and buyers was an uneasy one. The European slave traders often betrayed those who supplied them with slaves. A famous case of this was the African slave trader Daaga who was tricked and captured by slave traders. He was taken to Trinidad where he would eventually lead a mutiny. Another example is given by Anne Bailey in her book African Voices in the Atlantic Slave Trade. She mentions the story of Chief Ndorkutsu who had been providing captives to the European traders. Eventually some of the Ndorkutsu’s own relatives were tricked into boarding a slave ship and then taken as slaves to Cuba. In some cases, such as that of Madam Tinubu in Nigeria and Afonso of the Kongo Kingdom, those Africans that initially gave African captives to the Europeans came to resist the slave trade. Tinubu had a change of heart when she realized how inhumanely the slaves were treated. Afonso was almost assassinated by the Portuguese after he demanded an end to the slave trade in his kingdom.

End

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 See this documentary on West Africa

https://youtu.be/iTDEgr0RLso

https://youtu.be/Je0K0BAJ1hY

On the BBC website they provide the following insight:

“Many societies in Africa with kings and hierarchical forms of government traditionally kept slaves. But these were mostly used for domestic purposes. They were an indication of power and wealth and not used for commercial gain. However, with the appearance of Europeans desperate to buy slaves for use in the Americas, the character of African slave ownership changed.

GROWING RICH WITH SLAVERY 
ROYALTY
In the early 18th century, Kings of Dahomey (known today as Benin) became big players in the slave trade, waging a bitter war on their neighbours, resulting in the capture of 10,000, including another important slave trader, the King of Whydah. King Tegbesu made £250,000 a year selling people into slavery in 1750. King Gezo said in the 1840’s he would do anything the British wanted him to do apart from giving up slave trade:

“The slave trade is the ruling principle of my people. It is the source and the glory of their wealth…the mother lulls the child to sleep with notes of triumph over an enemy reduced to slavery…”

LIVING WITNESS
Some of the descendants of African traders are alive today. Mohammed Ibrahim Babatu is the great great grandson of Baba-ato (also known as Babatu), the famous Muslim slave trader, who was born in Niger and conducted his slave raids in Northern Ghana in the 1880’s. Mohammed Ibrahim Babatu, the deputy head teacher of a Junior secondary school in Yendi, lives in Ghana.

“In our curriculum, we teach a little part of the history of our land. Because some of the children ask questions about the past history of our grandfather Babatu.

Babatu, and others, didn’t see anything wrong with slavery. They didn’t have any knowledge of what the people were used for. They were only aware that some of the slaves would serve others of the royal families within the sub-region.

He has done a great deal of harm to the people of Africa. I have studied history and I know the effect of slavery.

I have seen that the slave raids did harm to Africa, but some members of our family feel he was ignorant…we feel that what he did was fine, because it has given the family a great fame within the Dagomba society.

He gave some of the slaves to the Dagombas and then he sent the rest of the slaves to the Salaga market. He didn’t know they were going to plantations…he was ignorant…”

Listen hereListen to Mohammed Ibrahim Babatu, great great grandson of the famous Muslim slave trader Baba-ato

SONGHAY
The young Moroccan traveler and commentator, Leo Africanus, was amazed at the wealth and quantity of slaves to be found in Gao, the capital of Songhay, which he visited in 1510 and 1513 when the empire was at the height of its power under Askiya Mohammed”

“…here there is a certain place where slaves are sold, especially on those days when the merchants are assembled. And a young slave of fifteen years of age is sold for six ducats, and children are also sold. The king of this region has a certain private palace where he maintains a great number of concubines and slaves”

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/9chapter2.shtml

The following except from pages 47-50 of Overturning the Culture of Violence, written by Penny Hess, Chairwoman of the African People’s Solidarity Committee and printed by Burning Spear Publications, 

HUMAN BONDAGE: Page 47-50, Overturning the Culture of Violence

The terrible impact that slavery has had on the continent of Africa cannot be calculated: the destruction of magnificent civilizations, the break-up of family and kinship circles, the massive depopulation, forced impoverishment, famine and starvation, the ravishing of an environment which had been so conducive to human civilization for millennia. From open, educated, prosperous and democratic societies, African people now lived in sheer terror, never knowing when their village or town would be raided for human loot by these white invaders.

Some North American people cynically place the blame for the enslavement of African people on the shoulders of African collaborators who participated in the kidnapping of their own people. Impacted by the social destruction wreaked by invading Europeans, a tiny minority of the conquered people did find their own survival by participating in this treachery.

The setting up of collaborators among the colonized population has been a successful tool of domination in every instance of European colonialism around the world. Africa is no exception. Europeans attack societies in Africa, Asia, or the Americas, destroying their traditional economies and long-standing social relationships. A unilateral colonial economy, which starves the people and creates the dependency on the colonial power, is militarily enforced.

The European invader gets richer and richer through his bloodsucking relationship, and offers resources, guns and special status to a minority sector of the oppressed population. The selected “elite” or the colony can themselves become enslaved or carry out the will of white power. If they take any stand independent of the colonizer as have, say, Panama’s Noriega or Iraq’s Saddam Hussein in today’s world, white power spares them none of its wrath.

This plan has worked well over the centuries. A few people in every colony have participated in the devious imperialist schemes of slavery, genocide, torture and exploitation of their own people, a collaboration which benefits no one more than the European or North American “mother” country.

AND ALSO

Most Africans resisted enslavement with all of their energy. Rebellions on slave ships were common. According to one source, “Many deaths on slave journeys across the Atlantic derived from violence, brawls, and above all, rebellions. There was probably at least one insurrection every eight to ten journeys.”

For example, Africans successfully rebelled in 1532 aboard the Portueguese slave ship the Misericordia. The 109 Africans on board “rose and murdered all the crew except for the pilot and two seaman. Those survivors escaped in a longboat. But the Misericordia was never heard of again.”

Slave ship owners often threw Africans off the ships just to collect the insurance money. One famous case was that of a ship owned by William Gregson and George Case (both former mayors of Liverpool, England). The captain threw 133 Africans into the sea because if Africans were to die naturally, the owners would lose money, but if the African people were “thrown alive into the sea,” supposedly for the safety of the crew, “it would be the loss of the underwriters.”

For full article visit http://www.uhurusolidarity.org/2014/09/08/next-time-someone-says-but-africans-sold-themselves-into-slavery-send-them-this-article/

Wikipedia Extract below

Forms of slaveryEdit

Multiple forms of slavery and servitude have existed throughout Africa during history and were shaped by indigenous practices of slavery as well as the Roman institution of slavery[citation needed](and the later Christian views on slavery), the Islamic institutions of slavery via the Arab slave trade, and eventually the Atlantic slave trade.[1] Slavery was a part of the economic structure of African societies for many centuries, although the extent varied.[1] Ibn Battuta, who visited the ancient kingdom of Mali in the mid-14th century, recounts that the local inhabitants vied with each other in the number of slaves and servants they had, and was himself given a slave boy as a “hospitality gift.”[3] In sub-Saharan Africa, the slave relationships were often complex, with rights and freedoms given to individuals held in slavery and restrictions on sale and treatment by their masters.[4] Many communities had hierarchies between different types of slaves: for example, differentiating between those who had been born into slavery and those who had been captured through war.[5]

“The slaves in Africa, I suppose, are nearly in the proportion of three to one to the freemen. They claim no reward for their services except food and clothing, and are treated with kindness or severity, according to the good or bad disposition of their masters. Custom, however, has established certain rules with regard to the treatment of slaves, which it is thought dishonourable to violate. Thus the domestic slaves, or such as are born in a man’s own house, are treated with more lenity than those which are purchased with money. … But these restrictions on the power of the master extend not to the care of prisoners taken in war, nor to that of slaves purchased with money. All these unfortunate beings are considered as strangers and foreigners, who have no right to the protection of the law, and may be treated with severity, or sold to a stranger, according to the pleasure of their owners.”

Travels in the Interior of AfricaMungo ParkTravels in the Interior of Africa v. II, Chapter XXII – 

The forms of slavery in Africa were closely related to kinship structures. In many African communities, where land could not be owned, enslavement of individuals was used as a means to increase the influence a person had and expand connections.[6] This made slaves a permanent part of a master’s lineage and the children of slaves could become closely connected with the larger family ties.[1] Children of slaves born into families could be integrated into the master’s kinship group and rise to prominent positions within society, even to the level of chief in some instances.[5] However, stigma often remained attached and there could be strict separations between slave members of a kinship group and those related to the master.[6]

Chattel slaveryEdit

Chattel slavery is a specific servitude relationship where the slave is treated as the property of the owner. As such, the owner is free to sell, trade, or treat the slave as he would other pieces of property and the children of the slave often are retained as the property of the master.[7] There is evidence of long histories of chattel slavery in the Nile river valley and Northern Africa, but evidence is incomplete about the extent and practices of chattel slavery throughout much of the rest of the continent prior to written records by Arab or European traders.[7]

Domestic serviceEdit

Many slave relationships in Africa revolved around domestic slavery, where slaves would work primarily in the house of the master but retain some freedoms. Domestic slaves could be considered part of the master’s household and would not be sold to others without extreme cause. The slaves could own the profits from their labor (whether in land or in products), and could marry and pass the land on to their children in many cases.[5]

PawnshipEdit

Pawnship, or debt bondage slavery, involves the use of people as collateral to secure the repayment of debt. Slave labor is performed by the debtor, or a relative of the debtor (usually a child). Pawnship was a common form of collateral in West Africa. It involved the pledge of a person, or a member of that person’s family, to service another person providing credit. Pawnship was related to, yet distinct from, slavery in most conceptualizations, because the arrangement could include limited, specific terms of service to be provided and because kinship ties would protect the person from being sold into slavery. Pawnship was a common practice throughout West Africa prior to European contact, including amongst the Akan people, the Ewe people, the Ga people, the Yoruba people, and the Edo people (in modified forms, it also existed amongst the Efik people, the Igbo people, the Ijaw people, and the Fon people).[8]

Military slaveryEdit

Military slavery involved the acquisition and training of conscripted military units which would retain the identity of military slaves even after their service.[9] Slave soldier groups would be run by a Patron, who could be the head of a government or an independent warlord, and who would send his troops out for money and his own political interests.[9]

This was most significant in the Nile valley (primarily in Sudan and Uganda), with slave military units organized by various Islamic authorities,[9] and with the war chiefs of Western Africa.[10] The military units in Sudan were formed in the 1800s through large-scale military raiding in the area which is currently the countries of Sudan and South Sudan.[9]

Slaves for sacrificeEdit

Human sacrifice was common in West African states up to and during the 19th century. Although archaeological evidence is not clear on the issue prior to European contact, in those societies that practiced human sacrifice, slaves became the most prominent victims.[1]

Local slave tradeEdit

Several nations such as the Ashanti of present-day Ghana and the Yoruba of present-day Nigeriawere involved in slave-trading. Groups such as the Imbangala of Angola and the Nyamwezi ofTanzania would serve as intermediaries or roving bands, waging war on African states to capture people for export as slaves. Historians John Thornton and Linda Heywood have provided an estimate that Africans captured and then sold to Europeans around 90% of those who were shipped in the Atlantic slave trade.[11] Henry Louis Gates, the Harvard Chair of African and African American Studies, has stated that “without complex business partnerships between African elites and European traders and commercial agents, the slave trade to the New World would have been impossible, at least on the scale it occurred.”[11]

The entire Bubi ethnic group descents from escaped intertribal slaves owned by various ancient West-central African ethnic groups.

Slavery practices throughout AfricaEdit

Like most other regions of the world, slavery and forced labor existed in many kingdoms and societies of Africa for thousands of years.[12] Precise evidence on slavery or the political and economic institutions of slavery before contact with the Arab or Atlantic slave trade is not available.[4] Early European reports of slavery throughout Africa in the 1600s are unreliable because they often conflated various forms of servitude as equal to chattel slavery.[13]

The best evidence of slave practices in Africa come from the major kingdoms, particularly along the coast, and there is little evidence of widespread slavery practices in stateless societies.[1][4][5]Slave trading was mostly secondary to other trade relationships; however, there is evidence of a trans-Saharan slave trade route from Roman times which persisted in the area after the fall of the Roman empire.[7] However, kinship structures and rights provided to slaves (except those captured in war) appears to have limited the scope of slave trading before the start of the Arab slave trade and the Atlantic slave trade.[4]

Northern AfricaEdit

Redemption of Christian slaves by Catholic monks in Algiers in 1661.

Burning of a Village in Africa, and Capture of its Inhabitants (p.12, February 1859, XVI)[14]

Chattel slavery had been legal and widespread throughout North Africa when the region was controlled by the Roman Empire (47 BC – ca. 500 AD). The Sahel region south of the Sahara provided many of the African slaves held in North Africa during this period and there was a trans-Saharan slave trade in operation.[7] Chattel slavery persisted after the fall of the Roman empire in the largely Christian communities of the region. After the Islamic expansion into most of the region, the practices continued and eventually, the chattel form of slavery spread to major societies on the southern end of the Sahara (such as Mali, Songhai, and Ghana).[1]

The medieval slave trade in Europe was mainly to the East and South: the Christian Byzantine Empire and the Muslim World were the destinations, Central and Eastern Europe an important source of slaves.[15] Slavery in medieval Europe was so widespread that the Roman Catholic Church repeatedly prohibited it—or at least the export of Christian slaves to non-Christian lands was prohibited at, for example, the Council of Koblenz in 922, the Council of London in 1102, and the Council of Armagh in 1171. Because of religious constraints, the slave trade was carried out in parts of Europe by Iberian Jews (known asRadhanites) who were able to transfer slaves from pagan Central Europe through ChristianWestern Europe to Muslim countries in Al-Andalus and Africa.[16]

Christian slavery in Barbary.

