My Jamaican & American slave ancestors Scott Johnson & Davis

 

My maternal grandmother spoke of being from Clarendon Jamaica. She was what we call red skin, a fair lady compared to my other side and it showed. She boasted of Indian heritage and had the hair to prove it. She was proud of being from Redhills. They were described as Creole. These black people would have been more likely to be given less strenuous work possibly a house slave rather than a field slave. There was a mentality of remaining light and not mixing with darker people leftover from slavery because they were treated better.

Below French and Portuguese creole people

 

Language in Exile: Three Hundred Years of Jamaican Creole

Barbara LallaJean D’Costa · 2009 · Language Arts & Disciplines

Three Hundred Years of Jamaican Creole Barbara Lalla, Jean D’Costa … Under Hispanic rule in Jamaica the Arawaks (Taino speakers) had contact with Spanish colonists, Portuguese Christians and Jews …

Language in Exile: Three Hundred Years of Jamaican Creole

 

It appears that not only is my mother’s side mixed with Irish but the term Creole in Jamaica referred to people born in America and possibly mixed.

My grandmother and her family I now know was mixed with Polish/Russian Irish and Spanish Portuguese which would have given her an Asian look. I traced  my Polish side to a Coleman spelt Kolmann in Poland or Russia. The Polish Coleman was a war ship builder who travelled to America.

Below an advert for a Ben Coleman or Brown. Notice he is described as of brown complexion and Mexican looking.

images-262

See picture directly below of Spanish Africans owned by Russians. I have an actual image of who I believe to be one of my Spanish ancestors’ and she does not look European she looks like a cross between the two ladies in the picture. I also listened to a documentary which explained that in the past the Jews in Spain were not only European looking but African looking also. I am highlighting this fact as Spanish ancestry does not confirm the appearance of the person.

images-44

So from what I can determine some of my ancestors were taken by Spanish invaders to Spain England and America and Jamaica. The people taken were of African descent their job title was indentured servant. The Spanish slave trader raped his servant. The Spanish appears to relate to both slave and owner in my case and one of the Jewish merchants was an Ashkenazi Jew from Europe. The other part of my Spanish lineage relates to possibly a Sephardic Jew in Spain who was exiled to Africa or Sao Tome and shipped from Elmina castle in Ghana or Benin. Many of the tribes in Africa are related so family members would have been shipped to different places and they would have been direct family members and distant relatives. Once enslaved tribes were mixed together and the slaves had children.

My grandmother said on her grandmothers side there was Indian heritage. I have found that we are related to the Smiths and Davis both of which have relatives in American Indian Choctow areas in America. This is a image of Sallie Newby Smith.

20180223_090002.jpg

Kentucky Counties with Free Negro Slave Owners in 1830
[book source: Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830 compiled and edited by C. G. Woodson, pp.4-6]

  1. Fayette County (13), [Lexington] (15) – Nancy Scott, Peter Whiting, Robert Gray, Charlotte Lewis, Richard Bird, William Tucker, Jesse Smith, Nathan Keifer, Benjamin Tibbs, Jane Brittain, Hannah Travis, Wittshire Brackenridge, Harvey Phillips, Frank Lee, Nicholas Black — Peter Davis, Adam B. Martin, Isaac Howard, William Burk, Benjamin Caulden, Peter Francess, Ben Williams, Anaka Shores, Jer’y Allen, Alexander Allen, Samuel Dunlap, Rhody Clark, Robert Smith

http://nkaa.uky.edu/nkaa/items/show/2080

To add some background to this information there were free people of colour who traded in slaves.

The above video is where an Eboe slave speaks of being taken from Africa to the America’s. The man gives his true account of being enslaved by ‘his own people’. This could have been by the Taino Afro and Portuguese Creole free people who owned slaves during this period. In America it is suggested that during the late 18th century there were more black slave masters than white.

The Portuguese had been importing slaves from Africa for over a century, and the Spanish had enslaved the Indians in Central and South America to work the mines and to grow crops. John Smith had been a slave himself, after being captured by the Turks. He claimed that a beautiful woman helped him escape, a story that parallels his tale of Pocahontas.2

The Virginia colony lacked a legal framework for slavery until 40 years after that date, and the great increase in the slave population did not start until 1700. Tobacco was a labor-intensive crop. Each slave or indentured servant working on a tobacco plantation may have processed 10,000 plants a year. That would require bending over 10,000 times to plant seeds, 10,000 times to dig seedlings from the early planting bed, 10,000 times to plant seedlings in a field…

As plantation agriculture spread up the Potomac River, the demand for field workers exceeded the supply of people in the colonies and England willing to do such work. The economic solution was to obtain laborers from another source – slaves from Africa, imported through the Caribbean islands as well as directly from that continent. In the 1660’s, the demand for labor in Virginia exceeded the supply of indentured servants from England after the end of the civil war there.

slavery was developed in Virginia so planters could acquire a cheap labor force to grow tobacco
slavery was developed in Virginia so planters could acquire a cheap labor force to grow tobacco
Source: Library of Congress, Tyler, His Family and His Allegiance to the South

The Virginia colony revised its laws in that decade to establish that blacks could be kept in slavery permanently, generation after generation. An influx of slaves was spurred at the same time by a drop in the value of sugar grown on Caribbean islands, causing the planters there to sell their “property” to the tobacco farmers in Virginia.3

There is a continuing debate regarding whether racism against blacks preceded the adoption of a legal system upporting lifetime slavery in Virginia, or whether the practice of slavery triggered the colonists’ racist attitudes. Blacks were not automatically slaves in the early colonial days. Some held property, married, and raised families outside the institution of slavery.

