Category Archives: African Civilisation

Pygmy people’s

Baka pygmy dancers in the East Region of Cameroon

In anthropology, pygmy peoples are ethnic groups whose

average height is unusually short. Anthropologists[who?] have used the term pygmyism to describe the phenotype of endemic short stature (as opposed to disproportionate dwarfismoccurring in isolated cases in a population) for populations in which adult men are on average less than 150 cm (4 ft 11 in) tall.[1]

The term is primarily associated with the African Pygmies, thehunter-gatherers of the Congo basin (comprising theBambenga, Bambuti and Batwa).[2] The term “pygmoid” is a traditional morphological racial category for the Central African Pygmies, considered a subgroup of the Negroid category.[3] The term “Asiatic Pygmies” has been used of the Negrito populations of Maritime Southeast Asia and other Australoid peoples of short stature.[4]

The T’rung (Taron) of Myanmar are an exceptional case of a “pygmy” population of East Asianphenotype.



A family from a Ba Aka pygmy village

The term pygmy, as used to refer to diminutive people, derives from Greek πυγμαῖος pygmaios via Latin Pygmaei (sing.Pygmaeus), derived from πυγμή – meaning a fist, or a measure of length corresponding to the distance between the elbow and knuckles. (See also Greek pechus.) In Greek mythology the word describes a tribe of dwarfs, first described by Homer, the ancient Greek poet, and reputed to live in India and south of modern-dayEthiopia.[5]

The term pygmy is sometimes considered pejorative. However, there is no single term to replace it.[6] Many prefer to be identified by their ethnicity, such as the Aka (Mbenga), Baka, Mbuti, andTwa.[7] The term Bayaka, the plural form of the Aka/Yaka, is sometimes used in the Central African Republic to refer to all local pygmies. Likewise, the Kongo word Bambenga is used inCongo.

Short stature

Various theories have been proposed to explain the short stature of pygmies. Some studies suggest that it could be related to adaptation to low ultraviolet light levels in rainforests.[8][9] This might mean that relatively little vitamin D can be made in human skin, thereby limiting calciumuptake from the diet for bone growth and maintenance, and leading to the evolution of the small skeletal size.[10]

Other explanations include lack of food in the rainforest environment, low calcium levels in the soil, the need to move through dense jungle, adaptation to heat and humidity, and as an association with rapid reproductive maturation under conditions of early mortality.[11] (See alsoAeta people § Demographics.) Other evidence points towards unusually low levels of expression of the genes encoding the growth hormone receptor and growth hormone compared to the related tribal groups, associated with low serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and short stature.[12]

African Pygmies

African pygmies and a European explorer.

African pygmies live in several ethnic groups in Rwanda,Burundi, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Republic of Congo (ROC), the Central African Republic,Cameroon, the Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Angola, Botswana,Namibia, Madagascar, and Zambia.[7] There are at least a dozen pygmy groups, sometimes unrelated to each other. The best known are the Mbenga (Aka and Baka) of the westernCongo basin, who speak Bantu and Ubangian languages; theMbuti (Efe etc.) of the Ituri Rainforest, who speak Bantu andCentral Sudanic languages, and the Twa of the African Great Lakes, who speak Bantu Rundi and Kiga. Most pygmy communities are partially hunter-gatherers, living partially but not exclusively on the wild products of their environment. They trade with neighbouring farmers to acquire cultivated foods and other material items; no group lives deep in the forest without access to agricultural products.[7] It is estimated that there are between 250,000 and 600,000 Pygmies living in the Congo rainforest.[13][14] However, although Pygmies are thought of as forest people, the groups called Twa may live in open swamp or desert.

Distribution of Pygmies and their languages according to Bahuchet (2006). Thesouthern Twa are not shown.


A commonly held belief is that African Pygmies are the direct descendants of Late Stone Age hunter-gatherer peoples of the central African rainforest, who were partially absorbed or displaced by later immigration of agricultural peoples, and adopted their Central Sudanic, Ubangian, andBantu languages. This view has no archaeological support, and ambiguous support from genetics and linguistics.[dubious ][15][16][17]

Some 30% of Aka language is not Bantu, and a similar percentage of Baka language is not Ubangian. Much of pygmy vocabulary is botanical, dealing with honey collecting, or is otherwise specialized for the forest, and is shared between the two western pygmy groups. It has been proposed that this is the remnant of an independent western pygmy (Mbenga or “Baaka”) language. However, this type of vocabulary is subject to widespread borrowing among the Pygmies and neighboring peoples, and the “Baaka” language was only reconstructed to the 15th century.[18]

