Category Archives: Bantu tribe

History of the congo areas

History of the Republic of the Congo

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The Republic of the Congo (FrenchRépublique du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic[5]West Congo[dubious ] or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by five countries: Gabon and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; Cameroon to the northwest; the Central African Republic to the northeast; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the east and south; and the Angolan exclave of Cabinda to the southwest.

The region was dominated by Bantu-speaking tribes, who built trade links leading into the Congo River basin. Congo-Brazzaville was formerly part of the French colony of Equatorial Africa.[6] Upon independence in 1960, the former colony of French Congo became the Republic of the Congo. The People’s Republic of the Congo was a Marxist–Leninist one-party state from 1970 to 1991. Multi-party elections have been held since 1992, although a democratically elected government was ousted in the 1997 Republic of the Congo Civil Warand President Denis Sassou Nguesso, who first came to power in 1979, has ruled for 33 of the past 38 years.

The Republic of Congo, circa 2000The history of the Republic of the Congo has been marked by diverse civilisations: indigenous, French and post-independence.

Bantus and Pygmies

se-bantu-map2-2Edit

The earliest inhabitants of the region comprising present-day Congo were the Bambuti people. The Bambuti were linked to Pygmy tribes whose Stone Age culture was slowly replaced by Bantu tribes coming from regions north of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo about 2,000 years ago, introducing Iron Age culture to the region.

 

 

 

 

Congo Pygmies (also known as Bambenga or Bayaka) live in several ethnic groups in Rwanda,BurundiUganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African RepublicCameroon,Equatorial GuineaGabon, the Republic of CongoAngolaBotswanaNamibia, and Zambia.[1]

Most Pygmy communities are partially hunter-gatherers, living partially but not exclusively on the wild products of their environment. They trade with neighbouring farmers to acquire cultivated foods and other material items; no group lives deep in the forest without access to agricultural products.[1]

It is estimated that there are between 250,000 and 600,000 Pygmies living in the Congo rainforest.[2] However, although Pygmies are thought of as forest people, the groups called Twa may live in open swamp or desert.

There are at least a dozen Pygmy groups, sometimes unrelated to each other, the best known being the Mbenga (Aka and Baka) of the western Congo basin, which speak Bantu and Ubangian languages; the Mbuti (Efe etc.) of the Ituri Rainforest, which speak Bantu and Central Sudanic languages, and the Twa of the Great Lakes, which speak Bantu Rundi and Kiga.

CategorizationEdit

The Congo Pygmy groups were regarded as a sub-race of the Negroid race by European anthropologists in the late 19th through to the first half of the 20th century.[5] The Congo Pygmy speak languages of the Niger–Congo and Central Sudanic language families. There has been significant intermixing between the Bantu and Pygmies.

The current racial or ethnic designation was conceived by European anthropologists to describe the various small-framed groups of the Congo rain forests that appeared to be related.

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Early history and originsEdit

Ancestral relationship with other AfricansEdit

A commonly held belief is that African Pygmies are the direct descendants of the Late Stone Age hunter-gatherer peoples of the central African rainforest, who were partially absorbed or displaced by later immigration of agricultural peoples, and adopted their Central Sudanic,Ubangian, and Bantu languages. This view has no archaeological support, and ambiguous support from genetics and linguistics.[6][7][8]

The main Bantu tribe living in the region were the Kongo, also known as Bakongo, who established mostly weak and unstable kingdoms along the mouth, north and south of the Congo River. The capital of this Kongolese kingdom,Mbanza Kongo, later baptized as São Salvador by the Portuguese, is a town in northern Angola near the border with the DRC.

From the capital they ruled over an empire encompassing large parts of present-day Angola, the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo. They ruled over nearby tributary states, often by appointing sons of the Kongo kings to head these states. It had six so-called provinces called Mbemba, Soyo, Mbamba, Mbata, Nsundi and Mpangu. With the Kingdom of Loango in the north and the Kingdom of Mbundu in the south being tributary states. In the East it bordered on the Kwango river, a tributary of the Congo River. In total the kingdom is said to have had 3 to 4 million inhabitants and a surface of about 300,000 km². According to oral traditions it was established in around 1400 when King Lukeni lua Nimi conquered the kingdom of Kabunga and established Mbanza Kongo as its capital.

Portuguese explorationEdit

The Kongo region at the time of first European contact

This African Iron Age culture came under great pressure with the arrival of the first Europeans, in this case Portuguese explorers. King John II of Portugal sought, in order to break Venetian and Ottoman control over trade with the East, to organize a series of expeditions south along the African coast with the goal of establishing direct contact with Asia. In 1482–1483, Captain Diogo Cão, sailing southwards on the uncharted Congo River, discovered the mouth of the river, and became the first European to encounter the Kingdom of Kongo.[1][2]

Initially relations were limited and considered beneficial to both sides. With Christianity easily accepted by the local nobility, leading on 3 May 1491 to the baptism of king Nzinga a Nkuwu as the first Christian Kongolese king João I. He was succeeded after his death in 1506 by his son Nzinga Mbemba, who ruled as King Afonso I until 1543. Under his reign Christianity gained a strong foothold in the country. Many churches were built in Mbanza, of which the Kulumbimbi Cathedral (erected between 1491 and 1534) was the most impressive. In theory the kings of Portugal and Kongo were equals and they exchanged letters as such. Kongo at some point even established diplomatic relations with the Vatican, and the Pope appointed a local priest as bishop for the region.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Republic_of_the_Congo

Zaire (/zɑːˈɪər/), officially the Republic of Zaire (FrenchRépublique du ZaïreFrench pronunciation: ​[za.iʁ]), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa. The country was a one-party totalitarian dictatorship, run by Mobutu Sese Seko and his ruling Popular Movement of the Revolution party. Zaire was established following Mobutu’s seizure of power in a military coup in 1965, following five years of political upheaval following independence known as the Congo Crisis. Zaire had a stronglycentralist constitution and foreign assets were nationalised. The period is sometimes referred to as the Second Congolese Republic.

The state’s name, Zaire was derived from the name of the Congo River, sometimes called Zaire in Portuguese, adapted from the Kongo word nzere or nzadi (“river that swallows all rivers”).[6] Congo seems to have replaced Zaire gradually in English usage during the 18th century, and Congo is the preferred English name in 19th-century literature, although references to Zahir or Zaire as the name used by the natives (i.e. derived from Portuguese usage) remained common.[7]

Semliki harpoon

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The Semliki harpoon, also known as the Katanda harpoon, refers to a group of complex barbed harpoon heads carved from bone, which were found at an archaeologic site on the Semliki Riverin the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire); the artifacts which date back approximately 90,000 years.[1][2] The initial discovery of the first harpoon head was made in 1988. When the artifact was dated to 88,000 BCE, there was skepticism within the archaeological community about the accuracy of the stated age; in that the object seemed too advanced for human cultures of that era. However, the site has yielded multiple other examples of similar harpoons, and the dates have been confirmed. 

 

 

 

It seemed to substantiate that fishing and an “aquatic civilization” was likely in the region across eastern and northern Africa during the wetter climatic conditions of the early to mid-Holocene, as shown by other evidence at the lakeshore site of Ishango.[3]

The site is littered with catfish bones and the harpoons are the size to catch adult catfish, so investigators suspect the fisherman came to the site every year “to catch giant catfish.” [4]

It is unlikely that the harpoons are much different from those used today (see reference for photos).[5] [6]

The archaeologic site coincides with the range of the Efé Pygmies, which have been shown bymitochondrial DNA analyses to be of extremely ancient and distinct lineage.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semliki_harpoon

 

Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga[a] (/məˈbt ˈsɛs ˈsɛk/; born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu; 14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997) was the military dictator and President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which Mobutu renamed Zaire in 1971) from 1965 to 1997. He also served as Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity in 1967–1968. Mobutu formed atotalitarian regime, amassed vast personal wealth, and attempted to purge the country of allcolonial cultural influence, while enjoying considerable support from the West and China due to his strong anti-Soviet stance.

