All posts by blackhistory938

Kemet & Maat: before Judaism, Christianity and Islam


History Feature: Who are the Krahns And Are They linked to Igbos, Ashanti, Akans and Yorubas in West Africa? — West African Journal Magazine

In West African history, we learn that three(3) languages evolved by 1 AD in the Niger Delta. These historians named: Mande, Voltaic (Mel) and KWA. The prominent Mande languages in West Africa are the Mandingo, Soninke, Woninke, (Lorma, Kpelle, Mano etc. in Liberia) . The Voltaic (Mel) language group is predominantly (Mossi) resides in Burkina […]

via History Feature: Who are the Krahns And Are They linked to Igbos, Ashanti, Akans and Yorubas in West Africa? — West African Journal Magazine

Lagos: A Place with Open Eyes — The Metropole

By Lisa A. Lindsay A decade before the American Civil War, James Churchwill (“Church”) Vaughan set out to fulfill his formerly enslaved father’s dying wish: that he should leave his home in South Carolina for a new life in Africa. With help from the American Colonization Society, he went first to Liberia, though he did […]

via Lagos: A Place with Open Eyes — The Metropole

My Autossomal Gedmatch MDLP Project Admixture Oracle results

Just ran the same test I just got pretty much the same as this brother,
Mine below

Admix Results (sorted):

Single Population Sharing:

#Population (source)Distance1Lemba (derived)5.742Bantu (derived)8.413Mandenka (derived)14.314Sub-Saharian (ancestral)14.425Yoruba (derived)14.426Biaka_Pygmies (derived)38.437Ethiopian (derived)62.938Jew-Ethiopia (derived)66.69Jew_Ethiopia (derived)67.6510Lumbee (derived)73.4111Moroccan (derived)76.5212Mozabite (derived)82.7413Yemen (derived)82.8914Australian (derived)83.3515Egyptian (derived)88.0316Puerto-Rican (derived)90.4317Jordanian (derived)93.5818Ste7 (derived)94.3219Miwok (derived)96.1720Makrani (derived)96.77
Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source)Secondary Population (source)Distance1 97.2%Lemba (derived)+2.8%Mbuti_Pygmies (derived)@4.542 97.7%Lemba (derived)+2.3%Pygmy (ancestral)@4.573 92.4%Lemba (derived)+7.6%Biaka_Pygmies (derived)@4.84 98.1%Lemba (derived)+1.9%North-East-European (ancestral)@5.175 98%Lemba (derived)+2%Latvian (derived)@5.216 97.9%Lemba (derived)+2.1%Estonian (derived)@5.217 98%Lemba (derived)+2%Lithuanian (derived)@5.228 98%Lemba (derived)+2%Lithuanian_V (derived)@5.229 97.9%Lemba (derived)+2.1%Russian (derived)@5.2310 98%Lemba (derived)+2%Polish (derived)@5.2411 98%Lemba (derived)+2%Russian_Center (derived)@5.2512 97.9%Lemba (derived)+2.1%Mordovian (derived)@5.2513 97.9%Lemba (derived)+2.1%Russian_North (derived)@5.2614 98%Lemba (derived)+2%Belarusian (derived)@5.2615 98%Lemba (derived)+2%Russian_South (derived)@5.2616 98%Lemba (derived)+2%Belarusian_V (derived)@5.2617 97.9%Lemba (derived)+2.1%Vepsa (derived)@5.2618 98%Lemba (derived)+2%Polish_V (derived)@5.2619 97.9%Lemba (derived)+2.1%Karelian (derived)@5.2620 98%Lemba (derived)+2%Russian_cossack (derived)@5.27


My Autossomal Gedmatch MDLP Project Admixture Oracle results


My Autossomal Gedmatch MDLP Project Admixture Oracle results

Gedmatch.Com Oracle

This program is based on ‘Oracle v1’ by Dienekes Pontikos. His original program was developed as part of the Dodecad Ancestry Project. More information on Dienekes’ orignal program can be found here.

Many thanks also to Zack Ajmal for helping us get this web version of Dienekes’ Oracle program developed.

