Crowning of the King of Whydah, by Jacob van der Schley (1715-1779)
The Kingdom of Whydah/ˈhwɪdə/ was a kingdom on the coast of West Africa in the boundaries of the modern nation of Benin. Between 1677 and 1681 it was conquered by the Akwamu, one of the Akan people. It was a major slave trading post. In 1700, it had a coastline of around 16 kilometres (10 mi);under King Haffon, this was expanded to 64 km (40 mi), and stretching 40 km (25 mi) inland.
The Kingdom of Whydah was centered in Savi. The last ruler of Whydah was King Haffon, who was deposed in 1727, when Whydah was conquered (and annexed) by the Kingdom of Dahomey.
The name Whydah (also spelt Hueda, Whidah or Whidaw) is an anglicised form of Xwéda(pronounced o-wi-dah), from the Yoruba language of Benin. Today the port city of Ouidah, in the far west of the former Popo Kingdom where most of the Europeanslave traders lived and worked, bears the kingdom’s name.
According to one European account visiting in 1692–1700, Whydah exported some thousand slaves a month, mainly from the interior of Africa. For this reason, it has been considered a “principal market” for human beings. When the king could not supply the European traders with sufficient slaves, he would supplement them with his own wives. Robbery was common. Every thing in Whydah paid a toll to the king, but corruption amongst collectors was endemic. Despite this, the king was wealthy, and clothed in gold and silver—goods of which little was known in Whydah. He commanded great respect, and, unusually, was never seen to eat. The color red was reserved for the royal family.
The king was considered immortal, despite successive kings dying of natural causes. Interregna, even of only a few days, were met by plundering and anarchy. Wives were isolated and protected by their husbands; fathers with more than two hundred children had been recorded. Three public objects were the subject of devotion: some lofty trees, the sea, and a type of snake. This snake was the subject of many stories and incidents; worshipped perhaps because it ate the rats who would otherwise ruin the harvest.Priests and priestesses were held in high regard, and immune from capital punishment. The king could field 200,000 men, but these were “so weak and cowardly” that they could easily be defeated. In comparison, other estimates range upward from twenty thousand, although contemporary interpretation is generally that these armies were of “overwhelming size”. Battles were normally won by strength of numbers alone, with the weaker side fleeing.
With King Haffon’s rise to power in 1708, European trade companies had established a significant presence in Whydah and were in constant competition to win to King’s favor. The French Company of the Indies presented Haffon with two ships worth of cargo and an extravagant Louis XIV-style throne while the British Royal African Company gifted a crown for the newly appointed King. Such practices illustrate the high level of dependence European traders had on native African powers in the beginning of the 18th century and also the close relationship that emerged between the two entities. This association is further reiterated by the fact that Dutch, British, French, and Portuguese trading company compounds all bordered the walls of Haffon’s royal palace in the city of Savi. These compounds served as important centers of diplomatic and commercial exchange between European companies and the Kingdom of Whydah.
While company compounds facilitated the interaction between European traders and native Africans, the true center of European operations in Whydah were the various forts that existed along the coast near the town of Glewe. Owned by the Portuguese Crown, the French Company of the Indies, and the British Royal African Company, the forts were mainly used to store slaves and trading merchandise. Made up of mud walls, the forts provided tolerable protection for the Europeans but were not strong enough to withstand a legitimate attack from the natives. Furthermore, because the forts were located more than three miles inland, cannons could not effectively protect European ships in the harbor and anchored ships could not come to the aid of the forts in times of need. In this sense, while the forts showcased some degree of European influence, the reality was that the Europeans relied heavily on the king for protection and local natives for sustenance and firewood. This relationship would take a drastic turn with the decline of royal authority and increase of internal power struggles throughout the 18th and 19th centuries that gave way to French colonization of the region in 1872. 
In 1727, Whydah was conquered by King Agaja of the Kingdom of Dahomey. This incorporation of Whydah into Dahomey transformed the latter into a significant regional power. However, constant warfare with the Oyo Empire from 1728 to 1740 resulted in Dahomey becoming a tributary state of the Oyo.
Ouidah/ˈwiːdə/, historically called also Whydah/ˈhwaɪdə/, Juda,Juida by the French and Ajudá by the Portuguese, formally the Kingdom of Whydah (so named for the Whydah Bird of Paradise), is a city on the coast of the Republic of Benin. The commune covers an area of 364 km2 (141 sq mi) and as of 2002 had a population of 76,555 people.
The kingdom of Juda use to appear on the West African map
Guinea, the forest and coastal areas of western Africa between the tropic of Cancer and the equator. Derived from the Berber word aguinaw, or gnawa, meaning “black man” (henceakal n-iguinamen, or “land of the black men”), the term was first adopted by the Portuguese and, in forms such as Guinuia, Ginya, Gheneoa, and Ghinea, appears on European maps from the 14th century onward.
The Jewish presence in Africa began to expand significantly in the second and third centuries of the Christian era, extending not only into the Sahara desert, but also reaching down along the West African coast, and possibly also to some Bantu tribes of Southern Africa (where some 40,000 members of the Lemba tribe still claim Jewish roots). The names of old Jewish communities south of the Atlas mountains, many of which existed well into Renaissance times, can be found in documents in synagogue archives in Cairo.
In addition, Jewish, Arab and Christian accounts cite the existence of Jewish rulers of certain tribal groups and clans identifying themselves as Jewish scattered throughout Mauritania, Senegal, the Western Sudan, Nigeria, and Ghana. Among notable Arab historians referring to their existence are Ibn Khaldun, who lived in the 13th century, a respected authority on Berber history; the famous geographer al-Idrisi, born in Ceuta, Spain in the 12th century, who wrote about Jewish Negroes in the western Sudan; and the 16th century historian and traveler Leon Africanus, a Moslem from Spain who was raised by a Jewish woman working in his familyâ€™s household, who is said to have taught him Hebrew and emigrated with the family to Morocco in 1492. Leon Africanus later converted to Catholicism but remained interested in Jewish communities he encountered throughout his travels in West Africa.
Some ancient African Jewish communities are well known, such those across Mediterranean North Africa as well as some of the Lemba in Ethiopia. Some recent scholarship has claimed Jewish Ancestry for several different groups of the Lemba, even as far further south as Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. These scholars believe that the traditions of people like the Lemba are pre-Second Temple Israelite and have a Southern Arabian (Yemeni) and Ethiopian origin.