Embarking on a campaign of pro-Africa cultural awareness, or authenticité, Mobutu began renaming the cities of the Congo starting on 1 June 1966; Leopoldville became Kinshasa, Elisabethville became Lubumbashi, and Stanleyville became Kisangani. In October 1971, he renamed the country the Republic of Zaire. He ordered the people to drop their European names for African ones, and priests were warned that they would face five years’ imprisonment if they were caught baptizing a Zairean child with a European name. Western attire and ties were banned, and men were forced to wear a Mao-style tunic known as an abacost (shorthand for à bas le costume–“down with the suit”).[21]

In 1972, Mobutu renamed himself Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (“The all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, goes from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake.”)[22][23]Mobutu Sese Seko for short. It was also around this time that he assumed his classic image—abacost, thick-framed glasses, walking stick and leopard-skin toque.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobutu_Sese_Seko

See the below map of Congo DR Congo and Central African Republic

which borders South  Sudan Uganda Tanzania and Luanda and Gabon

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The Republic of Congo, also known as Middle Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, and Congo (but not to be confused with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire, which was also at one time known as the Republic of the Congo), is a former French colony of west-central Africa. It shares common borders with Gabon, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Gulf of Guinea. Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government installed in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President Denis Sassou-Nguesso. The capital is Brazzaville. The Republic of Congo is one of Africa’s oil rich states, however its economic potential is hampered by the current ongoing civil war.

In 1876 a vast zone in central Africa was ‘allocated’ to the ‘International African Association’. With this act, the kingdom of the Kongo and other central African territory effectively became the private estate of the Belgian King, Leopold II. So began the oppressive colonial history of corruption, bribery and theft on a scale unprecedented in Africa. Reports by missionaries there on Belgian rubber planters’ treatment of labourers were initially not believed. The Belgian Foreign Office eventually sent Roger Casement to investigate the situation. He discovered that workers were treated like wild animals. Most of them were not paid, and if they did not meet their production quotas they would be either tortured or killed. Soldiers would collect baskets of hands to prove that they were carrying out their instructions, and not wasting ammunition. Ears, too were often cut off. There were also huge sums of money that went unaccounted. It was not until 1908 that the Belgian government took over the colony in an attempt to stop this kind of abuse. However, although the administration did improve, wages remained very low, even after the discovery of copper, gold, diamonds and cobalt. The Belgian plunder continued. Some road, rail and town development occurred, but the Congolese themselves were hardly better off than when colonized by Leopold II.

Independence and Lumumba

From the 50s when the a critical mass toward independence developed across Africa (as epitomized in Nkrumah’s speech) the Belgians initially decided it would be best to follow a slow road to independence – it was thought a period of about thirty years should be allowed. The Congo experienced a very stable period from 1945 to 1957, and for this reason leaders were unaware of the problems developing under the surface. The publication of the 30-year independence plan, which stated that the development of a ruling elite in the Congo was a generation behind that of the British and French colonies, made the situation worse. In 1959 there were riots in Leopoldville (later to become Kinshasa), and the Belgians panicked and withdrew from the Congo in less than eighteen months. By 1960 the area was already independent, with very few educated or trained people.

The freedom movement in the Congo was initially led by Patrice Lumumba. Lumumba attended Nkrumah’s All African Peoples’ Conference in Accra in December 1958, which encouraged his becoming radical. Nkrumah assured Lumumba that he had the support of the rest of Africa in his fight for independence, and Lumumba returned to the Congo with confidence and new methods (bit vague) learnt from Nkrumah. He gave moving speeches, got the support of the masses and during the unrest called for strikes. He was very successful as a result of the poverty and living and working conditions of those living in the Congo. During 1959 the situation in the Congo changed, and the Belgians realized that they would not be able to maintain indefinitely. The United Nations also put pressure on them to reconsider their position in Africa.

The situation in the Congo became increasing unstable as conflict developed in Rwanda- Burundi, as the Batutsi tried to keep the social position they had been given over the Bahutu under Belgian and German rule. The Belgians switched their support to the Bahutu, which resulted in the murder of many Batutsi as the Belgians lost further control. During the crisis Congolese leaders were called to discussions in Ostend, Belgium where it was promised that no more foreign soldiers would be sent to the Congo, and that it would become independent under a central government.

http://www.sahistory.org.za/place/republic-congo

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Kongo or Kikongo is one of the Bantu languages spoken by the Kongo and Ndundu peoples living in the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and Angola. It is a tonal language. It was spoken by many of those who were taken from the region and sold as slaves in the Americas. For this reason, while Kongo still is spoken in the above-mentioned countries, creolized forms of the language are found in ritual speech of Afro-American religions, especially in BrazilCuba, and Haiti. It is also one of the sources of the Gullah language[6] and the Palenquero creole in Colombia. The vast majority of present-day speakers live in Africa. There are roughly seven million native speakers of Kongo, with perhaps two million more who use it as a second language.

Kikongo is the base for a creole used throughout the region:Kituba, also calledKikongo de L’étatorKikongo ya Leta(“Kongo of the state” inFrenchor Kongo),KitubaandMonokituba(alsoMunukituba). The constitution of the Republic of the Congo uses the nameKitubà, and the one of the Democratic Republic of the Congo uses the termKikongo, even if Kituba is used in the administration.

The Bantu languages (/ˈbænt/)[2] (technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to “Wide Bantu”, a loosely defined categorization which includes other Bantoid languages) constitute a traditional branch of the Niger–Congo languages. There are about 250 Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual intelligibility,[3] though the distinction between language and dialect is often unclear, and Ethnologue counts 535 languages.[4][not in citation given] Bantu languages are largely spoken east and south of present-day Cameroon, that is, in the regions commonly known as Central AfricaSoutheast Africa and Southern Africa. Parts of the Bantu area include languages from other language families

WritingEdit

The Hail Mary in Kikongo.

At present there is no standard orthography of Kikongo, with a variety in use in written literature, mostly newspapers, pamphlets and a few books.

Kongo was the earliest Bantu language which was committed to writing in Latin characters and had the earliest dictionary of any Bantu language. A catechism was produced under the authority of Diogo Gomes, a Jesuit born in Kongo of Portuguese parents in 1557, but no version of it exists today.

In 1624, Mateus Cardoso, another Portuguese Jesuit, edited and published a Kongo translation of the Portuguese catechism of Marcos Jorge. The preface informs us that the translation was done by Kongo teachers from São Salvador(modern Mbanza Kongo) and was probably partially the work of Félix do Espírito Santo (also a Kongo).[7]

The dictionary was written in about 1648 for the use of Capuchin missionaries and the principal author was Manuel Robredo, a secular priest from Kongo (who became a Capuchin as Francisco de São Salvador). In the back of this dictionary is found a sermon of two pages written only in Kongo. The dictionary has some 10,000 words.

Additional dictionaries were created by French missionaries to the Loango coast in the 1780s, and a word list was published by Bernardo da Canecattim in 1805.

Baptist missionaries who arrived in Kongo in 1879 developed a modern orthography of the language.

W. Holman Bentley’s Dictionary and Grammar of the Kongo Language was published in 1887. In the preface, Bentley gave credit to Nlemvo, an African, for his assistance, and described “the methods he used to compile the dictionary, which included sorting and correcting 25,000 slips of paper containing words and their definitions.”[8] Eventually W. Holman Bentley with the special assistance of João Lemvo produced a complete Christian Bible in 1905.

Linguistic classificationEdit

Kikongo belongs to the Bantu language family.

According to Malcolm Guthrie, Kikongo is in the language group H10, the Kongo languages. Other languages in the same group include Bembe (H11). Ethnologue 16 counts Ndingi (H14) and Mboka (H15) as dialects of Kongo, though it acknowledges they may be distinct languages.

According to Bastin, Coupez and Man’s classification (Tervuren) which is more recent and precise than that of Guthrie on Kikongo, the language has the following dialects:

  • Kikongo group H16
    • Southern Kikongo H16a
    • Central Kikongo H16b
    • Yombe H16c
    • Fiote H16d
    • Western Kikongo H16d
    • Bwende H16e
    • Lari H16f
    • Eastern Kikongo H16g
    • Southeastern Kikongo H16h

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kongo_language

The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been known in the past as, in chronological order, the Congo Free StateBelgian Congo, the Republic of Congo-Léopoldville, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of Zaire, before returning to its current name the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[1]

At the time of independence from Belgium, the country was named the Republic of Congo-Léopoldville to distinguish it from its neighbour the Republic of the Congo-Brazzaville. With the promulgation of the Luluabourg Constitution on 1 August 1964, the country became the DRC, but was renamed to Zaire (a past name for the Congo River) on 27 October 1971 by President Mobutu Sese Seko as part of his Authenticité initiative.[17]

The word Zaire is from a Portuguese adaptation of a Kikongo word nzere (“river”), a truncation ofnzadi o nzere (“river swallowing rivers”).[18] The river was known as Zaire during the 16th and 17th centuries; Congo seems to have replaced Zaire gradually in English usage during the 18th century, and Congo is the preferred English name in 19th-century literature, although references to Zaire as the name used by the natives (i.e. derived from Portuguese usage) remained common.[19]

In 1992, the Sovereign National Conference voted to change the name of the country to the “Democratic Republic of the Congo”, but the change was not put into practice.[20] The country’s name was restored by President Laurent-Désiré Kabila following the fall of Mobutu in 1997.[21]

The area now known as the DRC was populated as early as 90,000 years ago, as shown by the 1988 discovery of the Semliki harpoon at Katanda, one of the oldest barbed harpoons ever found, believed to have been used to catch giant river catfish.[22][23]

Some historians believe Bantu peoples began settling in the extreme northwest of Central Africa at the beginning of the 5th century and then gradually started to expand southward. Their propagation was accelerated by the transition from Stone Age to Iron Age techniques. The people living in the south and southwest were mostly San Bushmen and hunter-gatherer groups, whose technology involved only minimal use of metal technologies. The development of metal tools during this time period revolutionized agriculture and animal husbandry. This led to the displacement of the hunter-gatherer groups in the east and southeast. The 10th century marked the final expansion of the Bantu in West-Central Africa. Rising populations soon made possible intricate local, regional and foreign commercial networks that traded mostly in salt, iron and copper.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo

There are some similarities between the people of Congo, South African Bantu                      regions and Egypt.