The Mamluks were slave soldiers who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid Sultans during the Middle Ages. The first Mamluks served the Abbasid caliphs in 9th century Baghdad. Over time, they became a powerful military caste, and on more than one occasion they seized power for themselves, for example, ruling Egypt from 1250–1517. From 1250 Egypt had been ruled by the Bahri dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin. White enslaved people from the Caucasus served in the army and formed an elite corps of troops eventually revolting in Egypt to form the Burgi dynasty.[17]

According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves to North Africa and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries.[18][19] The coastal villages and towns of ItalyPortugalSpain and Mediterranean islands were frequently attacked by the pirates and long stretches of the Italian and Spanish coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants; after 1600 Barbary pirates occasionally entered the Atlantic and struck as far north as Iceland. The most famous corsairs were the Ottoman Barbarossa (“Redbeard”), and his older brother OruçTurgut Reis (known asDragut in the West), Kurtoğlu (known as Curtogoli in the West), Kemal ReisSalih Reis and Koca Murat Reis.[19][20]

In 1544, Hayreddin Barbarossa captured Ischia, taking 4,000 prisoners in the process, and deported to slavery some 9,000 inhabitants of Lipari, almost the entire population.[21] In 1551, Dragut enslaved the entire population of the Maltese island Gozo, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to Libya. When pirates sacked Vieste in southern Italy in 1554 they took an estimated 7,000 slaves. In 1555, Turgut Reis sailed to Corsica and ransacked Bastia, taking 6000 prisoners. In 1558 Barbary corsairs captured the town of Ciutadella, destroyed it, slaughtered the inhabitants and carried off 3,000 survivors to Istanbul as slaves.[22] In 1563 Turgut Reis landed at the shores of the province of Granada, Spain, and captured the coastal settlements in the area like Almuñécar, along with 4,000 prisoners. Barbary pirates frequently attacked the Balearic islands, resulting in many coastal watchtowers and fortified churches being erected. The threat was so severe that Formentera became uninhabited.[23][24]

Early modern sources are full of descriptions of sufferings of Christian galley slaves of the Barbary corsairs:

Those who have not seen a galley at sea, especially in chasing or being chased, cannot well conceive the shock such a spectacle must give to a heart capable of the least tincture of commiseration. To behold ranks and files of half-naked, half-starved, half-tanned meagre wretches, chained to a plank, from whence they remove not for months together (commonly half a year), urged on, even beyond human strength, with cruel and repeated blows on their bare flesh…[25]

As late as 1798, the islet near Sardinia was attacked by the Tunisians and over 900 inhabitants were taken away as slaves.

Sahrawi-Moorish society in Northwest Africa was traditionally (and still is, to some extent) stratified into several tribal castes, with the Hassane warrior tribes ruling and extracting tribute –horma – from the subservient Berber-descended znaga tribes. Below them ranked servile groups known as Haratin, a black population.[26]

Horn of AfricaEdit

Bantu slave woman in Mogadishu(1882–1883).

In the Horn of Africa, the Christian kings of the Ethiopian Empire often exported pagan Nilotic slaves from their western borderlands, or from newly conquered or reconquered lowland territories.[27] The Somali and Afar Muslim sultanates, such as the medieval Adal Sultanate, through their ports also traded Zanj (Bantu) slaves that were captured from the hinterland.[28]

Slaves in Ethiopia, 19th century.

Slavery as practiced in Ethiopia was essentially domestic. Slaves thus served in the houses of their masters or mistresses, and were not employed to any significant extent for productive purpose. Slaves were thus regarded as second-class members of their owners’ family,.[29] The first attempt to abolish slavery in Ethiopia was made by Emperor Tewodros II (r. 1855–68),[30] although the slave trade was not abolished legally until 1923 with Ethiopia’s ascension to the League of Nations.[31] Anti-Slavery Society estimated there were 2 million slaves in the early 1930s out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million.[32] Slavery continued in Ethiopia until the Italian invasion in October 1935, when the institution was abolished by order of the Italian occupying forces.[33] In response to pressure by Western Allies of World War II, Ethiopia officially abolished slavery and involuntary servitude after having regained its independence in 1942.[34][35] On 26 August 1942, Haile Selassie issued a proclamation outlawing slavery.[36]

In Somali territories, slaves were purchased in the slave market exclusively to do work on plantation grounds.[37] They toiled under the control of and separately from their Somali patrons. In terms of legal considerations, Bantu slaves were devalued. Additionally, Somali social mores strongly discouraged, censured and looked down upon any kind of sexual contact with Bantu slaves. Freedom for these plantation slaves was also often acquired through escape.[37]

Central AfricaEdit

A slave market in Khartoum, c. 1876

Oral tradition recounts slavery existing in the Kingdom of Kongo from the time of its formation with Lukeni lua Nimi enslaving the Mwene Kabunga whom he conquered to establish the kingdom.[38] Early Portuguese writings show that the Kingdom did have slavery before contact, but that they were primarily war captives from the Kingdom of Ndongo.[38]

West AfricaEdit

Homann Heirs Map of the local slave trade in West Africa, from Senegal andCape Blanc to Guinea, the Cacongoand Barbela rivers, and Ghana Lake on the Niger River as far as Regio Auri (1743).

Slavery was practiced in diverse ways in the different communities of West Africa prior to European trade.[12] With the development of the trans-Saharan slave trade and the economies of gold in the Western Sahel, a number of the major states became organized around the slave trade, including the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, and Songhai Empire.[39] However, other communities in West Africa largely resisted the slave trade. The Mossi Kingdoms tried to take over key sites in the trans-Saharan trade and, when these efforts failed, the Mossi became defenders against slave raiding by the powerful states of the Western Sahel. The Mossi would eventually enter the slave trade in the 1800s with the Atlantic slave trade being the main market.[39] Similarly, Walter Rodney identified no slavery or significant domestic servitude in early European accounts on the Upper Guinea region[5] and I. A. Akinjogbin contends that European accounts reveal that the slave trade was not a major activity along the coast controlled by the Yoruba people and Aja people before Europeans arrived.[40] In a paper read to the Ethnological Society of London in 1866, the vice-roy of Lokoja Mr.T. Valentine Robins, who accompanied the expedition up the River Niger aboard the HMS Investigator in 1864 described slavery in the region:

Upon slavery Mr Robins remarked that it was not what people in England thought it to be. It means, as continually found in this part of Africa, belonging to a family group-there is no compulsory labour, the owner and the slave work together, eat the like food, wear the like clothing and sleep in the same huts. Some slaves have more wives than their masters. It gives protection to the slaves and everything necessary for their subsistence- food and clothing. A free man is worse off than a slave; he cannot claim his food from anyone.[41]

With the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade, demand for slavery in West Africa increased and a number of states became centered on the slave trade and domestic slavery increased dramatically.[42]

In Senegambia, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved. In early Islamic states of the western Sudan, including Ghana (750–1076), Mali (1235–1645), Segou(1712–1861), and Songhai (1275–1591), about a third of the population were enslaved. In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of enslaved people. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, and the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola. Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of enslaved people. The population of the Kanem (1600–1800) was about a third-enslaved. It was perhaps 40% in Bornu (1580–1890). Between 1750 and 1900 from one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of enslaved people. The population of the Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in the northern Nigeria and Cameroon was half-enslaved in the 19th century.[43]

When British rule was first imposed on the Sokoto Caliphate and the surrounding areas innorthern Nigeria at the turn of the 20th century, approximately 2 million to 2.5 million people there were enslaved.[44] Slavery in northern Nigeria was finally outlawed in 1936.[45]

End

If your interested in tracing your slave ancestor this audio is full of useful tips.

https://familytreewebinars.com/download.php?webinar_id=367

1588 map

africa1600

Below 1727 map of West Africa

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Below 1771 Map of Africa (13)

An interesting old map of Africa reflecting European understanding of the continent and its regions at the time. The engraving says ‘Engraved for Drake’s Voyages.’ Francis Drake set sail for Africa from England with 5 ships in 1577; however, research done by the University of Florida Map and Imagery Library indicates that the cartographic information on the map most likely depicts 18th century knowledge of Africa. Below Cape Verde to the west is ‘Negroland,’ and to the east is ‘Nubia.’  Below ‘Negroland’ is ‘Lower Ethiopia’ and then ‘Upper Guinea,’ which in terms of today’s Africa includes, from west to east,  Côte D’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Nigeria. Below ‘Upper Guinea’ is ‘Lower Guinea,’ about where Angola is today. To the east, below ‘Nubia,’ is ‘Abissinia’ and then ‘Upper Ethiopia,’ which is roughly where Ethiopia is today.

http://www.slaverysite.com/Body/maps.htm#map4

 

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The Sahel part of Africa includes (from west to east) parts of northern Senegal, southern Mauritania, central Mali, northern Burkina Faso, the extreme south of AlgeriaNiger, the extreme north of Nigeria, central Chad, central and southern Sudan, the extreme north of South SudanEritreaCameroonCentral African Republic and extreme north of Ethiopia.[4]

Historically, the western part of the Sahel was sometimes known as the Sudan region.[5] This belt was roughly located between the Sahara and the coastal areas of West Africa.

Wikipedia

map

The Western Sudan or Soudan

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bf7dec198c62f6846ef0e9c3c1984018--african-empires-african-history

Early history

Archaeologists know little about sub-Saharan West Africa before 800 CE. After that time, the rise of Islam made Arabic records available.3 Evidence from Dar-Tchitt, an archeological site in the area of Ancient Ghana, suggests agricultural expansion and intensification gave rise to walled villages of 500 to 1000 inhabitants as early as 900–800 BCE. By 700 BCE the settlement patterns changed to more numerous smaller, unwalled villages.

Jenne-Jeno, a second archeological site, was first settled around 250BCE. Located around the inland delta of the Niger river, Jenne-Jeno probably started out as a place where local farmers, herders, and fishers brought produce to exchange with one another. Over time, the location became an interregional trade center. It might have been the first one in the region, but if so, others soon followed and several of these became the centers of a series of kingdoms and empires in the Sahel and Sudan. Eventually the region was densely populated by people who had a social organization based on kinship ties, political forms that are properly called states, and cities based on Saharan trade, at least as far south as modern-day Djenne. What we know about these states and cities comes mostly from oral traditions and literate Muslim Arab and Berber travelers, who made their first visits to the region in the eighth century.4 Oral sources included African poems, praise songs, and accounts of past events usually passed on through official oral historians such as Griots, who recite the histories from Ancient Mali and Songhai.

Medieval West Africa

When the Portuguese first explored the West African coastline in the 1400s, the cultures of African societies were highly evolved and had been so for centuries. In the thousand years before Portuguese exploration, three large centers of medieval African civilization developed sequentially along the west coast of sub-Saharan Africa. Islamic scholars and African oral traditions tell us that all of these states had centralized governments, long-distance trade routes, and educational systems.

ANCIENT GHANA

The first polity that is known to have gained prominence was Ancient Ghana. Between 500 and 1250 CE, Ancient Ghana flourished in the southern Sahel north of the middle Niger and middle Senegal Rivers. From the work of two Arabic scholars — Al-Bakri, writing in 1067, and Al-Idrisi, writing in 1154 — we know that Ancient Ghana had a civil service, a strong monarchy based on a matrilineal system of inheritance, a cabinet, an army, an effective justice system and a regular source of income from trade as well as tribute from vassal kings.5

http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-colonial/1972

further reading http://ministerfortson.com/true-identity-israel-eye-opening-journey/

See also this documentary on nubia.

 https://youtu.be/NMh8Zzuvl18

 

Below I’m going to explore further the history of the people who were enslaved.

Starting with

Places named in the bible and featuring in West Africa

slave-coast

Kingdom of Juda

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Country of Adam below and then right next door his sons”desert” Seth

Descendants of Adama

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“In Sumer and in Igbo, the word meant ‘Righteous/Sons of God/Descendants of the Adama (see The Nag Hammadi Scriptures and the Torah). Adam was Adama before the Fall. After he fell he became Adam, a word, which in Igbo means ‘I have Fallen’. Today in Igbo land we still have the descendants of the Immortal First People. They have never ceased to go by Adam’s original name – ‘Adama’. They are the Land Chiefs in Igbo land.” links to original post feature further down toward the end of this post.

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Seth, a son of Adam and Eve (and the third one named in Scripture), was born after the Cain murdered Abel(Genesis 4:

Desert of Seth below

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Wandering tribes Jews Exiled below

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There are two Gihons mentioned in the Bible. The first Gihon is Eden’s river number two (the others are PishonHaddakel and Parat). Of this river it is said that it flows around the whole land of Cush (Genesis 2:13).