In the 1660’s, however, the government of the colony (not the officials in London…) established the legal framework for perpetual servitude based on color. “Every year between 1667 and 1672 the General assembly enacted legislation which increasingly defined a Virginian’s status by skin color. Similar laws followed in 1680, 1682, and 1686. By the final decade of the seventeenth century, those characteristics most associated with the plantation society of the eighteenth century were already evident.”4

 

Johnson, Milly Born in Africa in 1770 listed on the consensus in 1880 in the US Woods, KY mother born in Africa

Johnson, Robert born in 1852 KY mother born in  Frankfort, IN Kentucky Father from Africa 1880 consensus

Smith, Charles S.born in 1844 Tunica County, MS mother from Africa father from Mexico

http://nkaa.uky.edu/nkaa/items/show/3161

 

These Smiths have connections to Foster Davis Taylor and Johnson’s surnames.

Here is the DNA of my Smith DNA matches

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers

Trace Regions: Great Britain, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Ireland, Cameroon/Congo, Finland/Northwest Russia, Iberian Peninsula, Asia Central, Senegal

Ethnicity

Regions: Benin/Togo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Senegal, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo

Trace Regions: Nigeria, Ireland, Great Britain, Mali, Europe East

 

The Davis below is described as half blood indian

SD1139(62-2)+p45.Seminole&CREB

There may also be a connection between my Davis and Mary Black who is possibly the daughter of Chief Black Fox. These connections link the Davis to the Cherokee and Jewish community in Chocotaw.

native_american_map

The Choctaw (In the Choctaw languageChahta)[note 1] are a Native American people originally occupying what is now the Southeastern United States (modern-day AlabamaFloridaMississippi, and Louisiana). Their Choctaw language belongs to the Muskogean language family group.

The Choctaw are descendants of the peoples of the Hopewell and Mississippian cultures, who lived throughout the east of the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. About 1,700 years ago, the Hopewell people built Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork moundlocated in what is central present-day Mississippi. It is still considered sacred by the Choctaw. The early Spanish explorers of the mid-16th century in the Southeast encountered Mississippian-culture villages and chiefs.[2

….

For the Choctaw who remained in or returned to Mississippi after 1855, the situation deteriorated. Many lost their lands and money to unscrupulous whites.[88] The state of Mississippi refused the Choctaw any participation in government.[88] Their limited understanding of the English language caused them to live in isolated groups. In addition, they were prohibited from attending any of the few institutions of higher learning, as the European Americans considered them free people of color and excluded from the segregated white institutions. The state had no public schools prior to those established during the Reconstruction Era.[88]

..

Mississippi Choctaw Delegation to Washington (1914)Edit

From left to right, Chief Wesley Johnson, T. B. Sullivan, Culberson Davis, James E. Arnold, and Emil John.

By 1907, the Mississippi Choctaw were in danger of becoming extinct. The Dawes Commission had sent a large number of the Mississippi Choctaws to Indian Territory, and only 1,253 members remained.[107] Meetings were held in April and May 1913 to try to find a solution to this problem.[108][109][110][111] Wesley Johnson was elected chief of the newly formed Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana Choctaw Council at the May 1913 meeting.[112][113][111] After some deliberation, the council selected delegates to send to Washington, D.C. to bring attention to their plight. Historian Robert Bruce Ferguson wrote in his 2015 article that:

In late January 1914, Chief Wesley Johnson and his delegates (Culbertson Davis and Emil John) traveled to Washington, D. C. … While they were in Washington, Johnson, Davis, and John met with numerous senators & representatives and persuaded the federals to bring the Choctaw case before Congress. On February 5th, their mission culminated with the meeting of President Woodrow Wilson. Culbertson Davis presented a beaded Choctaw belt as a token of goodwill to the President.[112][114][11

 

Below the Cole listed is related to the Davis and Johnson line I am tracing.