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And also

Let’s take a look at where civilisation started according to researchers

In the below maps we can see how humans evolved. DNA and archaeological evidence suggest civilisation started in the Uganda Tanzania Rwanda Ethiopia and South Sudan area. This is right next door to the Democratic Republic of Congo. We are part of the nile valley civilisations. The people in Weat Africa migrated from the East populating the world. Earlier we read that in the Congo area they were fishing with tools 90,000 years ago. Haplogroup J is an Eastern European Caucasian gene that was only developed around 50,000 to 60,000 years ago. Africans left Africa 50,000 to 60,000 years ago they were African at this time. There is a very large time frame between  Africans first civilisation and their journey out of Africa and into Europe to create the different ethnicities. To put it boldly Africans were civilised even before the genetic mutation that created the Europeans had happened. In other words when there were no white people Africans were already thriving. These first Africans were great craftsmen, the original hunter gatherers. These people were  sustaining a society fishing creating boats and buildings languages and other things essential to the human survival even before man’s migration out of Africa.

The figures are estimates and scholars work with a time frame sometimes there are periods given such as between 20,000 to 30,000 BCE. As archaeologists discover more things our ideas about the past change. The reality of getting the exact date of modern man or the earth I believe would be impossible.

World_Map_of_Y-DNA_Haplogroups

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The Nile Valley

The+Nile+River

The air travel (bird fly) shortest distance between Republic of the Congo and Tanzania is 2,224 km= 1,382 miles.

If you travel with an airplane (which has average speed of 560 miles) from Republic of the Congo to Tanzania, It takes 2.47 hours to arrive.

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Lake Victoria is in Tanzania. Ancient Africans were pastoral nomads who moved around searching for food and water for themselves and their animals. Some broke off into branches and chose areas to settle whilst others moved with their herd. Civilization is said to have started in these areas where lakes and the Nile are found. The lakes and Nile would have provided a source of clean fresh water and fish.

Lake Victoria in Tanzania below

Tanzania is home to some of the oldest hominid settlements unearthed by archaeologists. Prehistoric stone tools and fossils have been found in and around Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, an area often referred to as “The Cradle of Mankind”.

[1] The first hominid skull in Olduvai Gorge was discovered by Mary Leakey in 1959, and named Zinj or Nutcracker Man, the first example ofParanthropus boisei, and is thought to be over 1.8 million years old. Other finds including Homo habilis fossils were subsequently made. At nearby Laetoli the oldest known hominid footprints, the Laetoli footprints, were discovered by Mary Leakey in 1978, and estimated to be about 3.6 million years old and probably made by Australopithecus afarensis.[2] The oldest hominid fossils ever discovered in Tanzania also come from Laetoli and are the 3.6 to 3.8 million year old remains of Australopithecus afarensisLouis Leakey had found what he thought was a baboon tooth at Laetoli in 1935 (which was not identified as afarensis until 1979), a fragment of hominid jaw with three teeth was found there by Kohl-Larsen in 1938–39, and in 1974–75 Mary Leakey recovered 42 teeth and several jawbones from the site.[3]

Reaching back about 10,000 years, Tanzania is believed to have been populated by hunter-gatherer communities, probably Khoisan-speaking people. Between three and six thousand years ago, they were joined by Cushitic-speaking people who came from the north, into whom the Khoisan peoples were slowly absorbed. Cushitic peoples introduced basic techniques of agriculture, food production, and later, cattle farming.[4]

About 2000 years ago, Bantu-speaking people began to arrive from western Africa in a series of migrations. These groups brought and developed ironworking skills and new ideas of social and political organization. They absorbed many of the Cushitic peoples who had preceded them, as well as most of the remaining Khoisan-speaking inhabitants. Later, Nilotic pastoralists arrived, and continued to immigrate into the area through to the 18th century.[4][5]

One of Tanzania’s most important archeological sites is Engaruka in the Great Rift Valley, which includes an irrigation and cultivation system.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Tanzania

mthaplogroupmap2581994
Edit

slide_3-3Human_migration_out_of_Africa

The Telegraph newspaper posted the below article

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/5299351/African-tribe-populated-rest-of-the-world.html

Homo sapiens, known casually as “modern humans”, are thought to have first evolved around 195,000 years ago in east Africa – the earliest remains from that time were uncovered near the Omo River in Ethiopia.

It is thought that by 150,000 years ago these early modern humans had managed to spread to other parts of Africa and fossilised remains have been found on the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa.

The earliest homo sapien remains found outside of Africa were discovered in Israel and are thought to be around 100,000 years old. They are remains of a group that left Africa through what is now the Sahara desert during a brief period when the climate grew wetter, turning the desert green with vegetation. This excursion, however, failed and the population died out when the climate started to dry out again.

While there are 14 ancestral populations in Africa itself, just one seems to have survived outside of the continent.

The latest genetic research has shown that it was not until around 70,000 years ago that humans were able to take advantage of falling sea levels to cross into Arabia at the mouth of the Red Sea, which is now known as the Gate of Grief.

At the time the 18 mile gap between the continents would have dropped to just 8 miles. It is not clear how they might have made such a journey but once a cross, the humans were able to spread along the Arabian coast where fresh water springs helped support them.

It has long been assumed that humans success in spreading around the world was due to their adaptability and hunting skills. The latest research, however, suggests that the very early human pioneers who ventured out of Africa owe far more of their success to luck and favourable changes in climate change than had previously been realised.

Dr Stephen Oppenheimer, a geneticist at the school of anthropology at Oxford University who has also led research on the genetic origins of humans outside Africa, said: “What you can see from the DNA of all non Africans is that they all belong to one tiny African branch that came across the Red Sea.

“If it was easy to get out of Africa we would have seen multiple African lineages in the DNA of non-Africans but that there was only one successful exit suggests it must have been very tough to get out. It was much drier and colder then.”

Within around 5,000 years some of these early human pioneers had managed to spread along the edge of the Indian Ocean and down through south east Asia and arriving in Australia around 65,000 years ago.

Others made their way north through the Middle East and Pakistan to reach central Asia.

Around 50,000 years ago they also began spreading into Europe via the Bosporus at the Istanbul Strait. Again low sea levels allowed them to almost walk into Europe.

Once there they will have encountered Neanderthals, who, with bigger bodies were more adapted to the cold weather at the time, had been living in Europe for nearly a quarter of a million years but are thought to have died out due to changes in the climate.

By 25,000 years ago humans had spread into northern Europe and Siberia and then walked across the Bering land bridge into Alaska around 20,000 years ago.

The peak of the last ice age, which was reached around 19,000 years ago, saw human populations pushed south by the extreme cold and it was about 15,000 years ago that South America became the last continent on the planet to be colonised.

Britain and northern Scandinavia is thought to have been recolonised by modern humans after the last ice age between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago.

End

See also this article from

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/09/updated-first-big-efforts-sequence-ancient-african-dna-reveal-how-early-humans-swept

Africa has long been called the “cradle of humanity,” from which our earliest human ancestors spread across the rest of the world some 50,000 years ago. Africa is also where people—ancient and modern—are most genetically diverse. But how such groups, from the Hadza of East Africa to the Khoe-San of Southern Africa, came to be is a mystery. That’s in part because some 2000 years ago, early adopters of agriculture known as the Bantu spread across the continent, erasing the genetic footprint of other Africans. The one ancient African genome that has been sequenced—an Ethiopian who lived some 4500 years ago—has shed little light on this mystery.

