According to the oral and documented history of the Tikar people, they originated in present-day Sudan. It is believed that when they inhabited Sudan, they lived adjacent to two groups. The first group comprised of iron-makers/blacksmiths and carpenters in the Meroe Kindgom; this group (ancestors of the Mende people) later left the Sudan and moved west towards Lake Chad. They eventually traveled to the Mali Empire, and along with the town Fulani and Mande, founded the Kingdom of Mani. The second group – ancestors of the Fulani – arrived in the Sudan from Egypt and Ethiopia. These cattle and goat herders moved west to Lake Chad near present-day Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria before traveling across West Africa. It is believed that when the ancestors of the Tikar were in the Sudan, they lived along the Nile River. There, they developed their cattle grazing, iron-making, horse riding, and fighting skills.
At some point in time, the ancestors of the Tikar moved from the Sudan to the Adamawa Northern Region of present-day Cameroon. They settled in a village they named Ngambe (present-day Bankim District) where they intermarried with selected grassland farmers and animal herders.
Click for full post
Above is a quote from the article click the below link for the full post which I recommend. I will be compiling my own research on the above matter and my previous post Reclaiming the African in My African American Ethnicity — Ariana Fiorello-Omotosho The previous post is of a African descendant brought to the New world in slavery from Nigeria and Cameroon. The analysis of her DNA by a professional company traces her genealogy to one of 2 places (I would personally say both places) Egypt or Palestine. If you have read my post on my Akan and Igbo ancestors you will be aware that I also have a DNA match cousin who’s ancestry was tracing back to Egypt and Saudi Arabia rather than palestine 1000-2000 years ago.
Click below for the full post (The article is mind blowing and needs to be read more than once to be truly absorbed in my opinion)
As I continue to question my identity, I try to place myself in the context of my ethnic backgrounds and my biological race. I know who I am. I understand some of the reasons as to why I am me. I have done extensive research into the hiSTORIES of my ancestors, both biological and adoptive. […]
average height is unusually short. Anthropologists[who?] have used the term pygmyism to describe the phenotype of endemic short stature (as opposed to disproportionate dwarfismoccurring in isolated cases in a population) for populations in which adult men are on average less than 150 cm (4 ft 11 in) tall.
The term is primarily associated with the African Pygmies, thehunter-gatherers of the Congo basin (comprising theBambenga, Bambuti and Batwa). The term “pygmoid” is a traditional morphological racial category for the Central African Pygmies, considered a subgroup of the Negroid category. The term “Asiatic Pygmies” has been used of the Negrito populations of Maritime Southeast Asia and other Australoid peoples of short stature.
The term pygmy, as used to refer to diminutive people, derives from Greek πυγμαῖος pygmaios via Latin Pygmaei (sing.Pygmaeus), derived from πυγμή – meaning a fist, or a measure of length corresponding to the distance between the elbow and knuckles. (See also Greek pechus.) In Greek mythology the word describes a tribe of dwarfs, first described by Homer, the ancient Greek poet, and reputed to live in India and south of modern-dayEthiopia.
The term pygmy is sometimes considered pejorative. However, there is no single term to replace it. Many prefer to be identified by their ethnicity, such as the Aka (Mbenga), Baka, Mbuti, andTwa. The term Bayaka, the plural form of the Aka/Yaka, is sometimes used in the Central African Republic to refer to all local pygmies. Likewise, the Kongo word Bambenga is used inCongo.
Various theories have been proposed to explain the short stature of pygmies. Some studies suggest that it could be related to adaptation to low ultraviolet light levels in rainforests. This might mean that relatively little vitamin D can be made in human skin, thereby limiting calciumuptake from the diet for bone growth and maintenance, and leading to the evolution of the small skeletal size.
Other explanations include lack of food in the rainforest environment, low calcium levels in the soil, the need to move through dense jungle, adaptation to heat and humidity, and as an association with rapid reproductive maturation under conditions of early mortality. (See alsoAeta people § Demographics.) Other evidence points towards unusually low levels of expression of the genes encoding the growth hormone receptor and growth hormone compared to the related tribal groups, associated with low serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and short stature.
