This post covers different perspectives of the slave trade in Africa and looks at who the people were.
Ghanaweb extract below
Early European Contact and the Slave Trade
When the first Europeans arrived in the late fifteenth century, many inhabitants of the Gold Coast area were striving to consolidate their newly acquired territories and to settle into a secure and permanent environment. Several immigrant groups had yet to establish firm ascendancy over earlier occupants of their territories, and considerable displacement and secondary migrations were in progress. Ivor Wilks, a leading historian of Ghana, observed that Akan purchases of slaves from Portuguese traders operating from the Congo region augmented the labor needed for the state formation that was characteristic of this period. Unlike the Akan groups of the interior, the major coastal groups, such as the Fante, Ewe, and Ga, were for the most part settled in their homelands.
The Portuguese were the first to arrive. By 1471, under the patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator, they had reached the area that was to become known as the Gold Coast because Europeans knew the area as the source of gold that reached Muslim North Africa by way of trade routes across the Sahara. The initial Portuguese interest in trading for gold, ivory, and pepper so increased that in 1482 the Portuguese built their first permanent trading post on the western coast of present-day Ghana. This fortress, Elmina Castle, constructed to protect Portuguese trade from European competitors and hostile Africans, still stands.
With the opening of European plantations in the New World during the 1500s, which suddenly expanded the demand for slaves in the Americas, trade in slaves soon overshadowed gold as the principal export of the area. Indeed, the west coast of Africa became the principal source of slaves for the New World. The seemingly insatiable market and the substantial profits to be gained from the slave trade attracted adventurers from all over Europe. Much of the conflict that arose among European groups on the coast and among competing African kingdoms was the result of rivalry for control of this trade.
The Portuguese position on the Gold Coast remained secure for almost a century. During that time, Lisbon leased the right to establish trading posts to individuals or companies that sought to align themselves with the local chiefs and to exchange trade goods both for rights to conduct commerce and for slaves whom the chiefs could provide. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, adventurers–first Dutch, and later English, Danish, and Swedish– were granted licenses by their governments to trade overseas. On the Gold Coast, these European competitors built fortified trading stations and challenged the Portuguese. Sometimes they were also drawn into conflicts with local inhabitants as Europeans developed commercial alliances with local chiefs.
The principal early struggle was between the Dutch and the Portuguese. With the loss of Elmina in 1642 to the Dutch, the Portuguese left the Gold Coast permanently. The next 150 years saw kaleidoscopic change and uncertainty, marked by local conflicts and diplomatic maneuvers, during which various European powers struggled to establish or to maintain a position of dominance in the profitable trade of the Gold Coast littoral. Forts were built, abandoned, attacked, captured, sold, and exchanged, and many sites were selected at one time or another for fortified positions by contending European nations.
Both the Dutch and the British formed companies to advance their African ventures and to protect their coastal establishments. The Dutch West India Company operated throughout most of the eighteenth century. The British African Company of Merchants, founded in 1750, was the successor to several earlier organizations of this type. These enterprises built and manned new installations as the companies pursued their trading activities and defended their respective jurisdictions with varying degrees of government backing. There were short-lived ventures by the Swedes and the Prussians. The Danes remained until 1850, when they withdrew from the Gold Coast. The British gained possession of all Dutch coastal forts by the last quarter of the nineteenth century, thus making them the dominant European power on the Gold Coast.
In the first place, the Portuguese initiated what eventually became the Trans-Atlantic slave trade mainly through slave raids along the coasts of Africa. The first of these raids came in 1444 and was led by Lançarote de Freitas. The problem with raiding for slaves was that it was extremely dangerous. For instance, the slave trader Nuno Tristão was killed during an ambush. Slave raiding proved to be an extremely dangerous way to obtain slaves, but buying slaves was much safer and took less effort on the part of the Europeans. Therefore, the first phase of the slave trade began not with a trade, but with a series of raids. This point is especially important because although the slave trade was on some levels based on a partnership between European buyers and African traders, the slave trade did not begin as such.
Moreover, the partnership between the traders and buyers was an uneasy one. The European slave traders often betrayed those who supplied them with slaves. A famous case of this was the African slave trader Daaga who was tricked and captured by slave traders. He was taken to Trinidad where he would eventually lead a mutiny. Another example is given by Anne Bailey in her book African Voices in the Atlantic Slave Trade. She mentions the story of Chief Ndorkutsu who had been providing captives to the European traders. Eventually some of the Ndorkutsu’s own relatives were tricked into boarding a slave ship and then taken as slaves to Cuba. In some cases, such as that of Madam Tinubu in Nigeria and Afonso of the Kongo Kingdom, those Africans that initially gave African captives to the Europeans came to resist the slave trade. Tinubu had a change of heart when she realized how inhumanely the slaves were treated. Afonso was almost assassinated by the Portuguese after he demanded an end to the slave trade in his kingdom.
See this documentary on West Africa
On the BBC website they provide the following insight:
“Many societies in Africa with kings and hierarchical forms of government traditionally kept slaves. But these were mostly used for domestic purposes. They were an indication of power and wealth and not used for commercial gain. However, with the appearance of Europeans desperate to buy slaves for use in the Americas, the character of African slave ownership changed.
GROWING RICH WITH SLAVERY
In the early 18th century, Kings of Dahomey (known today as Benin) became big players in the slave trade, waging a bitter war on their neighbours, resulting in the capture of 10,000, including another important slave trader, the King of Whydah. King Tegbesu made £250,000 a year selling people into slavery in 1750. King Gezo said in the 1840’s he would do anything the British wanted him to do apart from giving up slave trade:
“The slave trade is the ruling principle of my people. It is the source and the glory of their wealth…the mother lulls the child to sleep with notes of triumph over an enemy reduced to slavery…”
Some of the descendants of African traders are alive today. Mohammed Ibrahim Babatu is the great great grandson of Baba-ato (also known as Babatu), the famous Muslim slave trader, who was born in Niger and conducted his slave raids in Northern Ghana in the 1880’s. Mohammed Ibrahim Babatu, the deputy head teacher of a Junior secondary school in Yendi, lives in Ghana.
“In our curriculum, we teach a little part of the history of our land. Because some of the children ask questions about the past history of our grandfather Babatu.
Babatu, and others, didn’t see anything wrong with slavery. They didn’t have any knowledge of what the people were used for. They were only aware that some of the slaves would serve others of the royal families within the sub-region.
He has done a great deal of harm to the people of Africa. I have studied history and I know the effect of slavery.
I have seen that the slave raids did harm to Africa, but some members of our family feel he was ignorant…we feel that what he did was fine, because it has given the family a great fame within the Dagomba society.
He gave some of the slaves to the Dagombas and then he sent the rest of the slaves to the Salaga market. He didn’t know they were going to plantations…he was ignorant…”
Listen to Mohammed Ibrahim Babatu, great great grandson of the famous Muslim slave trader Baba-ato
The young Moroccan traveler and commentator, Leo Africanus, was amazed at the wealth and quantity of slaves to be found in Gao, the capital of Songhay, which he visited in 1510 and 1513 when the empire was at the height of its power under Askiya Mohammed”
“…here there is a certain place where slaves are sold, especially on those days when the merchants are assembled. And a young slave of fifteen years of age is sold for six ducats, and children are also sold. The king of this region has a certain private palace where he maintains a great number of concubines and slaves”
The following except from pages 47-50 of Overturning the Culture of Violence, written by Penny Hess, Chairwoman of the African People’s Solidarity Committee and printed by Burning Spear Publications,
Wikipedia Extract below
If your interested in tracing your slave ancestor this audio is full of useful tips.