Pontus Skoglund knew there had to be more to the story. So the Harvard University evolutionary geneticist and his colleagues obtained DNA from 15 ancient Africans from between 500 and 6000 years ago, some before the Bantu expansion. In addition, Skoglund’s team got DNA data from 19 modern populations across Africa for comparison, including from large groups like the Bantu and smaller ones like the Khoe-San and the Hadza.

For the most part, the ancient DNA was most similar to that of people living in the same places where the bones were found, Skoglund reported. But some interesting exceptions showed intermingling among various groups. “It’s really exciting to see in Africa that there was already this ancient admixture,” says Simon Aeschbacher, a population geneticist from the University of Bern who was not involved with the work. “There must have been population movements in early Africa.”

The ancient genomes indicate that Southern Africans split off from Western Africans several thousand years ago, and subsequently evolved key adaptations that honed their taste buds and protected them from the sun. Around 3000 years ago, herders—possibly from today’s Tanzania—spread far and wide, reaching Southern Africa centuries before the first farmers. But modern Malawians, who live just south of Tanzania, are likely descended from West African farmers rather than local hunter-gatherers, Skoglund says. Indeed, the analysis suggests that West Africans were early contributors to the DNA of sub-Saharan Africans. But even these DNA donors were a hodgepodge of what are now two modern groups—the Mende and the Yoruba. And one ancient African herder showed influence from even farther abroad, with 38% of their DNA coming from outside Africa.

Another study focused on Southern Africa, where some researchers think modern Homo sapiens evolved. Evolutionary geneticist Carina Schlebusch and her colleagues at Uppsala University in Sweden partially sequenced seven ancient genomes: three from 2000-year-old hunter-gatherers and four from 300- to 500-year-old farmers. They also included modern DNA in their analyses.

The more modern farmers did have Bantu DNA in their genomes, but the ancient hunter-gatherers predated the spread of the Bantu, she and her colleagues reported last month on the preprint server bioRxiv. Their other findings parallel Skoglund’s discoveries: Nine percent to 22% of the DNA of these farmers’ modern descendants—including the southern Khoe-San—comes from East Africans and Eurasian herders.

Schlebusch’s analysis reaches even deeper into human history than does Skoglund’s, as her team used the ancient and modern genomes to estimate that the hunter-gatherers she studied split off from other groups some 260,000 years ago, about the age of the oldest H. sapiens fossil. Having that date “lets us start to think about questions like where, and how, anatomically and behaviorally modern humans evolved,” says Iain Mathieson, an evolutionary geneticist at Harvard. Whether this date survives peer review after publication is yet to be seen.

End

4922415920_2d87f59c42-1

Let’s change our focus for a short while. We will now look at the Jesuits who travelled the world evangelising/Christianizing people.

We read earlier “Kongo was the earliest Bantu language which was committed to writing in Latin characters and had the earliest dictionary of any Bantu language. A catechism was produced under the authority of Diogo Gomes, a Jesuit born in Kongo of Portuguese parents in 1557,”

 Jesuit history in Africa can be easily divided into three main periods. The first period goes back to the earliest Jesuit missions in Africa, which began in the former Kingdom of the Kongo (1390–1857) and in Morocco in 1548 and lasted until the expulsion of the Jesuits from Portuguese dominions in 1759. Although this period encompasses minor missions like that in Cape Verde, which lasted from 1604 to 1642,1  I shall focus only on the major ones in the Kingdom of the Kongo, Ethiopia, and Mozambique, which have been studied by several historians. The second period extends from the first return to Africa after the 1814 restoration of the order to the end of World War II in 1945. After the restoration, Jesuits entered Madagascar as early as in 1832. However, since no lasting ministry was established on the island before 1861, the inaugural mission of the second period is appropriately that of French Jesuits in Algeria, which began in 1840. The period’s large missions are those in Madagascar, Southern Africa, and the Congo region, whose historiography will be considered at length below. Its smaller missions in Fernando Pó (now Bioko, part of Equatorial Guinea) and Egypt will not be discussed. Although they are a part of the second-period history, Jesuit presence in Fernando Pó between 1845 and 1859 is just being discovered,2 whereas Jesuit presence in Egypt has always been studied in the context of the Middle East.3 The closing date for the second period—the end of World War II—is based purely on the enormous increase of Jesuit activity on the continent after the war. Although other authors have considered the decade of political independence in Africa (1960s) to be the tail end of the second period,4 we observe significant increase of Jesuit activity in Africa even earlier. The third period extends from World War II to the present and is marked by the multiplication and spread of Jesuit works beyond the three major missions of the second period—Madagascar, the Zambezi region,5 and the Congo region—to other parts of the continent.

Also

Unlike the first Zambezi Mission, pre-suppression Jesuit work in the present-day Congo–Angola region received greater attention after the restoration. In his history of the Society in the Portuguese Assistancy, Rodrigues included an extensive chapter on the missions in Angola and Mazagão (now El Jadida, Morocco).17 The chapter is essentially an account of Jesuit involvement in the evangelization and civilization of the inhabitants of an inhospitable area, which fits well into standard European narratives about Africa before World War II. However, the chapter stands out as a good narrative of the mission’s basic events and more prominent personalities and, as such, serves as a primary source material or at least a pointer to the existence of such material. Another useful summary of the same events and of the role played by the Jesuits in the primary evangelization of Angola is found in Manuel Nunes Gabriel’s (1912–96) Os jesuítas.18 In this little book, as in several other places,19 much is appreciated about the extent and depth of Jesuit work in this part of Africa. The book shows, for example, that, unlike in Mozambique, the Jesuits in Angola made an effort to translate the faith into a cultural language that would be understood by their indigenous hearers. Himself a former archbishop of Luanda, Manuel Gabriel remains faithful to harmless ecclesiastical history and, as one reviewer of another work of his puts it, provides “a conventional narrative to show how, if not why, Angola has become one of the most Christianized countries in Africa.”20

http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/jesuit-historiography-online/*-COM_192529

The Society of Jesus (S.J. – from LatinSocietas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain. The members are called Jesuits.[2]The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities, and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, and promote ecumenical dialogue.

FoundationEdit

Church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, Paris

On 15 August 1534, Ignatius of Loyola (born Íñigo López de Loyola), a Spaniard from the Basque city of Loyola, and six others mostly of Castilian origin, all students at the University of Paris,[24] met in Montmartre outside Paris, in a crypt beneath the church of Saint Denis, now Saint Pierre de Montmartre, to pronounce the religious vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.[25] Ignatius’ six companions were:Francisco Xavier from Navarre (modern Spain), Alfonso SalmeronDiego LaínezNicolás Bobadilla from Castile (modern Spain), Peter Faber from Savoy, and Simão Rodrigues from Portugal.[26] The meeting has been commemorated in the Martyrium of Saint Denis, Montmartre. They called themselves theCompañía de Jesús, and also Amigos en El Señoror “Friends in the Lord”, because they felt “they were placed together by Christ.” The name “company” had echoes of the military (reflecting perhaps Ignatius’ background as Captain in the Spanish army) as well as of discipleship (the “companions” of Jesus). The Spanish “company” would be translated into Latin as societas like in socius, a partner or comrade. From this came “Society of Jesus” (SJ) by which they would be known more widely.[27]

Religious orders established in the medieval era were named after particular men: Francis of Assisi (Franciscans), Domingo de Guzmán, later canonized as St Dominic (Dominicans); and Augustine of Hippo (Augustinians). Ignatius of Loyola and his followers appropriated the name of Jesus for their new order, provoking resentment by other religious who considered it presumptuous. The resentment was recorded by Jesuit José de Acosta of a conversation with the Archbishop of Santo Domingo.[28] In the words of one historian: “The use of the name Jesus gave great offense. Both on the Continent and in England, it was denounced as blasphemous; petitions were sent to kings and to civil and ecclesiastical tribunals to have it changed; and even Pope Sixtus V had signed a Brief to do away with it.” But nothing came of all the opposition; there were already congregations named after the Trinity and as “God’s daughters”.[29]

In 1537, the seven travelled to Italy to seek papal approval for their orderPope Paul III gave them a commendation, and permitted them to be ordained priests. These initial steps led to the official founding in 1540.

They were ordained in Venice by the bishop of Arbe (24 June). They devoted themselves to preaching and charitable work in Italy. The Italian War of 1535-1538 renewed between Charles V, Holy Roman EmperorVenice, the Pope, and the Ottoman Empire, had rendered any journey toJerusalem impossible.