African pygmies live in several ethnic groups in Rwanda,Burundi, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Republic of Congo (ROC), the Central African Republic,Cameroon, the Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Angola, Botswana,Namibia, Madagascar, and Zambia. There are at least a dozen pygmy groups, sometimes unrelated to each other. The best known are the Mbenga (Aka and Baka) of the westernCongo basin, who speak Bantu and Ubangian languages; theMbuti (Efe etc.) of the Ituri Rainforest, who speak Bantu andCentral Sudanic languages, and the Twa of the African Great Lakes, who speak Bantu Rundi and Kiga. Most pygmy communities are partially hunter-gatherers, living partially but not exclusively on the wild products of their environment. They trade with neighbouring farmers to acquire cultivated foods and other material items; no group lives deep in the forest without access to agricultural products. It is estimated that there are between 250,000 and 600,000 Pygmies living in the Congo rainforest. However, although Pygmies are thought of as forest people, the groups called Twa may live in open swamp or desert.
A commonly held belief is that African Pygmies are the direct descendants of Late Stone Age hunter-gatherer peoples of the central African rainforest, who were partially absorbed or displaced by later immigration of agricultural peoples, and adopted their Central Sudanic, Ubangian, andBantu languages. This view has no archaeological support, and ambiguous support from genetics and linguistics.[dubious ]
Some 30% of Aka language is not Bantu, and a similar percentage of Baka language is not Ubangian. Much of pygmy vocabulary is botanical, dealing with honey collecting, or is otherwise specialized for the forest, and is shared between the two western pygmy groups. It has been proposed that this is the remnant of an independent western pygmy (Mbenga or “Baaka”) language. However, this type of vocabulary is subject to widespread borrowing among the Pygmies and neighboring peoples, and the “Baaka” language was only reconstructed to the 15th century.
African pygmy populations are genetically diverse and extremely divergent from all other human populations, suggesting they have an ancient indigenous lineage. Their uniparental markersrepresent the second-most ancient divergence right after those typically found in Khoisanpeoples. Recent advances in genetics shed some light on the origins of the various pygmy groups. Researchers found “an early divergence of the ancestors of pygmy hunter–gatherers and farming populations 60,000 years ago, followed by a split of the Pygmies’ ancestors into the Western and Eastern pygmy groups 20,000 years ago.”
New evidence suggests East and West African pygmy children have different growth patterns. The difference between the two groups may indicate the Pygmies’ short stature did not start with their common ancestor, but instead evolved independently in adapting to similar environments, which adds support that some sets of genes related to height were advantageous in Eastern pygmy populations, but not in Western pygmy populations.
However, Roger Blench (1999) argues that the Pygmies are not descended from residual hunter-gatherer groups, but rather are offshoots of larger neighboring ethnolinguistic groups that had adopted forest subsistence strategies. Blench notes the lack of clear linguistic and archaeological evidence for the antiquity of pygmy cultures and peoples, and also notes that the genetic evidence can be problematic. Blench (1999) also notes that there is no evidence of the Pygmies have hunting technology distinctive from that of their neighbors, and argues that the short stature of pygmy populations can arise relatively quickly (in less than a few millenia) due to strong selection pressures.
The African Pygmies are particularly known for their usually vocal music, usually characterised by dense contrapuntal communal improvisation. Simha Arom says that the level of polyphonic complexity of pygmy music was reached in Europe in the 14th century, yet pygmy culture is unwritten and ancient. Music permeates daily life and there are songs for entertainment as well as specific events and activities.
Violence against pygmies
The pygmy population was a target of the Interahamwe during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. Of the 30,000 Pygmies in Rwanda, an estimated 10,000 were killed and another 10,000 were displaced. They have been described as “forgotten victims” of the genocide.