Below 1727 map of West Africa
Below 1771 Map of Africa (13)
An interesting old map of Africa reflecting European understanding of the continent and its regions at the time. The engraving says ‘Engraved for Drake’s Voyages.’ Francis Drake set sail for Africa from England with 5 ships in 1577; however, research done by the University of Florida Map and Imagery Library indicates that the cartographic information on the map most likely depicts 18th century knowledge of Africa. Below Cape Verde to the west is ‘Negroland,’ and to the east is ‘Nubia.’ Below ‘Negroland’ is ‘Lower Ethiopia’ and then ‘Upper Guinea,’ which in terms of today’s Africa includes, from west to east, Côte D’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Nigeria. Below ‘Upper Guinea’ is ‘Lower Guinea,’ about where Angola is today. To the east, below ‘Nubia,’ is ‘Abissinia’ and then ‘Upper Ethiopia,’ which is roughly where Ethiopia is today.
The Western Sudan or Soudan
Archaeologists know little about sub-Saharan West Africa before 800 CE. After that time, the rise of Islam made Arabic records available.3 Evidence from Dar-Tchitt, an archeological site in the area of Ancient Ghana, suggests agricultural expansion and intensification gave rise to walled villages of 500 to 1000 inhabitants as early as 900–800 BCE. By 700 BCE the settlement patterns changed to more numerous smaller, unwalled villages.
Jenne-Jeno, a second archeological site, was first settled around 250BCE. Located around the inland delta of the Niger river, Jenne-Jeno probably started out as a place where local farmers, herders, and fishers brought produce to exchange with one another. Over time, the location became an interregional trade center. It might have been the first one in the region, but if so, others soon followed and several of these became the centers of a series of kingdoms and empires in the Sahel and Sudan. Eventually the region was densely populated by people who had a social organization based on kinship ties, political forms that are properly called states, and cities based on Saharan trade, at least as far south as modern-day Djenne. What we know about these states and cities comes mostly from oral traditions and literate Muslim Arab and Berber travelers, who made their first visits to the region in the eighth century.4 Oral sources included African poems, praise songs, and accounts of past events usually passed on through official oral historians such as Griots, who recite the histories from Ancient Mali and Songhai.
Medieval West Africa
When the Portuguese first explored the West African coastline in the 1400s, the cultures of African societies were highly evolved and had been so for centuries. In the thousand years before Portuguese exploration, three large centers of medieval African civilization developed sequentially along the west coast of sub-Saharan Africa. Islamic scholars and African oral traditions tell us that all of these states had centralized governments, long-distance trade routes, and educational systems.
The first polity that is known to have gained prominence was Ancient Ghana. Between 500 and 1250 CE, Ancient Ghana flourished in the southern Sahel north of the middle Niger and middle Senegal Rivers. From the work of two Arabic scholars — Al-Bakri, writing in 1067, and Al-Idrisi, writing in 1154 — we know that Ancient Ghana had a civil service, a strong monarchy based on a matrilineal system of inheritance, a cabinet, an army, an effective justice system and a regular source of income from trade as well as tribute from vassal kings.5
See also this documentary on nubia.
Below I’m going to explore further the history of the people who were enslaved.
Places named in the bible and featuring in West Africa
Kingdom of Juda
Country of Adam below and then right next door his sons”desert” Seth
Descendants of Adama
Desert of Seth below
Wandering tribes Jews Exiled below
There are two Gihons mentioned in the Bible. The first Gihon is Eden’s river number two (the others are Pishon, Haddakel and Parat). Of this river it is said that it flows around the whole land of Cush (Genesis 2:13).
The second Gihon mentioned in the Bible is a place neawhere Solomon was anointed king (1 Kings 1:33-45; in 1 Kings 1 this name is spelled גחון). Apparently this Gihon was some kind of waterway, as king Hezekiah rerouted its course (2 Chronicles 32:30).
Below Euphrate river
Kingdom of Mali above
See this video https://youtu.be/QW_kaUuUg8Y
The Sahrawis: indigenous people of Western Sahara
Western Sahara (the former Spanish Sahara) is located in northwest Africa and covers an area of 266,000 square kilometres. It is bordered by Morocco to the north, Algeria to the northeast and Mauritania to the southeast and has a 1,200-kilometre-long Atlantic Ocean coastline. The present internationally recognized borders of the territory were defined as a consequence of three Franco-Spanish treaties in 1900, 1904 and 1912. Western Sahara is rich in mineral resources; in addition to its extensive phosphate deposits, it is believed to harbour substantial iron ore and to have a great potential of large offshore oil reserves. The territory is also renowned for the rich fishing waters off its long coastline.
In its advisory opinion on Western Sahara of 16 October 1975, the ICJ held,
The information furnished to the Court shows (a) that at the time of colonization Western Sahara was inhabited by peoples which, if nomadic, were socially and politically organized in tribes and under chiefs competent to represent them; (b) that Spain did not proceed upon the basis that it was establishing its sovereignty over terra nullius: thus in his Order of 26 December 1884 the King of Spain proclaimed that he was taking the Rio de Oro under his protection on the basis of agreements entered into with the chiefs of local tribes. (Emphasis added)10
The overarching conclusion of the Court, drawn from the many historical facts at its disposal, was that an indigenous population inhabited Western Sahara prior to Spanish colonization and that due to their subsequent subjection to alien domination they were therefore entitled to exercise their right to self-determination. The importance of this conclusion can also be appreciated against the backdrop of both Moroccan and Mauritanian claims that denied the existence of a distinct socially and politically organized precolonial Sahrawi entity.
Historical studies on the region indicate that the present-day Sahrawis represent a fusion of the indigenous Sanhaja Berbers, Africans and Arabs who came from Arabia during the 13th century (Mercer 1976; Hodges 1983a). Successive invasions of the territory by the Arabs led to the gradual Islamization and Arabization of the indigenous people. This process gave rise to an ethnic, linguistic, religious and cultural symbiosis that gradually led to the formation of the constitution of the Sahrawi people represented by the tribes and tribal confederations that inhabited the area now known as Western Sahara.
Traditionally, the Sahrawis lived as nomads and pastoralists; they spoke a common dialect called Hassaniya that is much closer to the classical Arabic than other dialects spoken in the region. They developed their own sociopolitical forms of organization such as Ait-Arabïn (‘Council of the Forty’), an inter-tribal assembly that would meet to discuss the affairs of the population in times of peace and war. These forms of government were distinctly different from the system of emirates in neighbouring Mauritania and the monarchical dynasties in Morocco. Francisco Palacios Romeo (2001) suggests that the elements that serve to confer upon the Sahrawis the category ‘people’ are language, religion, territory and common essential habits giving rise to uniform and interrelated ethnicities, and in this sense ‘the Sahrawi collectives deserve the double consideration as an ethnicity and a people’ (Palacios Romeo 2001, 49). It is in this context that the inhabitants of the territory became aware of their existence as a people, an awareness whose constitutive elements consisted in their sociopolitical structures, their common culture and territory and the self-identification of themselves as Sahrawis. As some authors have also observed, the discursive construction of national identities is always accompanied by the construction of difference and singularity (Hall 1996). In the Sahrawi case, it was the set of elements and social practices, mentioned above, that progressively contributed to defining the Sahrawi identity and outlining the ‘limits’ between it and other neighbouring social and cultural identities that inhabited northwest Africa.