The group also included Talking Warrior, Red Fort, Nittahkachee, who was later Principal Chief; Col. Robert Cole and David Folsom, both Choctaw of mixed-race ancestry; Captain Daniel McCurtain, and Major John Pitchlynn, the U.S. interpreter, 

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choctaw

 

Foster, Sallie.
Creek by blood. Files: Report of November 15, 1007, from Commissioner to Five Civilized Tribes. Creek N. B. No. 370. June 19, 1906, application was made to the Commissioner to the Five Civilized Tribes for the enrollment of Sallie Foster, born January 17, 1907. as a citizen by blood of the Creek Nation under the act of April 20, 1906. Said Sallie Foster is a child of Noah Foster, whose name was identified upon the approved roll of Creek Indians opposite No. 477, and Jennatta Foster. February 27, l907. the commissioner rendered his decision denying the application for the enrollment of said child for the reason that sufficient information was not secured to determine whether or not said Jennatta Foster was a Creek citizen, or whether or not she and Noah Foster were married. Said decision was on that date, forwarded to the department. March 4, 1907, the parents of this child appeared before the commissioner and gave testimony in the matter of its enrollment, for which it was found that the child’s mother is enrolled upon the approved roll of Creek citizens opposite No. 3907, as Jennette Johnson, and on that date the commissioner wired the department as follows: “Referring to Creek new-born case of Sallie Foster, transmitted on February 27, 1907, together with decision denying for insufficient evidence, the parents of said child have this evening appeared, and from their testimony mother is identified as Jennette Johnson, opposite Creek Indian roll No. 3907. I therefore recommend that name of said Sallie Foster be this day placed upon Creek newborn schedule and approved. Child 1 year old. Sex, female; blood, full; card No. 370.” 

https://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/surnames-edwards-to-frenchman.htm

 

William E Edwards was described as being Portugese and having dark skin and black wavey hair. At some point he had a plantation in LA.

There was also a William Edwards Owner of Fellowship Hall in St Andrew, Jamaica. Deceased by 1809.

Below is a Portuguese Native

560821faf113b77d2d6f61968c10df78--jamaica-portuguese.jpg

Below Arawak Indians

Here is a distant Edward DNA match below

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Europe West

Trace Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Senegal, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Native American

 

The below shows a Slave owner by the name of Davis.

DawesSnippet

Afro -Native American Indian descendants below

This side of my Jamaican family originated in America.

Recently Ancestry DNA has located 3rd and 4th cousin matches for me by the names of Chang Chung & Chong. This line share Mali Senegal and Spain in common.

Below are their results

Ethnicity

Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Mali, Ivory Coast/Ghana

Trace Regions: Senegal, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Africa North, Native American, Iberian Peninsula

Ethnicity

Regions: Asia East, Benin/Togo, Polynesia, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Ireland/Scotland/Wales

Trace Regions: Great Britain, Nigeria, Asia Central, Mali, Africa North, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Europe West, European Jewish, Iberian Peninsula, Europe South, Scandinavia, Senegal

detailed-political-map-of-east-asia-2004-preview

Ethnicity

Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Ireland/Scotland/Wales

Trace Regions: Senegal, Mali, Great Britain

 

Below Sheila Chong the first Miss Jamaica

sheilachong

I also found these listings shown directly below

Chong or Green, Aldred Louis, son of Thomas Chong & Eugenia Green, res Kingston.  Sponsors Phoebe Wilson & L. G. Hopkin, b 2/18/1907, bap 3/7/1907 by E. Armon Jones, p. 28 #478

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/c/cjind1.htm

 

Chang, Hermine Maria b 1932. F= Wellington Chang. VIII, 78 #570

Chang, Theresa b 1933. F= Joseph Chang. VIII, 119 #847

Chang, Veronica L. b 1931. F= Willie Kee Chang. VIII, 26 #178

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/m/MethodistKgn06.htm

 

The name Hermine Maria appears in my Spanish line. The names Hermine and Maria are used repeatedly through the Lopez and Pérez line. It appears Lopez and Chang intermarried. I will be researching this further. Online I saw a Pérez and Chang descendant born in 1907 who lived in Novia Scotia Canada. If this is a distant relation it would explain the Spanish and Asian connection. 

 

Central and West Asian connections are clear through the DNA of some of my cousins. The Native American has Asian and African central hunter gatherers DNA, in my family. From what I can piece together the mixing of my mother’s side occurred in America in the Chocotaw areas. So far I have found evidence of the African Spanish Russian and Chinese and Mexican ancestors mixing from the 1600s. Further down we will see some DNA results of such admixture.

Wikipedia states

The Asian Caribbean populations were the result of Coolie slaves and indentured labourers that were brought here by the Coolie Trade to work in mines, sugar plantations etc,

 

Asians in Jamaica below

Some of my family were transported to St Thomas-in-the-East later moving to Clarendon.

map-of-clarendon-jamaica.jpg

Neighbouring towns to Clarendon include St Elizabeth St Ann. This line of the family also lived in Kingston.

saint-thomas

Family Connections Scott’s Johnson Gordon Pérez Cole Watt Watson Burton Fuller Bent Davis Fernandez

 

This Mary Burton below is a likely relative. The Mary below is likely of Greek admixture.  She could also be a person from the same plantation. The description Mulattoe confirms she is considered mixed. The name Mary Burton as a first or middle name is popular with this family line.

9. Mary Burton Constantine – born Jul 20 1821 in Kingston, Jamaica. Baptised Mary Burton daughter of John Constantine and his wife Eleanor free Mulattoes, 19 Dec 1820.