My Autossomal MDLP World-22 Oracle results:

Kit F214911

Admix Results (sorted):


Single Population Sharing:

#Population (source)Distance
1Lemba (derived)19.08
2Bantu (derived)21.74
3Biaka_Pygmies (derived)29.86
4Mandenka (derived)

View original post 10,198 more words

The Fang and The Ewondo, or Yaunde, of Yaoundé

The Fang people, also known as Fãn or Pahouin, are a Central African ethnic group found in Equatorial Guinea, northern Gabon, and southern Cameroon.[3][1] Representing about 85% of the total population of Equatorial Guinea, concentrated in the Rio Muni region, the Fang people are its largest ethnic group.[4] In other countries, in the regions they live, they are one of the most significant and influential ethnic groups.[5]

Fang people
Ngontang helmet mask with four faces - Fang people, Gazbon - Royal Museum for Central Africa - DSC06615.JPG

4-faced Ngontang mask of Fang people
Total population
~1 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Equatorial Guinea (85%)
Fang language aka Pahouin or Pamue or Pangwe (Niger-Congo),[2] French, Spanish, Portuguese
Christianity, some syncretic with Traditional religion
Related ethnic groups
Beti peopleYaunde people


The Fang people speak the Fang language, also known as Pahouin or Pamue or Pangwe. The language is a Southern Bantu language belonging to the Niger-Congo family of languages.[2] The Fang language is similar and intelligible with languages spoken by Beti-Pahuin peoples, namely the Beti people to their north and the Bulu people in central. Their largest presence is in the southern regions, up to the Ogooué River estuary where anthropologists refer them also as “Fang proper”.[3]

They have preserved their history largely through a musical oral tradition.[6] Many Fang people are fluent in Spanish, French, German and English, a tradition of second language they developed during the Spanish colonial rule in Equatorial Guinea, the French colonial rule in Gabon and the German-later-British colonial rule in Cameroon.[4]


The Fang people are relatively recent migrants into the Equatorial Guinea, and many of them moved from central Cameroon in the 19th century.[4]

Early ethnologists conjectured them to be Nilotic peoples from the upper Nile area, but a combination of evidence now places them to be of Bantu origins who began moving back into Africa around the seventh or eighth century possibly because of invasions from the north and the wars of West Africa and sub-Saharan Africa.[1] Their migration may be related to an attempt to escape the violence of slave raiding by the Hausa people,[1][7] but this theory has been contested.[1]

The Fang people were victims of the large transatlantic and trans-Saharan slave trade between the 16th and 19th century. They were stereotyped as cannibals by slave traders and missionaries, in part because human skulls and bones were found in open or in wooden boxes near their villages, a claim used to justify violence against them and their enslavement.[1] When their villages were raided, thousands of their wooden idols and villages were burnt by the slave raiders.[4] Later ethnologists who actually spent time with the Fang people later discovered that the Fang people were not cannibalistic, the human bones in open and wooden boxes were of their ancestors, and were Fang people’s method of routine remembrance and religious reverence for their dead loved ones.[1][4][8]

Society and culture


A head dress of the Fang people with embedded artwork.

They have a patrilineal kinship social structure. The villages have been traditionally linked through lineage. They are exogamous, particularly on the father’s side.[3] Polygamy was accepted in the culture of the Fang people.[1] The independence of villages from each other is notable, and they are famed for their knowledge of animals, plants and herbs in the Equatorial forests they live in.[1][9]They are traditionally farmers and hunters, but became major cocoa farmers during the colonial era.[4]

Under French colonial rule, they converted to Christianity. However, after independence their interest in their own traditional religion, called Biere, also spelled Byeri, has returned, and many practice syncretic ideas and rites.[3][4] One of the syncretic traditions among Fang people is called Bwiti, a monotheistic religion that celebrates Christian Easter but over four days with group dancing, singing and psychedelic drinks.[10]

The art works of Fang people, particularly from wood, iron and steatite, are regionally famous.[3][4]Their wooden masks and idol carvings are on display at numerous museums of the world.[11][12]


The Beti-Pahuin are a Bantu ethnic group located in rain forest regions of CameroonRepublic of the CongoEquatorial GuineaGabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe. Though they separate themselves into several individual clans, they all share a common origin, history and culture.