Colonial rule in Western Sahara began in 1884 when the territory was declared a Spanish protectorate as a result of the Berlin Conference (1884-1885) that divided Africa among the European powers. In the colonial period, Sahrawi national identity was further developed and consolidated by the emergence of more organized political expressions of Sahrawi modern nationalism. Certain factors intervened significantly in these transformative processes. Spain’s decision in 1958 to turn Western Sahara into a Spanish province with its own legislation and general assembly, known as Djemaa, transformed the territory into a purportedly autonomous entity where the local population would gradually take control of managing its own affairs (Aguirre 1988). The policy of sedentarization pursued by the colonial administration led to substantial changes in the social configuration and socioeconomic reality of the territory. As a result, the originally nomadic population slowly became sedentary with many Sahrawis becoming employed as cheap labour for developing and expanding the colonial infrastructure (Hodges 1983a; 1983b).
The slave coast regions and Trans-Atlantic DNA below
See this post for trans Atlantic slave trade DNA including Jamaica Cape Verde America and more click
The African Map again to compare the key areas of slavery is above.
This is how My DNA reflects history below
Trace regions 2% Mali 2% Senegal 2% Spain/Portugal 1% Irish 1%British 1% Russian/Polish. My African DNA is the exact match to the 2 maps above of the slave coast regions.
My DNA on the map below including associated regions Swaziland and South Africa should have been included.
The states and empire names are listed below
So far with extensive research I have identified my Nigerian ancestry in Lagos, Igbo and possibly Yoruba Ashanti tribe. Ghanian Accra ancestry from Akan possibly Ga tribe and a connection and ancestry to Benin/Togo from my Ghana side. The Benin ancestor or history possibly relates to the Fon and Ewe tribe as they were prevalent in Benin and taken as slaves to the Carribean Islands. Some of the Ewe tribe are also found to have migrated to Ghana and Nigeria. My Mali ancestors had Ghanian DNA also which I was able to check through my DNA matches.
Below 2 ancestry DNA African American results
Below DNA result of a Caribbean person
Below Ghanian from possibly Ewe tribe
This is an interesting post on Madagascar and East Asian slave geneology see the below link.
Above picture shows slaves for sale from the Gambia who were experienced in cultivating rice. These adverts hold key pieces of information. We can see where the slaves came from and who sold them. Often slaves were given names of their captors or slave owners. The adverts show us who was at the forefront of the slave industry and where they were trading human Cargo.
Slavery in the Americas
Who were the Igbo
Egbo Igbo Ebo Ibo
Egbo, Igbo, Ebo and Ibo are the various spellings met within books describing the race that inhabits part of the coast. Amongst the soft Isuama and Elugu the soft Ibo or Ebo is used but amongst the inhabitants of the coast such as Bonny and Okrika the harsher name Egbo is prevalent. In the interior north of the territory the nations are called Igbo which appears more the original name of the inhabitants.” (HORTON 1969:154)
Below is another extract regarding West African history
An Excerpt from new book: Eden in Sumer on the Niger, by Catherine Acholonu, with contributions from Sidney Davis
An Igbo account
Igbo hebrew history religion & mythology
Sumerian records say that the first God-king of Atlantis was URASH – a Sea-Emperor. We have a river (river-god) in Igboland called Urash. Atlantis was the first world civilization. The Urashi river is densely lined with Wine Palm Trees – the very type whose seeds are being plucked here by angels. The Urash river flows from Orlu (Imo state) through Okija (Anambra state) and joins the Niger. King Urash was an Aborigin, and lived on earth long before the arrival of the Nephilim/Annunaki. My suspicion is that the Palm Tree (Sumerian “Tree of Life”), wch was said to be the First Tree in Eden (see Ralph Ellis: Eden in Egypt), was a metaphor for the Aboriginal Seed of King Uruash, and that his spiritual base is the Urash River. Thus the various species of the Palm Tree frequently celebrated by angels in Sumerian records are all sprouts of the Soul Seed of King Uruash – the First Man to evolve on earth – the Uncreated Aborigine. The Palm Tree is the most sacred and most important tree in Igboland. Its soft shoot (Omu) is considered holy and to harbour the Holy Spirit of God. It is used for spiritual deliverance from every form of evil, and to cordon off bad spirits and negative vibes. We are told in Eri mythology that after the Deluge all vegetation died, and God told Eri (the Atlantean migrant to Igboland – see our new book ‘Eden in Sumer on the Niger’) to kill and dismember his first son and daughter and plant the parts of their body in the ground. Out of the body parts of the son grew the palm tree and yam…. This is a very deep mystery we should try to understand. As I said somewhere else the Palm Seed is the metaphor for the Divine DNA of the aborigines – the Landlords of the earth – the descendants of the first God-King of Atlantis King Uruash. Yashaya is the incarnation of the Christ. But before he came, Osiris had embodied the same Christ several thousands of years before. Before Osiris there was Bakkhus also called Afra (Bi-Afra means ‘Be-Afra – ‘Home of Afra’. Those of you belonging to Summit LightHouse probably know tht Afra is one of the Lords they channel). Afra was crucified in Africa by ca. 500,000 BC. (Africa is named after him). He is the Crucified Christ of the Dogon folklore. His was also Bakkus. As Bakkus he was a WINE god (the originator of the Eucharistic Wine). His name is derived from Igbo GBANKWU ‘LET the WINE Flow’. He returned as Dionysius/Osiris before the Deluge. After the Deluge he returned again in his male and female aspects to offer himself as food and wine to the Igbo First People because all crops had been buried in the Deluge. This time he returned in the House of Eri and offered himself to be killed for the re-engineering of food-crops (Yam and Cocoyam) as well as the Palm Tree and Palm Wine (the Tree of Life and the Drink of Life) and for Breadfruit/Ukwa. All this is part of Eri mythology of Umueri and Umunri. He came into Eri’s house as a Son and Daughter of Eri, though he was the Christ. He ordered Eri to kill him for food to feed his Igbo brethren/children. Before being dismembered and planted in the soil, he/she was scarified in the face with the X-symbol of Orion called ICHI. By tht he/she was re-deified. He actually returned back to life bearing the name IGBO (Yorubas call him ‘Obatala Oba Igbo’) and brewed the tapped the same palm tree tht came from his body and fed the people with the sacred drink. He got drunk and his junior brother Marduk stole his Ashe and his title of ‘World Ruler’ (Oduduwa/Onyendu uwa), made war against him and drove him into exile to South America where he inaugurated the Olmec first civilization of the Americas as QuetzalCoatl/Kulkulcan, the feathered Serpent. Osiris has a Twin identity with Thoth. The symbol of Bakkus is the Palm Wine. Bakkus was eventually killed and eaten. So he was also the bread. The symbol of