Historically several other Jewish groups also existed in the Bilad el-Sudan of West Africa, as well as along the coast and islands of that region. Researchers have claimed the possibility that groups of the Igbo, Ibibio and Annang of South Eastern Nigeria, as well as several clusters in the Cameroon might also have Jewish ancestry. However whether or not this is the case, most of these groups have certainly become non-halachic over the centuries and many are now Christian or Muslim. Even where they have provable Jewish cultural practices, they have often had no access to the Talmud and no knowledge of the later feasts such as Purim and Chanukkah.
Other historical sources recorded Jewish Communities living in the ancient African Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and later Songhay empires for over eight hundred years between 790 and 1600. Some of these Jews had travelled south from Egypt through Chad. Some Jews were forcibly exiled to Africa from Europe, notably from Portugal and Spain. Still others were known to have come to Africa from as far away as Yemen, some originally as war captives.
Some Jewish communities began southward migrations from Morocco (and Egypt) in North Africa, and even from Portugal after Christian persecution of Portuguese Jews. Others were seeking to move away from the increasing Islamic rule in North Africa. Many Jewish groups remained in the Sahara and in Sub-Saharan Africa even after the rise of Islam, in addition to the better known groups in Eastern Central and Southern Africa.
The Bnai Ephraim (“Children of Ephraim”) from Nigeria, live among the Yoruba nationalities. Their oral history tells that the Bnai Ephraim people came from Morocco after the Jews were banished from the Iberian Pennisula sometime after 1492.
They speak a dialect that is a mixture of Moroccan Arabic, Yoruba, and Aramaic. They are known by the Yoruba people as the “Emo Yo Quaim”, or “strange people”. Unlike other African Israelite communities in Nigeria, the Bnai Ephraim have the Torah, portions of which they keep in their sanctuaries.
The name Lagos borne by the former capital of Nigeria is a Portugese/Iberian name meaning the lake. Lagos is an Island carved up by lagoons, swamps and lakes. Its traditional Nigerian name is Eko.
Thousands of black refugee Jews of Iberia re-settled in the environs of Lagos and Porto Novo (as well as in Cape Verde, Guinea Buissa, and in Sao Tome either as slaves or outlaws). Some groups eventually made it deeper inland and became assimilated into one nationality or the other.
Some scholars have located black Jews within the whole Niger River bend; the countries in this territory that have contained Black African Jews include the following: Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Toga, Dahomey, …
The white line is the river Niger. The map shows the mouths of the Niger as it splits in two in Benin. This map which was made in the 17th century shows the British American and Portuguese Colonists situated on the West African coast.
Next door to Dahomey were the Ashanti and Fanti in the Gold Coast Ghana
Western Africa, region of the western African continent comprising the countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. Western Africa is a term used in the Encyclopædia Britannica to designate a geographic region within the continent of Africa. The term West Africa is also often used to refer to this part of the continent. As conventionally understood, however, West Africa is primarily a political and economic designation and comprises all the areas considered here except Cameroon, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, and the Saharan parts of Mali, Mauritania, and Niger.
From the 15th through the 18th century Benin carried on an active trade in ivory, palm oil, and pepper with Portuguese and Dutch traders, for whom it served as a link with tribes in the interior of western Africa. It also profited greatly from the slave trade.
The first rulers listed in Genesis 4-6 lived in the Chad Basin during the late Holocene. This includes Kain, Seth, Enoch and Noah. At that time Lake Chad had an area of close to 200,000 miles. As the climate changed and the water level receded, what was once a single lake became at least three separate lakes: Lake Chad, Lake Bodele and Lake Fitri. The 10,000 year skeletons unearthed by Paul Sereno at Gobero in Niger were buried on the edge of a paleolake on the northwestern rim of the Chad Basin. The Gobero site is the earliest known cemetery in the Sahara and the large lake was likely another part of Lake Mega-Chad.
Noah and the other Chadic rulers of Genesis controlled commerce on the interconnected waters systems. These were their roads by which they conquered other territories and spread their worldview.
The Oldest Known Language
Chadic is one of the best researched branches of the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. According to Genesis, the first rulers: Kain, Seth and Enoch are associated with the region where Chadic is spoken. This includes Chad, Northern Cameroon, Northern Nigeria, and Southeastern Niger in an area around Lake Chad. The area is called Bor’No, which means “Land of Noah.” This is the only region on Earth that has place names reflecting the rulers listed in Genesis 4 and 5.
The name “Borno” is from the name “Bornu” and the name “Bornu” was coined from the word “Bahar-Nuhu”. “Bahar-Nuhu” is a combination of two Arabic words; Bahr (Arabic: بحر) meaning Sea and Nuhu is a name in the holy Quran referring to Prophet Nuhualaihis-salaam (Arabic: نوح ,translit. Nūḥ ) who is also referred to as Noah in the holy Bible (Injila) and the holy Atorah (Old testament). So literally Bahar-Nuhu means the “Sea of Nuhu”. “BAHAR + NUHU” = SEA OF NUHU (SEA OF NOAH)” However the name Bahar –Nuhu transformed over time to become Bornu and later Borno. Bahar-Nuhu => Bornu =>Borno Reason of calling Borno as BaharNuhu:In accordance to the history of Nuhu given in the holy books (Quran, Bible and Torah) that during his lifetime the entire World was once submerged by sea water. Existing archaeological evidences also proved that the entire World (Earth) was once under waterwith no dry spot left. The history also stated that the water disappeared after sometimes probably days, months or years. So after this greatflooding Landsreappeared, mountainswere exposed, Valleys reemerged, rivers and seas came back to live, but land locked Lakes especially the Lake Mega Chad and later Lake Chad referred to as the Bahar-Nuhu remains filled up due to its landlocked low land depression nature withno connectivity to any lower land tributaries like rivers, Seas or Oceans to empty its watersbut the Bahar-Nuhu remains characterized with constant physical shrinking of its surface water since then through direct sinking of the water in to the ground and through Evapo-Transpiration (Water to Air conversion through heat and wind systems). To logically prove this part of history is by observing at the physical geography of the presently shrinking“Bahar-Nuhu” (Lake Chad),which shrank to its present size of just 1,350 km2 (520 mi2) as at 2005 and located at Coordinates 13°0′N 14°0′E, ORIGIN AND MEANING OF BORNO (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320808718_ORIGIN_AND_MEANING_OF_BORNO [accessed Jan 31 2018].