African pygmy populations are genetically diverse and extremely divergent from all other human populations, suggesting they have an ancient indigenous lineage. Their uniparental markersrepresent the second-most ancient divergence right after those typically found in Khoisanpeoples.[19] Recent advances in genetics shed some light on the origins of the various pygmy groups. Researchers found “an early divergence of the ancestors of pygmy hunter–gatherers and farming populations 60,000 years ago, followed by a split of the Pygmies’ ancestors into the Western and Eastern pygmy groups 20,000 years ago.”[20]

New evidence suggests East and West African pygmy children have different growth patterns. The difference between the two groups may indicate the Pygmies’ short stature did not start with their common ancestor, but instead evolved independently in adapting to similar environments, which adds support that some sets of genes related to height were advantageous in Eastern pygmy populations, but not in Western pygmy populations.[20][21][22]

However, Roger Blench (1999)[23] argues that the Pygmies are not descended from residual hunter-gatherer groups, but rather are offshoots of larger neighboring ethnolinguistic groups that had adopted forest subsistence strategies. Blench notes the lack of clear linguistic and archaeological evidence for the antiquity of pygmy cultures and peoples, and also notes that the genetic evidence can be problematic. Blench (1999) also notes that there is no evidence of the Pygmies have hunting technology distinctive from that of their neighbors, and argues that the short stature of pygmy populations can arise relatively quickly (in less than a few millenia) due to strong selection pressures.


The African Pygmies are particularly known for their usually vocal music, usually characterised by dense contrapuntal communal improvisation. Simha Arom says that the level of polyphonic complexity of pygmy music was reached in Europe in the 14th century, yet pygmy culture is unwritten and ancient.[24] Music permeates daily life and there are songs for entertainment as well as specific events and activities.

Violence against pygmies

Reported genocides

The pygmy population was a target of the Interahamwe during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. Of the 30,000 Pygmies in Rwanda, an estimated 10,000 were killed and another 10,000 were displaced. They have been described as “forgotten victims” of the genocide.[25]

From the end of 2002 through January 2003 around 60,000 pygmy civilians and 10,000 combatants were killed in an extermination campaign known as “Effacer le Tableau” during theSecond Congo War.[26][27] Human rights activists have made demands for the massacre to be recognized as genocide.[28]

Reported slavery

In the Republic of the Congo, where Pygmies make up 2% of the population, many Pygmies live asslaves to Bantu masters. The nation is deeply stratified between these two major ethnic groups. The pygmy slaves belong to their Bantu masters from birth in a relationship that the Bantus call a time-honored tradition. Even though the Pygmies are responsible for much of the hunting, fishing and manual labor in jungle villages, Pygmies and Bantus alike say that Pygmies are often paid at the master’s whim: in cigarettes, used clothing, or simply not paid at all. As a result of pressure from UNICEF and human-rights activists, in 2009, a law that would grant special protections to the pygmy people was awaiting a vote by the Congo parliament.[29][30] According to reports made in 2013, this law was never passed.[31]

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, during the Ituri Conflict, Ugandan backed rebel groups were accused by the UN of enslaving Mbutis to prospect for minerals and forage for forest food, with those returning empty handed being killed and eaten.[32]

Ethnic conflict

In Northern Katanga Province starting in 2013, the pygmy Batwa people, whom the Luba peopleoften exploit and allegedly enslave,[33] rose up into militias, such as the “Perci” militia, and attacked Luba villages.[34] A Luba militia known as “Elements” attacked back. More than a thousand people were killed in the first eight months of 2014 alone[35] with the number of displaced people estimated to be 650,000 as of December 2017.[36][33] The weapons used in the conflict are often arrows and axes, rather than guns.[34]

Systematic discrimination

Ota Benga at the Bronx Zoo in 1906

Historically, the pygmy have always been viewed as inferior by both colonial authorities and the village-dwelling Bantu tribes.[14] Pygmy children were sometimes captured during the period of the Congo Free State, which exported pygmy children to zoos throughout Europe, including the world’s fair in the United States in 1907.[14] Pygmies are often evicted from their land and given the lowest paying jobs. At a state level, Pygmies are sometimes not considered citizens and are refused identity cards, deeds to land, health care and proper schooling. The Lancet published a review showing that pygmy populations often had worse access to health care than neighboring communities.[37]


Maritime Southeast Asia

Ati woman of the Philippines

Negritos in Southeast Asia (including the Batak and Aeta of thePhilippines, the Andamanese of the Andaman Islands, and the Semangof the Malay Peninsula) are sometimes called pygmies (especially in older literature).

Negritos share some common physical features with African pygmy populations, including short stature and dark skin. The name “Negrito”, from the Spanish adjective meaning “small black person”, was given by early explorers.