The second Gihon mentioned in the Bible is a place neawhere Solomon was anointed king (1 Kings 1:33-45; in 1 Kings 1 this name is spelled גחון). Apparently this Gihon was some kind of waterway, as king Hezekiah rerouted its course (2 Chronicles 32:30).

Below Euphrate river

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Genesis 15:1

On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your offspring I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates,

Hebrew message in songs below

https://youtu.be/BkQ1hbQxlZg

https://youtu.be/IvjpEj4mYoo

CHAD

The "Dufuna boat" is about 4000 years older than the oldest boat found in Egypt.

Chadic is one of the best researched branches of the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. According to Genesis, the first rulers: Kain, Seth and Enoch are associated with the region where Chadic is spoken.  This includes Chad, Northern Cameroon, Northern Nigeria, and Southeastern Niger in an area around Lake Chad. The area is called Bor’No, which means “Land of Noah.” This is the only region on Earth that has place names reflecting the rulers listed in Genesis 4 and 5.

Kano-Nok-Borno is the region where some of Abraham’s ancestors lived. Bor-no means “Land of Noah.” Kano refers to Kain (Cain) and Nok appears in the Bible as the name Ha’nock. [R]

It was a time when the major water systems of West Central Africa were connected.  Around 8000 years ago Lake Chad had an area of 249,000 miles (400,000 km) and a depth of 586 feet. The Komadugu Guna River connected Lake Chad and the Benue Trough, making it possible to travel by boat from Lake Chad to the Atlantic Ocean.

Benue Trough

Genesis tells the story of how Kain left his home and went eastward to a place where he married the daughter of a Chadic chief named Nok (Enoch) and built and named a “city” after his firstborn son Enoch.  Enoch the Younger was named by Kain’s wife after her father, indicating that she was Kain’s cousin and her firstborn was heir to the throne of his maternal grandfather. We can place Kain and Enoch in the region of Northern Nigeria (Nok and Kano).

Genesis then tells us about Lamech who had two wives, typical of the pattern of the Chadic rulers.  By one wife he had a daughter named Naamah who married her patrilineal cousin or uncle Methuselah and named their firstborn son Lamech, after her father.  Lamech the Younger was the heir to the throne of his maternal grandfather.

Lamech the Younger was the father of Noah, a Chadic ruler whose terriotry included Bor’No, meaning “Land of Noah.” It is in the region of Lake Chad, which at the time that Noah lived was a very large lake. Noah’s flood was likely the result of a monsoon which swelled the lake region over which Noah ruled.

Noah’s three sons were Ham, Shem and Japheth. Ham and Shem appear to have been the firstborn sons by two different wives and the leading Chadic lines descending from Noah. The exclusive intermarriage of their lines has been confirmed by analysis of the Genesis 4 and 5 data and by mtDNA studies. The mtDNA (L3f) of Chadic speaking populations involves a relatively homogenous group, with lower diversification than the other Afro-Asiatic branches, including the Semitic and Kushitic. The most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of the L3f dates to about 8000 years ago, the same time period that Noah would have lived with his two wives to whom he was related by blood.

These rulers had two wives. This meant that there were two first born sons. The son of the first wife ascended to the throne of his biological father. The first born son of the second wife served as a sort of Prime Minister in the kingdom or territory of his maternal grandfather, after whom he was named.

Other sons were sent-away. As Ham and Shem were the ruling sons, Japheth was likely a sent-away son who moved into the Upper Nile region where some of his descendants have been identified as the Magyar-ab (the Magyar people). Likely there was intermarriage between Nilotic peoples and Chadic, especially in the case of Japheth. This has been confirmed by mtDNA studies of the L3f haplogroup that show that the only non-Chad Basin sequence in the L3f3 subhaplogroup is from the Upper Nile or Nubia. The TMRCA of the L3f3 sub-haplogroup is 8,000 years ago, which aligns with the data from the Genesis 4-5 king lists, as well as the evidence from archaeology, linguistics and biblical anthropology.  Ancient Nubians included red, black, and brown people.

Other of Japheth’s descendants moved north into what is today the region of Hungary. Hungarians called themselves “Magyar.”

Read more: http://newsrescue.com/discovery-nigerias-borno-biblical-land-noah-genesis-4-5/#ixzz4sB0PO2m2


Borno State Is Biblical Land Of Noah – Anthropologist

Bornu and neighbouring kingdoms

The map above shows Kano and Borno and other related kingdoms extending to the Nile in 1750.

The commerce on the interrelated water systems were controlled by Noah and the other Chadic leadership of Genesis. These were the ways by which they seized other territories and spread their worldview.

Kain, Seth and Enoch are related with the area where Chadic is spoken. Chadic is considered to be one of the best discovered divisions of the Afro-Asiatic language family. This includes Chad, Northern Cameroon, Northern Nigeria, and Southeastern Niger in an area around Lake Chad.

Kano-Nok-Borno is the area where some of Abraham’s conquers lived. Bor-no means “Land of Noah.” Kano refers to Kain (Cain) and Nok appears in the Bible as the name Ha’nock.

Genesis tells the story of how Kain left his home and went eastwards to a place where he married the daughter of a Chadic chief named Nok (Enoch). He further built and named a “city” after his firstborn son Enoch.  Enoch the Younger was named by Kain’s wife after her father, representing that she was Kain’s cousin and her firstborn was successor to the throne of his maternal grandfather. We can place Kain and Enoch in the region of Northern Nigeria (Nok and Kano).

End

Below extract from https://www.africa.com/top-10-great-african-empires/

Africa is considered as the birthplace of human civilization, with the east African region of Nubia being regarded as the location of the Garden of Eden where Adam and Eve were born. Ancient Egypt is the most famous African empire that dominates the religious, scientific and anthropological spheres of study as it spearheaded writing, agricultural, societal, political and military systems. It left an indelible mark on the world with its construction techniques, advanced irrigation and farming systems, its system of mathematics and medicine and its popular Pharaohs. Other kingdoms came into existence after the Egyptian era, and below are 10 of the most significant ones:

End

The Axum Empire

Kingdom of Ghana

 

 

 

 

Kingdom of Mali above

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See this video https://youtu.be/QW_kaUuUg8Y

The Sahrawis: indigenous people of Western Sahara 

 

Western Sahara (the former Spanish Sahara) is located in northwest Africa and covers an area of 266,000 square kilometres. It is bordered by Morocco to the north, Algeria to the northeast and Mauritania to the southeast and has a 1,200-kilometre-long Atlantic Ocean coastline. The present internationally recognized borders of the territory were defined as a consequence of three Franco-Spanish treaties in 1900, 1904 and 1912. Western Sahara is rich in mineral resources; in addition to its extensive phosphate deposits, it is believed to harbour substantial iron ore and to have a great potential of large offshore oil reserves. The territory is also renowned for the rich fishing waters off its long coastline.

In its advisory opinion on Western Sahara of 16 October 1975, the ICJ held,

The information furnished to the Court shows (a) that at the time of colonization Western Sahara was inhabited by peoples which, if nomadic, were socially and politically organized in tribes and under chiefs competent to represent them; (b) that Spain did not proceed upon the basis that it was establishing its sovereignty over terra nullius: thus in his Order of 26 December 1884 the King of Spain proclaimed that he was taking the Rio de Oro under his protection on the basis of agreements entered into with the chiefs of local tribes. (Emphasis added)10

The overarching conclusion of the Court, drawn from the many historical facts at its disposal, was that an indigenous population inhabited Western Sahara prior to Spanish colonization and that due to their subsequent subjection to alien domination they were therefore entitled to exercise their right to self-determination. The importance of this conclusion can also be appreciated against the backdrop of both Moroccan and Mauritanian claims that denied the existence of a distinct socially and politically organized precolonial Sahrawi entity.

………

Historical studies on the region indicate that the present-day Sahrawis represent a fusion of the indigenous Sanhaja Berbers, Africans and Arabs who came from Arabia during the 13th century (Mercer 1976; Hodges 1983a). Successive invasions of the territory by the Arabs led to the gradual Islamization and Arabization of the indigenous people. This process gave rise to an ethnic, linguistic, religious and cultural symbiosis that gradually led to the formation of the constitution of the Sahrawi people represented by the tribes and tribal confederations that inhabited the area now known as Western Sahara.

Traditionally, the Sahrawis lived as nomads and pastoralists; they spoke a common dialect called Hassaniya that is much closer to the classical Arabic than other dialects spoken in the region. They developed their own sociopolitical forms of organization such as Ait-Arabïn (‘Council of the Forty’), an inter-tribal assembly that would meet to discuss the affairs of the population in times of peace and war. These forms of government were distinctly different from the system of emirates in neighbouring Mauritania and the monarchical dynasties in Morocco. Francisco Palacios Romeo (2001) suggests that the elements that serve to confer upon the Sahrawis the category ‘people’ are language, religion, territory and common essential habits giving rise to uniform and interrelated ethnicities, and in this sense ‘the Sahrawi collectives deserve the double consideration as an ethnicity and a people’ (Palacios Romeo 2001, 49). It is in this context that the inhabitants of the territory became aware of their existence as a people, an awareness whose constitutive elements consisted in their sociopolitical structures, their common culture and territory and the self-identification of themselves as Sahrawis. As some authors have also observed, the discursive construction of national identities is always accompanied by the construction of difference and singularity (Hall 1996). In the Sahrawi case, it was the set of elements and social practices, mentioned above, that progressively contributed to defining the Sahrawi identity and outlining the ‘limits’ between it and other neighbouring social and cultural identities that inhabited northwest Africa.

Colonial rule in Western Sahara began in 1884 when the territory was declared a Spanish protectorate as a result of the Berlin Conference (1884-1885) that divided Africa among the European powers. In the colonial period, Sahrawi national identity was further developed and consolidated by the emergence of more organized political expressions of Sahrawi modern nationalism. Certain factors intervened significantly in these transformative processes. Spain’s decision in 1958 to turn Western Sahara into a Spanish province with its own legislation and general assembly, known as Djemaa, transformed the territory into a purportedly autonomous entity where the local population would gradually take control of managing its own affairs (Aguirre 1988). The policy of sedentarization pursued by the colonial administration led to substantial changes in the social configuration and socioeconomic reality of the territory. As a result, the originally nomadic population slowly became sedentary with many Sahrawis becoming employed as cheap labour for developing and expanding the colonial infrastructure (Hodges 1983a; 1983b).

 

The indigenous population of Western Sahara is usually known in Western media as Sahrawis, but they are also referred to in Morocco as “Southerners” or “Southern Berbers“. They are Hassaniya-speaking or Berber-speaking tribes of Berber origin (there is a 97% similarity even in Y-DNA).

AfricanLanguage Families Map

The slave coast regions and Trans-Atlantic DNA below
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See this post for trans Atlantic slave trade DNA  including Jamaica Cape Verde America and more  click

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The African Map again to compare the key areas of slavery is above.

This is how My DNA reflects history below

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Trace regions 2% Mali 2% Senegal 2% Spain/Portugal 1% Irish 1%British 1% Russian/Polish. My African DNA is the exact match to the 2  maps above of the slave coast regions.

My DNA on the map below including associated regions Swaziland and South Africa should have been included.

20170906_012949The states and empire names are listed below

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So far with extensive research I have identified my Nigerian ancestry in Lagos, Igbo and possibly Yoruba Ashanti tribe. Ghanian Accra ancestry from Akan possibly Ga tribe and a connection and ancestry to Benin/Togo from my Ghana side. The Benin ancestor or history possibly relates to the Fon and Ewe tribe as they were prevalent in Benin and taken as slaves to the Carribean Islands. Some of the Ewe tribe are also found to have migrated to Ghana and Nigeria.  My Mali ancestors had Ghanian DNA also which I was able to check through my DNA matches.

   Below 2 ancestry DNA African American results

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African-Ancestry

Below DNA result of a Caribbean person

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Below Ghanian from possibly Ewe tribe

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This is an interesting post on Madagascar and East Asian slave geneology see the below link.

http://rootsrevealed.blogspot.co.uk/2014/06/got-roots-in-madagascar.html

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Above picture shows slaves for sale from the Gambia who were experienced in cultivating rice. These adverts hold key pieces of information. We can see where the slaves came from and who sold them. Often slaves were given names of their captors or slave owners. The adverts show us who was at the forefront of the slave industry and where they were trading human Cargo.

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Slavery in the Americas

European colonists in the Americas initially practiced systems of both bonded labor and indigenous slavery. However, for a variety of reasons, Africans replaced American Indians as the main population of enslaved people in the Americas. In some cases, such as on some of the Caribbean Islands, warfare and disease eliminated the indigenous populations completely. In other cases, such as in South Carolina, Virginia, and New England, the need for alliances with American Indian tribes, coupled with the availability of enslaved Africans at affordable prices, resulted in a shift away from American Indian slavery.