Constantine (name) – Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Constant…

Jump to Constantine as a surname · Constantine (/ˈkɒnstəntaɪn/ or /ˈkɒnstəntiːn/; Latin: Cōnstantīnus, Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, Kōnstantînos) is a masculine given name and surname which is derived from the Latin name Constantinus, a hypocoristic of the first names Constans and Constantius, both meaning “constant, steadfast” in Latin.

 

Annie L. Burton was born in Clayton, Alabama in 1858. Her mother was a house slave but ran away from the plantation after being whipped but returned after the Civil War when all slaves had been freed.

Burton moved to Boston where she became a domestic servant. She married in 1888 a man who worked as a valet in Braintree.

In 1909 Burton published her book, Memories of Childhood’s Slavery Days and a short biography of Abraham Lincoln.

The Burton DNA matches I have are below, in bold is what we have in common.

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Iberian Peninsula, Native American, Benin/Togo, Italy/Greece

Trace Regions: Senegal, Europe West, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo, Asia South, Caucasus, Great Britain, Ireland, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers

Ethnicity

Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Senegal

Trace Regions: Scandinavia, Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Europe West, Asia Central, Native American, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Great Britain, Finland/Northwest Russia, European Jewish

 

I found it quite interesting that Annie L Burton was a house slave. It can be quite revealing to search a family surname connection. We wont always be related to the people but there are many clues out there to where people have been scattered to and who were the main buyers and sellers during the slave trade. My guess is that as Eboe slaves, as described by the slave owners, they were more favourable. Also through rape Some slaves were  bred out in America and the Carribean specifically to create a whiter version of “The negroe”  Hence the terms Quadroon and Mulatto and the one drop of black blood rule. They were a lighter caste of black which was was preferred. Slaves were treated in humanely however some were treated worse. Becoming like, and pleasing to the master would have afforded slaves certain  privileges and work. To this day in Jamaica people still use skin lightening soaps (ie bleaching soaps)  to make themselves lighter. I can spot this line of family in my ancestry matches since they are mainly what we call red skin in contrast to some black people.

Red complexioned people of South & West African descent

 

Asian looking subsaharan Africans

images-372

The 21st-century San and Khoi peoples resemble those represented by the ancient Sangoan skeletal remains. These Late Stone Age people in parts of southern Africa were the ancestors of the Khoisan people who inhabited the Kalahari Desert.

 

images-735

 

The Scott family ethnicity

My grandmother said this part of the family had Indian ancestry. I expected to have Indian ancestry but I found it instead in my DNA matches.  My grandmothers family were brought to Jamaica from America. It was in America that she would have had close connections to her American Indian and Asian family. From my ancestry DNA matches the connection appears to be at least 4 generations back from me. There are 2 possibilities: 1 my mother carries a small amount of Asian DNA possibly 1-5% that was not passed to me. 2 The Asian ancestor was my grandmothers great great grandmother through marriage and not blood. I have found that I have subsaharan DNA and also Mali and Senegal. Mali and Senegal are considered afro asiatic.

I have also seen YouTube videos and read posts of people who have retested especially because the Native Indian or Indian DNA being missing and it has been picked up a second time with a different company. Some companies show a less than 1% result where as Ancestry DNA doesn’t. DNA does not discount family accounts. This part of my ancestry has Mali Ivory Coast Ghana Nigeria Cameroon, Congo African south eastern Bantu Iberian Peninsula Finland/Russia Europe East Ireland in common.

  Check out this red complexioned lady’s indigenous Arawak Jamaican ancestry

The Scott family

Ethnicity

Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali, Great Britain, Cameroon/Congo, Ireland

Trace Regions: Africa Southeastern Bantu, Nigeria,

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Europe West, Mali

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Native American, Europe East, Scandinavia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa North

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Mali, Benin/Togo

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Senegal, Asia Central, Africa North, Middle East, Native American, Finland/Northwest Russia, Ireland

 

 Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Europe West, Mali

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Native American, Europe East, Scandinavia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa North

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Great Britain, Senegal, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers

Trace Regions: Ireland, Polynesia, Asia Central, Asia East, Finland/Northwest Russia, Europe West, Scandinavia, Native American, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu

 

Ethnicity

Regions: Ireland, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Scandinavia, Great Britain, Europe West

Trace Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Iberian Peninsula, Europe East, Nigeria, Senegal, Italy/Greece, Asia South

 

Looking through my DNA matches I can see that the Asian connections relate to Asia South and Asia Central.

The Americas and Carribean became the mixing pot.

There is a record of Eliza Mary Scott Torode in Cape Town South Africa in 1907 born around 1864. There are further Scott’s Fullers Smiths and Anderson’s (who are related in my family line) shown to be living in Gaueteng South Africa. From the 19th century onwards there is a family living close to Freestate. I suspect they were deported back to Africa in the 18th Century.