Osiris/Igbo/Obatala is Yam (Bread of Life) and also Palmwine. Yashaya espoused the Bread and the Wine. The real Eucharistic Wine is not the wine of Europe but Palm Wine of Igboland, for Christ is Orion whose original anchor in the world is in Igboland. He is infact Chukwu Abiama. You know also that the Palm Wine is the true Eucharistic Wine of the Self-Sacrificing Christ. The tradition began with the Atlantean/Sumerian Wine God Bakkus (ca. 500,000 BC). The etymology of the word BAKKUS is IGBO “Gbankwu”, wch means “Let the PALM WINE Flow”!!!! This tells us that Igbo was the language of Atlantis and was spoken before 500,000 BC! Adam was created ca. 200,000 BC!! Our ancestors surely lived before Adam. We were the people of the First Age of the world. Igbo language was the original language they gave to mankind. It was here in Igboland, Niger Delta and Benue Great Lake (now sunk beneath the earth) tht spoken and written human language was born by the gods of Sirius and Orion star-systems and handed over to cavemen, before the coming of the Anunnaki and their creation of Adam. Infact the oldest city in the world was established by the gods of Sirius and Orion in 450,000 BC in the Great Benue Lake area wch was then further up around Abuja. It was populated by Cavemen (more of Apemen) called Igbo who spoke Igbo and were actually physical emanations of the Star Beings from Orion and Sirius. These were the first humans, who later migrated all over the world by the power of Thought. This is why Igbo is the God Race through which restoration has ALWAYS come into the world. They are the ONLY race with the traditional power to cleanse Abominations in humanity and the environment. All the Avaters in the world, have come from the Igbo Adama/Atama God Race. Egypt’s Father of Gods is called Atum, from Coptic ‘Para Atama’ (Igbo ‘Opara Adama’). Atum is thus Igbo Chukwu Abiama (Ele, Hebrew El). He was the One who incarnated among the recalcitrant Jews to teach them Truth about himself. The Christ is the Exemplar of Unconditional Love (total giving of self) for all men. Everyone is called upon to emulate the Christ in us all. The Christ is the Creative Principle in God. But it is the Uncreated Creator. Nothing created can create another. Thus it is those who are Sprung from the Earth, that are the BODY of Christ. The manifestation of God on earth is in the form of a Black person. Yashaya was an initiate of the ancient mysteries of Egypt (Osirian mysteries). These mysteries were originally honed by a most ancient ‘Chaldean’ brotherhood that goes all the way back to cavemen era in Igbo land, from there to Atlantis and then to Sumer and Egypt, all of who spoke the original IGBO language of the cavemen. Every mystery tht Yashaya taught and espoused is at home in Igboland – ALL without exception (as demonstrated in my new book – EDEN IN SUMER ON THE NIGER). He was a member of a sacred priesthood that we called Adama (and later ERI/Nri). It was this Great White Brotherhood that visited him in the manger and was there in the grave when he resurrected. Infact the Aramaic word for “Resurrect” is the Igbo word for “Resuscitate”. It proves tht Yashaya was resuscitated by a third party who spoke in Igbo language. The word in question is JUTE. In Post-Deluge times this Great White Brotherhood (Igbo/Yoruba/Benin priests always dress in white) was headed by the being called Eri/Obatala in Yoruba/Osiris and Thoth-Hermes in Egypt, whom the Bible calls Melchizedek. (In Igboland he was called ERI BU MMUO – meaning ‘Eri is a spirit Being’). This Eri or Melchizedek, who landed in Igboland from the sunken civilization of Atlantis by 11,000 BC, in a celestial Ark after the Deluge, was the person who latter incarnated in Palestine as Yashaya. His mark when he appears to anyone in the spirit, (even as Obatala among the Yoruba) is that he is always in WHITE, old and with long V-shaped white beard. The Cabbala calls him the Ancient of Days. He is the head of the Great WHITE Brotherhood! Yoruba scholars have figured it all out tht Obatala/Orunmila (Eri) was the incarnation of the Son of God on earth. Ifa mythology calls him co-Creator with God, the Son who sits at the right hand of God… They call him OBA IGBO – ‘King of Igbos’!!!! Hebrews were native Nigerians. Genesis, Exodus and Kings were events that happened in ancient Niger-Congo. None of those events of the Biblical Books of the Old Testament took place in Palestine, neither was Solomon’s Temple built there, wch is why it has never been found. The British Christians have intense knowledge of who the Igbos were before they arrived here. They know that God, Heaven and the angels live in Igboland and that God’s most sacred name is IGBO. They know it because they used mystical powers from their secret societies and Cabbala wch they stole from Jerusalem during the Crusade to know us. Their intention of coming here was to derail us with lies, steal our powers from us and prevent us from bringing peace to the world with the great God Chukwu who is our Father. Who then is the devil? They achieved the derailing of Igbo consciousness by telling us that the warrior aspect of Chukwu is the devil. As a result, we now use our own mouths to curse the same Chukwu Abiama tht we are asking for help. This is how the cunnying British made us destroy ourselves and our world (just as Achebe said). They did the same thing to Yorubas. They chose the (same) dwarf god Eshu (Eshi) who wears the Igbo Okpuagu tht Igbo dwarves wear, as the Devil. Why must it be the Eshi tht they call Satan? The answer is tht the white race are descended from the Annunaki while the Blacks are from the Eshi dwarfs, whose genealogical name is IGBO – the first people who were on earth before (Homo Sapiens) Adam was created 200,000 years ago (according to Mt.DNA research). The recent discovery of Y-Chromosome of a South Carolina African American from the South-East Nigeria/Niger Congo area, whose genes date beyond 300,000 years (and was described by geneticists as “older than Adam”), proves my thesis that IGBOs lived before Adam. Now it is this ESHI/NSHI seed (our divine DNA) that the British are targeting to put down and put out, by tricking us into demonizing it, thus turning our own SPIRIT against us and vice versa. They promptly changed the image of God, Yashaya, (the incarnation Melu-chi-eze-dikia), Mary (Idemili) and Micha-El (Mma ike Ele – the Warrior), Gabri-El (Gabara Ele Ozi – the Messenger), Uri-El (Uri-Ele – the Writer of sacred texts, for Uri means Uli) from black to white. In Sumerian language, ESH means “Lord of Mankind”. That is wht IGBO means. ELE is the that Group Soul of the IGBO cavemen – the ESHI/NSHI GOD, who we also call CHUKWU ABIAMA. He is a cave-dwelling God. Ekwensu (Ekwe-Nshi -‘War Drum of the Eshi) is his defensive aspect. You now know why we lost a just war!!! We were praying to the same god our opressors were praying to, without knowing that the foreign religions and their gods are set against us. We are the main targets of these religions of the Nephilim/Annunaki with white supremacist ideologies, for IGBO means IDU, and both words mean “The Mysterious Incomprehensible Black One”! Ndi Igbo matanu onwe unu. He who doesn’t know where the rain started beating him…..” Source, Prof. Catherine Acholonu (R.I.P.)… So, what is Christianity, or other religion`s/believe – system`s???