The Kanuri people (Kanouri, Kanowri, also Yerwa and several subgroup names) are an African ethnic group living largely in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon. Those generally termed Kanuri include several subgroups and dialect groups, some of whom feel themselves distinct from the Kanuri. Most trace their origins to ruling lineages of the medieval Kanem-Bornu Empire, its client states or provinces. In contrast to neighboring Toubou or Zaghawa pastoralists, Kanuri groups have traditionally been sedentary, engaging in farming, fishing the Chad Basin, and engaged in trade and salt processing.
The third in order of the children of Midian. (Genesis 25:4)
Some left Zaria/Nok culture areas of Benue Plateau and camped at lgala (1 Chron 3: 22) and ‘Edom’ or ldoma ( Is 63: 1) It was obvious at this stage that the Hebrew Israelites were heading towards the Eastern region…
Benue-Plateau State is a former administrative division of Nigeria.
Jews are made up of the Ancient Southern Kingdom of Israel which was comprised of the Tribes of Judah, Levi and a small portion of Benjamin. They were taken off into Babylonian captivity which eventually ended and some of them decided to stay in Babylon but the majority of them returned to the Land of Israel to rebuild Jerusalem, its walls and the Temple. The descendants of these Jews are who we recognize as the Jewish People today, who now reside on vitually every continent of the world.
Judah and Levi are one of these Tribes that traveled far and wide and can be found wherever Hebrews and or Israelites can be found. It is almost certain Judah can be found among the Igbo People. They likely traveled with Gad’s sons Eri, Areli and Arodi with Levi and Zebulon and others such as the Egyptians and Babylonians who made their way to Nigeria.
Even when the Northern Kingdom of Israel was steeped deep I paganism and idolatry Judah faired not much better, but were nonetheless known as the keepers of custom, culture and traditions of the Hebrew People and even today the Jewish Faith is named after their Tribe.
Because the traditions and customs (Omeana) of the Igbo People parallel that of Judaism in almost every way, testifies to the fact that Judah is most certainly among and apart of the Igbo. The Uda clan of Enugu state say they are from the Tribe of Judah.
Another way that Judah ended up in Nigeria is that the students of Babylonian Jewish Rabbi, Abba ben Ibo due to persecution fled to Africa via the Sahara, Nuba and eventually settled in Nigeria.
Some who claim the Ebonites were a faction or splinter group of the Essenes (some being students of descendants of the students of Rabbi Ibo) fled to Africa after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in 70 A.D.
Furthermore it is believed by some that Rabbi Ibo and even the Ebonites were black and that the word Ebony comes from the Ebo in Ebonite; Ebo meaning poor in monetarily and implied in a spiritual sense of being wealthy. Many ancient cultures revere the color black and the black man as a symbol of great wisdom and prophetic insight. But were some Jews Black?
It is believed that the handmaids Zilpah and Bilah were Canaanite or half Canaanite, thus from Noah’s son Hamm and therefore black women. Thus the tribes of Israel they bore would have been darker than the Tribes Rachel and Leah birthed. Rachel and Leah, like Jacob came from Noah’s son Shem, the father of the Hebrew and Arab peoples and is believed to be dark, but lighter than Hamm.
Also note that Judah had children by Tamar (Gen. 38) who was a Canaanite woman and therefore, black. King Solomon of Judah whose mother was from Sheba was a black woman and Solomon is rumored to have had a son by the Queen of Sheba. Song of Solomon reveals that Solomon definitely had at least one (albeit more) black wife. Also recall that Moses married a Cushite woman. Cush coming from Hamm and his son Canaan, therefore black and thus establishing black Levites such as is found among the Ethiopian Lemba Tribe who DNA tests prove them to be descendants of Levi, possibly sent back with Queen Sheba and the son her and Solomon was said to have with her.
Finally recall Abraham who married Hagar also believed to be a black Egyptian woman. All Egyptians were black people prior to the Hyksos. Thus the door is blown open wide for there to be plenty of black Jews and Hebrews. In fact, the White Jews and Hebrews may very well be in the minority considering all the Lost Tribes. Not to mention the exiles of Judah and Israel and them having children by peoples of the lands where they had been exiled, some of which were black. The Jews and Hebrews who found themselves in Nigeria intermarried with the indigenous people already occupying Nigeria when Gad’s son Eri and the others from Israel came. And so it is entirely plausible and almost certain that there are Jews of Judah among the Igbo.
Professor O. Alaezi in his book Ibo Exodus says on pages 128-129:
“The Ibo towns and villages are Jewish Item, to start with, is from the Jewish name “Etam” (pronounced as it is written in Hebrew) from the family of Zorathites of the tribe of Judah (see I Chronicles 4:3). There is a counterpart Item town, Itam near Utyo in Akwa Ibom, also pronounced as the original Etam.
Etam & Yaounde below on map
Our immediate neighbors are also of the same tribe of Judah. Examples. Alayi (see “Alayi” of the tribe of Judah I Chron. 2:31); Ugwueke (of “Eker” of the tribe of Judah – I Chron. 2:27); Edda of “Eldad” (See Numbers 11:27). Akaeze (“Eker Ezer”), and so on. Jewish family names that are still prevalent in Tem include Amaeke (of “Eker), Amukabi (or Umuakabia as written in other parts of Iboland) – of “Abia” I Chron. 3:10); Abieye from ‘Prohet Abieye’, one of the minor Prophets of Israel, Ete from “Ether” – Joshua 15:34), Amabo Okoko (“Akan” I Chron. 1:34). Eleke (“Helek”, – Numbers 6:30); Erinma (of “Eri” – Gen. 46:16); Eke (“Eker”, I Chron. 2:27) Eze (“Ezer”, Neh, 3:19); Offia (“Ophra”, I Chron. 4:13); Ubani (“Uban”, Ezra 2:10) Alaezi (“Eliezer”, Exd. 18:14). Onam or Unam (“Onam” I Chrn. 1:40) Iheaka (“El Iheaka”, one of the attribute nameas of God); Usa (name of person in Okoko Item) from the Hebrew name, Joshua pronounced as Yoshua. ‘J’ is pronounced ‘y’ in Hebrew. We also have Isi or Isi (See “Ishi”, I Chron. 4:20). Examples. Isiosu, Amabo, Okok Item, Umuisi in Igbere, Ishiagu, Isiokpo, Ishi Nnewi, Amichi, Umuichi, etc…”
The similarity of the Hebrew, Arabic and Aramaic languages was accepted by Jewish and Islamic scholars since medieval times. The languages were familiar to Western European scholars due to historical contact with neighbouring Near Eastern countries and through Biblical studies, and a comparative analysis of Hebrew, Arabic, and Aramaic was published in Latin in 1538 by Guillaume Postel. Almost two centuries later, Hiob Ludolf described the similarities between these three languages and the Ethiopian Semitic languages.However, neither scholar named this grouping as “Semitic”.