The explorers who named the Negritos assumed the Andamanese they encountered were from Africa. This belief was, however, discarded by anthropologists who noted that apart from dark skin, peppercorn hair, and steatopygia, the Andamanese had little in common with any African population, including the African pygmies.[38] Their superficial resemblance to some Africans andMelanesians is thought to be due to living in a similar environment, or simply retentions of the initial human form.[39]

Their origin and the route of their migration to Asia is still a matter of great speculation. They are genetically distant from Africans,[39] and have been shown to have separated early from Asians, suggesting that they are either surviving descendants of settlers from the early out-of-Africa migration of the Great Coastal Migration of the Proto-Australoids, or that they are descendants of one of the founder populations of modern humans.[40]

The “Rampasasa pygmies” of Flores, Indonesia gained some attention in the early 2000s in connection with the nearby discovery of Homo floresiensis.[41]


There is mention of tribes of pygmy aborigines near Cairns, Queensland, in Peter McAllister‘s book Pygmonia: In search of the secret land of the Pygmies.

Short-statured aboriginal tribes inhabited the rainforests of North Queensland, Australia, of which the best known group is probably the Tjapukai or Djabugay people of the Cairns area.[42] These rainforest people, collectively referred to as Barrineans, were once considered to be a relict of the earliest wave of migration to the Australian continent, but this theory no longer finds much favour.[43] These Rainforest People tended to live in the first variety of Jykabita, a wood and mud structure renowned for incubation of plants.[44]

Micronesia and Melanesia

An anthropologist, Norman Gabel, mentions that rumours exist of pygmy people in the interior mountains of Viti Levu in Fiji, but explains he had no evidence of their existence.[45] Another anthropologist, E.W. Gifford, reiterates Gabel’s statement and claims that tribes of pygmies in the closest proximity to Fiji would most likely be found in Vanuatu.[46]

In 2008, the remains of at least 25 miniature humans, who lived between 1,000 and 3,000 years ago, were found on the islands of Palau in Micronesia.[47][48]

During the 1900s when Vanuatu was known as New Hebrides, sizable pygmy tribes were first reported throughout northeastern Santo. It is likely that they are not limited to this region of New Hebrides. Nonetheless, there is no anthropological evidence linking pygmies to other islands of Vanuatu.[46][49]

T’rung (Myanmar)

Frank Kingdon-Ward in the early 20th century, Alan Rabinowitz in the 1990s, P. Christiaan Klieger in 2003, and others have reported a tribe of pygmy Tibeto-Burman speakers known as the T’runginhabiting the remote region of Mt. Hkakabo Razi in Southeast Asia on the border of China(Yunnan and Tibet), Burma, and India. A Burmese survey done in the 1960s reported a mean height of an adult male T’rung at 1.43 m (4’6″) and that of females at 1.40 m (4’5″).

These are the only known “pygmies” of clearly East Asian descent. The cause of their diminutive size is unknown, but diet and endogamous marriage practices have been cited. The population of T’rung pygmies has been steadily shrinking, and is now down to only a few individuals.[50][51][52][53]

In 2013, a link between the T’rung and the Derung people in Yunnan, China was uncovered by Richard D. Fisher, which may indicate the presence of pygmy populations among the Derung tribe.[54]

The original inhabitants of America. The Copper coloured races.

In this post I am going to be exploring the theory that America was part of Africa. This post will also explore the history of the Copper coloured races found in America and the Carribean by Christopher Columbus.


There is evidence that when Christopher Columbus got to America he discovered the Copper coloured races there. Christopher Columbus also thought he was in India. Christopher Columbus did not discover America as the continent was already inhabited.


Below a negro slave is described as copper coloured.


The copper colour


If you have read some of my other posts you will be aware that I study the Hebrew Israelites movement past and present. My opinion on the so-called 12 tribes chart was that it was flawed specifically with regards to Mexico however evidence has been brought to my consciousness of a knowledge of the Torah dating back to ancient times in that region. I will explore some of the information out there below.


The stone engravings in New Mexico are near Los Lunas, some 20 miles from Albuquerque. The locals knew the mountain as the “Cliff of Strange Writings.”

In Eidsmoe’s report, he describes the letters as paleo-Hebrew, an early form of Hebrew writing dated by some experts to about 500 B.C.

The writing, when translated, roughly is:

“I [am] Jehovah your God who has taken you out of the house of slaves of land of Egypt. Not there be other gods before my face. You shall not make idol. [You must] not take name Jehovah in vain. Remember day of the sabbath to keep holy. Honor your father and your mother so that will be long your days upon that ground that Jehovah your God to you has given. You must murder not. Not you commit adultery. You must steal not. [You must] not give testimony against neighbor as witness false. You must desire not [the] wife of your neighbor and all that is your neighbor’s.”

An Internet search offers some interesting perspectives on the stone.

A report posted on the Ohio State website says the script is the Old Hebrew alphabet and documents that James Tabor of the Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte in 1996 interviewed the now-deceased Frank Hibben, a retired New Mexico archaeologist.