SLAVERY IN JAMAICA
A list of missing slaves below.
THE SLAVE TRADE AND PLANTATION ECONOMY
The English encouraged permanent settlement through generous land grants. In 1664 Sir Thomas Modyford, a sugar plantation and slave owner in Barbados (a Caribbean island of the Lesser Antilles chain), was appointed governor of Jamaica. He brought 1,000 English settlers and black slaves with him from Barbados. Modyford immediately encouraged plantation agriculture, especially the cultivation of cacao and sugarcane. By the early 1700s sugar estates worked by black slaves were established throughout the island, and sugar and its by-products dominated the economy. Other economic activities, including livestock rearing and the cultivation of coffee and pimento (allspice), developed as well.
With the establishment of the plantation system, the slave trade grew. Slaves of both genders and every age were found in all facets of the island’s economy, in both rural and urban areas. They were laborers on plantations, domestic servants, and skilled artisans (tradesmen, technicians, and itinerant traders). The wealth created in Jamaica by the labor of black slaves has been estimated at £18,000,000, more than half of the estimated total of £30,000,000 for the entire British West Indies. It has been postulated that the profit generated by the ‘triangular trade’ (involving sugar and tropical produce from the British Caribbean colonies, the trade in manufactured goods for slaves in Africa, and the trade of slaves in the British Caribbean) financed the Industrial Revolution in Britain.
More than 1 million slaves are estimated to have been transported directly from Africa to Jamaica during the period of slavery; of these, 200,000 were reexported to other places in the Americas. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Akan, Ga, and Adangbe from the northwestern coastal region known as the Gold Coast (around modern Ghana) dominated the slave trade to the island. Not until 1776 did slaves imported from other parts of Africa-Igbos from the Bight of Biafra (southern modern Nigeria) and Kongos from Central Africa-outnumber slaves from the Gold Coast. But slaves from these regions represented 46 percent of the total number of slaves. The demand for slaves required about 10,000 to be imported annually. Thus slaves born in Africa far outnumbered those who were born in Jamaica; on average they constituted more than 80 percent of the slave population until Britain abolished the slave trade in 1807. When Britain abolished the institution of slavery in 1834, Jamaica had a population of more than 311,000 slaves and only about 16,700 whites.
By the mid-1700s planters were distributing small plots of marginal land to their slaves, both men and women, as a way to offset the cost of providing food. However, the slaves were expected to tend their own crops only during their limited free time. Although slaves were not allotted much time to work the plots, they were able to produce enough not only for their own subsistence but also for sale. A vibrant marketing network developed among the slaves throughout the island, creating what is referred to as a proto-peasantry.
In the British mind, slaves were no more than property and merchandise to be bought and sold. On this premise, the British enacted a whole system of slave laws aimed primarily at policing slaves. In general, the premise that slaves were no more than property allowed slave owners to treat them brutally. The severity of this brutality varied. Slaves on large sugar estates generally suffered the harshest punishments, while those on smaller estates and in towns received somewhat better treatment.
FREE COLOURED COMMUNITY
White men on the island often had relations with black women (slaves or free), giving rise to a coloured population. (‘Coloured’ is a term in the former British colonies for people of mixed European and African descent.) Children of free women were born free, but those of slave women were born enslaved. Some coloureds who were born as slaves were freed through manumission (the formal release of a slave) by their fathers. Masters at times also manumitted black slaves for various reasons, such as in reward for a lifetime of servitude. Free coloureds formed a middle group on the social ladder, between blacks and whites. They disassociated themselves from the slaves but were not accepted by the whites. The number of free people of color (including free blacks and free coloureds) increased significantly between 1722 and 1830, from 800 individuals to 44,000. Free coloureds were principally urban dwellers, participating in several phases of economic life. They were artisans, merchants, mechanics, and professionals-lawyers, schoolteachers, and journalists. A few inherited plantations from their fathers. Free coloured women excelled as traders, shopkeepers, innkeepers, and housekeepers. Many free coloureds were well educated, as education was valued as the vehicle for upward social mobility and ‘acceptance’ by whites. Many coloureds attended universities in Britain, and their children outnumbered whites at the Wolmers Free School in Kingston, which was established for the white population in the 1700s. In 1837 there were 430 children of free coloureds attending this school, out of a student body of 500.
Despite their numbers and the education and wealth some obtained, free coloureds had no civil rights. Therefore they were caught up in a continuous struggle for equal rights. They protested primarily through petitions and memorials rather than open violent conflicts. In 1813 a petition, signed by more than 2,400 free coloureds, demanding rights to give evidence in court was delivered to the House of Assembly, which acceded. In 1816 free coloureds petitioned for full political and civil rights on the grounds that they were taxpayers but were not represented. They threatened to cease paying taxes until they were granted these rights. Under pressure from free coloureds, the local authorities gradually removed legal restrictions, culminating on December 21, 1830, with the Act for the Removal of All Disabilities of Persons of Free Condition.
Since their arrival on the island, blacks had resisted their enslavement. They engaged in what is referred to as atomized forms of resistance, such as foot dragging (work slowdowns, or ‘go-slows’), destruction of property, theft, absenteeism from work, and the covert murder of whites. But resistance also took the forms of large-scale rebellions and establishment of maroon communities.
Maroonage, or the establishment of communities by runaway slaves, began with the slaves imported by Spain and continued throughout the period of slavery in Jamaica. The maroon communities waged relentless warfare against British colonialism. Beginning in the 18th century, two distinct groups of maroon communities emerged: the so-called Leeward Maroons in the south central, or leeward, part of the island and the so-called Windward Maroons in the north and northeast. The Leeward Maroons had an elected chief, and the villagers were divided into politico-military units. Their system was stratified based on ability, especially military ability, and a careful division of labor. Some were proficient in attacking plantations to steal provisions and free slaves, especially female slaves because men outnumbered women in the maroon communities. Others were hunters, hunting wild hogs; others made salt, necessary for meat preservation; and others cleared the ground for the women to plant crops, such as plantains, sweet corn, bananas, cacao, pineapples, cassava, and sugarcane.
The Windward Maroons did not have a central leader as did the Leeward. They developed a somewhat loose federation of communities or quasi-autonomous villages under different leadership, having a politico-military structure that made for democratic inter- and intra-group relationships. Nanny Town (named after its legendary leader, Nanny; now known as Mooretown), which was situated deep in the Blue Mountains, was reputed to have the greatest warriors among the Windward Maroons, numbering 300 in their ranks. Both the Leeward chief, Cudjoe, and Nanny were notorious for their continued and relentless attack on British colonization and slavery. Nanny fought uncompromisingly against slavery. In addition to being a feared warrior, she was said to be an obeah woman, possessing supernatural powers that she allegedly used in repelling and defeating British attacks.
For reasons of security, maroon villages were located in the relatively inaccessible mountains, giving them a commanding view of the lowlands. Guards were posted at the entrance to watch and alert communities at the approach of the British by blowing the abeng, the conch shell or cow horn, as was the practice in parts of West Africa.