The resulting Atlantic slave trade was primarily shaped by the desire for cheap labor as the colonies attempted to produce raw goods for European consumption. Many American crops (including cotton, sugar, and rice) were not grown in Europe, and importing crops and goods from the New World often proved to be more profitable than producing them on the European mainland. However, a vast amount of labor was needed to create and sustain plantations that would be economically profitable. Western Africa (and later, Central Africa) became a prime source for Europeans to acquire enslaved peoples, to meet the desire for free labor in the American colonies, and to produce a steady supply of profitable cash crops.

Triangular Trade

The term triangular trade is used to characterize much of the Atlantic trading system from the 16th to early 19th centuries, in which three main commodity-types—labor, crops, and manufactured goods—were traded in three key Atlantic geographic regions.

Depiction of the classical model of the triangular trade

The triangular trade was a system in which slaves were transported to the Americas; sugar, tobacco, and cotton were exported to Europe; and textiles, rum, and manufactured goods were sent to Africa.

Ships departed Europe for African markets with manufactured goods which were traded for purchased or kidnapped Africans. These Africans were transported across the Atlantic as slaves and were then sold or traded in the Americas for raw materials. The raw materials would subsequently be transported back to Europe to complete the voyage.

 

A classic example would be the trade of sugar (often in its liquid form, molasses) from the Caribbean to Europe, where it was distilled into rum. The profits from the sale of sugar were then used to purchase manufactured goods, which were then shipped to West Africa where they were bartered for slaves. The slaves were then brought to the Caribbean to be sold to sugar planters. The profits from the sale of the slaves were then used to buy more sugar, which was shipped to Europe, and so on. This particular triangular trip took anywhere from five to 12 weeks and often resulted in massive fatalities of enslaved Africans on the Middle Passage voyage.

https://www.boundless.com/u-s-history/textbooks/boundless-u-s-history-textbook/expansion-of-the-colonies-1650-1750-4/slavery-in-the-colonies-55/the-triangular-trade-337-9653/

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Who were the Igbo

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Egbo Igbo Ebo Ibo

 Egbo, Igbo, Ebo and Ibo are the various spellings met within books describing the race that inhabits part of the coast. Amongst the soft Isuama and Elugu the soft Ibo or Ebo is used but amongst the inhabitants of the coast such as Bonny and Okrika the harsher name Egbo is prevalent. In the interior north of the territory the nations are called Igbo which appears more the original name of the inhabitants.” (HORTON 1969:154)

The altering of the name Igbo was initially implemented with the intent of establishing independence from the “Greater Igbo entity”,while at the same time maintaining the natural ancestral link with the main and originating body.

The often hostile reaction and rejection on the part of the Igbo towards the seceding Egbo, Ebo and Ibo gradually weakened the bonds of brotherhood ultimately resulting in the emergence of such “non-Igbo” tribes as the Efik, Ibibio and Oron of Calabar,the Egba and Igbo-Mina of Yorubaland and the Ewe and Ga of Ghana and the Fongbe of Dahomey.

The altering of the letters in a name to create an independent identity such as that of Egbo,Ebo,and Ibo which at some “ ancient “ point derived out of the original Igbo continued after the Biafran War in regards to the Iwerre people as pointed out by Professor Ben O. Nwabueze.

“ It is well to note that of the Igbo border communities in Benue State as well as those in and around Port Hacourt now strenuously disclaim their Igbo identity. This disclaimer is manifest in practical terms by the latter changing their names of their villages by prefixing them with a “ R “ so that Umuokoro becomes Rumuokoro, Umuigbo becomes Rumuigbo, Umumasi becomes Rumumasi,Umukorusha becomes Rumukorosha and so on. The intention is to make them not look or sound like Igbo names.”

Throughout this presentation I will be using Igbo as an umbrella term describing the tribe in a general sense and as a specific reference for the majority of the tribe presently inhabiting Southeastern Nigeria and of whom are readily associated with the Biafran revolution. Egbo will primarily refer to the Efik and Ibibio also known as the Cross River or Ekpe Tribes.

The term Ebo will refer to the Igbo descended Mina Tribes of Ghana and Benin(Dahomey) which include the Ewe, Fon(Fongbe) and the Ga-Adangbe. The Ebo classification will also include the Igbo descended captives of Angola, while Ibo will be applied historically to the “ Western Igbo “ and those of Mozambique.

Egba will be used to describe the largest Igbo descended tribe living in
Yorubaland (Southwest Nigeria) inhabiting the Osugun State,while Igbo-Mina will address another Igbo descended tribe living in the Kwara State of Yorubaland.

THE EGBO ARE IGBO –

The majority of the captives taken to the Americas were from the coastal Egbo tribes and were referred to as Calabaris.

Presently in Igboland they are known as the Efik,Ibibio,Oron and Ekoi etc. and are well associated with a secret society known as the Egbo Society.

Although the present day Efik and Ibibio living in Nigeria generally deny
ancestral relations with the Igbo, this was not always the case as described by A.E. Afigbo, Professor of History at the University of Nsukka.

“ Until three or four decades ago there were many Efik and Ibibio
communities which proudly laid claims to Igbo origins but today would
treat such suggestions as an affront. Here we find the classic example of the trick which time and political consciousness play on historical writings.”

The explorer William Balfour Baike writes in 1854 that the Efik mark
was formerly the same as that used by some Igbos but more recently they have adopted another.

Egbo captives meaning those such as the Igbo descended Efik and Ibibio were targeted throughout the entire period of the slave trade beginning with the Spanish and Portuguese traders of the 16th century and continuing to arrive in the Americas throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.

The Aro slave trading network of Arochukwu first established itself in
1620 with the intent of enslaving the Egbo tribes. In regards to this task they settled in the most southeastern corner of Igboland,lands belonging to the semi-autonomous Egbo nation called Egbo-Shari.

Once settled, the Aro began to emulate and infiltrate the Egbo leaders in an attempt to deceitfully manipulate and redirect their governing institutions into a slave trading operative.

The coastal Egbo who were generally known to the slave traders as
Calabaris provided the majority of “ Igbo descended “ captives and were often referred to as KWA IBO. The general tendency to associate the Calabaris with “ Igbo “ is a result of the understanding that the Egbo tribes were related to the “ Greater Igbo Nation “ and therefore Herskovits refers to Calabari as a generic name for “ Ibos “ in the United States.

In Cuba it is understood that those known as Calabaris descend from the Egbo tribes such as the Efik and Ibibio. During the time of the slave trade the most powerful and numerous of the Egbo tribes were those known as THE KWA. In generalizing the Egbo Nation with the dominant Kwa tribe, all of the Egbo tribes were collectively known as Kwa Ibo.
Through the dominance of the Kwa tribe,the Egbo Society was also
known as the AbaKwa Society meaning of the Kwa people.To this day the Egbo Society continues to actively function in Cuba.

The Egbo Society communicates by using a secret Igbo writing system known as that of Nsibidi. Nsibidi symbols were recently discovered to be engraved on a number of African-American tombstones in Virginia. This most accurately attests to the Egbo ancestry of the deceased as these writings were sacredly maintained by the Egbo Society and were associated as Igbo through the undestanding that the Egbo tribes were of Igbo origins.

The word “Mbakara” which African captives used to describe the”white man” in the United States is of Egbo origins as it can be traced directly back to the Efik and Ibibio.

Egbo captives were so numerous and dominant in Virginia that some historians of the Colonial Era actually referred to Virginia as “Igboland”. By the 1700’s Virginia plantation owners gathered to discuss the “Igbo problem “ as the hardworking but resistant Egbo are acknowledged to have dominated the Virginia trade. This further lends credence to the alleged Willie Lynch speech of 1712 which advocated the implementation of harsh measures of containment designed to eradicate Egbo culture and in turn slave resistance on all levels. The speech of proposals was delivered by Willie Lynch on the Bank of the James River in Virginia, in 1712. 120 years later Nat Turner led a revolt in Virginia that killed approximately 60 whites. In accordance with his Igbo(Egbo) origins, Turner bestowed upon himself the honors of Odogo,a ceremonial ritual in which an Igbo warrior places feathers in his cap to signify the killing of a person of rank in war. After killing Hark Travis,the head of the Travis farm,Turner placed feathers in his cap and a red sash around his waist.

https://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-greater-igbo-nation-by-ishaq-d-al-sulaimani/comment-page-2/

Below is another extract regarding West African history

 An Excerpt from new book: Eden in Sumer on the Niger, by Catherine Acholonu, with contributions from Sidney Davis

Introduction:

Sumer was the Oldest civilization in the world before Egypt. Its first city was called Kish. Kish was established and ruled by Nimrud, the grandson of Ham by ca. 3,800 B.C. The next Sumerian city was Agade, also called Akkad. Agade was established by a king known as Shar-ru-kin/Sharr-ru-gin/Shar-gana, whom Western historians called Sargon. Some researchers of Sumerian history claim that Shar means ‘King’ and Ru means Eri, while Gin/Gan/Gana are Sumerian names for the Garden of Eden. Our own research, published in various volumes titled (1) The Gram Code of African Adam, (2) They Lived Before Adam, (3) The Lost Testament and (4) Eden in Sumer on the Niger, has provided consistent and conclusive evidence that ancient Sumer was an ancient Nigerian Kwa civilization, with some its cities located in the Jos plateau, the Niger Delta, Yoruba land, Benin and Igbo land. Most of the ancient cities of Nigeria such as Borno, Kano, Oyo, Benin, Igbo Ukwu, Calabar were surviving cities of Sumer. Sumer was a civilization that grew out of the Edenic beginnings of the Mother-pot of human civilization; from the same environment that put forth the ‘Out of Africa’, Migrations that have consistently populated the world and given to fledgling mankind culture, language, the rubrics of a writing system developed originally on stone and in caves, basic technology, religion and astronomy. For hundreds of thousands of years Africa remained the only inhabited continent. It was in Africa that the evolutionary journey of the Apes saw to the emergence of the Ape-man; from Ape-man to Cave-man and from Cave-man to Modern Man over a period of no fewer than 2 million years. The story of Evolution is the story of the African continent, and it is a story that is too awe-inspiring to be told. But it has to be told, and told by Africans themselves.

The Apes Who Inhabited Primeval Eden Before Adam:

Stone rubbings conducted on stone inscriptions on the monoliths of Ikom, located in Cross River, Nigeria in June 2012 by Sidney Louis Davis, a US ex-Marine, Judaic Scholar and Fellow of the Catherine Acholonu Research Center, Abuja, have surprisingly revealed that the anthropomorphic features on the carved stones are those, not of humans, but of Apes and Ape-men! These rubbings leave no doubt that these were the very Apes of Darwin’s Evolution – the primeval ancestors of humankind! With these revelations, it can now be said that Nigeria is the only country in the world with surviving ‘photographs on stone’ of mankind’s most remote animal ancestors – the Apes! The precision with which the images were rendered amid various equally precise astronomical and geometric symbols, leave no doubt that intelligent and highly evolved beings with a relatively well developed technology, were responsible for the carvings. Yet these stones that have been ascribed to the Pre-historic past of ancient Nigeria, have been mostly found in rural villages and virgin forests of Cross River State. Their makers remain unknown, belonging to the realm of folklore.

 https://newafrikan77.wordpress.com/2016/01/24/ancient-sumerians-who-colonized-egypt-vedic-india-babylon-and-europe-were-people-of-prehistoric-nigeria-igbo-by-professor-catherine-acholonu/

An Igbo account

Igbo hebrew history religion & mythology

 