The report said Hibben first saw the text in 1933, and was taken to the site by a guide who had seen it as a boy in the 1880s. Estimates then were that the carvings were 500-2,000 years old.

Another idea floated was that the engravings are a Samaritan mezuzah, a large slab of stone containing the Ten Commandments. And since Samaritan shipowners were known to live in Greek communities, it could place the artifact in the Byzantine period.

Roger L. Williamson writes at the carver was a man “of many ports of call and could speak multiple languages phonetically, but not a man versed in letters.” Further, the analysis concluded the carver knew the Mosiac Law but was not a priest.


Did King Solomon’s Navy Discover America?

A Burdensome Stone ARUTZ SHEVA (Israeli National News) – By Tamar Yonah – December 18, 2007 Mystery Mountain, Los Lunas, New Mexico. That’s where a fascinating find was discovered with the Hebrew inscription of the Ten Commandments. What is amazing about this find, is that the ten commandments were written in a Hebrew script that is so ancient, it was last used around and up to the Babylonian expulsion. This means it was probably written between 2,500-3,000 years ago! How did this script, as well as the text of the ten commandments wind up in New Mexico, so many centuries ago? “Over two thousand years before Columbus “discovered” America there were people of semitic origin in New Mexico worshipping the God of Israel. How can this possibly be reconciled with known history?
It is seemingly apparent that the financial backing to launch a Hebrew-Phoenician voyage of world exploration could have readily occurred during the reign of King Solomon of Israel. Solomon worshipped the true God of Israel and had the means to fund explorative voyages to other lands.
With Solomon’s main port being located on the Red Sea it would be difficult to explain how his fleet would have entered America through the Atlantic drainage. ( Reference note: Kings I 9:26) :And king Solomon made a navy of ships in Eziongeber, which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red sea, in the land of Edom.27 And Hiram sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had knowledge of the sea, with the servants of Solomon. Tarshish , however, had access to the Atlantic. The reign of Solomon was enveloping the entire world. Israel’s close neighbor, Phonecia, and their expert navigators were working with the servants of Solomon from both countries ports.
The ships of Tarshish sailed extremely long voyages to bring back all kinds of raw materials and items (copper & other ores, flora & fauna samples, “exotic” animals, etc.). ( Reference note: Chronicles 2 -Chapter 9): For the king’s ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Huram: every three years once came the ships of Tarshish bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks. It would help explain the need of three year journeys if the seamen had to cross the ocean to come to these far off isles in America. The fact that the trading ships of Phoenicia did have docks in ancient America can be proved from inscriptions they left behind. The Los Lunas site is located along the Puerco River which is tributary of the Rio Grande River. The Rio Grande is definitely in the Atlantic drainage. It would have been entirely possible for the Hebrew-Phonecian sailors to access the area of the stone.” So, did King Solomon’s navy discover America, bringing back exotic animals, plants, and rare minerals to Jerusalem? Could it be that this mystery rock was written by Jews who sailed to America in King Solomon’s navy? Could it be that they taught certain tribes of native American Indians monotheism and morality? Were these Jews sabbatical fly by night teachers, or did they go on permanent ‘shlichut’ (sent out as an ambassador) to spread knowledge of the One True G-d and His Ten Commandments? Or could it have been that some Jews left the ship, going on an expedition, got stuck or stranded, missing the boat back? – – – –



Jesus came through the lineage of David of the tribe of Judah. Revelations describes his appearance as seen above.

Below is map showing that in the mid 1700’s there was an area within negroland that was known as the kingdom of Juda.


Take a look at where Kindgdom of Juda in Africa was located on the map. It was in the area near to to the Gulf of Guniea next to Ghana which was the Gold Coast and Benin which was the Slave coast.



In this map above in the Benin area it states Jahu

Let’s look at the word Jahu. Jahu sounds like Jew or Juda but let’s look deeper.

Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance

Jah, the Lord

Contraction for Yhovah, and meaning the same; Jah, the sacred name — Jah, the Lord, most vehement. Compare names in “-iah,” “- jah.”

see HEBREW Yhovah

Forms and Transliterations

בְּיָ֣הּ בְּיָ֥הּ ביה יָ֑הּ יָ֔הּ יָ֖הּ יָ֗הּ יָ֡הּ יָ֣הּ יָ֨הּ ׀ יָ֬הּ יָ֭הּ יָּ֑הּ יָֽהּ׃ יָהּ יה יה׃ bə·yāh beYah bəyāh Yah yāh

Above it states Jah is a contraction of Yhovah. So what does Yhovah mean??