Again in 1540, they presented the project to Paul III. After months of dispute, a congregation ofcardinals reported favourably upon the Constitution presented, and Paul III confirmed the order through the bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae (“To the Government of the Church Militant”), on 27 September 1540. This is the founding document of the Society of Jesus as an official Catholic religious order. Ignatius was chosen as the first Superior General. Paul III’s bull had limited the number of its members to sixty. This limitation was removed through the bull Exposcit debitum of Julius III in 1550.[30]

The Spanish king Charles III (1759–88) expelled the Jesuits in 1767 from Spain and its territories. Within a few decades of the expulsion, most of what the Jesuits had accomplished was lost. The missions were mismanaged and abandoned by the Guaraní. Today, these ruins of a 160-year experiment have become a tourist attraction.[83][86]

Jesuits in colonial BrazilEdit

Manuel da Nóbrega on a commemorative Portuguese stamp of the 400th anniversary of the foundation of São Paulo, Brazil

Jesuit in 18th century, Brazil

Tomé de Sousa, first Governor General of Brazil, brought the first group of Jesuits to the colony. The Jesuits were officially supported by the King, who instructed Tomé de Sousa to give them all the support needed to Christianize the indigenous peoples.

The first Jesuits, guided by Manuel da Nóbrega, Juan de Azpilcueta Navarro, Leonardo Nunes, and later José de Anchieta, established the first Jesuit missions in Salvador and in São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga, the settlement that gave rise to the city of São Paulo. Nóbrega and Anchieta were instrumental in the defeat of the French colonists of France Antarctique by managing to pacify the Tamoio natives, who had previously fought the Portuguese. The Jesuits took part in the foundation of the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1565.

The success of the Jesuits in converting the indigenous peoples is linked to their efforts to understand the native cultures, especially their languages. The first grammar of the Tupi language was compiled by José de Anchieta and printed in Coimbra in 1595. The Jesuits often gathered the aborigines in communities (the Jesuit Reductions) where the natives worked for the community and were evangelised.

The Jesuits had frequent disputes with other colonists who wanted to enslave the natives. The action of the Jesuits saved many natives from being enslaved by Europeans, but also disturbed their ancestral way of life and inadvertently helped spread infectious diseases against which the aborigines had no natural defenses. Slave labor and trade were essential for the economy of Brazil and other American colonies, and the Jesuits usually did not object to the enslavement of African peoples, but rather critiqued the conditions of slavery.[87]

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Society_of_Jesus

51y16EPLSnL._AC_UL320_SR210,320_My ancestry DNA shows I am 22% Cameroon Congo 10% Bantu 2% Iberian Pennisula. I am related to some Perez & Fernandez just to add some reality to this history. It was these same Spanish & Portuguese “Jews ” (Europeans) and missionary slave masters that fled into Africa and then Jamaica and America first fleeing persecution from the Spanish King at the hand of his Queen then many more expulsions over time. The queen demanded the expulsion of all jews (who were mainly black at the time) from Spain. Some of these people were forced to covert to Catholism by the Vaitican Roman church/empire or face death.

A+short+History+of+the+Jews+in+Jamica

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE KINGDOM OF KONGO

The Kingdom of Kongo was composed of 6 provinces: Mpemba, Mbata, Nsundi, Mpangu, Mbemba and Soyo, plus 4 vassal Kingdoms: Loango, Cacongo and Ngoye, at the North of the N’Zari river, and Ndongo, at the South of the Congo river.

To the below post I would add the African history is a history told through stories dance art and tribal ceremonys not in the same way that history is told in Western society. African history is passed down from generation to generation orally and does not fit the stereotypical way of recording history.

The Kongo Nation and Kingdom

By John Henrik Clarke link to full post

The people and nations of Central Africa have no records of their ancient and medieval history like the “Tarikh es Sudan” or the “Tarikh el Fettach” of the Western Sudan (West Africa). The early travelers to these areas are mostly unknown. In spite of the forest as an obstacle to the formation of empires comparable to those of the Western Sudan, notable kingdoms did rise in this part of Africa and some of them did achieve a high degree of civilization.

The Kongo Valley became the gathering place of various branches of the people we now know as Bantu. When the history of Central Africa is finally written, it will be a history of invasions and migrations. According to one account, between two and three thousand years ago a group of tribes began to move out of the region south or southwest of Lake Chad.

Sometime during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the center of Africa became crowded with pastoral tribes who needed more land for their larger flocks and herds. This condition started another migration that lasted for more than a hundred years. Tribes with the prefix Ba to their names spread far to the west into the Congo basin and southward through the central plains. The Nechuana and Basuto were among these tribes. Tribes with the prefix Ama—great warriors like the Ama-Xosa and Ama-Zulu—passed down the eastern side.

In the meantime some of the more stable tribes in the Congo region were bringing notable kingdoms into being. The Kingdom of Loango extended from Cape Lopez (Libreville) to near the Kongo; and the Kongo Empire was mentioned by Europeans historians as early as the fourteenth century. The Chief of Loango, Mani-Kongo, extended his Kingdom as far as the Kasai and Upper Zambesi Rivers. This Kingdom had been in existence for centuries when the Portuguese arrived in the fifteenth century. They spoke admiringly of its capital, Sette-Camo, which they called San Salvador. The Kingdom of Kongo dates back to the fourteenth century. At the height of its power it extended over modern Angola, as far east as the Kasai and Upper Zambesi Rivers.

Further inland the Kingdom of Ansika was comprised of the people of the Bateke and Bayoka, whose artistic talents were very remarkable. Near the center of the Kongo was the Bakuba Kingdom (or Bushongo), still noted for its unity, the excellence of its administration, its art, its craftsmanship and the beauty of its fabrics.

South of the Congo basin the whole Bechuana territory formed a vast state which actually ruled for a long time over the Basutos, the Zulus, the Hottentots and the Bushmen, including in a single empire the greater part of the black population of Southern and Central Africa. This was the era of Bushongo grandeur; the people we now know as Balubas.

Only the Bushongo culture kept its records and transmitted them almost intact to modern research. The Bakubas are an ancient people whose power and influence once extended over most of the Kongo. Their history can be traced to the fifth century. For many centuries the Bakubas have had a highly organized social system, an impressive artistic tradition and a secular form of government that expressed the will of the people through a democratic political system. Today, as for many generations in the past, the court of a Bakuba Chief is ruled by a protocol as rigid and complicated as that of Versailles under Louis XIV.

At the top of the Bakuba hierarchy is the royal court composed of six dignitaries responsible for cabinet-like matters such as military affairs, justice and administration. At one time there were in the royal entourage 143 other functionaries, including a master of the hunt, a master storyteller and a keeper of oral traditions. In the sixteenth century the Bakubas ruled over a great African empire. The memory of their glorious past is recalled in the tribe with historical exactitude. They can name the reigns of their kings for the past 235 years. The loyalty of the people to these rulers is expressed in a series of royal portrait-statues dating from the reign of Shamba Bolongongo, the greatest and best known of the Bakuba kings.

In the Bakuba system of government the king was above all a symbol, rather like the Mikado in the eyes of the Japanese. His ministers, the Kolomos, paid him great respect in public, even if they were his known enemies. In private they made no pretense of subservience. If the king wanted to see his ministers he had to go to their houses or meet them on neutral ground. The ordinary members of the tribe had representatives at the court on a political and professional basis. Some of these officials represented geographical areas, trades and professions. The weavers, the blacksmiths, the boat-builders, the net-makers, the musicians and the dancers all had their representatives at court. There was even a special representative of the fathers of twins. The representative of the sculptors was held in highest esteem. The Bakuba sculptors are considered to be the finest in Africa.

Shamba Bolongongo was a peaceful sovereign. He prohibited the use of the shongo, a throwing knife, the traditional weapon of the Bushongo. This wise African king used to say: “Kill neither man, woman nor child. Are they not the children of Chembe (God), and have they not the right to live?” Shamba likewise brought to his people some of the agreeable pastimes that alleviate the tediousness of life. The reign of Shamba Bolongongo was really the “Golden Age” of the Bushongo people of the Southern Kongo. After abolishing the cruder aspects of African warfare, Shamba Bolongongo introduced raffia weaving and other arts of peace. According to the legends of the Bushongo people, their history as a state goes back fifteen centuries. Legends notwithstanding, their magnificent sculpture and other artistic accomplishments are unmistakable, the embodiment of a long and fruitful social experience reflecting the life of a people who have been associated with a higher form of culture for more than a thousand years.

Early in the twentieth century when the European writer, Emil Torday, was traveling through the Kongo collecting material for his book On the Trail of the Bushongo, he found the Bakuba elders still singing the praises of Shamba Bolongonog. They also repeated the list of their kings, a list of one hundred twenty names, going back to the godlike King who founded their nation. From these Bakuba elders, Emil Torday learned of Bo Kama Bomanchala, the great King who reigned after Shamba Bolongongo. The elders recalled the most memorable event that had occurred during his reign. On March 30, 1680, there was a total eclipse of the sun, passing exactly over Bushongo.