Sumerian records say that the first God-king of Atlantis was URASH – a Sea-Emperor. We have a river (river-god) in Igboland called Urash. Atlantis was the first world civilization. The Urashi river is densely lined with Wine Palm Trees – the very type whose seeds are being plucked here by angels. The Urash river flows from Orlu (Imo state) through Okija (Anambra state) and joins the Niger. King Urash was an Aborigin, and lived on earth long before the arrival of the Nephilim/Annunaki. My suspicion is that the Palm Tree (Sumerian “Tree of Life”), wch was said to be the First Tree in Eden (see Ralph Ellis: Eden in Egypt), was a metaphor for the Aboriginal Seed of King Uruash, and that his spiritual base is the Urash River. Thus the various species of the Palm Tree frequently celebrated by angels in Sumerian records are all sprouts of the Soul Seed of King Uruash – the First Man to evolve on earth – the Uncreated Aborigine. The Palm Tree is the most sacred and most important tree in Igboland. Its soft shoot (Omu) is considered holy and to harbour the Holy Spirit of God. It is used for spiritual deliverance from every form of evil, and to cordon off bad spirits and negative vibes. We are told in Eri mythology that after the Deluge all vegetation died, and God told Eri (the Atlantean migrant to Igboland – see our new book ‘Eden in Sumer on the Niger’) to kill and dismember his first son and daughter and plant the parts of their body in the ground. Out of the body parts of the son grew the palm tree and yam…. This is a very deep mystery we should try to understand. As I said somewhere else the Palm Seed is the metaphor for the Divine DNA of the aborigines – the Landlords of the earth – the descendants of the first God-King of Atlantis King Uruash. Yashaya is the incarnation of the Christ. But before he came, Osiris had embodied the same Christ several thousands of years before. Before Osiris there was Bakkhus also called Afra (Bi-Afra means ‘Be-Afra – ‘Home of Afra’. Those of you belonging to Summit LightHouse probably know tht Afra is one of the Lords they channel). Afra was crucified in Africa by ca. 500,000 BC. (Africa is named after him). He is the Crucified Christ of the Dogon folklore. His was also Bakkus. As Bakkus he was a WINE god (the originator of the Eucharistic Wine). His name is derived from Igbo GBANKWU ‘LET the WINE Flow’. He returned as Dionysius/Osiris before the Deluge. After the Deluge he returned again in his male and female aspects to offer himself as food and wine to the Igbo First People because all crops had been buried in the Deluge. This time he returned in the House of Eri and offered himself to be killed for the re-engineering of food-crops (Yam and Cocoyam) as well as the Palm Tree and Palm Wine (the Tree of Life and the Drink of Life) and for Breadfruit/Ukwa. All this is part of Eri mythology of Umueri and Umunri. He came into Eri’s house as a Son and Daughter of Eri, though he was the Christ. He ordered Eri to kill him for food to feed his Igbo brethren/children. Before being dismembered and planted in the soil, he/she was scarified in the face with the X-symbol of Orion called ICHI. By tht he/she was re-deified. He actually returned back to life bearing the name IGBO (Yorubas call him ‘Obatala Oba Igbo’) and brewed the tapped the same palm tree tht came from his body and fed the people with the sacred drink. He got drunk and his junior brother Marduk stole his Ashe and his title of ‘World Ruler’ (Oduduwa/Onyendu uwa), made war against him and drove him into exile to South America where he inaugurated the Olmec first civilization of the Americas as QuetzalCoatl/Kulkulcan, the feathered Serpent. Osiris has a Twin identity with Thoth. The symbol of Bakkus is the Palm Wine. Bakkus was eventually killed and eaten. So he was also the bread. The symbol of Osiris/Igbo/Obatala is Yam (Bread of Life) and also Palmwine. Yashaya espoused the Bread and the Wine. The real Eucharistic Wine is not the wine of Europe but Palm Wine of Igboland, for Christ is Orion whose original anchor in the world is in Igboland. He is infact Chukwu Abiama. You know also that the Palm Wine is the true Eucharistic Wine of the Self-Sacrificing Christ. The tradition began with the Atlantean/Sumerian Wine God Bakkus (ca. 500,000 BC). The etymology of the word BAKKUS is IGBO “Gbankwu”, wch means “Let the PALM WINE Flow”!!!! This tells us that Igbo was the language of Atlantis and was spoken before 500,000 BC! Adam was created ca. 200,000 BC!! Our ancestors surely lived before Adam. We were the people of the First Age of the world. Igbo language was the original language they gave to mankind. It was here in Igboland, Niger Delta and Benue Great Lake (now sunk beneath the earth) tht spoken and written human language was born by the gods of Sirius and Orion star-systems and handed over to cavemen, before the coming of the Anunnaki and their creation of Adam. Infact the oldest city in the world was established by the gods of Sirius and Orion in 450,000 BC in the Great Benue Lake area wch was then further up around Abuja. It was populated by Cavemen (more of Apemen) called Igbo who spoke Igbo and were actually physical emanations of the Star Beings from Orion and Sirius. These were the first humans, who later migrated all over the world by the power of Thought. This is why Igbo is the God Race through which restoration has ALWAYS come into the world. They are the ONLY race with the traditional power to cleanse Abominations in humanity and the environment. All the Avaters in the world, have come from the Igbo Adama/Atama God Race. Egypt’s Father of Gods is called Atum, from Coptic ‘Para Atama’ (Igbo ‘Opara Adama’). Atum is thus Igbo Chukwu Abiama (Ele, Hebrew El). He was the One who incarnated among the recalcitrant Jews to teach them Truth about himself. The Christ is the Exemplar of Unconditional Love (total giving of self) for all men. Everyone is called upon to emulate the Christ in us all. The Christ is the Creative Principle in God. But it is the Uncreated Creator. Nothing created can create another. Thus it is those who are Sprung from the Earth, that are the BODY of Christ. The manifestation of God on earth is in the form of a Black person. Yashaya was an initiate of the ancient mysteries of Egypt (Osirian mysteries). These mysteries were originally honed by a most ancient ‘Chaldean’ brotherhood that goes all the way back to cavemen era in Igbo land, from there to Atlantis and then to Sumer and Egypt, all of who spoke the original IGBO language of the cavemen. Every mystery tht Yashaya taught and espoused is at home in Igboland – ALL without exception (as demonstrated in my new book – EDEN IN SUMER ON THE NIGER). He was a member of a sacred priesthood that we called Adama (and later ERI/Nri). It was this Great White Brotherhood that visited him in the manger and was there in the grave when he resurrected. Infact the Aramaic word for “Resurrect” is the Igbo word for “Resuscitate”. It proves tht Yashaya was resuscitated by a third party who spoke in Igbo language. The word in question is JUTE. In Post-Deluge times this Great White Brotherhood (Igbo/Yoruba/Benin priests always dress in white) was headed by the being called Eri/Obatala in Yoruba/Osiris and Thoth-Hermes in Egypt, whom the Bible calls Melchizedek. (In Igboland he was called ERI BU MMUO – meaning ‘Eri is a spirit Being’). This Eri or Melchizedek, who landed in Igboland from the sunken civilization of Atlantis by 11,000 BC, in a celestial Ark after the Deluge, was the person who latter incarnated in Palestine as Yashaya. His mark when he appears to anyone in the spirit, (even as Obatala among the Yoruba) is that he is always in WHITE, old and with long V-shaped white beard. The Cabbala calls him the Ancient of Days. He is the head of the Great WHITE Brotherhood! Yoruba scholars have figured it all out tht Obatala/Orunmila (Eri) was the incarnation of the Son of God on earth. Ifa mythology calls him co-Creator with God, the Son who sits at the right hand of God… They call him OBA IGBO – ‘King of Igbos’!!!! Hebrews were native Nigerians. Genesis, Exodus and Kings were events that happened in ancient Niger-Congo. None of those events of the Biblical Books of the Old Testament took place in Palestine, neither was Solomon’s Temple built there, wch is why it has never been found. The British Christians have intense knowledge of who the Igbos were before they arrived here. They know that God, Heaven and the angels live in Igboland and that God’s most sacred name is IGBO. They know it because they used mystical powers from their secret societies and Cabbala wch they stole from Jerusalem during the Crusade to know us. Their intention of coming here was to derail us with lies, steal our powers from us and prevent us from bringing peace to the world with the great God Chukwu who is our Father. Who then is the devil? They achieved the derailing of Igbo consciousness by telling us that the warrior aspect of Chukwu is the devil. As a result, we now use our own mouths to curse the same Chukwu Abiama tht we are asking for help. This is how the cunnying British made us destroy ourselves and our world (just as Achebe said). They did the same thing to Yorubas. They chose the (same) dwarf god Eshu (Eshi) who wears the Igbo Okpuagu tht Igbo dwarves wear, as the Devil. Why must it be the Eshi tht they call Satan? The answer is tht the white race are descended from the Annunaki while the Blacks are from the Eshi dwarfs, whose genealogical name is IGBO – the first people who were on earth before (Homo Sapiens) Adam was created 200,000 years ago (according to Mt.DNA research). The recent discovery of Y-Chromosome of a South Carolina African American from the South-East Nigeria/Niger Congo area, whose genes date beyond 300,000 years (and was described by geneticists as “older than Adam”), proves my thesis that IGBOs lived before Adam. Now it is this ESHI/NSHI seed (our divine DNA) that the British are targeting to put down and put out, by tricking us into demonizing it, thus turning our own SPIRIT against us and vice versa. They promptly changed the image of God, Yashaya, (the incarnation Melu-chi-eze-dikia), Mary (Idemili) and Micha-El (Mma ike Ele – the Warrior), Gabri-El (Gabara Ele Ozi – the Messenger), Uri-El (Uri-Ele – the Writer of sacred texts, for Uri means Uli) from black to white. In Sumerian language, ESH means “Lord of Mankind”. That is wht IGBO means. ELE is the that Group Soul of the IGBO cavemen – the ESHI/NSHI GOD, who we also call CHUKWU ABIAMA. He is a cave-dwelling God. Ekwensu (Ekwe-Nshi -‘War Drum of the Eshi) is his defensive aspect. You now know why we lost a just war!!! We were praying to the same god our opressors were praying to, without knowing that the foreign religions and their gods are set against us. We are the main targets of these religions of the Nephilim/Annunaki with white supremacist ideologies, for IGBO means IDU, and both words mean “The Mysterious Incomprehensible Black One”! Ndi Igbo matanu onwe unu. He who doesn’t know where the rain started beating him…..” Source, Prof. Catherine Acholonu (R.I.P.)… So, what is Christianity, or other religion`s/believe – system`s???

http://igbohebrewhistory.over-blog.com/2016/05/the-almost-hidden-truth-about-the-igbos-hebrew-isrealites-god-choosen-people.html

SLAVERY IN JAMAICA

 

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A list of missing slaves below.

Mungola_zps4f39fe93Chambers (2007) - Major Diasporic Ethnies among Jamaican Runaways, 1718-1817Sugar cane workers in Montego bay2017-07-31-20-26-46--1897204905

THE SLAVE TRADE AND PLANTATION ECONOMY

The English encouraged permanent settlement through generous land grants. In 1664 Sir Thomas Modyford, a sugar plantation and slave owner in Barbados (a Caribbean island of the Lesser Antilles chain), was appointed governor of Jamaica. He brought 1,000 English settlers and black slaves with him from Barbados. Modyford immediately encouraged plantation agriculture, especially the cultivation of cacao and sugarcane. By the early 1700s sugar estates worked by black slaves were established throughout the island, and sugar and its by-products dominated the economy. Other economic activities, including livestock rearing and the cultivation of coffee and pimento (allspice), developed as well.

With the establishment of the plantation system, the slave trade grew. Slaves of both genders and every age were found in all facets of the island’s economy, in both rural and urban areas. They were laborers on plantations, domestic servants, and skilled artisans (tradesmen, technicians, and itinerant traders). The wealth created in Jamaica by the labor of black slaves has been estimated at £18,000,000, more than half of the estimated total of £30,000,000 for the entire British West Indies. It has been postulated that the profit generated by the ‘triangular trade’ (involving sugar and tropical produce from the British Caribbean colonies, the trade in manufactured goods for slaves in Africa, and the trade of slaves in the British Caribbean) financed the Industrial Revolution in Britain.

2017-07-31-20-26-50--153255603828ZIMMER-master768images-90

More than 1 million slaves are estimated to have been transported directly from Africa to Jamaica during the period of slavery; of these, 200,000 were reexported to other places in the Americas. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Akan, Ga, and Adangbe from the northwestern coastal region known as the Gold Coast (around modern Ghana) dominated the slave trade to the island. Not until 1776 did slaves imported from other parts of Africa-Igbos from the Bight of Biafra (southern modern Nigeria) and Kongos from Central Africa-outnumber slaves from the Gold Coast. But slaves from these regions represented 46 percent of the total number of slaves. The demand for slaves required about 10,000 to be imported annually. Thus slaves born in Africa far outnumbered those who were born in Jamaica; on average they constituted more than 80 percent of the slave population until Britain abolished the slave trade in 1807. When Britain abolished the institution of slavery in 1834, Jamaica had a population of more than 311,000 slaves and only about 16,700 whites.

By the mid-1700s planters were distributing small plots of marginal land to their slaves, both men and women, as a way to offset the cost of providing food. However, the slaves were expected to tend their own crops only during their limited free time. Although slaves were not allotted much time to work the plots, they were able to produce enough not only for their own subsistence but also for sale. A vibrant marketing network developed among the slaves throughout the island, creating what is referred to as a proto-peasantry.

In the British mind, slaves were no more than property and merchandise to be bought and sold. On this premise, the British enacted a whole system of slave laws aimed primarily at policing slaves. In general, the premise that slaves were no more than property allowed slave owners to treat them brutally. The severity of this brutality varied. Slaves on large sugar estates generally suffered the harshest punishments, while those on smaller estates and in towns received somewhat better treatment.

FREE COLOURED COMMUNITY

White men on the island often had relations with black women (slaves or free), giving rise to a coloured population. (‘Coloured’ is a term in the former British colonies for people of mixed European and African descent.) Children of free women were born free, but those of slave women were born enslaved. Some coloureds who were born as slaves were freed through manumission (the formal release of a slave) by their fathers. Masters at times also manumitted black slaves for various reasons, such as in reward for a lifetime of servitude. Free coloureds formed a middle group on the social ladder, between blacks and whites. They disassociated themselves from the slaves but were not accepted by the whites. The number of free people of color (including free blacks and free coloureds) increased significantly between 1722 and 1830, from 800 individuals to 44,000. Free coloureds were principally urban dwellers, participating in several phases of economic life. They were artisans, merchants, mechanics, and professionals-lawyers, schoolteachers, and journalists. A few inherited plantations from their fathers. Free coloured women excelled as traders, shopkeepers, innkeepers, and housekeepers. Many free coloureds were well educated, as education was valued as the vehicle for upward social mobility and ‘acceptance’ by whites. Many coloureds attended universities in Britain, and their children outnumbered whites at the Wolmers Free School in Kingston, which was established for the white population in the 1700s. In 1837 there were 430 children of free coloureds attending this school, out of a student body of 500.