In the Mosaic Table of Nations, those names which are listed as Semites are purely names of tribes who speak the so-called Oriental languages and live in Southwest Asia. As far as we can trace the history of these very languages back in time, they have always been written with syllabogramsor with alphabetic script (never with hieroglyphs or pictograms); and the legends about the invention of the syllabograms and alphabetic script go back to the Semites. In contrast, all so called Hamitic peoples originally used hieroglyphs, until they here and there, either through contact with the Semites, or through their settlement among them, became familiar with their syllabograms or alphabetic script, and partly adopted them. Viewed from this aspect too, with respect to the alphabet used, the name “Semitic languages” is completely appropriate.
Previously these languages had been commonly known as the “Oriental languages“ in European literature. In the 19th century, “Semitic” became the conventional name; however, an alternative name, “Syro-Arabian languages“, was later introduced by James Cowles Prichard and used by some writers.
There are several locations proposed as possible sites for prehistoric origins of Semitic-speaking peoples: Mesopotamia, the Levant, Mediterranean, the Arabian Peninsula, and North Africa, with the most recent Bayesian studies indicating Semitic originated in the Levant circa 3800 BC, and was later also introduced to the Horn of Africain approximately 800 BC.
Among its many findings, Ostrer’s paper indicated that Jews have African ancestry — an observation that David Reich, associate professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School, and his colleagues decided to explore further.
Reich’s team analyzed more than half a million DNA markers across the entire genomes of people from seven diverse Jewish populations — including Ashkenazim from northern Europe; Sephardim from Italy, Turkey and Greece, and Mizrahim from Syria, Iraq and Iran. They then compared the genetic data with DNA from 15 sub-Saharan African populations.
Reporting in the April issue of PLoS Genetics, the researchers found that modern day Jews can attribute about 3% to 5% of their ancestry to sub-Saharan Africans, and that the exchange of genes between Jews and sub-Saharan Africans occurred approximately 72 generations, or about 2,000 years, ago.
Lawrence Schiffman, a professor of Hebrew and Judaic studies at Yeshiva University, said two time periods came to mind that could support the geneticists’ findings. The first is during the First Temple Period, between about 950 B.C.E. and 600 B.C.E., when Solomon’s kingdom would have had contact with Africans.
Or, Schiffman said, the mixing of populations could have taken place a bit later, during the Hellenistic period, from about 320 B.C.E. to 30 B.C.E., when Jews were living all over the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and could have come into contact with Africans to the south of them.
Kush was the grandson of Noah. The term “Kushite” refers to a vast large area. The various regions of ancient Kush are called by different names, including early Egypt, Eastern Sudan, and Nubia. The Kushite territories were ruled by tribal chiefs and overlords of larger territories. Biblical Kush included Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania. The culture was essentially Nilotic. Some of the ancient Nilotic peoples moved into the Benue Trough. Others moved into Southern Arabia. That is why there is a close linguistic and cultural connection between the Edo of Benin and the Edomites of the Bible.
Linguistic and archaeological evidence supports the biblical picture of Abraham’s ancestors coming from the Upper Nile region that was part of Kush and spreading their culture and religious beliefs by the great water systems across what I’ve termed the ancient “Afro-Asiatic Domnion.” During this period the Sahara was a much wetter region. Genesis tells us that Abraham was a descendant of Kush and of the great Kushite kingdom-builder, Nimrod.
Hausa of Nigeria above
Hausa’s close relationship to Arabic is due to the common roots that the Kushite languages share with old Arabic. Before Judaism became a distinct world religion, these Afro-Asiatic peoples shared a common worldview and religious practices which the Bible calls Kushite. The Kushite civilization spread from the Nile Valley into southern Africa and into West Africa.
The Nubians created the world’s first civilization and that civilization was much older than Egypt. In fact, in 2000, archeologists discovered many facinating artefacts, including glasswork of great beauty and excellent craftsmanship. These were found in Sudan and according to Time Magazine, some artefacts were dated to about 8000 years B.C. Astronomy was also well organized in Nubia during the period and an astronomical observatory dating back to about 7000 B.C. was found in Sudan as well. It is also in Sudan that a large number of ancient cities exist.
The Nubians also built a large number of small pyramids later on in their history but they used a very sophisticated system of tombs to bury their kings. Many were similar in style to the early Egyptian Mastabas. Those of later centuries were small pyramids with chapels built on top and the tombs at the beneath the ground.
WHO ARE THE DESCENDANTS OF THE ANCIENT NUBIANS TODAY
The birth of Nubianism or the return of the Nubian consciousness, study of Nubian history, reverence for Nubian culture and the recognition of the Nubian blood and lineage started in Nubia, right there in the South of Egypt, where to be Nubian is to belong to the world’s longest lasting civilization and the belonging to a people with the longest lasting kingship on earth. It may be surprising to note that the Nubian monarchy continues to exist today and Nubians continue to have their king, although the land of Nubia is occupied by invaders (and their culture, religions and laws) who originally migrated from the northern Semitic lands, and who have mixed in with some Sudanese to create a new type of people similar to South Africa’s coloreds, who are now engaged in a racist war of genocide, enslavement of Black men, women and Chiildren and some of the most putrid racism found anywhere on earth (except against Blacks in India, Latin America and Indonesia where in these places, extermination of Black people is routine).
Today, the Nubas of the Nuba Mountains are direct descendants of the ancient Nubians (see http://community.webtv.net/paulnubiaempire go to the Youth Site, or click to http://community.webtv.net/nubianem/ ) The Nuer People of Sudan, the Dinkas and a number of “Nilotic” peoples as well as many people in East Africa of Bantu linguistic origins are also of Nubian origins. In fact, although it is said that the Bantu ( Ba-Ntu ) migrated from Nigeria to populate the rest of Southern Africa about five thousand years ago, there is a significant of what appears to be close linguistic similarities between some Nilotic and ancient Egyptian and Cushite languages with the Bantu Languages, both of which originated in the Sahara. These similarities include the “Ba” prefix to name nationalities, such as “Ba-luba” “Ba-kongo,” or the “N’ to denote persons and groups, such as “Ntu” (probably nation or people) or Ndabaningi (a person’s name) or “N-g-r” (God in ancient Egyptian) or the word “N-t-y-r” (Nature, God, sacred in ancient Egyptian).