From the end of 2002 through January 2003 around 60,000 pygmy civilians and 10,000 combatants were killed in an extermination campaign known as “Effacer le Tableau” during theSecond Congo War. Human rights activists have made demands for the massacre to be recognized as genocide.
In the Republic of the Congo, where Pygmies make up 2% of the population, many Pygmies live asslaves to Bantu masters. The nation is deeply stratified between these two major ethnic groups. The pygmy slaves belong to their Bantu masters from birth in a relationship that the Bantus call a time-honored tradition. Even though the Pygmies are responsible for much of the hunting, fishing and manual labor in jungle villages, Pygmies and Bantus alike say that Pygmies are often paid at the master’s whim: in cigarettes, used clothing, or simply not paid at all. As a result of pressure from UNICEF and human-rights activists, in 2009, a law that would grant special protections to the pygmy people was awaiting a vote by the Congo parliament. According to reports made in 2013, this law was never passed.
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, during the Ituri Conflict, Ugandan backed rebel groups were accused by the UN of enslaving Mbutis to prospect for minerals and forage for forest food, with those returning empty handed being killed and eaten.
In Northern Katanga Province starting in 2013, the pygmy Batwa people, whom the Luba peopleoften exploit and allegedly enslave, rose up into militias, such as the “Perci” militia, and attacked Luba villages. A Luba militia known as “Elements” attacked back. More than a thousand people were killed in the first eight months of 2014 alone with the number of displaced people estimated to be 650,000 as of December 2017. The weapons used in the conflict are often arrows and axes, rather than guns.
Historically, the pygmy have always been viewed as inferior by both colonial authorities and the village-dwelling Bantu tribes. Pygmy children were sometimes captured during the period of the Congo Free State, which exported pygmy children to zoos throughout Europe, including the world’s fair in the United States in 1907. Pygmies are often evicted from their land and given the lowest paying jobs. At a state level, Pygmies are sometimes not considered citizens and are refused identity cards, deeds to land, health care and proper schooling. The Lancet published a review showing that pygmy populations often had worse access to health care than neighboring communities.
Maritime Southeast Asia
Negritos in Southeast Asia (including the Batak and Aeta of thePhilippines, the Andamanese of the Andaman Islands, and the Semangof the Malay Peninsula) are sometimes called pygmies (especially in older literature).
Negritos share some common physical features with African pygmy populations, including short stature and dark skin. The name “Negrito”, from the Spanish adjective meaning “small black person”, was given by early explorers.
The explorers who named the Negritos assumed the Andamanese they encountered were from Africa. This belief was, however, discarded by anthropologists who noted that apart from dark skin, peppercorn hair, and steatopygia, the Andamanese had little in common with any African population, including the African pygmies. Their superficial resemblance to some Africans andMelanesians is thought to be due to living in a similar environment, or simply retentions of the initial human form.
Their origin and the route of their migration to Asia is still a matter of great speculation. They are genetically distant from Africans, and have been shown to have separated early from Asians, suggesting that they are either surviving descendants of settlers from the early out-of-Africa migration of the Great Coastal Migration of the Proto-Australoids, or that they are descendants of one of the founder populations of modern humans.
Short-statured aboriginal tribes inhabited the rainforests of North Queensland, Australia, of which the best known group is probably the Tjapukai or Djabugay people of the Cairns area. These rainforest people, collectively referred to as Barrineans, were once considered to be a relict of the earliest wave of migration to the Australian continent, but this theory no longer finds much favour. These Rainforest People tended to live in the first variety of Jykabita, a wood and mud structure renowned for incubation of plants.
Micronesia and Melanesia
An anthropologist, Norman Gabel, mentions that rumours exist of pygmy people in the interior mountains of Viti Levu in Fiji, but explains he had no evidence of their existence. Another anthropologist, E.W. Gifford, reiterates Gabel’s statement and claims that tribes of pygmies in the closest proximity to Fiji would most likely be found in Vanuatu.
During the 1900s when Vanuatu was known as New Hebrides, sizable pygmy tribes were first reported throughout northeastern Santo. It is likely that they are not limited to this region of New Hebrides. Nonetheless, there is no anthropological evidence linking pygmies to other islands of Vanuatu.