The boldness of the maroons, their prowess in guerrilla warfare, and their knowledge of the terrain made them a serious threat to English colonization, the plantation economy, and slavery itself. They plundered and burned plantations, captured slaves, took arms and ammunition, and killed English soldiers who ventured into the interior. Their continued successes against English forces inspired slaves, many of whom escaped the plantations to join maroon communities or to establish new ones. The maroons were such a formidable force that the English were unable to subjugate them after 85 years of intense, bitter struggle. The English conceded defeat in 1739, ending the First Maroon War. In the peace treaties, the maroons won their independence and freedom. They were granted semiautonomous government status and land in return for halting all hostilities against whites, obligating themselves to assist in case of foreign invasion, destroying any new maroon communities, and capturing and returning future runaways. Thus, on the fringes of the slave-plantation economy established by Europeans, semiautonomous communities of free blacks developed, with their own economy and culture partially based on African traditions.
An uneasy peace prevailed until July 1795, when 580 maroons from the maroon community of Trelawny Town revolted against indignities and injustice meted out to them by the authorities. It took considerable force to suppress the revolt, known as the Second Maroon War. The British forces consisted of 1,500 soldiers supported by several thousand militiamen and 100 fierce bloodhounds imported from Cuba in December of that year. In June 1796 the government deported 568 maroons (including men, women, and children) from Trelawny Town and confiscated their land. They sent the maroons first to Nova Scotia, in what later became Canada, and subsequently to Sierra Leone. This deportation effectively deterred further maroon hostilities. Fearing deportation, they collaborated fully with the authorities, especially in suppressing slave revolts. The action of the maroons in suppressing the Morant Bay Rebellion in 1865 testifies to their full cooperation with the government. The treaties successfully reduced maroonage and the formation of new maroon communities, but some of the maroon communities that were already established have survived to this day. The surviving maroon communities are Nanny Town; Scott’s Hall in the present-day northern parish of Saint Mary; and Accompong (named for Cudjoe’s brother, who had distinguished himself as a military leader with the Windward Maroons) in the southwestern parish of Saint Elizabeth. However, the retention of African cultural and political practices within these communities varies.
Ethnicity was prominent in the organization and execution of slave revolts in Jamaica, especially those during the 17th and 18th centuries. Akan slaves were involved in most revolts. In 1673 about 300 Akan slaves revolted in the north central parish of Saint Ann. In 1690 another Akan rebellion involving 400 slaves broke out on Suttons Estate in the south central parish of Clarendon. After setting the plantation on fire the rebels fled to the hilly interior, from where they conducted continuous raids on nearby plantations. In 1745 Akan slaves revolted in the southeastern parish of Saint Thomas.
In 1760 a slave by the name of Tacky, an Akan who had been a chief in Africa, led the most widespread slave revolt in Jamaica’s history. Beginning in the northeastern parish of Saint Mary, it soon spread to a number of parishes, including Westmoreland, Saint James, and Clarendon, and to the capital of Kingston. The rebels, inspired by the victory of the maroons in winning their liberty, fought in the same manner in an effort to win their freedom. It took the authorities six months to suppress Tacky’s revolt, and by then the rebels had killed 60 whites. Tacky was shot dead by a maroon, and the authorities executed nearly 400 slaves. Other revolts broke out in 1761, 1765, and 1766, but they were quickly crushed by the authorities with the aid of maroons.
The most violent slave revolt of the 19th century was the Baptist War, also known as the Christmas Rebellion, in 1831. Led by Samuel Sharpe, a Baptist deacon and domestic slave, the revolt began in Saint James and soon engulfed much of western Jamaica. In its suppression, more than 430 blacks, including Sharpe, were executed. All who were thought to have been associated with the revolt, including white missionaries, were either imprisoned or killed. This revolt was a decisive factor in the British move toward emancipation, in addition to intensified antislavery agitation by the Quakers (Society of Friends) in Britain, led by Thomas Buxton, Thomas Clarkson, William Wilberforce, and Stephen Lushington.
If you are tracing your slave ancestor from West Africa and the Carribean or America it is a good idea to include the family connections from those countries mentioned as people from Jamaica often migrated after slavery to America and the other Surrounding islands.
You can use this list along with consensus records and information available online to establish connections. Jamaica Runaway Slaves: 19th Century
The Fante tribe
The Jews of Africa
By the 9th century AD a string of dynastic states, including the earliest Hausa states, stretched across the sub-saharan savannah from the western coast to central Sudan. The most powerful of these states were Ghana, Gao, and the Kanem-Bornu Empire. Ghana declined in the 11th century but was succeeded by the Mali Empire which consolidated much of western Sudan in the 13th century. Kanem accepted Islam in the 11th century. Islam then spread through the interior of West Africa, as the religion of the mansas of the Mali Empire (c. 1235–1400). Following the fabled 1324 hajj of Kankan Musa I,Timbuktu became renowned as a centre of Islamic scholarship and as the location of sub-Saharan Africa’s first university. That city had been reached in 1352 by the great Arab traveler Ibn Battuta, whose journey to Mombasa and Quiloa (Kilwa) provided the first accurate knowledge of those flourishing Muslim cities of the Swahili on the east African seaboards.
Following the breakup of Mali a local leader named Sonni Ali (1464 -1492) founded the Songhai Empire in the region of middle Niger and the western Sudan and took control of the trans-Saharan trade. Sonni Ali seized Timbuktu in 1468 andJenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His successor Askiya Mohammad Ture (1493 – 1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (d.1504), the founder of an important tradition of Sudanic African Muslim scholarship, to Gao. By the 11th century some Hausa states – such as Kano, jigawa,Katsina, and Gobir – had developed into walled towns engaging in trade, servicingcaravans, and the manufacture of goods. Until the 15th century these small states were on the periphery of the major Sudanic empires of the era, paying tribute to Songhai to the west and Kanem-Borno to the east.
Arab progress southward was stopped by the broad belt of dense forest, stretching almost across the continent somewhat south of 10° North latitude, which barred their advance much as the Sahara had proved an obstacle to their predecessors. The rain forest cut them off from knowledge of the Guinea coast and of all Africa beyond. One of the regions which was the last to come under Arab rule was that of Nubia, which had been controlled by Christians up to the 14th century.
The Hausa-Fulani, are a great model of an ethnic group fusion, as they are actually made up of two groups, not surprisingly called the Hausa and the Fulani.
The Hausa are themselves a fusion, a collection of West-African peoples that were assimilated, long ago, into the population inhabiting what is now considered Hausaland. Once they arrived in Hausaland they became known for setting up seven small states centered around Birni, or walled cities. In these states the Hausa developed techniques of efficient government, including a carefully organized fiscal system and a highly learned judiciary, which gave them a reputation of integrity and ability in administering Islamic law.
The Fulani are also Muslims, and, like the Hausa.
Fulve pastoralists, known in Nigeria as Fulani, began to enter the Hausa country in the thirteenth century, and by the fifteenth century they were tending cattle, sheep, and goats in Borno as well. The Fulani came from the Senegal River valley, where their ancestors had developed a method of livestock management and specialization based on transhumance. The movement of cattle along north/south corridors in pursuit of grazing and water followed the climatic pattern of the rainy and dry seasons. Gradually, the pastoralists moved eastward, first into the centers of the Mali and Songhai empires and eventually into Hausaland and Borno. Some Fulve converted to Islam in the Senegal region as early as the eleventh century, and one group of Muslim Fulani settled in the cities and mingled freely with the Hausa, from whom they became racially indistinguishable.