Despite their numbers and the education and wealth some obtained, free coloureds had no civil rights. Therefore they were caught up in a continuous struggle for equal rights. They protested primarily through petitions and memorials rather than open violent conflicts. In 1813 a petition, signed by more than 2,400 free coloureds, demanding rights to give evidence in court was delivered to the House of Assembly, which acceded. In 1816 free coloureds petitioned for full political and civil rights on the grounds that they were taxpayers but were not represented. They threatened to cease paying taxes until they were granted these rights. Under pressure from free coloureds, the local authorities gradually removed legal restrictions, culminating on December 21, 1830, with the Act for the Removal of All Disabilities of Persons of Free Condition.

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MAROON COMMUNITIES

Since their arrival on the island, blacks had resisted their enslavement. They engaged in what is referred to as atomized forms of resistance, such as foot dragging (work slowdowns, or ‘go-slows’), destruction of property, theft, absenteeism from work, and the covert murder of whites. But resistance also took the forms of large-scale rebellions and establishment of maroon communities.

Maroonage, or the establishment of communities by runaway slaves, began with the slaves imported by Spain and continued throughout the period of slavery in Jamaica. The maroon communities waged relentless warfare against British colonialism. Beginning in the 18th century, two distinct groups of maroon communities emerged: the so-called Leeward Maroons in the south central, or leeward, part of the island and the so-called Windward Maroons in the north and northeast. The Leeward Maroons had an elected chief, and the villagers were divided into politico-military units. Their system was stratified based on ability, especially military ability, and a careful division of labor. Some were proficient in attacking plantations to steal provisions and free slaves, especially female slaves because men outnumbered women in the maroon communities. Others were hunters, hunting wild hogs; others made salt, necessary for meat preservation; and others cleared the ground for the women to plant crops, such as plantains, sweet corn, bananas, cacao, pineapples, cassava, and sugarcane.

The Windward Maroons did not have a central leader as did the Leeward. They developed a somewhat loose federation of communities or quasi-autonomous villages under different leadership, having a politico-military structure that made for democratic inter- and intra-group relationships. Nanny Town (named after its legendary leader, Nanny; now known as Mooretown), which was situated deep in the Blue Mountains, was reputed to have the greatest warriors among the Windward Maroons, numbering 300 in their ranks. Both the Leeward chief, Cudjoe, and Nanny were notorious for their continued and relentless attack on British colonization and slavery. Nanny fought uncompromisingly against slavery. In addition to being a feared warrior, she was said to be an obeah woman, possessing supernatural powers that she allegedly used in repelling and defeating British attacks.

For reasons of security, maroon villages were located in the relatively inaccessible mountains, giving them a commanding view of the lowlands. Guards were posted at the entrance to watch and alert communities at the approach of the British by blowing the abeng, the conch shell or cow horn, as was the practice in parts of West Africa.

The boldness of the maroons, their prowess in guerrilla warfare, and their knowledge of the terrain made them a serious threat to English colonization, the plantation economy, and slavery itself. They plundered and burned plantations, captured slaves, took arms and ammunition, and killed English soldiers who ventured into the interior. Their continued successes against English forces inspired slaves, many of whom escaped the plantations to join maroon communities or to establish new ones. The maroons were such a formidable force that the English were unable to subjugate them after 85 years of intense, bitter struggle. The English conceded defeat in 1739, ending the First Maroon War. In the peace treaties, the maroons won their independence and freedom. They were granted semiautonomous government status and land in return for halting all hostilities against whites, obligating themselves to assist in case of foreign invasion, destroying any new maroon communities, and capturing and returning future runaways. Thus, on the fringes of the slave-plantation economy established by Europeans, semiautonomous communities of free blacks developed, with their own economy and culture partially based on African traditions.

An uneasy peace prevailed until July 1795, when 580 maroons from the maroon community of Trelawny Town revolted against indignities and injustice meted out to them by the authorities. It took considerable force to suppress the revolt, known as the Second Maroon War. The British forces consisted of 1,500 soldiers supported by several thousand militiamen and 100 fierce bloodhounds imported from Cuba in December of that year. In June 1796 the government deported 568 maroons (including men, women, and children) from Trelawny Town and confiscated their land. They sent the maroons first to Nova Scotia, in what later became Canada, and subsequently to Sierra Leone. This deportation effectively deterred further maroon hostilities. Fearing deportation, they collaborated fully with the authorities, especially in suppressing slave revolts. The action of the maroons in suppressing the Morant Bay Rebellion in 1865 testifies to their full cooperation with the government. The treaties successfully reduced maroonage and the formation of new maroon communities, but some of the maroon communities that were already established have survived to this day. The surviving maroon communities are Nanny Town; Scott’s Hall in the present-day northern parish of Saint Mary; and Accompong (named for Cudjoe’s brother, who had distinguished himself as a military leader with the Windward Maroons) in the southwestern parish of Saint Elizabeth. However, the retention of African cultural and political practices within these communities varies.

SLAVE REVOLTS

Ethnicity was prominent in the organization and execution of slave revolts in Jamaica, especially those during the 17th and 18th centuries. Akan slaves were involved in most revolts. In 1673 about 300 Akan slaves revolted in the north central parish of Saint Ann. In 1690 another Akan rebellion involving 400 slaves broke out on Suttons Estate in the south central parish of Clarendon. After setting the plantation on fire the rebels fled to the hilly interior, from where they conducted continuous raids on nearby plantations. In 1745 Akan slaves revolted in the southeastern parish of Saint Thomas.

In 1760 a slave by the name of Tacky, an Akan who had been a chief in Africa, led the most widespread slave revolt in Jamaica’s history. Beginning in the northeastern parish of Saint Mary, it soon spread to a number of parishes, including Westmoreland, Saint James, and Clarendon, and to the capital of Kingston. The rebels, inspired by the victory of the maroons in winning their liberty, fought in the same manner in an effort to win their freedom. It took the authorities six months to suppress Tacky’s revolt, and by then the rebels had killed 60 whites. Tacky was shot dead by a maroon, and the authorities executed nearly 400 slaves. Other revolts broke out in 1761, 1765, and 1766, but they were quickly crushed by the authorities with the aid of maroons.

The most violent slave revolt of the 19th century was the Baptist War, also known as the Christmas Rebellion, in 1831. Led by Samuel Sharpe, a Baptist deacon and domestic slave, the revolt began in Saint James and soon engulfed much of western Jamaica. In its suppression, more than 430 blacks, including Sharpe, were executed. All who were thought to have been associated with the revolt, including white missionaries, were either imprisoned or killed. This revolt was a decisive factor in the British move toward emancipation, in addition to intensified antislavery agitation by the Quakers (Society of Friends) in Britain, led by Thomas Buxton, Thomas Clarkson, William Wilberforce, and Stephen Lushington.

http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/43/130.html

If you are tracing your slave ancestor from West Africa and the Carribean or America it is a good idea to include the family connections from those countries mentioned as people from Jamaica often migrated after slavery to America and the other Surrounding islands.

You can use this list along with consensus records and information available online to establish connections. Jamaica Runaway Slaves: 19th Century

See also

http://globalfusionproductions.com/uncategorized/jamaica-ghana-one-blood-one-language-kromanti-language-of-the-jamaican-maroons-similar-to-akan/

The Fante tribe

The Ga tribe 

The maroons of Accompong Jamaica 

 

The History of Haiti

 & Vodou

1492, Columbus, extermination of the local population, the first centre of the New World.

When Columbus arrived in Hispaniola in 1492, the island had

around 750,000 inhabitants. The following year Columbus brought with him attack dogs, and these were used against the local population, the Taino, who were enslaved and suffered epidemics.

The local population died in such numbers that as early as in 1501 the Spaniards started to import African slaves, who were considered to be better workers. In 1514 there were 29,000 inhabitants, around half of which were survivors of the original local population.

During the first few years of the 16th century the Spaniards set up the New World’s first sugar plantations on the island. The capital city Santo Domingo flourished, and it was here that the New World’s first catholic cathedral and first European university were established.

1522, the first slave revolt.
The first revolt of the slaves on Hispaniola broke out on 27 December 1522 on the plantation of Columbus’s son. The African slaves burnt the sugar presses and escaped. Most were captured and punished. But some remained free.

1545, Creole culture, slave revolt, Maroons, Taino, African religion.
In the mid-16th century it is estimated that there were about 7,000 escaped slaves (Maroons) living in the mountains on the very southern tip of the island. Also with them were remnants of the original Taino population. As long as slavery existed, slaves escaped up into the inaccessible mountain regions.

The slaves came from many different African backgrounds and spoke different languages. In order to understand one another, they developed a Creole language with elements of Spanish, French, Portuguese and languages from the African Gold Coast such as Yoruba, Bantu, Biafra, Ibo, Fon, etc.

The escaped slaves built simple clay fortifications and attempted to reconstruct their African culture and religion in the new environment. One part of this culture comprised the Taino element. In Vodou, the spirits of the Taino are respected as the island’s true population. Much of the Vodou knowledge of medicinal plants has its background in Taino.

1600, plantation-based economy.
During the 17th century a plantation-based economy developed, based on the cultivation of tobacco and indigo on the western side of the island, where there was an increasing French influence.

1697, French colony, sugar plantations, increased slave trading.
By means of a treaty in 1697, Spain released the western part of Hispaniola to France. It became an official French colony under the name of Saint Domingue (what was later to become Haiti). At the time there were 6,000 white and coloured people in the colony, as well as 50,000 black slaves. From 1700 until 1704 there was a dramatic increase in the number of sugar plantations, from 18 to 120. Imports of African slaves also increased dramatically.

It was sugar production that really gave a boost to the plantation-based economy. This was more capital-intensive production that required fertile land, irrigation, a large workforce (slaves) and expensive equipment. A plantation would often have several hundred slaves.

1750, half a million slaves enforced conversion to Christianity, resistance, early Vodou.
In 1750 there were about half a million enslaved Africans and only 40,000 French colonists living in Saint Domingue (Haiti).

Catholicism was the official religion of the French colony. African slaves were forced to undergo christening. But an underground religion (Vodou) started to emerge among the slaves. It was a combination of African religious traditions with elements of Catholicism. But several of the early Vodou priests, who were also leaders of the revolts, came from a Muslim background. Vodou became a source of resistance and unity against the French. The most famous leader was Makandal, who escaped from slavery in 1751. He was captured in 1758 and burnt at the stake. For the colonial power, Vodou equalled revolt. To practise any rituals other than Catholic ones was forbidden. It was also forbidden for slaves from different masters to gather, even for Catholic services. The punishment was to be whipped and marked by a branding iron. Anyone caught at a gathering who was already branded could be sentenced to death.

1773, colonial goods, the richest economy in the world.
In 1773 Saint Domingue (Haiti) produced 110,000 tonnes of sugar, 80,000 tonnes of coffee, 2,000 tonnes of cotton and more than 70 tonnes of indigo. At the end of the 18th century the French colony accounted for half of the world’s coffee exports, and exported as much sugar as Jamaica, Cuba and Brazil did between them.

Fifteen per cent of the 1,000 members of the national assembly of the French Revolution in 1789 owned colonial properties, and many more worked in the colonial trade. The slaves on Saint Domingue (Haiti) were involved in laying the material foundations of the French Revolution.

1779, race laws.
A third group comprised the free people of colour, i.e. children of French fathers and African mothers. One quarter of the colony’s properties and slaves were in the ownership of the free people of colour. In the 1760 the race laws became tougher. In 1779 free people of colour were forbidden from adopting white people’s clothing, hairstyles, style and deportment, and also from travelling in carriages.

1790, the revolt of the free people of colour.
Vincent Ogé gathered an army of several hundred free people of colour. But his revolt was crushed. Ogé and 19 other members of the revolt were executed.

1791, slave revolt, Boukman, Vodou as an underground force for unity.
On 21 August 1791 a slave revolt broke out. By the end of September the army of slaves had destroyed more than 200 sugar plantations and almost 1,200 coffee plantations, and brought together tens of thousands of escaped slaves.

Secret Vodou gatherings organised support and Vodou priests were important participants. The leader of the slaves during the first days of the revolt was Boukman. He is said to have reached an agreement with the island’s spirits to serve them for 200 years in return for their support in the battle for liberty. It is said that Boukman sealed the agreement by drinking the blood of a black pig that had been sacrificed, although it is difficult to find historical proof of this event. Boukman was killed in November 1791. Even though Vodou was important in terms of co-ordinating and inspiring the revolt, it was primarily a political battle.

1804, liberty, isolation, boycott.
After many years of war, the slaves and the free people of colour won their liberty, although France did all it could to retain control of its richest colony. On 1 January 1804 the former slave Jean-Jaqcues Dessalines declared the freedom of the Republic of Haiti. This was the second free state in the New World after the USA, and the only state to have arisen from the liberation of slaves. No one recognised the new state, which was instead met with isolation and boycotts. This exclusion from the global market led to major economic difficulties for the new state.