Jose Fernandez, one of the first European explorers to visit Central Africa, went there in 1445. Any number of subsequent expeditions were carried out by such men as Diego Borges, Vincente Annes, Rebello de Araca, Francisco Baretto and Dom Christovao da Gama. The parts of Africa visited, explored and discovered by these men included the Kingdom of the Kongo, Timbuktu, the East Coast of Africa, Nubia, the Kingdom of N’Gola (Angola), Abyssinia and the Lake Tsana region.

Much of the history and civilization of Central Africa and East Africa was revealed by the study made by the Portuguese African explorer Duarte Lopez in his book History of the Kingdom of Kongo. Duarte Lopez went to the Congo in 1578 and stayed for many years.

According to Lopez, the Kingdom of the Kongo at the time measured 1,685 miles. The King, still reliving his past glory, styled himself Dom Alvarez, King of Kongo, and of Abundo, and of Natama, and of Quizama, and of N’Gola, and of Angri, and of Cacongo, and of the seven Kingdoms of Congere Amolza, and of the Pangelungos, and the Lord of the River Zaire (Kongo) and of the Anzigiros, and of Anziqvara, and of Doanga, etc. He also tells us that the Kingdom of N’Gola (Angola) was at one time a vassal state of the Kongo.

At the time of Lopez’s twelve years stay in the country, the Kingdom of the Congo was divided into six provinces. The province of Bamba was the military stronghold of the kingdom, and was capable of putting 400,000 well-disciplined men in the field.

The rich gold mines at Sofala (now a port of Mozambique) attracted the Portuguese to the East Coast of Africa. They used intermarriage with the Africans as a means of gaining favor and pushing into the interior of Africa. In turn, the Africans gradually lost their anti-Christian hostilities and gave in to being converted to Christianity. And thus Christianity was introduced into the Kongo before 1491. The Mani Sogno was the first Kongo nobleman to embrace the Christian faith. The Moslems, coming into the Congo from the East Coast, prevailed upon the Africans to resist being converted to Christianity, telling them that Christianity was a subtle method used by the Portuguese to take over their country. This warning notwithstanding, Christianity continued to spread in the Kongo.

In 1513, Henrique, son of Dom Affonso, then King of the Congo, was sent to Lisbon and to Rome to study theology. In 1520, Pope Leo X appointed Henrique Bishop of Utica and Vicar-apostolic of the Congo. Unfortunately, Henrique died before he could return to the Congo. He was Rome’s first Central African bishop. The royal archives of Portugal still hold the records reflecting the ceremonial respect that was paid to this Christian son of an African king and queen.

In the years that followed, Portuguese evangelization of the Congo continued. The Holy See received ambassadors from and sent legates to the Congo. In 1561, Father Dom Goncalo da Silvera baptized the Emperor of the Court of Monomotapa.

The peaceful relations between the Africans and the Portuguese were eventually disrupted by the rising European lust for slaves and gold. It was from N’Gola (Angola) and the Kongo that the Portuguese New World was to derive its greatest source of slaves. In 1647, Salvador Correia of Brazil organized an expedition of fifteen ships for the purpose of reconquering Angola, which had been under Dutch rule for eight years. This event might be considered go be one of the earliest political interventions of the New World in the Affairs of the Old.

Portuguese domination founded on the dire necessities of the slave trade persisted in Angola. After a period of relative splendor, the Christian Kingdom of the Congo began to weaken and was practically destroyed by European fortune hunters, pseudo-missionaries and other kinds of free-booters. By 1688, the entire Congo region was in chaos. By the end of the seventeenth century European priests had declared open war on the non-Christian population of the Kongo. They were attempting to dominate Congolese courts and had ordered the execution of Congolese ancestral priests and indigenous doctors. Now the Congolese Christians were pathetic pawns of the hands of unscrupulous European priests, soldiers, merchants and other renegade pretenders, mere parish priests from Europe were ordering Congolese kings from their thrones.

Soon treachery, robbery and executions compounded the chaos in the Kongo. Violence became the order of the day as various assortments of European mercenaries vied for control of this rich area of Africa. In the ensuing struggle many of the Christian churches built by the Portuguese were destroyed. The Dutch, still feeling the humiliation of the decline of their influence in N’Gola (Angola), came into the Congo and systematically removed all traces of the once prevailing Portuguese power.

By 1820 Arab slave traders had penetrated the Kongo from Zanzibar and through Tanganyika. Soon after their arrival their slave raids were decimating the population. The European rediscovery of the Kongo and neighboring territories began in the middle of the nineteenth century. In 1858, two Englishmen, Burton and Spoke, discovered Lakes Tanganyka and Victoria, approaching them from the shores of the Indian Ocean. The Scotch Protestant missionary, Livingstone, explored the regions of the big lakes and in 1871, Livingstone and Stanley met on the shore of Lake Tanganyika. From 1874 to 1877, Henry Morton Stanley crossed Africa from east to west and discovered the Kongo River.

In the meantime, King Leopold II of Belgium focused his attention on Central Africa and in 1876 founded the Association International Africaine. In 1878, King Leopold commissioned Stanley to establish connection between the Congo River and the ocean in the non-navigable part of the river. From 1879 to 1885, a handful of Belgian officers sent by the King set up posts along the Kongo River. They were followed by Catholic and Protestant missionaries.

King Leopold’s undertakings gave rise to competition and greed. Other European nations had designs on the Kongo. The King’s diplomatic successes at the Berlin Conference of 1884 settled this matter. The members of the Conference marked out spheres of influence in Africa and determined boundaries that are still in existence. The Kongo Free State came into being. The Belgian parliament agreed that Leopold should have “exclusive” personal ownership of the Kongo. The United States was the first power to ratify the arrangement, largely through the efforts of General Henry S. Stanford, who was American minister to Brussels at the time.

And thus began the tragedy of Belgian rule in the Kongo.

http://www.africafederation.net/Kongo_History.htm

The Afro Asiatic Biblical Hebrew Language & History

tetragrammaton-w600-o

Hebrew

[hee-broo] 
Spell Syllables
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/hebrew
noun

1.

a member of the Semitic peoples inhabiting ancient Palestine and claiming descent from   Abraham, Isaac,and Jacob; an Israelite.

2.

a Semitic language of the Afroasiatic family, the language of the ancient Hebrews, which, although not in a vernacular use from   100 b.c. to the 20th century,was retained as the scholarly and    liturgical language of Jews and is now the national language of  Israel.

Abbreviation: Heb.
adjective

3.

4.

noting or pertaining to the script developed from theAramaic and early Hebraic alphabets, used sinceabout the 3rd century b.c. for  the writing of Hebrew,and later for Yiddish, Ladino, and other    languages.

4550860

YHWH-symbolsmeaning

Hebrew (/ˈhbr/עִבְרִית‬, Ivrit [ʔivˈʁit] (About this sound listenor

[ʕivˈɾit] (About this sound listen) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[7][4] Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 2] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[8] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.[9][10]

EtymologyEdit

The modern word “Hebrew” is derived from the word “Ivri” (plural “Ivrim”; English: Hebrews), one of several names for the Israelite (Jewish and Samaritan) people. It is traditionally understood to be an adjective based on the name of Abraham’s ancestor, Eber (“Ever” עבר in Hebrew), mentioned in Genesis 10:21. This name is possibly based upon the root “ʕ-b-r” (עבר) meaning “to cross over”. Interpretations of the term “ʕibrim” link it to this verb; cross over or the people who crossed over the river Euphrates.[15]

In the Bible, the Hebrew language is called Yәhudit (יהודית) because Judah (Yәhuda) was the surviving kingdom at the time of the quotation (late 8th century BCE (Is 36, 2 Kings 18). In Isaiah 19:18 it is called the “Language of Canaan” (שפת כנען).

maliflag-1^

4402800_orig

Below is my list of things that didn’t sit well with me regarding church. This is not to say I won’t go to church but on a rare occasion now, and can’t help looking at the pastor with a side eye. Most pastors avoid some truths. However I still believe that the New Testament can be used alongside the Old Testament. I decided to spend a period of time studying the Old Testament. After a period of about a year I realised that for me the old and new Testament work hand in hand. The video below stood out for me. It is an example of how the New Testament can be used to help us get closer to The Almighty YAHUAH and the WORD.