Paper: “An Act of Deportation”: The Jamaican Maroons’ Journey from Freedom to Slavery and Back Again, 1796–1836 (124th Annual Meeting (January 7-10, 2010))
https://aha.confex.com › webprogram

8 Jan 2010 · Nova Scotia became a crossroads in the late eighteenth-century Atlantic World and African Diaspora. A sojourn of sorts for thousands of free and enslaved blacks, with some on their way to Africa,

Gauteng and Surrounding area tribes below

685px-Map_of_South_Africa_with_English_labels.svg

 

 

                     The European Johnson DNA match I have

Ethnicity

Regions: Great Britain, Scandinavia, Ireland, Europe West, Caucasus

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Asia Central, Europe East, Finland/Northwest Russia

 

The black Johnson ancestry matches below

The first 2 ethnicity results below are from matches who are Native to Africa, I note that they have no trace Regions. My cousins in America Canada and The Carribean Islands along with myself have Cameroon/Congo most have South Eastern Bantu and Mali

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Ivory Coast/Ghana

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana

Trace Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Benin/Togo

Trace Regions: Senegal, Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Scandinavia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Cameroon/Congo, Melanesia, Mali

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu

Trace Regions: Senegal, Benin/Togo, Polynesia, Native American, Finland/Northwest Russia, Europe West, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Asia Central

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo, Senegal, Benin/Togo, Mali

Trace Regions: Ireland, Middle East, Polynesia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa North, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Mali, Senegal

Trace Regions: Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Finland/Northwest Russia, Cameroon/Congo, Ireland, Europe West, Asia Central, Scandinavia, Iberian Peninsula, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Native American

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Great Britain, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Cameroon/Congo

Trace Regions: Senegal, Asia Central, Mali, Caucasus

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain

Trace Regions: Italy/Greece, Benin/Togo, Europe West, Europe East, Native American, Ireland, Polynesia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Scandinavia

 

In summary the Creole appears to refer to African Portuguese Spanish Native American Indian Taino mixed  with Russian Polish Irish/British blood. My cousins who have indigenous Native Indian DNA. I share ancestry with some Puerto Ricans, Spanish, Portuguese and Native American’s.

Below are some results of people with this type of admixture. Ancestry DNA goes back to 5th to 8th cousins (not more than 1000 years but other tests go further back. One of my cousin DNA matches has done some of the other advanced ancestry tests. The test proved that her ancestors were in Saudi Arabia 2000 years ago and are part of the Hausa tribe.

5THWUE9FGkfEEMn31sAcONlwpuuQ

D1Pdk2l3hggN82awZ95PF

Obviously not my dad below

Dad-ADNA-Ethnicity-Estimate-Native-American

The+Peoples+of+North+America

 

My cousin’s Davis ancestry Arawak/Taino Indian DNA below

Ethnicity

Regions: Asia South, Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Great Britain, Senegal, Ivory Coast/Ghana

Trace Regions: Scandinavia, Asia Central, Iberian Peninsula, Melanesia, Mali, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Europe West, Europe East

Slave descendants called Davis

Lucinda

Lucinda Davis – Former Slave in Creek Nation Photo Courtesy Oklahoma Historical Society above

 

 

 

Sallie Johnson  born in 1856. Death 1900 ish

 Spouse: Alfred Reed  Birth: Sep 1853

Children 1 F: Caroline Reed Birth: Jun 1880

2 F: Rosa L. Reed Birth: Apr 1883

3 F: Viola Reed Birth: 8 Nov 1884 Spouse: Henry Davis

4 M: Frank Claude Reed Birth: 25 Dec 1888
Death: Mar 1969 Spouse: Minnie Jackson
Spouse: Willie May

5 M: Alfred Reed Birth: Nov 1888

6 F: Mattie Reed Birth: May 1891

7 F: India Lee Reed Birth: Mar 1893

8 M: Charles Walter Reed Birth: 11 Nov 1894
Death: Dec 1976 Spouse: Erma Lee Duncan

The Johnson’s slaveowner John Caldwell Johnson was deceased in January 1856. 

http://johnsonfamilyofkempercounty.com/jacks-twenty-children/sallie-johnson-reed-1856-between-1900-1908/

 

The Davis & Foster ancestors from St Elizabeth Jamaica

Below Edward Davis and other YORUBA former slaves who returned to Sierra Leone Freetown from Jamaica.

944420_10151489643683519_1254110802_n1-1

1797
[Name] Lancaster Estate
[Crop] sugar, rum, cattle, hire of enslaved people

Property of Charles Foster a minor under the care and direction of William Hay Davis Esq. Account filed by Samuel Barry as overseer for the period 01/01/1797 to 31/12/1797.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/24 34

 

 

 

 

https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/estate/view/3026

ladydavis1

Davis DNA

Ethnicity

Regions: Asia South, Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Great Britain, Senegal, Ivory Coast/Ghana

Trace Regions: Scandinavia, Asia Central, Iberian Peninsula, Melanesia, Mali, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Europe West, Europe East

Ethnicity

Regions: Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Nigeria, Ireland, Senegal

Trace Regions: Asia Central, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Europe West, Great Britain, Mali, Europe East, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Italy/Greece, Iberian Peninsula

Ethnicity

Regions: Great Britain, Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Ireland, Europe East, Scandinavia

Trace Regions: Senegal, Nigeria, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Europe West, Iberian Peninsula, Asia South, Ivory Coast/Ghana, European Jewish, Africa Southeastern Bantu

 

Looking specifically at the Europe East line, my DNA which also shows as Russian Polish in some of my DNA matches. I traced ancestry to a Russian ancestor who built war ships that were used in Poland.