Hence, these tall and medium height peoples of Africa who are spread from Ethiopia and Somalia to West Africa and south to Zululand are all connected. They were once spread as far as Tukey and Southern Europe in Preshitoric times and as far as Fiji and ancient Mexico. One of the most important migrations of Africans to the Americas occurred about 600 B.C., when groups of people from West Africa who worshipped Shngo the Thunder Element and who used the axe, migrated to Mexico about 600’s B.C. and introduced their religions. According to Sitchin ( http://www.ancientamerica.com )
Blacks with Egyptian connections migrated to Mexico about 3113 B.C. and on that date, itroduced the first calendar to Mexico. Others have pointed out that the Olmecs were a combination of West Africans and Nubians (see “A History of the African-Olmecs pub by 1stBooks Library, http://www.1stbooks.com ).
The distances between the two cultures are thousands of miles apart, however, both the Carthaginians and Pharaoh Nikau sent people to West Africa to trade between 600 B.C. and 450 B.C. respectively. The West Africans and Nubians most likely collaborated with each other and had cultural contact.
The relationship between the Afar people of today and the ancient references to the mysterious Ophir. … They are mentioned by Muhammad in the Quran as one of the People of the Book, along with Jews and Christians …
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tawähïdo Church maintains the tradition that the Queen of Sheba mentioned in 1 Kings 10, after her visit with King Solomon, had a son name Menelik who became the first monotheistic king of Ethiopia. Church tradition also holds that the eunuch of Candace mentioned in Acts 8 was Axumite and was the first to preach the Gospel in Ethiopia. While it is likely that Christianity first came into Ethiopia as early as the first century, the fourth century is the terminus ante quem for the introduction of the Gospel in Ethiopia as several notable historians and Church fathers attest to the presence of an established church hierarchy in Ethiopia during this time. The Egyptian Pope Athanasius as well as the fourth-century Roman historian Rufinus mention a Syrian slave named Frumentius who was raised in the imperial court of Ethiopia who evangelized the royal family. After being ordained the first official bishop of Ethiopia by Athanaius, Frumentius discipled the Ethiopian king Ezana who was the first king of Axum to introduce Christianity as the state religion of Ethiopia. Shortly after this time, Ethiopia received a group of missionaries called the Nine Saints who have been thought to have come from Syria and who further advanced the growth of Christianity especially in the northern rural provinces. The Nine Saints introduced monastic practices, opened monasteries that still survive today, and taught the Miaphysite doctrine of Christ existing in one person and one united nature—which was the reigning view in Egypt and Syria. The Ethiopian Church’s name Täwahïdo means “being made one” or “unified” and is based on this fundamental doctrine. One of the Nine Saints—Abba Garima—is thought to have been the translator of the Garima Gospels—translations of the Gospel accounts in the ancient Ethiopian language which is still used in liturgy called Ge’ez. Originally thought to have been translated in the twelfth century, recent radiocarbon analysis has firmly placed these manuscripts in the fifth century during the time of the Nine Saints. This makes the Garima Gospels not only the oldest surviving Ge’ez manuscripts, but the earliest biblical manuscripts from any country accompanied with decorated paintings. While the Byzantine Roman Empire frequently persecuted Miaphysite (“one-nature”) Christians in Syria, Egypt and Nubia, an alliance was formed with Ethiopia to rescue persecuted Christians in the Arabian Peninsula.
Beta Israel (Hebrew: בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; Ge’ez: ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta ‘Isrā’ēl?, modernBēte ‘Isrā’ēl, EAE: “Betä Ǝsraʾel”, “House of Israel” or “Community of Israel”), also known as Ethiopian Jews (Hebrew: יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah;Ge’ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews that developed and lived for centuries in the area of Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between Amhara and TigrayRegions of Ethiopia. Most of these peoples have emigrated to Israel since the late 20th century.
Biblical scholars, archaeologists and others have tried to determine the exact location of Ophir. Vasco da Gama‘s companion Tomé Lopes reasoned that Ophir would have been the ancient name for Great Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, the main center of sub-African trade in gold in the Renaissance period — though the ruins at Great Zimbabwe are now dated to the medieval era, long after Solomon is said to have lived. The identification of Ophir with Sofala in Mozambique was mentioned by Milton in Paradise Lost (11:399-401), among many other works of literature and science.
It must be noted clearly that the Sudan received the first wave of Hebrew Israelite who went mainly to Ethiopia from Yemen via Bab El Mandeb in 1876 BC, about 30 years after Patriarch Joseph ended up in Ethiopia.
Some Yemeni Hebrew Israelite trickled into Sudan and after being herders and raiders they became heavily involved in slavery in central and eastern Sudan, upper Kush, and Kordofan.
Moses also fled Ethiopia and lived in Sudan for at least 20 years. He married Zipporah the daughter of Jethro (Arabic شعيب Shu-ayb) the priest of Midian in Nubian Sudan. That period ended by the Exodus led by Moses in 1446 BC.
Many of these Hebrew Yemeni Israelite intermarried and remained behind in the Sudan and Ethiopia. In Ethiopia they formed the Falasha community “Beta Israel” while in Sudan they are regarded as “Arabs”.
the Jews in Dongola are now classed as Arab see the 2 pictures below..
The Christian Kingdom of Dongola
One of the most distinct features of the Kingdom of Dongola is that it was a Christian Kingdom. It is recorded that during the 6 th century BC, Christianity was propagated in the Nile Valley from Aswan all the way south to the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile at modern day Khartoum. The Byzantine missionaries were responsible for the spread of Christianity in this region. As a result of the Byzantine ecclesiastical writers, information was recording regarding the successor states of the Kingdom of Kush at this point of history. According to the writers, this part of the Nile was divided into three parts – Nobatia, Makuria, and Alwa (the southern-most state), all of which were converted to Christianity. Whilst Nobatia and Makuria were united, Alwa remained a separate state on its own, perhaps until the beginning of the 16 th century.
JERUSALEM – OCT 31: Kessim, religious leaders of the Ethiopian Jews, prepare for the Sigd prayers – Oct. 31, 2013 in Jerusalem, Israel. The Sigd is an annual holyday of the Ethiopian Jews.
JEWS IN SPAIN AND PORTUGAL
The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin.