I decided a long time ago that one day I would learn Hebrew Aramaic and Arabic to get a better understanding of the Holy word. It is still a dream but I have been learning the basics of Hebrew and Arabic for a short while. The English King James Version of the Bible is a translation. You cannot get the true meaning of the names or messages behind the words in a translation. The true words cannot be properly expressed in English, the names have no meaning. Yahusha said “I come in my father’s name and you do not accept me but if I come in someone else’s name you will accept me.” YAHUAH states “if my people who are know by my name will humble themselves and call on me…” he will fulfill his promise and never forsake us. We must go back the covenant.

Nowhere is the Name God in Jesus or the word Jew or Judah in God. Also it was the Jews who according to the bible killed Jesus. This is only my belief and I admit that I am still learning.

The root word remains the same with YAHU or YAH

In YAHUAH we have YAHUSHA or YASHA  YAHSHIYA YAHUSHUA and YAHUDAH

It fulfills the promise.

Let’s take Jehovah there was no “J” using the “Yod” you get “Y” in ancient Hebrew instead of “Ye” it was “Yah” YA instead of “El” it was “Al” we now have Yahovah or Yahweh. Yahweh adds vowels A And E to create  sound but there were no vowels.

A “W” is a Double U ( 2 U’s = a W Equivalent or the same as UU) which creates the sound EWE, YAHOO-A, YAH-WHO-AH in English.

The above documentary states it should be YAHAWAH. Some say YA-HOW-A some say YA-WHO-A

Some pronounce the tettergrames  YHWH as YAHWEH or YAHVEH. This became JEHOVAH or JAH when the “J” was developed in Europe around 500 years ago.

Strong’s Concordance
Yhvh: the proper name of the God of Israel

Original Word: יְהֹוָה
Part of Speech: Proper Name
Transliteration: Yhvh
Phonetic Spelling: (yeh-ho-vaw’)
Short Definition: LORD

NAS Exhaustive Concordance

Word Origin
from havah
Definition
the proper name of the God of Israel
NASB Translation

http://biblehub.com/hebrew/3067.htm

Things to bear in mind with the above is that Paleo-Hebrew was not pronounced in that way. The V is a new consonant. There was a U in ancient times. (HAUAH)  YAH UAH

yah-names-1

Strong’s Concordance
Yah: the name of the God of Israel

Original Word: יָהּ
Part of Speech: Proper Name
Transliteration: Yah
Phonetic Spelling: (yaw)
Short Definition: LORD

http://biblehub.com/hebrew/3050.htm

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Strong’s Hebrew

Strong’s Hebrew: 3050. יָהּ (Yah) — the name of the God of 

◄ 3050. Yah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Yah: the name of the God of Israel. Original
Word: יָהּ Part of Speech: Proper Name Transliteration 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/3050.htm – 30k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 3470. יְשַׁעְיָה (Ysha’yah) — Isaiah

◄ 3470. Ysha’yah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Ysha’yah: Isaiah. Original Word:
יְשַׁעְיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/3470.htm – 30k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 2970. יַאֲזַנְיָה (Yaazanyahu or 

◄ 2970. Yaazanyahu or Yaazanyah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Yaazanyahu or
Yaazanyah: “Yah hears,” the name of several Israelites. 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/2970.htm – 14k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3000. יְבֶרֶכְיָ֫הוּ (Yeberekyahu) 

 Strong’s Concordance. Yeberekyahu: “Yah blesses,” the name of several Israelites.
Original Word: יְבֶרֶכְיָ֫הוּ Part of Speech: Proper Name 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/3000.htm – 12k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2293. חַגִּיָּה (Chaggiyyah) — “feast 

 Strong’s Concordance. Chaggiyyah: “feast of Yah,” a Levite. Original Word:
חַגִּיָּה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration: Chaggiyyah 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/2293.htm – 10k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1806. דְּלָיָה (Delayah or Delayahu) 

 Strong’s Concordance. Delayah or Delayahu: “Yah has drawn,” five Israelites. Original
Word: דְּלָיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/1806.htm – 16k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2811. חֲשַׁבְיָה (Chashabyahu or 

◄ 2811. Chashabyahu or Chashabyah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Chashabyahu or
Chashabyah: “Yah has taken account,” the name of a number of Isr.
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/2811.htm – 25k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 2900. טוֹבִיָּה (Tobiyyahu or Tobiyyah) 

◄ 2900. Tobiyyahu or Tobiyyah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Tobiyyahu or Tobiyyah:
Yah is my good,” three Israelites, also an Ammonite. 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/2900.htm – 25k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 452. אֵלִיָּה (Eliyyah) — “Yah is God 

◄ 452. Eliyyah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Eliyyah: “Yah is God,” a
well-known prophet of Isr., also three other Isr. Original Word 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/452.htm – 29k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 273. אַחְזַי (Achzay) — “Yah has grasped 

 Strong’s Concordance. Achzay: “Yah has grasped,” an Israelite name. Original Word:
אַחְזַי Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration: Achzay 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/273.htm – 12k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 3167. יַחְזְיָה (Yachzeyah) — “Yah sees 

 Strong’s Concordance. Yachzeyah: “Yah sees,” an Israelite. Original Word: יַחְזְיָה
Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration: Yachzeyah
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/3167.htm – 10k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 2382. חֲזָיָה (Chazayah) — “Yah has seen 

 Strong’s Concordance. Chazayah: “Yah has seen,” a descendant of Judah. Original
Word: חֲזָיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/2382.htm – 10k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 568. אֲמַרְיָה (Amaryahu or Amaryah) 

◄ 568. Amaryahu or Amaryah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Amaryahu or Amaryah:
Yah has promised,” the name of several Israelites. Original 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/568.htm – 23k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 5129. נוֹעַדְיָה (Noadyah) — “meeting 

 Strong’s Concordance. Noadyah: “meeting with Yah,” a Levite, also a prophetess.
Original Word: נוֹעַדְיָה Part of Speech: proper name; masculine 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/5129.htm – 11k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 2619. חֲסַדְיָה (Chasadyah) — “Yah is 

 Strong’s Concordance. Chasadyah: “Yah is kind,” a son of Zerubbabel. Original Word:
חֲסַדְיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/2619.htm – 10k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 1955. הוֹשַׁעֲיָה (Hoshayah) — “Yah 

 Strong’s Concordance. Hoshayah: “Yah has saved,” two Israelites. Original Word:
הוֹשַׁעֲיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/1955.htm – 12k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 2997. יִבְנְיָה (Yibneyah) — “Yah 

 Strong’s Concordance. Yibneyah: “Yah builds up,” a Benjamite. Original Word:
יִבְנְיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration: Yibneyah 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/2997.htm – 10k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 1183. בְּעַלְיָה (Baalyah) — “Yah is 

 Strong’s Concordance. Baalyah: “Yah is lord,” one of David’s heroes. Original Word:
בְּעַלְיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/1183.htm – 10k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 4322. מִיכָיָ֫הוּ (Mikayahu) — “Who 

◄ 4322. Mikayahu ►. Strong’s Concordance. Mikayahu: “Who is likeYah?” an Israelite,
also an Israelite woman. Original Word: מִיכָיָ֫הוּ 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/4322.htm – 11k

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 1141. בְּנָיָה (Benayahu or Benayah) 

◄ 1141. Benayahu or Benayah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Benayahu or Benayah:
Yah has built up,” the name of several Israelites. Original 
//biblehub.com/str/hebrew/1141.htm – 31k

 

 

Bible Search

Isaiah 26:4 Trust in the LORD forever, for the LORD, the LORD 

 Trust in the LORD forever, because in Yah, the LORD, is an everlasting rock!  Trust
in Yahweh forever; for in Yah, Yahweh, is an everlasting Rock. 
//biblehub.com/isaiah/26-4.htm – 17k

 

Psalm 150:6 Let everything that has breath praise the LORD. Praise

 Let everything that has breath praise Yah! Praise Yah
//biblehub.com/psalms/150-6.htm – 16k

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yahu-a

  YAH or YAHU

The ‘Personal’ Name of the ‘God of Israel’ by which He anciently revealed Himself to Moses ( 6:2).  ‘YAH’ is spelt in original Hebrew, with the 10th letter of the Hebrew alphabet – the ‘yood’, smallest letter in the alphabet, represented by the inverted comma ( ‘ ). YAHU also has the meaning of  ‘He is YAH’

Obscure Preservation of the Sacred Name ‘YAHU’

Hebrew personal names have meanings, and many such personal names have throughout time, been linked to the Sacred Name YAHU.  In this obscure way, the Sacred Name YAHU has been preserved for modern times, notwithstanding the fact that it has been almost totally removed from most Bible Translations.