Many of the leaders of the revolt disassociated themselves from Vodou. They strived to be accepted as Frenchmen and good Catholics rather than as free Haitians. Yet most practitioners of Vodou saw, and still see, no contradiction between Vodou and Catholicism, but also take part in Catholic masses.

1825, compensation to France.
In order to be allowed to resume trade with France, Haiti was forced to pay 150 million francs to France as compensation for the loss of its slaves. This corresponded to ten years’ total production in Haiti. Haiti was forced to take out expensive loans in order to pay these damages.

1835, Vodou punishable, secret societies.
Vodou was not recognised as an official religion by the Haitian state. In 1835 the practising of Vodou was made punishable. Secret Vodou societies therefore continued to be important. These societies also served to provide the poor with protection and solidarity against the exercising of power by the elite. They had their own symbols and codes.

1890, cumbersome loan payments.
Towards the end of the 19th century 80% of Haiti’s national budget was spent on repayments of loans for the payment of compensation to France.

1915, USA invasion I.
In 1915 Haiti was invaded by the USA. The occupation continued until 1934. The USA took over the national bank to guarantee payments of foreign debts and created a military force that later came to dominate the country. Among black intellectuals a movement grew up seeking greater awareness of African roots in relation to the black consciousness movement in the USA.

http://u-in-u.com/specials/2010/vodou/history/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BRAZIL AND SLAVERY 

Slaves as Merchandise Rio De Janeiro Brazil

The following advertisements were selected from a much greater collection, all of which appeared in a single issue ofO Diario do Rio de Janeiro, the leading newspaper of the city, in December, 1821.

For Sale:

?For sale a creole slave, a skillful shoemaker, with a very good figure, about twenty years of age, with no vices or bad habits. His final price is 300$000reis. Anyone interested in him should go to Travessa do Paço No. 11, upstairs, where he will find someone to speak to about the matter.?

?Whoever would like to buy three native slave women from Angola, who have come recently from that place, one who irons and does laundry, another a baker and laundress, and the third also a laundress, all with very good figures and the ability to do every kind of work in the house, should contact Manoel do Nascimento da Mata, Rua Direita No. 54, first floor??

?For sale, a black man of the Angola nation, about 20 to 25 years of age, a very good maker of combs, both tortoise shell and animal horn??

Wanted:

?Whoever has a creole girl, well made, from six to eight years of age, and wishes to sell her, should contact Manoel do Nascimento da Mata, Rua Direita No. 54, first floor. He wishes to buy her to take out of the country??

For Rent:

?Whoever is interested in renting slaves well trained in the baker?s trade, who could even do every type of work in a house, should go to Rua dos Latoeiros, house No. 14, or to the textile shop on the Rua do Cano?” (Conrad 111-12).

The newspaper contained advertisements for slaves found by bush captains (men who went out into the back country to search for runaway slaves), for runaways, and for wet nurses. Also included in the advertising section were training opportunities for slaves and notices concerning robberies. It was common in the 19thcentury for wealthy women to have slave women as wet nurses, and newspapers at the time were full of advertisements:

?For rent, a wet nurse with very good milk, from her first pregnancy, gave birth six days ago, in the Rua dos Pescadores, No. 64. Be it advised that she does not have a child? (Jornal do Comercio, Rio de Janeiro, December 1827).

?Will trade a good black boy {moleque} 15 to 16 years of age, accustomed to the country, a good cook, does all the work of the house, makes purchases, does washing; for a wet nurse who has good milk, who also knows how to take care of a house, and who is without vices?? (Jornal do Comercio, December 1827).

?Whoever wants to buy a creole slave, still a young girl, with good milk and in great quantity, who gave birth twenty days ago, should go to Rua das Marrecas, facing toward the public plaza? (Diario do Rio de Janeiro, June 1821).

While privileged families often found it necessary or desirable to use slaves as wet nurses, they certainly had their trepidations, stemming both from the diseases that slaves contracted aboard the ships taking them to Brazil and from widespread conviction of African slaves? physical inferiority. As one French doctor working in Brazil advised mothers selecting a wet nurse, the predominant view at the time was that

??white wet nurses would be preferable in every respect, if in this climate they offered the same advantages as those of the African race. The latter, organically formed to live in hot regions, in which their health prospers more than it does in any other place, acquire in this climate an ability to suckle babies which the same climate generally denies to white women (135).?

See the full article here which includes a first hand account by a slave. slavery in Braz

 

 

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Slave ports

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The Jews of Africa

Idrisi in his book entitled “Description of CENTRAL AFRICA,”  wrote about  a Hebrew colony in West Africa called Lam-Lam,. which was situated about 2 hundred miles West of Timbuktu.
“In the whole land of Lam- lam there are but two small cities, or as it were villages, and those are Malel and Dau, situated at the distance of four days’ journey from each other. Their inhabitants, as people of those parts relate, are JEWS, and most of them unbelieving and ignorant” ——–AL Edrisi Of Andalusia,Spain Description of CENTRAL AFRICA
“When any of all the inhabitants of the kingdom of Lamlam comes to have the use of his reason, he is burnt in the face and temples ; this they do to distinguish each other. All their countries and dominions are near a certain river(Niger River), flowing into the Nile. It is not known whether there is any inhabited place to the south of the king dom of Lamlam. That kingdom joins on the west to Mec- zara, on the east to Vancara(Wanagara), on the north to Ghana, and on the south to the desert ; and its people use a different language from those of Meczara and Ghana” ———–AL Edrisi Of Andalusia,Spain Description of CENTRAL AFRICA

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Jews of the Bilad al-Sudan (Judeo-Arabicאַהַל יַהוּדּ בִּלַדּ אַל סוּדָּן‎) describes West African Jewish communities who were connected to known Jewish communities from the Middle EastNorth Africa, or Spain and Portugal. Various historical records attest to their presence at one time in the GhanaMali, and Songhai empires, then called the Bilad as-Sudan from the Arabic meaning Land of the Blacks. Jews from SpainPortugal, and Morocco in later years also formed communities off the coast of Senegal and on the Islands of Cape Verde. These communities continued to exist for hundreds of years but have since disappeared due to changing social conditions, persecution, migration, and assimilation.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_of_Bilad_el-Sudan

West Africa

By the 9th century AD a string of dynastic states, including the earliest Hausa states, stretched across the sub-saharan savannah from the western coast to central Sudan. The most powerful of these states were GhanaGao, and the Kanem-Bornu Empire. Ghana declined in the 11th century but was succeeded by the Mali Empire which consolidated much of western Sudan in the 13th century. Kanem accepted Islam in the 11th century. Islam then spread through the interior of West Africa, as the religion of the mansas of the Mali Empire (c. 1235–1400). Following the fabled 1324 hajj of Kankan Musa I,Timbuktu became renowned as a centre of Islamic scholarship and as the location of sub-Saharan Africa’s first university. That city had been reached in 1352 by the great Arab traveler Ibn Battuta, whose journey to Mombasa and Quiloa (Kilwa) provided the first accurate knowledge of those flourishing Muslim cities of the Swahili on the east African seaboards.

The Songhai Empire, c. 1500

Following the breakup of Mali a local leader named Sonni Ali (1464 -1492) founded the Songhai Empire in the region of middle Niger and the western Sudan and took control of the trans-Saharan trade. Sonni Ali seized Timbuktu in 1468 andJenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His successor Askiya Mohammad Ture (1493 – 1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (d.1504), the founder of an important tradition of Sudanic African Muslim scholarship, to Gao.[19] By the 11th century some Hausa states – such as Kanojigawa,Katsina, and Gobir – had developed into walled towns engaging in trade, servicingcaravans, and the manufacture of goods. Until the 15th century these small states were on the periphery of the major Sudanic empires of the era, paying tribute to Songhai to the west and Kanem-Borno to the east.

Arab progress southward was stopped by the broad belt of dense forest, stretching almost across the continent somewhat south of 10° North latitude, which barred their advance much as the Sahara had proved an obstacle to their predecessors. The rain forest cut them off from knowledge of the Guinea coast and of all Africa beyond. One of the regions which was the last to come under Arab rule was that of Nubia, which had been controlled by Christians up to the 14th century.

 

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The Hausa-Fulani, are a great model of an ethnic group fusion, as they are actually made up of two groups, not surprisingly called the Hausa and the Fulani.

The Hausa are themselves a fusion, a collection of West-African peoples that were assimilated, long ago, into the population inhabiting what is now considered Hausaland. Once they arrived in Hausaland they became known for setting up seven small states centered around Birni, or walled cities. In these states the Hausa developed techniques of efficient government, including a carefully organized fiscal system and a highly learned judiciary, which gave them a reputation of integrity and ability in administering Islamic law.

The Fulani are also Muslims, and, like the Hausa.

Fulve pastoralists, known in Nigeria as Fulani, began to enter the Hausa country in the thirteenth century, and by the fifteenth century they were tending cattle, sheep, and goats in Borno as well. The Fulani came from the Senegal River valley, where their ancestors had developed a method of livestock management and specialization based on transhumance. The movement of cattle along north/south corridors in pursuit of grazing and water followed the climatic pattern of the rainy and dry seasons. Gradually, the pastoralists moved eastward, first into the centers of the Mali and Songhai empires and eventually into Hausaland and Borno. Some Fulve converted to Islam in the Senegal region as early as the eleventh century, and one group of Muslim Fulani settled in the cities and mingled freely with the Hausa, from whom they became racially indistinguishable.

 

A turning point in Nigerian history came in 1804 when a Fulani preacher, Othman dan Fodio, began a holy war that resulted in the subjugation of the old Hausa city states of northernNigeria. Having conquered the Hausa, the Fulani adopted their language and merged with their ruling classes to create a Hausa-Fulani ethnic group under the rule of what was now the Sokoto Caliphate.

They have intermarried with the Hausa, and have mostly adopted the latter’s customs and language, although some Fulani decided to stay pure by retaining a nomadic life.

The Hausa-Fulani ruling coalition is still dominant in northern Nigeria. This coalition had its beginnings much earlier, because the Fulani governed by simply assuming the highest hereditary positions in the well-organized Hausa political system. Many of the ruling Fulani have become culturally and linguistically Hausa.

At the top of the political hierarchy the Fulani are organized into states, or emirates, ruled by the emir. Emirs are selected from the ruling lineages by a council of clerics (Mallamai). After British intervention, the selection of an emir had to be approved by the British government. Emirs have the ultimate power in administrative and judicial functions of the state, and delegate lesser officials to carry out these functions. Emirs had somewhat more power in the past than they do today.

The purely Fulani-speaking groups are made up of the Muslim population of Northern Nigeriaand the adjacent areas of Niger, which have traditionally been organized into large, centralized states. Fulani of Nigeria speak a number of dialects, they can be grouped into four basic language groups:

Adamawa ( on the east of Nigeria, extending into Cameroon ),

Sokoto (most of whom speak Hausa, in the northern part of Nigeria, extending into Niger),  Sokoto (was once a major Fulve geo-political state, a center for famous Pullo (singular for Fulve) Usman dan Fodio )  Now the Fulve of the Sokoto area speak mostly Hausa

Borgu: on Nageria western border, spilling over from Benin and Togo.

North Central Nigerian Fulani, with estimate population figures of 12-15 million, have many names and variations in speech, but basically the Kano-Katsina, Mbororo, Western Fulani, Bauchi Fulani, Toroove, etc. speak dialects closely related to each other, readily understood by other Fulani people of the region.

The modern Fulani of Nigeria are mainly concentrated in the provinces

of Kano, Katsina, Sokoto, and Zaria

https://web.archive.org/web/20070814103335/http://www.jamtan.com:80/jamtan/fulani.cfm?chap=4&linksPage=356

See this below link for more on Hausa Fulani and their history

http://www.cometonigeria.com/about-nigeria/nigerian-people-culture/hausa-and-fulani-people/

 

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Loango+Jews

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Joel 3:6
 
View whole chapter | See verse in contextThe children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border.

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See this documentary on The black Pharaohs of Egypt and Kush https://youtu.be/iN3690N6UTY

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Known fact : the Suez Canal is man made it separates the land of Israel from Africa it was actually one whole continent before the man made continent . Moses and the children of Israel and even Joseph and his brothers, and Mary and Joseph with Jesus walked to Egypt before the land was parted. There was no such thing as the middle east or near east before this man made division
Africa and The Middle East was a single country before the Suez Canal was built. The people were described as Afro Asiatic. The Arabs at the time were considered black and from the tribe of Dan their kindgom was known as Kush & they were considered Shemites and also some were a mix of Ham and Shem with reference to the Bible. The kingdom spread from Ethiopia Somalia Sudan to Iran and Saudi Arabia.

 

Semitic languages spoken in Africa 

 

The Semitic languages[2][3] are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East. Semitic languages are spoken by more than 330 million people across much ofWestern AsiaNorth Africa and the Horn of Africa, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America and Europe, with smaller communities in the Caucasus andCentral Asia. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History,[4] who derived the name from Shem, one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis.