Ancestry DNA shows almost identical Regions for Europe East and Jewish. The Slave merchants in Benin, Dahomey were Portuguese and Spanish. During key periods the Jewish were persecuted in Spain and Portugal and many left. The king of Spain also sent Jewish people to Sao Tome Island.

The below are not my results but are to dig deeper into this European ancestry.

AncestryItalb

AncestryDNA+detail+Jewish+results

It is clear that my Europe East comes from a Jewish Slave merchant due to the history of Spain during the 14th and 17th century and my DNA. 

 

Possible African Tribe connections

IGBO

Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.

They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.

Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Jonkonnu, a parade held in Jamaica, is attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. The Igbo also influenced language with actions such as “sucking-teeth” coming from the Igbo “ima osu” and “cutting-eye” from Igbo “iro anya”.

Words were added to Jamaican Patois when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,”di” to be (in state of)”, which became “de”.

(Photo shows:an Igbo bride in Nigeria, with “red colouring similar to some Jamaicans).

Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.

They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.

Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Jonkonnu, a parade held in Jamaica, is attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. The Igbo also influenced language with actions such as “sucking-teeth” coming from the Igbo “ima osu” and “cutting-eye” from Igbo “iro anya”.

Words were added to Jamaican Patois when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,”di” to be (in state of)”, which became “de”.

(Photo shows:an Igbo bride in Nigeria, with “red colouring similar to some Jamaicans). Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.

They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.

Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Jonkonnu, a parade held in Jamaica, is attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. The Igbo also influenced language with actions such as “sucking-teeth” coming from the Igbo “ima osu” and “cutting-eye” from Igbo “iro anya”.

Words were added to Jamaican Patois when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,”di” to be (in state of)”, which became “de”.

(Photo shows:an Igbo bride in Nigeria, with “red colouring similar to some Jamaicans)

via faajihub.com

images-256

Native to African

EWE

benin1-3

Ewe

They are particularly found in southern Togo (formerly French Togoland), Volta Region in southeastern Ghana (formerly British Togoland), and in southwestern parts of Benin. The Ewe region is sometimes referred to as the Ewe nation or Eʋedukɔ́ region (Togoland in colonial literature). Wikipedia

 

YORUBA

Yoruba2a

yorubaland_map-1

The will of John Scott Owner of Clarendon Park in Clarendon, Tower Hill in St Mary, and The Retreat St Thomas-in-the-East, Jamaica.

Scott, Honorable John heirs of, Retreat 234/ 30

 

1807 [EA] – 1811 [LA] → OWNER
1817 [EA] – 1823 [LA] → PREVIOUS OWNER
1809 [EA] – 1811 [LA] → OWNER
1800 [EA] – 1801 [LA] → OWNER

 

Addresses (1)

Garboldisham Hall, Garboldisham, Norfolk, East Anglia, England

Plotted in St Thomas-in-the-East as a sugar estate with a cattle mill and a windmill in James Robertson’s 1804 map of Jamaica.

To the King’s most excellent Majesty, this map of the island of Jamaica, constructed from actual surveys. . . (London, J. Robertson, 1804), based on Robertson’s survey of the county of Surrey which he compeleted in 1798.
1810
[Number of enslaved people] 261(Tot)
[Name] Retreat
[Stock] 157

Registered to Hon. John Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1811) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/AL11STIE.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in for 1810.

See below link

https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146633646

 

saint-thomas

Golden Grove, Jamaica

St Thomas

List of Original Negroes on Golden Grove Estate, Living this 30th June 1790.

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/Mslavegg.htm

In census records slaves are listed as being mainly either coromantee or Eboe on the Golden Grove Plantation. The Scott’s Hall Maroons are recorded as handing over Maroons that they captured. When my Maroon ancestor was handed in it was by Maroons which I didn’t understand for a while.

 The History of Jamaica(1774), to have been the site of “the first rebellion of importance, on record, [which] happened in the year 1690, when between three and four hundred slaves, belonging to…  Sutton’s plantation in Clarendon… killed the white man entrusted with the care of it and seized upon a large store of fire arms… [after which they] proceeded to the next plantation, and murdered the overseer…”[3]

I read some of the records of what they did to Maroons if they were captured. Maroons would be killed in painful slow ways such as having their hands cut off and bleeding death. Death by castration to name a few. Oral accounts state that when the treaty was signed by only one group of the Maroons The Ashanti, the Koromantee Maroons were not happy about it. The Maroons who received their own land were bound by the treaty to keep the peace between the Maroons and plantation owners and police.

Golden Grove Sugar Factory. St. Thomas, Jamaica

by Julaine Schexnayder
(New Iberia, LA USA)

Golden Grove Sugar Factory. St. Thomas, Jamaica

For tourists and natives alike here is a photo of a beautiful place, off the beaten path. 

We have visited this area, in St. Thomas Parish in the southeast near the coast, several times in recent years. If it is unique and unusual places you are looking for, this is one of them.