In the seventh century, many Spanish Jews fled persecution under the Visigoths to North Africa, where they made their homes in the Byzantine-dominated cities along the Mediterranean coast. Others arrived after the expulsion from Iberia. Remnants of longstanding Jewish communities remain in Morocco, Tunisia, and the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla. There is a much-diminished but still vibrant community on the island of Djerba in Tunisia. Since 1948 and the war to establish Israel, which aroused hostility in Muslim lands, most other North African Jews emigrated to Israel.
Of the seventh century immigrants, some moved inland and proselytized among the Berber tribes. A number of tribes, including the Jarawa, Uled Jari, and some tribes of the Daggatun people, converted to Judaism.Ibn Khaldun reported that Kahina, a female Berber warlord who led the resistance against the Muslim Arab conquests of North Africa in the 680s and 690s, was a Jew of the Jarawa tribe. With the defeat of the Berber rebellion, none of the Jewish communities was initially forced to convert to Islam.
Israelite Migration to Northern and Western Africa
After the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple many Hebrews fled into Africa. Between the periods of Pompey and Julius Ceasaer about 1,000,000 Hebrews fled to Africa. The Hebrews hid and lived in Africa for over 1,500 years from 70 A.D. to 1619 A.D.
George E. Lichtblau author of “Jewish Roots in Africa” had this to say in his book about the Hebrew dispersion into Africa:
‘Pressed under sweeping regional conflicts, Jews settled as traders and warriors in Yemen, the Horn of Africa, Egypt, the kingdom of Kush and Nubia, North African Punic settlements (Carthage and Velubilis), and areas now covered by Mauritania. More migrants followed these early Jewish settlers to Northern Africa…’
Rudolf R Windsor author of “Babylon to Timbuktu” said this in his book on page 120:
‘The black Jews who migrated to the Sudan from the North converged with the Jews migrating from the eastern Sudan to the countries of the Niger River…There is much proof, and still much more to be revealed by scholars, that there existed prior to the slave trade and subsequent to it many tribes, colonies, and kingdoms in West Africa’.
Africa is identified in various Jewish sources in connection with Tarshish and Ophir. The Septuagint, and Jerome, who was taught by Jews, and very often the Aramaic Targum on the Prophets, identify the Biblical Tarshish with Carthage, which was the birthplace of a number of rabbis mentioned in the Talmud. Africa, in the broader sense, is clearly indicated where mention is made of the Ten Tribes having been driven into exile by the Assyrians and having journeyed into Africa. Connected with this is the idea that the river Sambation is in Africa. The Arabs, who also know the legend of the Beni Musa (“Sons of Moses”), agree with the Jews in placing their land in Africa.
According to certain local Malian legends a mention in the Tarikh al-Sudan may have recorded the first Jewish presence in West Africa with the arrival of the first Zuwa ruler of Koukiya and his brother, located near the Niger River. He was known only as Za/Zuwa Alayman (meaning “He comes from Yemen”). Some local legends state that Zuwa Alayman was a member of one of the Jewish communities that were either transported or voluntarily moved from Yemen by the Ethiopians in the 6th century C.E. after the defeat of Dhu Nuwas. The Tarikh al-Sudan, states that there were 14 Zuwa rulers of Kukiya after Zuwa Alyaman before the rise of Islam in the region.There is debate on whether or not the Tarikh es-Soudan can be understood in this manner.
HAM & SHEM Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel.
My DNA below covering Sub-Saharan, West and South East Africa. The Bantu DNA is spread as far as the horn of Africa Ethiopia Kenya Somalia.
The star of David was used on the West African coins
The Star of David, also know as the Magan David (Shield of David), has been a symbol associated with Judaism for centuries. A stone bearing the Star of David in a synagogue in the Galilee dates back to the 3rd century. It is believed to have been used as a decorative design.
A Star of David was used in the year 1108 in the Leningrad Codex, which is the oldest complete edition of the Hebrew Bible in existence. The term, Magan David,was used as early as the 11th century as a name for the God of Israel, where God is compared to a shield in the divine protection of King David.
A 12th century text, Eshkol ha-Kofer, a work on the Ten Commandments, refers to the Shield of David.
Coins found in the 13th century bear the Star of David.
The Star of David was used in a medieval Tanakh manuscript from 1307 in Spain.
And on second thoughts I should add some research about this star.
The idolotrous Babylonians, Egyptians and Assyrians used it.
The Israelites worshiped star gods, such as Remphan and Chiun.
Solomon used it in worship of false gods and to invoke the powers of Satan.
The Antichrist Beast of Revelation, the Roman Catholic Church, uses it.
The Jesuit-controlled ultra-wealthy Rothchild family uses it to steal the worlds wealth.
Satanists, Luciferians, astrologers and witches use it to invoke the power of demons.
The six-sided star numerically equals 666 (6 points, 6 triangles, 6-sided hexagon).
It’s on Israel’s flag because the Antichrist Jesuits control the state of Israel.
Christians shouldn’t have anything to do with the six-pointed star, as it is Satanic. This ‘mark of the beast’ identifies people groups that are Antichrist.
The six-sided star was used by Babylonian astrologers for Sun worship.
Babylonian astrologers divided the starry heavens into 36 constellations (ten days each). These were represented by different amulets called “Sigilla Solis,” or the Sun Seal.
These amulets were worn by the pagan priests and they contained all the numbers from 1 to 36. By these figures they claimed to be able to foretell future events.
Adding the numbers of any column either horizontally or vertically, and also the two diagonals crossing the square, the total is the same — 111.
The sum of the six columns, either horizontally or vertically, is 666.
So 666 is a number associated with pagan sun-worship, which originated in the mysteries of ancient pagan Babylon.
Sun worship, which is really Satan worship, has existed for thousands of years and is still worshiped to this very day by Mystery Babylon, the Roman Catholic Church and the global elite in the world.
The Israelites worshiped the star of foreign gods and were punished for it.
Israel adopted the six-pointed star in the wilderness due to their apostasy. The mark of Cain was worshiped by the Israelites in the wilderness as the star of Remphan, which represents the god Saturn, also called Chiun.
“But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves.“ Amos 5:26
Just before being stoned to death by the Jews, Stephen accused the Jewish leaders, “And you took up the tent of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, the figures which you made” “in order to worship them.” Acts 7:43
Saturn worship is Satan worship.
Satan got Solomon to worship him through false gods.