The most widely spoken Semitic languages today are (numbers given are for native speakers only) Arabic (300 million),[5] Amharic(22 million),[6] Tigrinya (7 million),[7] Hebrew (unknown; 5 million native and non-native L1speakers),[8]Tigre (~1.05), Aramaic (575,000 to 1 million largely Assyrian fluent speakers)[9][10][11] and Maltese (520,000 speakers).[12]

Semitic languages occur in written form from a very early historical date, with East SemiticAkkadian and Eblaite texts (written in a script adapted from Sumerian cuneiform) appearing from the 29th century BCE and the 25th century BCE in Mesopotamia and the northern Levant respectively.

The only earlier attested languages are SumerianElamite (both language isolates), Egyptian and unclassified Lullubi. However, most scripts used to write Semitic languages are abjads – a type ofalphabetic script that omits some or all of the vowels, which is feasible for these languages because the consonants in the Semitic languages are the primary carriers of meaning.

Among them are the UgariticPhoenician,AramaicHebrewSyriacArabic, and South Arabian alphabets. The Ge’ez script, used initially in Yemen, and later also for writing the Semitic languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea, is technically an abugida – a modified abjad in which vowels are notated using diacritic marks added to the consonants at all times, in contrast with other Semitic languages which indicate diacritics based on need or for introductory purposes. Maltese is the only Semitic language written in the Latin script and the only Semitic language to be an official language of the European Union.

 

cushitic-people-of-east-africa

Extract below added and link to original post as my research is also leading to this conclusion.

CATHERINE ACHOLONU’S APPRAISAL OF THE RESEARCH

of  Dr. BARRY FELL & EDO NYLAND

 

 

        “All the words that researchers Edo Nyland and Dr. Barry Fell transcribed were Igbo words, which I could easily read and translate. When I told Nyland that I had translated the words he transcribed from Ogam stones he did not believe me at first. When Hugo Kennes found my work on the Internet and started informing all the Ogam researchers he knew including Nyland, Nyland asked him to get an Igbo dictionary from me.  After a meeting with Pellech in Belgium, she convinced me to write further details for her site, and that led to my doing the Igbo Ogam VCV Dictionary.”  [Please also see New York Times article].


“Nyland’s use of the word 
Saharan might not be too far off the mark. However, he did not check West Africa, which has language links with North Africa because the direction of migrations from the Niger has been both northward and southward through the Ages. For example the Berber etymology of Barbarian is related to Igbo in the sense that (according to Herodotus) the word means ‘stranger’. Igbo

word for “Stranger” is “Obiarabia.”

 

          “My thesis is that Egypt was the main outpost from where West African Kwa (Kwush/Kush) culture was exported to the rest of the world. Igbo is the Mega-Kwa language – the Kushite mother-language. Kush is the major bearer of this civilization. Ethiopia was not just an East Africa location, but lay West too. According to Homer, it was in Sunset Ethiopia that the Gods congregated, and the people were called “the Blameless Ethiopians in whose land the gods held banquets”. We have discovered the lost city of this Pre-historic Civilization, with its array of beautiful bronze and pottery works lost to living memory and posing an Enigma to African and World History.”

 

          “My analyses of the early archaeology of Sumer and of the Akkadian/Sumerian/Canaanite (Semitic) languages shows that all of them without exception were children of the Igbo language and that the earliest inhabitants of Sumer had Igbo lifestyles in religion, architecture, clothing, etc., even in the recipe for soap-making (wood-ash/potash boiled in oil).”

 

          “Igbo is in the family of Niger-Congo languages called Kwa by European linguists, which includes many Nigerian and West African languages like Ashanti, Akan, Yoruba and Benin (Edo). Igbo, I find to be closest to the original mother of that language family. In fact my finding is that in order to not let the Igbo know that it was their language that birthed the others, the linguists invented the word Kwa, which was originated from Akwa Nshi (Igbo for ‘First People’, also the local name of the Nigerian monoliths that represent First People on the planet). This word was used also by the ancient Egyptians to describe the West African, in fact Igbo-speaking, Sea People (Kwush, see Martin Bernal – Black Athena ) who brought civilization to the Aegean and the Levant during the Hyksos (which means ‘Kwush’) Exodus. Kwush, also pronounced Kush means in Semitic and in Igbo ‘People of the Esh/Eshi’. Eshi are the so-called ‘Blameless Ethiopians’ of Homer. In Sumer and in Igbo, the word meant ‘Righteous/Sons of God/Descendants of the Adama (see The Nag Hammadi Scriptures and the Torah). Adam was Adama before the Fall. After he fell he became Adam, a word, which in Igbo means ‘I have Fallen’. Today in Igbo land we still have the descendants of the Immortal First People. They have never ceased to go by Adam’s original name – ‘Adama’. They are the Land Chiefs in Igbo land.”

 

          “Biblical Kush was named after the Ikwu Eshi/KwushIkwu Eshi literally means in Igbo – ‘Descendant/Lineage of the Eshi’.”


“The 
Sea People were related to the Hebrews. They all spoke Semitic languages. They were the founders of Greece, Crete, Troy, and Rome. They were the CariansDanaansAcheans, and Myceneans, not excluding the Hittites. The writing systems they gave to Crete and early Middle East have been mostly found on the Igbo Ukwu excavated artifacts (see The Lost Testament), while the surviving words from their period had many Igbo cognates. Their exodus began in Egypt, remember? And Egypt, according to our findings was an outpost of an originally West African civilization in the time of Osiris (10,000 B.C.), whose Nigerian equivalent bore the Ogam scarifications on his face as his personal signature. We have found many hieroglyphs and pyramid symbols of Egypt on body adornments of ancient Nigerian gods and monuments.”


“Ogam was a writing system, not a language. Ancient Africans had other writing forms, too. Egyptian hieroglyphics was not a language; it was a writing system that could only be read correctly and meaningfully if you know the language. In this case, Igbo, the original Kwa.”

 

– – – – – – – – – – –

 

          The 2013 book Acholonu, Catherine Oianuju & Sidney Louis Davis, Jr.  2013.  Eden in Sumer on the Niger– Archeological, Linguistic and Gnetic Evidence of 450,000 years of Atlantis, Eden and Sumer in West Africa.  (A sequel to “The Gram Code of African Adam“, “They lived Before Adam” & “The Lost Testament of The Ancestors of Adam“). [provides archeological, linguistic, genetic and recorded evidence of the West African origin of mankind, language, religion, culture and civilization.  It also gives multidisciplinary evidence of the actual geographical locations in West Africa of the Garden of Eden, Atlantis, and the original homeland of the Sumerian people before their migration to the Middle East.

 

          By translating the hitherto unknown pre-cuneiform inscriptions of the Sumerians, the layers of thousands of years of Africa’s lost pre-history have been brought to the fore.  The identity is revealed of the West African villages, tribes and clans that supplied the Pharaohs of Egypt, and African faces are placed on the African kings of Sumer’s Akkad, Ur, Uruk, Mesopotamia, even the Indus Valley- all products of the original African home of the Sumerians.

 

          Also identified are that the Sahara, the most extensive desert in the world, was the location of the lost nation of Atlantis, which was destroyed in 11,000 BC.  Details are given of Magan and Meluhha, the most famous port cities of Sumer, before they were destroyed circa 2,000 BC by “The Seven Awesome Weapons” of the Annunaki.

 

Answers are given to the all lingering questions about the African cavemen (Igbos/Esh/Adamas/Adites) who gave the world civilization and donated their genes for the creation of the Homo sapiens Adam and were the teachers and guardians of the entire human race.

http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/igbo/discussion2.htm

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The Saharan Language

          An ancient “Saharan Language“, which was preceded many thousands of years by the Igbo Language of West Africa, is believed to have been used by linguists to invent “Indo-European” and Semitic languages, including  AinuDutchEgyptianEngish, EskimoGermanGreekHebrewLatinSanskritSlavic groupSpanishYiddishetc. (Nyland 2001). T  This was done with the use of different formulaic manipulations of the Saharan vocabulary, creating largely invented (non-genetic) language “families”.  Nyland has now proposed several hypotheses and a theory on the origin of these languages (see Theory).  However, recent studies byCatherine Acholonu of Nigeria have revealed a precursor to “Saharan” that was developed in very ancient times by the Igbo people of West Africa.  In Genesis 11:1 this language is said to be spoken in the whole world, and therefore should be called the Universal Language, which had been the language of the first civilization on earth, located in Africa and the Near East. Indeed it may have been developed by the Igbo of West Africa (see (see Catherine Acholonu).  Forms of the languare are still spoken by the Dravidians of India, the Basques of Euskadi and the Ainu of Japan. In Genesis 11:7 we are told: “Come, let us confuse their language that they may no longer understand one another’s speech”. The clergy of both Judaism and Christianity considered this a biblical command and have spent an enormous, and long sustained effort to enforce this belief. The formula used by them in most of the artificiallyconstructed vocabularies is called the “vowel-interlocking” or “VCV formula“. Because the Basque language is the closest to the ancient Saharan language and has the best English dictionary, this will be called Basque from now on. In most cases, the first 2nd, 3rd or 4th letters of each Basque word were agglutinated into a new word (agglutinate = to unite or combine into a group) . After this was done, some or many of the vowels and h’s were removed according to a plan to give the new words special characteristics. In Hebrew most, if not all, of the vowels were removed for writing, but not for speaking.  For example, Talmud, was spelled ‘lmd’ but pronounced ‘tal-mud’, from Basque tala – mudapen, watch out – alteration: “Watch out for alteration”, which is basic to an oral law.

          It is the task of the linguistic archaeologist to look at languages before the invention of writing, to search the very roots of such languages; the subject could also be called pre-historical linguistics but that name would still be part of the fortress called linguistics. To make this process at least plausible, other disciplines such as religion, mythology, archaeology and historical linguistics must be included, while earlier research and hypotheses in this field should be carefully re-examined.

          Many languages, including such early languages as Hebrew and Sanskrit, were created by formulaic manipulation of Basque vocabulary. However, the name Basque, or more accurately Bask because there is no Q in the language, did not exist at the time this language invention was done. There must have been an earlier form of this language available to the linguists doing this manipulation. But where did it come from and what was it like?

          The research done by Dr. N. Lahovary and published in his book “Dravidian Origins and the West” shows conclusively that Basque and the old Dravidian languages of India are closely related. Nyland’s research into the Ainu language of Japan shows the same. The Ainu are thought to have been isolated in the Far East for as long as 8,000 years, yet they retain an early, non-agglutinated, form of Saharan, thus the original language must have been very old. These startling finds seem to indicates that the precursor of the Basque language was spoken very early in Europe, Africa and Asia, just like Genesis 11:1 tells us: “Now the whole world spoke one language”. Nyland suggested that the forerunner of the Basque, Dravidian and Ainu languages was the Saharan language and that the language spoken in the beautifully painted cathedral caves in southern France and northern Spain was an early form of the same. However, this early form of the language cannot have been the one used by the early religious scholars doing the inventing of new languages such as Sanskrit. They used a later, manipulated, form that was constructed with agglutination.  It employed the vowel-consonant-vowel interlocking principle.

          That many words in the Saharan/Basque vocabulary are artificially assembled is obvious from words like alkar, meaning mutual. It comes from three Basque roots: al-ka-ar:

THE MEANING OF SAHARA

          The Basque word zahar means old, and the name Sahara could therefore be interpreted as “the old country”, but the Basque ‘z’ and the ‘s’, which is pronounced as ‘sh’, are quite different letters so zahar may not be the origin of the name Sahara. However, there appears to be another meaning embedded in “Sahara”. It is analyzed as:

.sa-aha-ara.
esa – aha – ara
esan – ahalguzti – aratz
to say/speak – Almighty – pure/refined
“The speech of the Almighty is refined”

          Could this interpretation of the name mean that the original language had been refined or developed by early linguists? The logical and highly organized structure of the Basque language surely seems to support this possibility. The name used by the Basques for their own language is “Euskera”, analyzed as:

eu – us. – .ke – era
eu – usa – ake – era
euki – usaiako – akela – erabildura
to retain/preserve – usual/traditional – goddess – usage/speech
“We preserve the traditional speech of the Goddess”.

          In order to bury the true meaning of the word, the Roman Catholic church changed the quite obvious ‘.ke’ for ‘ake’ to ‘.ka’ so that now we have both Euskera and Euskara in the dictionary.  De Basaldua (1925) called his native language “Eskera” and explained the meaning as esk (hand) and the ending era as form, wave, grace, beautiful, good, and he pulled these words together to mean “way to move the hand; wave with grace” which, he said, was also called ‘ademan’ in Spanish, meaning gesture (see p. 55). This meaning is  difficult to accept because it appears to have little bearing on the language. Instead, we are apparently dealing here with words belonging to the first civilization on earth. This civilization had evolved so greatly that the substratum language was no longer adequate to describe their achievements in astronomy, mathematics, acoustics, navigation, religion etc.  Therefore, a system had to be found to expand the language. The VCV vowel-interlocking structure was the result of their search for a practical expressive language.

          There seems little doubt that the Basque language is a direct descendant of this original Saharan language and that this language has not changed very much for several millennia, probably because of the extremely careful oral transmission traditions used in their educational system, passing the language on from generation to generation without changes.

http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/bronze/saharan.htm

 

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