Estimated to be well over 3 million individuals in the early 21st century, they form the largest ethnic group in central Cameroon and its capital city of Yaoundé, in Gabon and in Equatorial Guinea. Their languages, from the Bantu subgroup of the Niger–Congo language family, are mutually intelligible.

The Beti-Pahuin are made up of over 20 individual clans. Altogether, they inhabit a territory of forests and rolling hills that stretches from the Sanaga River in the north to Equatorial Guinea and the northern halves of Gabon to Congo to the south, and from the Atlantic Ocean to the west to the Dja River in the east.


The first grouping, called the Beti, consists of the Ewondo (more precisely Kolo), BaneFang(more precisely M’fang), Mbida-MbaneMvog-Nyenge, and Eton (or Iton). The Eton are further subdivided into the Eton-BetiEton-Beloua, and Beloua-Eton.

The Ewondo, or Yaunde, are centred on Yaoundé, Cameroon’s capital, which was named for them. They also populate the eastern Mefou division and the Mfoundi and Nyong and So divisions in the Centre Province. The remainder of their territory lies in the northern portions of the Ocean divisionin the South Province. Their language (or Beti dialect), also called Ewondo, is the most widely spoken of the Beti languages in Cameroon, with an estimated 1,200,000 speakers in 1982. It serves as a lingua franca in Yaoundé and much of the rest of Cameroon’s Centre and South Provinces.

The Eton live primarily in the Lekie division of Cameroon’s Centre Province with major settlements at Sa’a and Obala. They speak the Eton language or dialect, which had 500,000 speakers in 1982.[1]


Fangs in a Christian mission, c. 1912

The Fang (or Fan) form the second group. Individual ethnic groups include the Fang proper, the Ntumu, the Mvae, and the Okak. Fang territories begin at the southern edge of Cameroon south of KribiDjoum, and Mvangan in the South Province and continue south across the border, including all of Río Muni in Equatorial Guinea and south into Gabonand Congo.


The third grouping is called the Bulu and makes up about a third of all Beti-Pahuin in Cameroon. The Bulu include the Bulu proper of Sangmélima, Kribi, and Ebolowa, the Fong and Zaman of the Dja River valley, the YengonoYembama and Yelinda of the Nyong River valley, and the YesumYebekangaYebekolo, and Mvele.

Other groups

In addition, several other peoples are currently being assimilated or “Pahuinised” by their Beti-Pahuin neighbours. These include the ManguissaYekabaBamveleEvuzokBatchanga (Tsinga)OmvangYetude, and, to some extent, the Baka.

Fang mask used for the ngil ceremony, an inquisitorial search for sorcerers. Wood and pigment, 19th century. Ethnological Museum of Berlin, III C 6000.

Society and culture

A large number of Beti-Pahuin are involved in lucrative enterprises such as cocoa and coffee farming.

The Beti-Pahuin peoples organise themselves according to a series of patrilineal kinships, although some of its subgroups seem to have practised matriliny in the past.[2] As a consequence of this matrilineal past we can still nowadays see the strong link among the maternal uncle and the nephew.[2][3] The family (a man, his wife or wives, and his children) forms the backbone of this system. Several families of a common lineage live together in a village, and in turn, several related villages form a clan. These clans come under the nominal rule of a chief, who is also traditionally regarded as a religious authority.

The majority of the Beti-Pahuin ethnic groups live in small, roadside villages of no more than a few hundred inhabitants. These villages are mostly linear, with houses paralleling the road and backed by forest. The typical dwelling unit is constructed of dried-mud bricks placed onto a bamboo frame and roofed with raffia-palm fronds. In recent times, metal roofing has become increasingly common, and wealthier individuals may construct their homes in concrete.

Beti-Pahuin territory also includes a number of sizable towns and cities, most of which were begun by the Germans or French. Here, settlements are more in the European pattern, with a network of streets, various neighbourhoods, and central administrative or commercial districts.