A turning point in Nigerian history came in 1804 when a Fulani preacher, Othman dan Fodio, began a holy war that resulted in the subjugation of the old Hausa city states of northernNigeria. Having conquered the Hausa, the Fulani adopted their language and merged with their ruling classes to create a Hausa-Fulani ethnic group under the rule of what was now the Sokoto Caliphate.
They have intermarried with the Hausa, and have mostly adopted the latter’s customs and language, although some Fulani decided to stay pure by retaining a nomadic life.
The Hausa-Fulani ruling coalition is still dominant in northern Nigeria. This coalition had its beginnings much earlier, because the Fulani governed by simply assuming the highest hereditary positions in the well-organized Hausa political system. Many of the ruling Fulani have become culturally and linguistically Hausa.
At the top of the political hierarchy the Fulani are organized into states, or emirates, ruled by the emir. Emirs are selected from the ruling lineages by a council of clerics (Mallamai). After British intervention, the selection of an emir had to be approved by the British government. Emirs have the ultimate power in administrative and judicial functions of the state, and delegate lesser officials to carry out these functions. Emirs had somewhat more power in the past than they do today.
The purely Fulani-speaking groups are made up of the Muslim population of Northern Nigeriaand the adjacent areas of Niger, which have traditionally been organized into large, centralized states. Fulani of Nigeria speak a number of dialects, they can be grouped into four basic language groups:
Adamawa ( on the east of Nigeria, extending into Cameroon ),
Sokoto (most of whom speak Hausa, in the northern part of Nigeria, extending into Niger), Sokoto (was once a major Fulve geo-political state, a center for famous Pullo (singular for Fulve) Usman dan Fodio ) Now the Fulve of the Sokoto area speak mostly Hausa
Borgu: on Nageria western border, spilling over from Benin and Togo.
North Central Nigerian Fulani, with estimate population figures of 12-15 million, have many names and variations in speech, but basically the Kano-Katsina, Mbororo, Western Fulani, Bauchi Fulani, Toroove, etc. speak dialects closely related to each other, readily understood by other Fulani people of the region.
The modern Fulani of Nigeria are mainly concentrated in the provinces
of Kano, Katsina, Sokoto, and Zaria
See this below link for more on Hausa Fulani and their history
Joel 3:6 The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border.
See this documentary on The black Pharaohs of Egypt and Kush https://youtu.be/iN3690N6UTY
Semitic languages spoken in Africa
Extract below added and link to original post as my research is also leading to this conclusion.
CATHERINE ACHOLONU’S APPRAISAL OF THE RESEARCH
of Dr. BARRY FELL & EDO NYLAND
“All the words that researchers Edo Nyland and Dr. Barry Fell transcribed were Igbo words, which I could easily read and translate. When I told Nyland that I had translated the words he transcribed from Ogam stones he did not believe me at first. When Hugo Kennes found my work on the Internet and started informing all the Ogam researchers he knew including Nyland, Nyland asked him to get an Igbo dictionary from me. After a meeting with Pellech in Belgium, she convinced me to write further details for her site, and that led to my doing the Igbo Ogam VCV Dictionary.” [Please also see New York Times article].
“Nyland’s use of the word Saharan might not be too far off the mark. However, he did not check West Africa, which has language links with North Africa because the direction of migrations from the Niger has been both northward and southward through the Ages. For example the Berber etymology of ‘Barbarian‘ is related to Igbo in the sense that (according to Herodotus) the word means ‘stranger’. Igbo
word for “Stranger” is “Obiarabia.”
“My thesis is that Egypt was the main outpost from where West African Kwa (Kwush/Kush) culture was exported to the rest of the world. Igbo is the Mega-Kwa language – the Kushite mother-language. Kush is the major bearer of this civilization. Ethiopia was not just an East Africa location, but lay West too. According to Homer, it was in Sunset Ethiopia that the Gods congregated, and the people were called “the Blameless Ethiopians in whose land the gods held banquets”. We have discovered the lost city of this Pre-historic Civilization, with its array of beautiful bronze and pottery works lost to living memory and posing an Enigma to African and World History.”
“My analyses of the early archaeology of Sumer and of the Akkadian/Sumerian/Canaanite (Semitic) languages shows that all of them without exception were children of the Igbo language and that the earliest inhabitants of Sumer had Igbo lifestyles in religion, architecture, clothing, etc., even in the recipe for soap-making (wood-ash/potash boiled in oil).”
“Igbo is in the family of Niger-Congo languages called Kwa by European linguists, which includes many Nigerian and West African languages like Ashanti, Akan, Yoruba and Benin (Edo). Igbo, I find to be closest to the original mother of that language family. In fact my finding is that in order to not let the Igbo know that it was their language that birthed the others, the linguists invented the word Kwa, which was originated from Akwa Nshi (Igbo for ‘First People’, also the local name of the Nigerian monoliths that represent First People on the planet). This word was used also by the ancient Egyptians to describe the West African, in fact Igbo-speaking, Sea People (Kwush, see Martin Bernal – Black Athena ) who brought civilization to the Aegean and the Levant during the Hyksos (which means ‘Kwush’) Exodus. Kwush, also pronounced Kush means in Semitic and in Igbo ‘People of the Esh/Eshi’. Eshi are the so-called ‘Blameless Ethiopians’ of Homer. In Sumer and in Igbo, the word meant ‘Righteous/Sons of God/Descendants of the Adama (see The Nag Hammadi Scriptures and the Torah). Adam was Adama before the Fall. After he fell he became Adam, a word, which in Igbo means ‘I have Fallen’. Today in Igbo land we still have the descendants of the Immortal First People. They have never ceased to go by Adam’s original name – ‘Adama’. They are the Land Chiefs in Igbo land.”
“The Sea People were related to the Hebrews. They all spoke Semitic languages. They were the founders of Greece, Crete, Troy, and Rome. They were the Carians, Danaans, Acheans, and Myceneans, not excluding the Hittites. The writing systems they gave to Crete and early Middle East have been mostly found on the Igbo Ukwu excavated artifacts (see The Lost Testament), while the surviving words from their period had many Igbo cognates. Their exodus began in Egypt, remember? And Egypt, according to our findings was an outpost of an originally West African civilization in the time of Osiris (10,000 B.C.), whose Nigerian equivalent bore the Ogam scarifications on his face as his personal signature. We have found many hieroglyphs and pyramid symbols of Egypt on body adornments of ancient Nigerian gods and monuments.”
“Ogam was a writing system, not a language. Ancient Africans had other writing forms, too. Egyptian hieroglyphics was not a language; it was a writing system that could only be read correctly and meaningfully if you know the language. In this case, Igbo, the original Kwa.”