Strong’s Concordance 3068
Yhvh: the proper name of the God of Israel

Original Word: יְהֹוָה
Part of Speech: Proper Name
Transliteration: Yhvh
Phonetic Spelling: (yeh-ho-vaw’)
Short Definition: LORD


Theophoric names

Yeho or “Yehō-” is the prefix form of “YHWH” used in Hebrew theophoric names; the suffix form “Yahū” is just as common, which has caused two opinions:

  1. In former times (at least from c.1650 CE), the prefix pronunciation “Yehō-” was sometimes connected with the full pronunciation “Yehova”, derived from combining the Masoretic vowel points for “Adonai” with the consonantal tetragrammaton YHWH.
  2. Recently, as “Yahweh” is likely an imperfective verb form, “Yahu” is its corresponding preterite or jussive short form: compare yiŝtahaweh (imperfective), yiŝtáhû (preterit or jussive short form) = “do obeisance”.[10]

The first argument is believed by George Wesley Buchanan in Biblical Archaeology Review; Smith’s 1863 A Dictionary of the Bible;[11] Section # 2.1 The Analytical Hebrew & Chaldee Lexicon (1848)[12]in its article הוה‎.

The second argument is supported on grammatical grounds because shortening to “Yahw” would end up as “Yahu” or something similar, and forms like Yo (יוֹ‬) contracted from Yeho (יְהוֹ‬) and the suffix “-yah”,[13] as well as “Yeho-“ or “Yo”[14] can most readily be explained as derivatives of “Yahweh” rather than from “Yehovah”.

Let’s also look at hayah

HAYAH =I Am Was And Will be
Ehyeh is the first person form of hayah, “to be”, and owing to the peculiarities of Hebrew grammar means both “I am”, “I was”, and “I will be”
The KJV Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon
Strong’s Number: 01961 Browse Lexicon
Original Word Word Origin
hyh a primitive root [compare (01933)]
Transliterated Word TDNT Entry
Hayah TWOT – 491
Phonetic Spelling Parts of Speech
haw-yaw  Verb
  1. to be, become, come to pass, exist, happen, fall out
    1. (Qal)
      1. —– 1a
    2. to happen, fall out, occur, take place, come about, come to pass 1a
    3. to come about, come to pass
      1. to come into being, become 1a
    4. to arise, appear, come 1a
    5. to become 1a
      1. to become 1a
      2. to become like 1a
      3. to be instituted, be established
      4. to be 1a
    6. to exist, be in existence 1a
    7. to abide, remain, continue (with word of place or time) 1a
    8. to stand, lie, be in, be at, be situated (with word of locality) 1a
    9. to accompany, be with
    10. (Niphal)
      1. to occur, come to pass, be done, be brought about
      2. to be done, be finished, be gone
King James Word Usage – Total: 75
was, come to pass, came, has been, were happened, become, pertained, better for thee

The Hebrew lexicon is Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius Lexicon; this is keyed to the “Theological Word Book of the


With some background information lets turn back to The Kindgom Of Juda. The Kindgom Of Juda was situated in the bend/CROOK of West Africa in the Benin Slave coast area. History lets us know slaves were taken from that area.

The Atlantic ocean was once called the Ethiopian Ocean look at the image below.


Let’s go back to a map showing how South America was once part of Africa. Which part was it connected to. See below. Yes it was connected to the area Europeans called the Kindgom of Juda. It was called the Kindgdom of Juda because the people were said to be descendants of David and his dynasty.


Part of the land of the Kindgom of Juda in Africa was separated to form South America as shown above


Below the map as it use to be shown. Upside down with South Africa at the top. Also note the other lands that are rarely discussed surrounding what we call our world. “The whirled” looks pretty flat from that angle.



Below is a reconstruction of how an original Native American would have looked.


Nicknamed Apiuna, his skull was found deep inside a cave in Brazil 50 years ago. Now a graphic designer has reconstructed his face and what you can see may settle the debate regarding Africans being the first to land on the American continent!

The wrote:

This skull, found in the same archaeologically rich region, has similar traits to today’s American Indians.

The discovery of the African’s face challenges the thinking about the American continents’ first pioneers.

Apiuna bears a close likeness to Luzia, the name given to the 11,500-year-old skull of a young African woman, whose remains are the oldest ever found on the South American continent.


My cousin DNA matches with Native American Indian are Davis and I see them listed in the documentary above. I feel overwhelmed to know that the Indian Great Grandmother my grandmother spoke of lived on and her descendants are alive today. I myself do not have Native American DNA and can only assume it was a grandmother in marriage only and not a blood connection. I have Native American and Spanish Puerto Rican cousins who share my African ancestry.

Mexican art shares a similarity with African and Egyptian art parrallelling the customs the ancestors learnt when they were there.


In Mexico there are ancient Pyrimads built by the original inhabitants long before Europeans arrived in the land.

These huge figure heads below show who some of them were.