Golden Grove, which now consists of a sugar plantation and factory, was established in 1734. The company employs a large number of workers seasonally and year round.

http://www.my-island-jamaica.com/golden-grove-sugar-factory-st-thomas-jamaica.html

A 2 hour audio Jamaican man explains African history before slavery below

https://youtu.be/WiAgA_xjVcU

See these records of St Elizabeth Plantation owners link below

Bennett, Frances Ann, Montrose 46/ 48

Bennett, Joseph, Spring Garden 30/ 16

Bennett, Montague deceased, Spice Grove 21/ 1

Bennett, Thomas, Spring Garden 21/ 2

Bent, Ann R., 7

Bent, Henry, Cherry Moia 6/ 5

Bent, John B., Cotton Tree Hill 8/ 20

Bent, Margaret Powell, 4

Bent, Nicholas, Tryall 13

Bent, Stephen, Mango Hill 3/ 6

Bent, Susanna E., 17

Brown, Charlotte, 5

Brown, Eleanor, 7

Bruce, John and Alexander, 14/ 3

Burt, Mary, 10

Burton, Catherine, 3/ 10

Burton, Frances T., 16

Burton, George William deceased, 5/ 40

Burton, John, Mount Providence 1/ 8

Burton, John, 7/ 14

Burton, Judith Ann, 7/ 20

Burton, Nicholas, 3

Burton, Nicholas, 9

Ebank, Caleb, 15/ 109

Ebanks, A. J. B. and M., 16/ 30

Ebanks, Ann M., 4/ 4

Ebanks, Anthony, 22/ 10

Ebanks, Augustus senior, 3/ 2

Ebanks, Benjamin, Castle Cary 2

Ebanks, Eliza G., 3/ 10

Ebanks, John, 9/ 27

Ebanks, John, 15/ 5

Ebanks, Margaret P., 4/ 1

Ebanks, Mary, 8

Ebanks, Richard, 7/ 28

Edwardes, John, 12/ 2

Edwardes, Margaret, Cool Retreat 5

Edwardes, Margaret, 13

Elliott, David, 2/ 5

Ellison, Henry, 3/ 2

Esson, Andrew, Pond Side 12/ 165

Exton, Margaret, 15/ 20

Facey, Thomas, 6/ 20

Facey, William, 5/ 10

Farquharson, Charles, Spring Vale 132/ 330

Fergusson, Robert, 10/ 20

Johnson, John, 8/ 2

Johnson, John, 1/ 1

Johnson, Samuel, 6/ 40

Johnson, William, 10

Scott, F. Hutchinson, 3/ 16

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/Al20p13.htm

 

ST. THOMAS IN THE EAST, AND ST. DAVID

Custos Rotulorum, and Chief Judge, Hon. Simon Taylor, Esq.

Assistant judges and of the Quorum[Esquires]

*Hon. John Scott

*Hon. Henry Shirley

*K. Osborn

+Hon. C. Bryan

*Samuel Delpratt

Peter Robertson

Robert Logan

William Vick

*William Bryan

Robert Telfer

Thomas Leigh

John Kelly

+William Holgate

N. A. Grant

William Ker

Robert Ferguson

*William Milner

James Codrington

John Stewart

Thomas McKenzie

*John Carlyle

James Ouchterlony

Thomas Thomson

Samuel Thomson

Commissioners of the Supreme Court, James Ouchterlony, William Kerr, John Myrie, Esqs.

Clerk of the Peace and Court, Isaac Panton, Esq.

Clerk of the Vestry, F. F. Hill, Esq.

Coroner, William Vick, Esq.