After his marriage to Pharaoh’s daughter in 922 B.C., Solomon gave himself up to witchcraft and idolatry, and built altars to Moloch, Ashtoreth and Remphan, the ancient Egyptian ‘Star‘ god.
This is very significant, because Solomon was a man of wisdom, who was allowed to build the temple of God; yet late in his life Satan caused him to worship and build altars to false gods, and use the hexagram to invoke the powers of Satan.
King Solomon reintroduced the 6-Pointed Star to the Kingdom of Israel, so the Talisman of Saturnbecame known as the Seal of Solomon.
The Six-Pointed Star is engraved on the Talisman of Saturn which is used in ritual magic.
A bull’s head is enclosed in a six-pointed star, and surrounded by letters composing the name Rempha, the planetary genius of Saturn, according to the alphabet of the Magi.
The bull represents Moloch worship and ultimately, Satan worship.
Satanists, Occultist and Freemasons venerate King Solomon, who owned a magic ring that was engraved with the Seal of Solomon, which gave him power over the invisible monarchy of demons. (The History And Practice Of Magic, Vol. 2)
The star of David may have a pagan history but some people do not look into the history of it. There are people who have a clean heart and the deception is not their fault. However these symbols have crept into all religions. I just wanted to emphasis how the star of David and palm tree that was associated with the bible was used by the British in West Africa to represent us. I think they knew who we were all along.
The Fall of Solomon
For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods: and his heart was not perfect with the Lord his God, as was the heart of David his father.5. For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.6. And Solomon did evil in the sight of the Lord, and went not fully after the Lord, as did David his father.7. Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon.8. And likewise did he for all his strange wives, which burnt incense and sacrificed unto their gods.9. And the Lord was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned from the Lord God of Israel, which had appeared unto him twice, 10. And had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods: but he kept not that which the Lord commanded.11. Wherefore the Lord said unto Solomon, Forasmuch as this is done of thee, and thou hast not kept My covenant and My statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy servant.12. Notwithstanding in thy days I will not do it for David thy father’s sake: but I will rend it out of the hand of thy son.13. Howbeit I will not rend away all the kingdom; but will give one tribe to thy son for David My servant’s sake, and for Jerusalem’s sake which I have chosen.’ — 1 KINGS xi.4-13.
And it was made with cherubim and palm trees, so that a palm tree was between a cherub and a cherub; and every cherub had two faces;…
The Palm tree represented in the bible
The cherubim and the palm trees were closely associated; both were largely represented, and they were found in close conjunction: “a palm tree was between a cherub and a cherub.” Both of them pictured the righteous man in the sanctuary of God, but while the cherub signified the good man at his best bringing himself and all that he had as an offering to God, the palm tree stood for the good man as one who had been made what he was by the services of the sanctuary; the one was enlarged and ennobled humanity brining its offering to God, the other was that same humanity gaining its goodness and worth from God and from his house. “The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree,” said the psalmist (Psalm 92:12). And there is very good reason why that tree should be taken as a type or picture of the righteous man; there is also excellent reason why the prominence of the palm tree in the prophet’s vision should picture the truth that man’s goodness is the fair and excellent result of much communion with God.
The Hebrew word for Jew, יְהוּדִי ISO 259-3 Yehudi, is pronounced [jehuˈdi], with the stress on the final syllable, in Israeli Hebrew, in its basic form. The Ladino name is ג׳ודיו, Djudio (sg.);ג׳ודיוס, Djudios (pl.); Yiddish: ייִד Yid (sg.); ייִדן, Yidn (pl.).
Ouidah was a densely populated, prosperous kingdom located on the Slave Coast of West Africa in what is now Benin. It rose to prominence as an exporter of slaves in the late 17th century and flourished for about sixty years before falling to the inland kingdom of Dahomey in 1727. Before the 17th century, the Aja peoples who populated the region of Ouidah and that of its inland predecessor, the kingdom of Allada, had not developed a commercial or maritime tradition and supported themselves with lagoon fishing, agriculture, and hunting. Increased competition for trade along the West African coast by the French, English, Dutch, and Portuguese, from the second half of the 16th century on, gradually reoriented the people of the Slave Coast towards the sea and the Atlantic trade. In the 1650s, Ouidah started breaking away from Allada and establishing itself as a powerful polity of warriors, slavers, and traders. In 1671 the French moved their trading factory from Allada to Ouidah, and the English and Portuguese were soon to follow. At the height of its commercial prosperity in the first two decades of the 18th century, Ouidah controlled the export of between fifteen and twenty thousand slaves a year. Neighboring Dahomey’s wars of conquest stretched southward to the coastal region in the 1720s, disrupting trade and blocking trade routes from the interior. After Dahomey conquered and pacified Ouidah in 1727-28, the Dahomian king appointed bureaucratic officials to administer Ouidah as the principal port and commercial capital of the kingdom. For over a century more, Ouidah remained a center of the Atlantic slave trade under the patronage of the kings of Dahomey. The abolition of the Brazilian slave trade in 1851 and the installation of a British consul in Lagos rang the death knell of the Atlantic slave trade, and by 1865 palm oil had entirely replaced slaves in Ouidah’s export market. By Zayde Antrim at http://www.pbs.org/wonders/Episodes/Epi3/ouidah.html
The History of Ouidah is best known for its central role in the slave trade during the 17th , 18th , and 19th centuries, during which time nearly 1,000,000 individuals were boarded onto ships from the beach at Ouidah and were transported across the Atlantic. Originally, however, Ouidah (once Gléwé) was a small village in the small Xwéda kingdom that supported itself through agriculture, hunting and fishing in the coastal lagoons – the inhabitants had very little to do with the sea and its treacherous tides. Ouidah’s first encounter with Europeans occurred during the 16th century. Though the slave trade along the Bight of Benin began soon after, it was not until the end of the 17 th century that European traders began purchasing slaves from the Xwéda kingdom in earnest, establishing factories and forts in the town of Gléwé (now Ouidah). The kingdom of Xwéda prospered greatly from this trade, until in 1727 the militaristic kingdom of Dahomey routed the kingdom of Xwéda , killing, capturing and dispersing its citizens, and usurping trade with the Europeans. Until Dahomey ‘s colonization by the French, the town of Ouidah remained in Dahomean control. The slave trade was extremely active, and by the middle of the 18 th century the population of Ouidah verged on 10,000 inhabitants, and had reached its economic apogee. In 1818 Dahomey installed Francisco Félix de Souza, known as Chacha by the Dahomeans, to manage the slave trade on behalf of the kingdom of Dahomey . To this day, the descendants of de Souza hold a place of importance in Ouidan society. As European governments began to denounce the slave trade as brutal and unjustifiable, the trade in slaves across the Atlantic all but closed. In the late 1800s the town of Ouidah began to focus its export efforts on much less lucrative palm oil. Even as the slave trade declined, there began a repatriation of many of the descendants of slaves exported to the New World . Most of these were third-generation enslaved individuals living in Brazil , and as they returned to Benin (and particularly to Ouidah) they brought many of their customs and traditions. To this day there are many examples of Afro-Brazilian architecture in Ouidah stemming from this period. The kingdom of Dahomey (including Ouidah) was colonized by the French in 1902; by 1961, however, the country of Dahomey gained independence from France. Ouidah is a center of the Vodun religion in Benin , and arguably the world. In 1992 Ouidah held the first international festival dedicated to the art and culture of Vodun. In addition, the annual Festival of Vodun on January 10 at Ouidah has been declared a national holiday.