The Olmecs – Who They Were, Where They Came From Still Remains A Mystery

A. Sutherland – – Of all the lost civilizations of Mesoamerica, that of the Olmec is the oldest and the most mystifying. We know very little about the Olmec – a mysterious culture considered by many as the Mother Civilization of Mesoamerica, that laid the foundation for the Mesoamerican cultural traditions.

They arose suddenly and with no apparent prior gradual development. It is difficult to precisely locate the Olmec civilization in time.

They arose suddenly and with no apparent prior gradual development

Their beginnings  have traditionally been placed between 1400 and 1200 BC, and Olmec remains discovered at the Preclassic shrine, El Manatí, near San Lorenzo moved further back to “at least” 1600–1500 BC. It seems that the Olmec had their roots in early farming cultures, which began between 5100 BC and 4600 BC.

The Mesoamerican Olmec flourished around 1400 BC near the Bay of Campeche off the Gulf of Mexico. They inhabited the south-eastern part of the state of Veracruz and Tabasco western part of the state, with three most important centers of La Venta, San Lorenzo and Tres Zapotes.

Other evident signs of their presence are related to Puebla, Morelos, Guerrero, which means that they occupied the area from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast. Most likely, the expansion of them reached up to the countries of Central America: Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

The Olmec portrayed Africans (perhaps African rulers) who must have played an important role among ancient people who carved gigantic depictions to honor them.

Nicknamed Olmeca (‘Rubber People’) because they lived in the area known for its rubber trees, the Olmec were strangers.

In addition to building large thrones and monuments, the Olmec carved colossal sized heads weighing up to fifty tons and transported them nearly sixty-two miles to the Olmec heartland.

Who they were, where they came from is uncertain. The generally accepted belief is that the culture arose from people in the area, although many believe they represent Mongoloid people, while others suggest the Olmec have originally come from Africa.

But who were these unknown Africans? Did they arrive from the lands of North Africa?

In fact, there is a number of issues related to the Olmec civilization and one of these issues, is the Olmec true origin.

Olmec Enigma

The Olmec portrayed Africans (perhaps African rulers) who must have played an important role among ancient people who carved gigantic depictions to honor them.
The African descent and possible transatlantic crossings of people millennia ago seem too controversial  to accept but is there any other explanation?

According to Mexican anthropologists having difficulties to accept the Africans’ presence and their importance in this part of the world, the so-called Olmec were not strangers from across the seas, but indigenous people, Mesoamericans, with face characteristics having a resemblance to Africans.

Ivan Van Sertima (1935-2009), a Guyanese-born associate professor of Africana Studies at Rutgers University in the United States and the foremost authority on the African presence in ancient America, proved that many Olmec cultural traits were of African origin:

“A study of the Olmec civilization reveals elements that so closely parallel ritual traits and techniques in the Egypto-Nubian world of the same period that it is difficult to maintain [that] all these are due to mere coincidence.”

Who were the Africans who sailed to America before Columbus and introduced a calendar, writing, pyramid and tomb construction, mummification, as well as certain political systems and religious traditions to the native Americans?

San Lorenzo's Olmec head discovered by M.W. Stirling and his archaeological expedition.


Indian scholar R.A. Jairazbhoy states that the earliest settlers were ancient Egyptians led by King Ramesis III, during the 19th dynasty. Van Sertima also believes that most of the explorers sailed from Egypt, but during the much later 25th dynasty. Many other scholars insist that the navigators came from West African nations, such as Mali and Ghana.


Now watch secret of the Olmec below

Contrary to popular belief, African American history did not start with slavery in the New World. An overwhelming body of new evidence is emerging which proves that Africans had frequently sailed across the Atlantic to the Americas, thousands of years before Columbus and indeed before Christ. The great ancient civilizations of Egypt and West Africa traveled to the Americas, contributing immensely to early American civilization by importing the art of pyramid building, political systems and religious practices as well as mathematics, writing and a sophisticated calendar.

The strongest evidence of African presence in America before Columbus comes from the pen of Columbus himself. In 1920, a renowned American historian and linguist, Leo Weiner of Harvard University, in his book, Africa and the discovery of America, explained how Columbus noted in his journal that Native Americans had confirmed that “black skinned people had come from the south-east in boats, trading in gold-tipped spears.”

One of the first documented instances of Africans sailing and settling in the Americas were black Egyptians led by King Ramses III, during the 19th dynasty in 1292 BC. In fact, in 445 BC, the Greek historian Herodotus wrote of the Ancient Egyptian pharaohs’ great seafaring and navigational skills. Further concrete evidence, noted by Dr. Imhotep and largely ignored by Euro-centric archaeologists, includes “Egyptian artifacts found across North America from the Algonquin writings on the East Coast to the artifacts and Egyptian place names in the Grand Canyon.”