Poundkeeper Morant-Bay, T. O’Brien Warren

Poundkeeper St. Davids, James Henderson

Collecting Constable St. Thomas in the East, John Noble

Collecting Constable St. David’s, J. Ouchterlony

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/AL08List2.htm

MORANT DIVISION

Allen, Agnes, 8

Beckford, Honorable Nathaniel deceased, Spring Garden 184/ 37

Berwick, Newell, 14/ 2

Buchan, William, Church Hill 32

Champneys, Sir Thomas, Nutt’s River 264/ 27

Chapman, Jane, 6

Collard, J. M. deceased, Stoney Gut 85/ 42

Cope, John Freeman, Belvidere 351/ 113

Crean, Eleanor estate of, 6

Downie, Margaret, 10

Dunkerly, James, Greenwood Castle 4

Durham, Sarah, 4

Edwards, Ann, 12

Ellis, Richard, 10/ 4y

Fergusson and Blair, Roselle 158/ 100

Fitch, Joseph estate of, York and Mount Prosperous 141/ 33

Fitzgerald, George, 15/ 1

Fleck, Henry, 18/ 2

Forbes, William, 8

Foulis, John, Arshdeal 34/ 18

Galloway, Rachel Reid, 18

Gildea, Margaret, 3

Gwynn, A. deceased, Middleton 169/ 11

Hamilton, Charlotte, 8

Hardie, Mary, 7/ 5

Hicks, John W., Pembroke Hall and Hicks’ Hall 193/ 13

Homan, Mary, 5

Hurst, Harriet, 4

Jackson, Joseph, 10

Jordan, Margaret, 9

Kennedy, Margaret, 24/ 4

Laurie, William Kennedy, Woodhall 149/ 2

Logan, Thomas, 28/ 4

Mallet, Mary Ann, 8

Marks, Elizabeth, 4

McCourtie, Thomas, 4/ 10

McGibbon, John deceased, Wilmington 33

McGregor, Alexander, 4

McGregor, Patrick, 3/ 1

Miles, Philip John, Golden Valley 185/ 23

Milne, Alexander, 5/ 2

McKay, Philip, 4/ 2

McKenzie, Cecilia, 6

McQueen, Neil, 4

Munro, Catherine, 6

O’Hagan, Michael, 6

Osborn, Kean, Montpelier 174

Paterson, Duncan D., Bannockburn 58/ 2

Pedley, John, Stanton 201/ 36

Poole, Nicholas W., 1/ 4

Porteous, James, Bonhill and Lochaber 55/ 22

Reallo, John N., 6

Reid, Rachael, 18

Riley, Ann, 6

Robertson, Margaret, 6

Scholar, Charles, 10/ 4

Scott, Charles, Hermitage 62/ 22

Scott, Honorable John heirs of, Retreat 234/ 30

Snodgrass, Hew deceased, 4/ 4

Spence, Hugh, 10/ 3

Stewart, John, 7

Stoddart, Ann, 18

Strathie, Mary, 10

Taylor, Ebenezer 134/ 8

Taylor, George Watson, Burrowfield 84/ 145

Taylor, Honorable Simon and Sir John heirs of, Lyssons 515/ 66

End

1790 ALMANAC

PUBLIC OFFICERS

Link to site for Jamaican family search 

Stephen Fuller Esq., Agent for the Island in Great Britain

William Duncan Esq., Agent General

Colonel E. M. Despard, Superintendent at the Bay of Honduras

John James, Esq., Commander of all the Maroons

James Mont. James, Esq., Superintendent of Trelawny Town

Peter Ingram Esq., Superintendent of Charles Town

Alexander Forbes, Esq., Superintendent of Accompong Town

Charles Douglas Esq., Superintendent of Moore Town

John Sp. Brodbelt, junior, Esq., Superintendent of Scott’s Hall Town

William Dunlop Esq., Notary Public

William Holgate Esq., Auditor General of the Revenue

William Smith Esq., Master of the Revels

John Clement Esq., Public Messenger

G. S. Sutherland Esq., Clerk of the Markets

John Edward Shackleford, Esq., Island Store Keeper

James Murry Esq., Acting ditto

Thomas Dancer, M.D., Botanist, and Physician to the Bath

Dr. Francis Rigby Brodbelt, Surgeon to the Spanish Town Gaol

Mr. Lawrence Hunter, Surgeon to the Kingston Gaol

Mr. Alexander Aikman, King’s Printer

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

William Dunlop Esq.,Secretary of the Island

Deputies

Kingston, Robert Boog Esq.

Savanna-la-Mar, George Murray Esq.

Port Antonio, James Charlton

Montego Bay, Donald Campbell

Lucea, Nathaniel Gray

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Eliphalet Fitch Esq.Receiver General

Deputies

Spanish Town, James Jones Esq.

Port Antonio, Mr. John Harris

Montego Bay, McLaurin Gillies

Lucea, Mr. William Brown

Savanna-la-Mar, George Murray Esq.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Alexander Robertson Esq.,Naval Officer

Deputies

Lucea, Donald Malcolm Esq.

Port Antonio, Mr. George Minot

Sav. la Mar, George Murray Esq.

Montego Bay, E. Montague Esq.


LIST OF SURVEYORS IN COMMISSION

[Surname/Given Name]

Brown Alexander

Burt Alexander

Burton Edward

Brydone ___

Clarke Robert

Campbell William

Cawley Stephen

Dalton Peter

Edgar Archibald

Ferguson James

Forbes Al.

Foss Matthew

Fraser William

Grant Patrick

Graham Robert

Gordon Robert

Gibson Robert

Kirkwood Robert

Leslie Robert

McDowal, J.

Munro Thomas

Morris Samuel

Murdoch John

Pierce William

Rome John

Ranken Alexander

Rosindell Robert

Smellie William

Sherriff Alexander

Syms James

Sutherland John

Schaw Edward

Savory Samuel

Speering Charles

Trought, Nicholas

Turnbull Archibald

Voce William

Whitaker John

Wilson Hugh

 

End

5e2fe5beb8f834ceb0346dd9915d3852--brazil-black-people

 

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8 thoughts on “My Jamaican & American slave ancestors Scott Johnson & Davis”

    1. The Johnsons that I share DNA with are sharing Ghana Mali Songhai Empire Southeastern Bantu and Spain/Portugal DNA my Johnson ancestor married a Russian/Polish person we also have Irish DNA in common. Some of the Johnsons lived in Maryland USA some were sent to Jamaica

      Like

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