See also https://blackhistory938.wordpress.com/2017/06/16/my-igbo-slave-ancestor/
The reason that I set up this blog is to research my history and secondly because I have calling to awaken my people, if you believe in The Almighty then you will have a calling too. We have to line up, do the things that pleases The Creator. We have to get in place and that is all I will say on that. I do not want to biased in this blog and I know that we come from many tribes and for that reason I will present all aspects that I can on black history. That said below is a link on Voodoo. I do not practise or want to practise it however I want to highlight it as one of the cultural practises as it is a huge aspect for certain tribes.
this 5 minute documentary shows Vodoo in that area
Vodun (meaning spirit in the Fon and Ewe languages,pronounced [vodṹ] with a nasalhigh-toneu; also spelled Vodon, Vodoun, Vodou, Voudou, Voodoo, etc.) is practiced by the Ewe people of eastern and southern Ghana, and southern and central Togo; and the Kabye people, Mina people, and Fon people of southern and central Togo, and southern and centralBenin. It is also practiced by some Gun people of Lagos andOgun in southwest Nigeria. All the aforementioned peoples belong to Gbe speaking ethnic groups of West Africa, except the Kabye.
Royal Rover, Fortune, Good Fortune, Royal Fortune, Ranger,Little Ranger
He was born John Roberts in 1682 in Casnewydd-Bach,between Fishguard and Haverfordwest in Pembrokeshire, Wales. His father was most likely George Roberts. It’s not clear why Roberts changed his name from John to Bartholomew, but pirates often adopted aliases. He may have chosen his first name after the well-known buccaneerBartholomew Sharp. He is thought to have gone to sea when he was 13 in 1695, but there is no further record of him until 1718, when he was mate of a Barbadossloop.
In 1719, Roberts was third mate on the slave shipPrincess under Captain Abraham Plumb. In early June that year, the Princess was anchored at Anomabu (then spelled Annamaboa, which is situated along the Gold Coast of West Africa, present-day Ghana) when she was captured by pirates. The pirates were in two vessels, the Royal Rover and the Royal James, and were led by captain Howell Davis. Davis, like Roberts, was a Welshman, originally from Milford Haven inPembrokeshire. Roberts and several other of the crew of the Princess were forced to join the pirates
Roberts and his crew crossed the Atlantic and watered and boot-topped[note 1] their ship on the uninhabited island of Ferdinando. They spent about nine weeks off the Brazilian coast but saw no ships. They were about to leave for the West Indies when they encountered a fleet of 42 Portuguese ships in the Todos os Santos’ Bay, waiting for two men-of-war of 70 guns each to escort them to Lisbon. Roberts took one of the vessels and ordered her master to point out the richest ship in the fleet. He pointed out the Sagrada Familia, a ship of 40 guns and a crew of 170, which Roberts and his men boarded and captured. The Sagrada Familia contained 40,000 gold moidoresand jewelry designed for the King of Portugal, including a cross set with diamonds.
The Rover next headed for Devil’s Island off the coast of Guiana to spend the booty. A few weeks later, they headed for the River Surinam where they captured a sloop. After they sighted abrigantine, Roberts took 40 men to pursue it in the sloop, leaving Walter Kennedy in command of the Rover. The sloop became wind-bound for eight days, and when Roberts and his crew finally returned to their ship, they discovered that Kennedy had sailed off with the Rover and what remained of the loot. Roberts and his crew renamed their sloop the Fortune and agreed on new articles, now known as a pirate code, which they swore on a Bible to uphold:
Black Bart’s new flag showed him standing on two skulls, representing the heads of a Barbadian and a Martiniquian
In late February 1720, they were joined by French pirate Montigny la Palisse in another sloop, the Sea King. The inhabitants ofBarbados equipped two well-armed ships, the Summerset and thePhilipa, to try to put an end to the pirate menace. On 26 February, they encountered the two pirate sloops. The Sea King quickly fled, and the Fortune broke off the engagement after sustaining considerable damage and was able to escape. Roberts headed for Dominica to repair the sloop, with twenty of his crew dying of their wounds on the voyage. There were also two sloops fromMartinique out searching for the pirates, and Roberts swore vengeance against the inhabitants of Barbados and Martinique. He had a new flag made with a drawing of himself standing upon 2 skulls, one labelled ABH (A Barbadian’s Head) and the other AMH (A Martiniquian’s Head)
Newfoundland and the Caribbean June 1720 – April 1721
The Fortune next headed northwards towards Newfoundland, raiding Canso, Nova Scotia, and capturing a number of ships around Cape Breton and the Newfoundland banks. Roberts raided the harbour of Ferryland, capturing a dozen vessels. On 21 June, he attacked the larger harbour ofTrepassey, sailing in with black flags flying. In the harbour he discovered 22 merchant ships and 150 fishing ships, all of which were abandoned by their panic-stricken captains and crews, and the pirates were masters of Trepassey without any resistance being offered. Roberts had captured all 22 merchant ships, but was angered by the cowardice of the captains who had fled their ships. Every morning he had a gun fired and the captains were forced to attend Roberts on board his ship; they were told that anyone who was absent would have his ship burnt. One brigfrom Bristol was taken over by the pirates to replace the sloop Fortune and fitted out with 16 guns. When the pirates left in late June, all the other vessels in the harbour were set on fire. During July, Roberts captured nine or ten French ships and commandeered one of them, fitting her with 26 cannons and changing her name to the