In 1311 AD, another major wave of African exploration to the New World was led by King Abubakari II, the ruler of the fourteenth century Mali Empire, which was larger than the Holy Roman Empire. The king sent out 200 ships of men, and 200 ships of trade material, crops, animals, cloth and crucially African knowledge of astronomy, religion and the arts.

African explorers crossing the vast Atlantic waters in primitive boats may seem unlikely, or perhaps, far fetched to some. Such incredible nautical achievements are not as daunting as they seem, given that
numerous successful modern attempts have illustrated that without an oar, rudder or sail ancient African boats, including the “dug-out,” would certainly have been able to cross the vast ocean in a matter of weeks.


When most people think about ancient Mexico, the first civilizations that come to mind are the Incas, Aztecs and the Maya. However, during the early 1940’s archeologists uncovered a civilization known as the Olmecs of 1200 BC, which pre-dated any other advanced civilization in the Americas.

The Olmec civilization, which was of African origin and dominated by Africans, was the first significant civilization in Mesoamerica and the Mother Culture of Mexico.

Olmecs are perhaps best known for the carved colossal heads found in Central Mexico, that exhibit an unmistakably African Negroid appearance. Ancient African historian Professor Van Sertima has illustrated how Olmecs were the first Mesoamerican civilization to use a written language, sophisticated astronomy, arts and mathematics and they built the first cities in Mexico, all of which greatly influenced the Mayans and subsequent civilizations in the Americas. “There is not the slightest doubt that all later civilizations in [Mexico and Central America], rest ultimately on an Olmec base,” once remarked Michael Coe, a leading historian on Mexico.

Africans clearly played an intricate role in the Olmec Empire’s rise and that African influence peaked during the same period that ancient Black Egyptian culture ascended in Africa.

god, and Ek-ahua, the god of war, are unquestionably Negro with dark skin and wooly hair. Why would native Americans venerate images so unmistakably African if they had never seen them before? Numerous wall paintings in caves in Juxtlahuaca depict the famous ancient Egyptian “opening of the mouth” and cross libation rituals. All these religious similarities are too large and occur far too often to be mere coincidences.

Professor Everett Borders notes another very important indication of African presence, which is the nature of early American pyramids. Pyramid construction is highly specialized. Ancient Egypt progressed from the original stepped pyramid of Djosser, to the more sophisticated finished product at Giza. However, at La Venta in Mexico, the Olmecs made a fully finished pyramid, with no signs of progressive learning. Olmecian and Egyptian pyramids were both placed on the same north-south axis and had strikingly similar construction methods. Tellingly, all of these pyramids also served the same dual purpose, tomb and temple.

Ancient trans-Atlantic similarities in botany, religion and pyramid building constitute but a fraction of the signs of African influence in ancient America. Other indicators include, astronomy, art, writing systems, flora and fauna.

Historically, the African people have been exceptional explorers and purveyors of culture across the world. Throughout all of these travels, African explorers have not had a history of starting devastating wars on the people they met. The greatest threat towards Africa having a glorious future is her people’s ignorance of Africa’s glorious past.

Pre-Columbus civilization in the Americas had its foundation built by Africans and developed by the ingenuity of Native Americans. Sadly, America, in post-Columbus times, was founded on the genocide of the indigenous Americans, built on the backs of African slaves and continues to run on the exploitation of workers at home and abroad.

Clearly, Africans helped civilize America well before Europeans “discovered” America, and well before Europeans claim to have civilized Africa. The growing body of evidence is now becoming simply too loud to ignore. It’s about time education policy makers reexamine their school curriculums to adjust for America’s long pre-Columbus history.

African sailing has a long history. People were probably using boats before the first people left Africa. At Blombos Cave in South Africa, people were fishing about 70,000 BC, and by the time people got to Southeast Asia about 40,000 BC they certainly had early boats. Some archaeologists think even Neanderthal people used boats!

When did people invent sails for their boats?

The earliest pictures of African boats are from about 4000 BC, when they appear in Egyptian rock carvings. Probably some of these early African boats had sails – at least, their neighbors in the Arabian peninsula already did. The boats may have been made of bundles of papyrus reeds. That’s how people built some early West Asian ships and Californian Native boats, because wood was too expensive.

Brailed sails on Sea People's ships - African sailing

Brailing the sail

As early as the Old Kingdom, though, Egyptians were importing cedar wood from Phoenicia (Lebanon) to build big wooden ships that could sail on the Mediterranean and in the Red Sea. By 1200 BC, if not before, Egyptian sailors used brailing – bunching up the sail with ropes – as a quick way to use less sail when wind conditions changed.


Did Phoenicians sail around Africa?