Frank Kingdon-Ward in the early 20th century, Alan Rabinowitz in the 1990s, P. Christiaan Klieger in 2003, and others have reported a tribe of pygmy Tibeto-Burman speakers known as the T’runginhabiting the remote region of Mt. Hkakabo Razi in Southeast Asia on the border of China(Yunnan and Tibet), Burma, and India. A Burmese survey done in the 1960s reported a mean height of an adult male T’rung at 1.43 m (4’6″) and that of females at 1.40 m (4’5″).
These are the only known “pygmies” of clearly East Asian descent. The cause of their diminutive size is unknown, but diet and endogamous marriage practices have been cited. The population of T’rung pygmies has been steadily shrinking, and is now down to only a few individuals.
In this post I am going to be exploring the theory that America was part of Africa. This post will also explore the history of the Copper coloured races found in America and the Carribean by Christopher Columbus.
There is evidence that when Christopher Columbus got to America he discovered the Copper coloured races there. Christopher Columbus also thought he was in India. Christopher Columbus did not discover America as the continent was already inhabited.
Below a negro slave is described as copper coloured.
The copper colour
If you have read some of my other posts you will be aware that I study the Hebrew Israelites movement past and present. My opinion on the so-called 12 tribes chart was that it was flawed specifically with regards to Mexico however evidence has been brought to my consciousness of a knowledge of the Torah dating back to ancient times in that region. I will explore some of the information out there below.
The stone engravings in New Mexico are near Los Lunas, some 20 miles from Albuquerque. The locals knew the mountain as the “Cliff of Strange Writings.”
In Eidsmoe’s report, he describes the letters as paleo-Hebrew, an early form of Hebrew writing dated by some experts to about 500 B.C.
The writing, when translated, roughly is:
“I [am] Jehovah your God who has taken you out of the house of slaves of land of Egypt. Not there be other gods before my face. You shall not make idol. [You must] not take name Jehovah in vain. Remember day of the sabbath to keep holy. Honor your father and your mother so that will be long your days upon that ground that Jehovah your God to you has given. You must murder not. Not you commit adultery. You must steal not. [You must] not give testimony against neighbor as witness false. You must desire not [the] wife of your neighbor and all that is your neighbor’s.”
An Internet search offers some interesting perspectives on the stone.
A report posted on the Ohio State website says the script is the Old Hebrew alphabet and documents that James Tabor of the Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte in 1996 interviewed the now-deceased Frank Hibben, a retired New Mexico archaeologist.
The report said Hibben first saw the text in 1933, and was taken to the site by a guide who had seen it as a boy in the 1880s. Estimates then were that the carvings were 500-2,000 years old.
Another idea floated was that the engravings are a Samaritan mezuzah, a large slab of stone containing the Ten Commandments. And since Samaritan shipowners were known to live in Greek communities, it could place the artifact in the Byzantine period.
Roger L. Williamson writes at Ancient-Hebrew.org the carver was a man “of many ports of call and could speak multiple languages phonetically, but not a man versed in letters.” Further, the analysis concluded the carver knew the Mosiac Law but was not a priest.
Did King Solomon’s Navy Discover America?
Jesus came through the lineage of David of the tribe of Judah. Revelations describes his appearance as seen above.
Below is map showing that in the mid 1700’s there was an area within negroland that was known as the kingdom of Juda.
Take a look at where Kindgdom of Juda in Africa was located on the map. It was in the area near to to the Gulf of Guniea next to Ghana which was the Gold Coast and Benin which was the Slave coast.
In this map above in the Benin area it states Jahu
Let’s look at the word Jahu. Jahu sounds like Jew or Juda but let’s look deeper.