Most Beti-Pahuin peoples were Christianised by 1939 (though the Fang were also influenced by the Mitsogo). At that time, much of their traditional culture was abandoned, including much native dance and song. After the colonial era ended, their traditional religion has enjoyed a resurgence, such as the Bwiti religion and, as has a flowering of new styles of music and dance, such as the Bikutsi of the Ewondos.

Thus, today many Beti-Pahuin consider themselves Christian, go to church on Sundays, and then attend various secret societies or visit a traditional healer at other times during the week.

Other languages

Some Beti-Pahuin peoples also speak or understand their countries’ official languages: Spanish in Equatorial Guinea (Annobonese in Annobón); French in CameroonEquatorial Guinea, and GabonPortugueseAngolarPrincipense, and Forro in São Tomé and PríncipeEnglish in Cameroon.



Alternative Titles: Éwondo, Jaunde, Yaounde
Yaunde, also spelled Yaounde or Jaunde, also called Éwondo, a Bantu-speaking people of the hilly area of south-central Cameroon who live in and around the capital city of Yaoundé. The Yaunde and a closely related people, the Eton, comprise the two main subgroups of the Beti, which in turn constitute one of the three major subdivisions of the cluster of peoples in southern Cameroon, mainland Equatorial Guinea, and northern Gabon known as the Fang(q.v.). The other two main subdivisions are those of the Bulu and of the Fang proper, who live mostly in Gabon and in Equatorial Guinea.Yaunde is a dialect of the Yaunde-Fang group of Bantu languages; people may speak a maternal dialect, such as Eton, but they learn to read and write in Yaunde. Yaunde is also used for commerce and politics in rural areas inhabited by other groups and is especially useful in Yaoundé city, where immigrants from throughout Cameroon and neighbouring countries employ it as a lingua franca. Vocabulary from these other dialects, other nearby languages, and English and French is assimilated into everyday speech.

The Yaunde share a common culture and history with other Beti, and it is often difficult to distinguish them from their neighbours. Beti are said to be the last of several great waves of Fang immigrants who came from somewhere to the northeast perhaps because of pressure from the jihad of the Fulani under Usman dan Fodio. While the Fang proper drove into what is now Gabon, and the Bulu subgroup swept toward the sea, the Beti followed these powerful precursors and occupied lands adjacent to theirs.

The Yaunde live in a region of equatorial forest. They raise staple crops of cassava and corn (maize), which are supplemented with a wide variety of vegetable leaves, palm oil, wild mushrooms, insects, and other gathered products. Yams, plantains, and peanuts.


3061. Yehud 
Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance

Jewry, Judah, Judea(Aramaic) contracted from a form corresponding to Yhuwdah; properly, Judah, hence, Judaea — Jewry, Judah, Judea.

see HEBREW Yhuwdah

Forms and Transliterations

בִיה֖וּד ביהוד יְה֔וּד יְה֖וּד יְה֗וּד יְהֽוּד׃ יהוד יהוד׃ לִיה֤וּד ליהוד ḇî·hūḏ ḇîhūḏ lî·hūḏ liHud lîhūḏ viHud yə·hūḏ yeHud yəhūḏ

Jew, y’-hu-DEE, יְהוּדִי
The term Jew passed into the English language from the Greek Ioudaios and Latin Iudaeus, from which the Old French giu was derived after dropping the letter “d”, and later after a variety of forms found in early English (from about the year 1000) such as: Iudea, Gyu, Giu, Iuu, Iuw, Iew developed into the English word “Jew.” It thus ultimately originates in theBiblical HebrewwordYehudimeaning “from the Tribe of Judah“, “from the Kingdom of Judah“, or “Jew“. The Jewish ethnonym in Hebrew is יהודים‎,Yehudim (plural ofיהודי‎,Yehudi).


Who is Yehuda in the Bible?
Judah (Hebrew: יְהוּדָה‎, Standard Yehuda Tiberian Yəhūḏāh) was, according to the Book of Genesis, the fourth son of Jacob and Leah, the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Judah. By extension, he is indirectly eponymous of the Kingdom of Judah, the land of Judea and the word “Jew”.