But as Egypt got poorer, the center of African sailing shifted further west to Carthage. Many Phoenicians had colonized Carthage around 800 BC. Phoenicians were devoted sailors, and they brought their ships and knowledge of ship-building with them to Carthage. Around 600 BC, according to Herodotus, the Pharaoh of Egypt sent a Phoenician fleet of ships to sail around Africa. It’s possible that they really did it, starting down the coast of East Africa and returning up the Atlantic coast. During the 400s BC, Carthaginian expeditions down the Atlantic coast of Africa may also have reached as far south as Cameroon. (That’s about halfway down the coast.)

Sargasso Sea

Did Himilco explore the Atlantic Ocean?

Himilco the Navigator, a Carthaginian man who lived during the 400s BC, explored the Atlantic coast of Europe as far north as northern France, probably looking for tin to use in making bronze. Himilco reported finding lots of dangerous seaweed, too. Where was that? He may have sailed as far west as the Sargasso Sea. That’s part of the Atlantic Ocean that’s full of seaweed – and almost to the Caribbean!

Eudoxus creates trade routes to India

About 130 BC the Ptolemies in Egypt sent out an explorer named Eudoxus who figured out how to use the monsoon winds to sail to India, greatly expanding African trade with India and making East Africa much richer. Eudoxus then tried twice to sail around Africa down the Atlantic coast, but failed. (Probably he died trying.)

Abu Zayd sailing (inside the boat looking out) - African sailing


See also

Cheikh Anta Diop: Visionary scholar


When did Cheikh Anta Diop live?

Cheikh Anta Diop was born in 1923 in the village of Thieytou, about a hundred kilometers east of Dakar, in Senegal, in a Wolof family of aristocratic origin. He was granted a scholarship to study in France in 1946 and he first chose physics and chemistry before turning to philosophy and history, with a thesis addressing “precolonial Black Africa” and the “cultural unity of Black Africa”. Cheikh Anta Diop was a nationalist and an advocate for African federalism. He returned to Senegal following independence in 1960 and dedicated himself to teaching, research and politics until his death in 1986.

What was Cheikh Anta Diop renowned for?

Cheikh Anta Diop was a prolific writer: he is the author of many scientific works and books about the history of the Africa, but also about its future.

Basing his theory on the kinship between African languages like Wolof — his mother tongue — and ancient Egyptian, Cheikh Anta Diop revealed the cultural influence of earlier African peoples on the Egyptian civilization and he demonstrated that “ancient Egypt was Negro-African.”

Cheikh Anta Diop had degrees in chemistry and in nuclear physics. In 1966 he created the first African laboratory for radiocarbon dating with the university now named after him.

During his student years he was an advocate for the independence of African countries. Later on he became a major figure of the federalist African movement and presented his ideas in his book Black Africa: The Economic and Cultural Foundations of a Federated State.

What are some memorable quotes by Cheikh Anta Diop?

“Egypt is to the rest of Black Africa what Greece and Rome are to the western world.”

“Cultural plenitude can only make a people more capable to contribute to the general progress of humanity and to get closer to the other peoples knowingly.”

“Ideologists who hide under the pretense of science must realize that the era of deception, of intellectual fraud is definitely over, that a page has been turned in the history of the intellectual relations between the peoples.”

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Black history in the Bible 2018 summary & Hebrews of West Africa

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See also this post extract below

Do you know that the Akans knew Yahwe before the “so-called” introduction of Christianity in Ghana? In fact the Akans called Saturday by the very name of Jehovah? Akans called Saturday Memeneda. Me means “I”, Ne means “Am”, Da means “Day”. Thus Memeneda wits “I, I am day”. Isaiah 43:25 and countless quotations in the Bible refer to God as “I, I am” which is Yahwe in Hebrew or Jehovah in English. Infact Akans called God “Kwame”. Kwame is the name of a saturday male born among Akans. the name Kwame is Kwadaa Nyame (shortened Kwame) thus Child of Almighty God. Akans know Saturday to be the day of the Almighty God.

Thursday in Akan is Yawooda. The first two letters is Ya (h) which is the name of God (Yahwe or Jehovah). In akan “H” is sometimes remove if it comes after “A”. for example my name is Yeboah with H, it can also be spelt as Yeboa without the H. Thus Yah is sometimes written as Ya. thus Yawooda is sometimes written as Yahwooda. In fact many people use the second spelling in akan more than the first. the Second three letters WOO means born, or birth. the DA means day. Thus the name Yahwooda is translated into English as “Birth day of Yah” or “the day that Yah was born”. Does this ring the bell that Jesus Christ (who is Yah in Human form” might have been born on Thursday?

Akans named the days of the week after events. for example, “Tuesday” in Akan is “Ebenada”. Ebena in Ashanti/akan means “Lamentation, lament,  crying, or  cry”. I have already explain that da in english is day. Thus Ebenada means day of lamentation. Compare the state of Ashanti today and lamentation 1.