Jah, the Lord
Contraction for Yhovah, and meaning the same; Jah, the sacred name — Jah, the Lord, most vehement. Compare names in “-iah,” “- jah.”
see HEBREW Yhovah
בְּיָ֣הּ בְּיָ֥הּ ביה יָ֑הּ יָ֔הּ יָ֖הּ יָ֗הּ יָ֡הּ יָ֣הּ יָ֨הּ ׀ יָ֬הּ יָ֭הּ יָּ֑הּ יָֽהּ׃ יָהּ יה יה׃ bə·yāh beYah bəyāh Yah yāh
Above it states Jah is a contraction of Yhovah. So what does Yhovah mean??
Original Word: יְהֹוָה
Part of Speech: Proper Name
Phonetic Spelling: (yeh-ho-vaw’)
Short Definition: LORD
Yeho or “Yehō-” is the prefix form of “YHWH” used in Hebrew theophoric names; the suffix form “Yahū” is just as common, which has caused two opinions:
- In former times (at least from c.1650 CE), the prefix pronunciation “Yehō-” was sometimes connected with the full pronunciation “Yehova”, derived from combining the Masoretic vowel points for “Adonai” with the consonantal tetragrammaton YHWH.
- Recently, as “Yahweh” is likely an imperfective verb form, “Yahu” is its corresponding preterite or jussive short form: compare yiŝtahaweh (imperfective), yiŝtáhû (preterit or jussive short form) = “do obeisance”.
The first argument is believed by George Wesley Buchanan in Biblical Archaeology Review; Smith’s 1863 A Dictionary of the Bible; Section # 2.1 The Analytical Hebrew & Chaldee Lexicon (1848)in its article הוה.
The second argument is supported on grammatical grounds because shortening to “Yahw” would end up as “Yahu” or something similar, and forms like Yo (יוֹ) contracted from Yeho (יְהוֹ) and the suffix “-yah”, as well as “Yeho-“ or “Yo” can most readily be explained as derivatives of “Yahweh” rather than from “Yehovah”.
Let’s also look at hayah
|HAYAH =I Am Was And Will be|
The Hebrew lexicon is Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius Lexicon; this is keyed to the “Theological Word Book of the
With some background information lets turn back to The Kindgom Of Juda. The Kindgom Of Juda was situated in the bend/CROOK of West Africa in the Benin Slave coast area. History lets us know slaves were taken from that area.
The Atlantic ocean was once called the Ethiopian Ocean look at the image below.
Let’s go back to a map showing how South America was once part of Africa. Which part was it connected to. See below. Yes it was connected to the area Europeans called the Kindgom of Juda. It was called the Kindgdom of Juda because the people were said to be descendants of David and his dynasty.
Part of the land of the Kindgom of Juda in Africa was separated to form South America as shown above
Below the map as it use to be shown. Upside down with South Africa at the top. Also note the other lands that are rarely discussed surrounding what we call our world. “The whirled” looks pretty flat from that angle.
Below is a reconstruction of how an original Native American would have looked.
Nicknamed Apiuna, his skull was found deep inside a cave in Brazil 50 years ago. Now a graphic designer has reconstructed his face and what you can see may settle the debate regarding Africans being the first to land on the American continent!
The Mirror.co.uk wrote:
This skull, found in the same archaeologically rich region, has similar traits to today’s American Indians.
The discovery of the African’s face challenges the thinking about the American continents’ first pioneers.
Apiuna bears a close likeness to Luzia, the name given to the 11,500-year-old skull of a young African woman, whose remains are the oldest ever found on the South American continent.
My cousin DNA matches with Native American Indian are Davis and I see them listed in the documentary above. I feel overwhelmed to know that the Indian Great Grandmother my grandmother spoke of lived on and her descendants are alive today. I myself do not have Native American DNA and can only assume it was a grandmother in marriage only and not a blood connection. I have Native American and Spanish Puerto Rican cousins who share my African ancestry.
Mexican art shares a similarity with African and Egyptian art parrallelling the customs the ancestors learnt when they were there.
In Mexico there are ancient Pyrimads built by the original inhabitants long before Europeans arrived in the land.
These huge figure heads below show who some of them were.