– – – – – – – – – – –
The 2013 book Acholonu, Catherine Oianuju & Sidney Louis Davis, Jr. 2013. Eden in Sumer on the Niger– Archeological, Linguistic and Gnetic Evidence of 450,000 years of Atlantis, Eden and Sumer in West Africa. (A sequel to “The Gram Code of African Adam“, “They lived Before Adam” & “The Lost Testament of The Ancestors of Adam“). [provides archeological, linguistic, genetic and recorded evidence of the West African origin of mankind, language, religion, culture and civilization. It also gives multidisciplinary evidence of the actual geographical locations in West Africa of the Garden of Eden, Atlantis, and the original homeland of the Sumerian people before their migration to the Middle East.
By translating the hitherto unknown pre-cuneiform inscriptions of the Sumerians, the layers of thousands of years of Africa’s lost pre-history have been brought to the fore. The identity is revealed of the West African villages, tribes and clans that supplied the Pharaohs of Egypt, and African faces are placed on the African kings of Sumer’s Akkad, Ur, Uruk, Mesopotamia, even the Indus Valley- all products of the original African home of the Sumerians.
Also identified are that the Sahara, the most extensive desert in the world, was the location of the lost nation of Atlantis, which was destroyed in 11,000 BC. Details are given of Magan and Meluhha, the most famous port cities of Sumer, before they were destroyed circa 2,000 BC by “The Seven Awesome Weapons” of the Annunaki.
Answers are given to the all lingering questions about the African cavemen (Igbos/Esh/Adamas/Adites) who gave the world civilization and donated their genes for the creation of the Homo sapiens Adam and were the teachers and guardians of the entire human race.
The Saharan Language
An ancient “Saharan Language“, which was preceded many thousands of years by the Igbo Language of West Africa, is believed to have been used by linguists to invent “Indo-European” and Semitic languages, including Ainu, Dutch, Egyptian, Engish, Eskimo, German, Greek, Hebrew, Latin, Sanskrit, Slavic group, Spanish, Yiddish, etc. (Nyland 2001). T This was done with the use of different formulaic manipulations of the Saharan vocabulary, creating largely invented (non-genetic) language “families”. Nyland has now proposed several hypotheses and a theory on the origin of these languages (see Theory). However, recent studies byCatherine Acholonu of Nigeria have revealed a precursor to “Saharan” that was developed in very ancient times by the Igbo people of West Africa. In Genesis 11:1 this language is said to be spoken in the whole world, and therefore should be called the Universal Language, which had been the language of the first civilization on earth, located in Africa and the Near East. Indeed it may have been developed by the Igbo of West Africa (see (see Catherine Acholonu). Forms of the languare are still spoken by the Dravidians of India, the Basques of Euskadi and the Ainu of Japan. In Genesis 11:7 we are told: “Come, let us confuse their language that they may no longer understand one another’s speech”. The clergy of both Judaism and Christianity considered this a biblical command and have spent an enormous, and long sustained effort to enforce this belief. The formula used by them in most of the artificiallyconstructed vocabularies is called the “vowel-interlocking” or “VCV formula“. Because the Basque language is the closest to the ancient Saharan language and has the best English dictionary, this will be called Basque from now on. In most cases, the first 2nd, 3rd or 4th letters of each Basque word were agglutinated into a new word (agglutinate = to unite or combine into a group) . After this was done, some or many of the vowels and h’s were removed according to a plan to give the new words special characteristics. In Hebrew most, if not all, of the vowels were removed for writing, but not for speaking. For example, Talmud, was spelled ‘lmd’ but pronounced ‘tal-mud’, from Basque tala – mudapen, watch out – alteration: “Watch out for alteration”, which is basic to an oral law.
It is the task of the linguistic archaeologist to look at languages before the invention of writing, to search the very roots of such languages; the subject could also be called pre-historical linguistics but that name would still be part of the fortress called linguistics. To make this process at least plausible, other disciplines such as religion, mythology, archaeology and historical linguistics must be included, while earlier research and hypotheses in this field should be carefully re-examined.
Many languages, including such early languages as Hebrew and Sanskrit, were created by formulaic manipulation of Basque vocabulary. However, the name Basque, or more accurately Bask because there is no Q in the language, did not exist at the time this language invention was done. There must have been an earlier form of this language available to the linguists doing this manipulation. But where did it come from and what was it like?
The research done by Dr. N. Lahovary and published in his book “Dravidian Origins and the West” shows conclusively that Basque and the old Dravidian languages of India are closely related. Nyland’s research into the Ainu language of Japan shows the same. The Ainu are thought to have been isolated in the Far East for as long as 8,000 years, yet they retain an early, non-agglutinated, form of Saharan, thus the original language must have been very old. These startling finds seem to indicates that the precursor of the Basque language was spoken very early in Europe, Africa and Asia, just like Genesis 11:1 tells us: “Now the whole world spoke one language”. Nyland suggested that the forerunner of the Basque, Dravidian and Ainu languages was the Saharan language and that the language spoken in the beautifully painted cathedral caves in southern France and northern Spain was an early form of the same. However, this early form of the language cannot have been the one used by the early religious scholars doing the inventing of new languages such as Sanskrit. They used a later, manipulated, form that was constructed with agglutination. It employed the vowel-consonant-vowel interlocking principle.
That many words in the Saharan/Basque vocabulary are artificially assembled is obvious from words like alkar, meaning mutual. It comes from three Basque roots: al-ka-ar:
The Basque word zahar means old, and the name Sahara could therefore be interpreted as “the old country”, but the Basque ‘z’ and the ‘s’, which is pronounced as ‘sh’, are quite different letters so zahar may not be the origin of the name Sahara. However, there appears to be another meaning embedded in “Sahara”. It is analyzed as:
esa – aha – ara
esan – ahalguzti – aratz
to say/speak – Almighty – pure/refined
“The speech of the Almighty is refined”
Could this interpretation of the name mean that the original language had been refined or developed by early linguists? The logical and highly organized structure of the Basque language surely seems to support this possibility. The name used by the Basques for their own language is “Euskera”, analyzed as:
eu – us. – .ke – era
eu – usa – ake – era
euki – usaiako – akela – erabildura
to retain/preserve – usual/traditional – goddess – usage/speech
“We preserve the traditional speech of the Goddess”.
In order to bury the true meaning of the word, the Roman Catholic church changed the quite obvious ‘.ke’ for ‘ake’ to ‘.ka’ so that now we have both Euskera and Euskara in the dictionary. De Basaldua (1925) called his native language “Eskera” and explained the meaning as esk (hand) and the ending era as form, wave, grace, beautiful, good, and he pulled these words together to mean “way to move the hand; wave with grace” which, he said, was also called ‘ademan’ in Spanish, meaning gesture (see p. 55). This meaning is difficult to accept because it appears to have little bearing on the language. Instead, we are apparently dealing here with words belonging to the first civilization on earth. This civilization had evolved so greatly that the substratum language was no longer adequate to describe their achievements in astronomy, mathematics, acoustics, navigation, religion etc. Therefore, a system had to be found to expand the language. The VCV vowel-interlocking structure was the result of their search for a practical expressive language.
There seems little doubt that the Basque language is a direct descendant of this original Saharan language and that this language has not changed very much for several millennia, probably because of the extremely careful oral transmission traditions used in their educational system, passing the language on from generation to generation without changes.