This Name, through recent archeological discoveries in Israel, has been found to be part of more Hebrew words and names than were formerly known. There is an untold number of usages in the Tanach (‘Old Testament’) where this form of the Sacred Name is used as a conjunction in Biblical names.  Some of the more common examples of these are:

  • EliYahu (‘Elijah’)
  • YeremiYahu (‘Jeremiah’)
  • YeshiYahu (‘Isaiah’)
  • YahuShafat (‘Josephat’)
  • NetanYahu (also the name of former Israeli Prime Minister)
  • YahuNatan (‘Jonethan’)
  • and of course, the Messianic Salvation Name YAHU’SHUAH (‘Yeshuah’)

https://www.revelations.org.za/yah-or-yahu/

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The truth is we cannot say for certain exactly how it should be physically pronounced, we can only take an educated guess. Our languages have been confused. After the scattering of the people from the tower of Babel the language became mixed up see below:

Study Bible

The Tower of Babel
7“Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, so that they will not understand one another’s speech.” 8So the LORD scattered them abroad from there over the face of the whole earth; and they stopped building the city. 9Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the LORD confused the language of the whole earth; and from there the LORD scattered them abroad over the face of the whole earth.…

It was fore written. This is why although I search for the most ancient way to pronounce the name and pray, I know that it is our hearts sincerity which is more important. The languages of the WHOLE earth are confused according to the bible. Some say God some say Elohim some say ALAHEIM or Allah JAH Jehovah YAHUAH Lord ALMIGHY. The name has been hidden in plain sight. I cannot for certain say that I am right and they’re are much conflicting information out there. This is a documentation of one type of study only.

I recommend that you continue to research and I will also do the same. I like the saying “Study to show yourself approved” in the eyes of The Most High.

study-yahuah

My list of unease about the church

Celebrating pagan holidays – Christmas & Christmas trees, Halloween by some,  Easter, New Years, Valentines day
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Not keeping the Sabbath but instead keeping the suns day

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1985b1b4b657cea4e53d3594efd062fc--happy-sabbath-photo-galleries

Breaking commandments such as eating pork

Lies about the colour of the Ha Mashiach and people in the Bible.

Promotion of slavery

Pagan cross which is technically the weapon used to kill Yahusha promoted in the church. Using Pagan images.

Research Cesare Borgia and his life. Below is a little information on the image of Jesus. Cesare Borgia.

Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal, 

After initially entering the church and becoming a cardinal on his father’s election to the Papacy, he became the first person to resign a cardinalcy after the death of his brother in 1498. His father set him up as a prince with territory carved from the Papal States

The seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the 6th century. Beginning In 535, the Byzantine Empire, under emperor Justinian I, launched a reconquest of Italy that took decades and devastated Italy’s political and economic structures. Just as these wars wound down, the Lombards entered the peninsula from the north and conquered much of the countryside. By the 7th century, Byzantine authority was largely limited to a diagonal band running roughly from Ravenna, where the Emperor’s representative, or Exarch, was located, to Rome and south to Naples (the “Rome-Ravenna corridor”[4][5][6]), plus coastal enclaves.[7]

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (ItalianStato della ChiesaItalian pronunciation: [ˈstato ˈdella ˈkjɛza]LatinStatus Ecclesiae), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. 

The Papal Army was disbanded in 1870, leaving only the Palatine Guard, which was itself disbanded on 14 September 1970 by Pope Paul VI,[40] and the Swiss Guard, which continues to serve both as a ceremonial unit at the Vatican and as the pope’s protective force.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papal_States

Other things that dont sit well for me personally are Idolatry of Preachers and Pope’s. Only The Almighty Creator of the universe through the son of man Yahusha can redeem us. Pope forgiving sins!! Confessing to the Pope instead of YHWH.

Peodophilia in the European church stretching back generations breaking the commandments.

Changes of the names of the Prophets. Janus and Zeus were Greco-Roman deities Ja-Zeus hmm sounds like something else and Kristos was also a pagan god.

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When we get into Paganism most of the names we use were from the Canaanites. Yah, El, Allah. The real name has been replaced with Lord or God and has changed so many times. At the Kaba before Islam they worshipped 360 gods. This was done in Saudi Arabia. The middle east was the gateway to the East and West. These customs have penetrated the religions we have today. In the past the Hebrews fell away from the teachings of Moses and turned to Baal.

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LevantineEdit

A 4th century BCE drachm (quartershekel) coin from the Persian province of Yehud Medinata, possibly representing Yahweh seated on a winged and wheeled sun-throne.[99]:766[100]:190

The ancient Canaanites were polytheists who believed in a pantheon of deities,[101][102][103] the chief of whom was the god El, who ruled alongside his consort Asherah and their seventy sons.[101]:22-24[102][103] Baal was the god of storm, rain, vegetation and fertility,[101]:68-127 while his consort Anat was the goddess of war[101]:131, 137-139 and Astarte, the West Semitic equivalent to Ishtar, was the goddess of love.[101]:146-149 The people of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah originally believed in these deities,[101][103][104] alongside their own national god Yahweh.[105][106] El later became syncretized with Yahweh, who took over El’s role as the head of the pantheon,[101]:13-17 with Asherah as his divine consort[100]:45[101]:146 and the “sons of El” as his offspring.[101]:22-24 During the later years of the Kingdom of Judah, a monolatristic faction rose to power insisting that only Yahweh was fit to be worshipped by the people of Judah.[101]:229-233 Monolatry became enforced during the reforms of King Josiah in 621 BCE.[101]:229 Finally, during the national crisis of the Babylonian captivity, some Judahites began to teach that deities aside from Yahweh were not just unfit to be worshipped, but did not exist.[107][39]:4 The “sons of El” were demoted from deities to angels.[101]:22

MesopotamianEdit

Akkadian cylinder seal impression showing Inanna, the Sumerian goddess of love, sex, and war[108]:92, 193
Wall relief of the Assyrian national godAššur in a “winged male” hybrid iconography.[109]:73

Ancient Mesopotamian culture in southern Iraq had numerous dingir (deities, gods and goddesses).[19]:69-74[110] Mesopotamian deities were almost exclusively anthropomorphic.[111]:93[19]:69-74[112] They were thought to possess extraordinary powers[111]:93and were often envisioned as being of tremendous physical size.[111]:93 They were generally immortal,[111]:93 but a few of them, particularly DumuzidGeshtinanna, and Gugalanna were said to have either died or visited the underworld.[111]:93 Both male and female deities were widely venerated.[111]:93

The most important deities in the Sumerian pantheon were known as the Anunnaki,[114] and included deities known as the “seven gods who decree”: AnEnlilEnkiNinhursagNannaUtu andInanna.[114] After the conquest of Sumer by Sargon of Akkad, many Sumerian deities weresyncretized with East Semitic ones.[113] The goddess Inanna, syncretized with the East Semitic Ishtar, became popular,[115][108]:xviii, xv[113]:182[111]:106-109 with temples across Mesopotamia.[116][111]:106-109

The Mesopotamian mythology of the first millennium BCE treated Anšar (later Aššur) and Kišaras primordial deities.[117] Marduk was a significant god among the Babylonians. He rose from an obscure deity of the third millennium BCE to become one of the most important deities in the Mesopotamian pantheon of the first millennium BCE. The Babylonians worshipped Marduk as creator of heaven, earth and humankind, and as their national god.[19]:62, 73[118] Marduk’s iconography is zoomorphic and is most often found in Middle Eastern archaeological remains depicted as a “snake-dragon” or a “human-animal hybrid”.[119][99][120]

Indo-EuropeanEdit

GreekEdit

Zeus, the king of the gods inancient Greek religion, shown on a gold stater from Lampsacus (c.360–340 BCE)
Corinthian black-figure plaque ofPoseidon, the Greek god of the seas (c. 550-525 BCE)
Attic white-ground red-figured kylixof Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, riding a swan (c. 46-470 BCE)
Bust of Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom, copy after a votive statue of Kresilas in Athens (c. 425BCE)

The ancient Greeks revered both gods and goddesses.[121] These continued to be revered through the early centuries of the common era, and many of the Greek deities inspired and were adopted as part of much larger pantheon of Roman deities.[122]:91-97 The Greek religion was polytheistic, but had no centralized church, nor any sacred texts.[122]:91-97 The deities were largely associated with myths and they represented natural phenomena or aspects of human behavior.[121][122]:91-97

Several Greek deities probably trace back to more ancient Indo-European traditions, since the gods and goddesses found in distant cultures are mythologically comparable and arecognates.[33]:230-231[123]:15-19 Eos, the Greek goddess of the dawn, for instance, is cognate to Indic Ushas, Roman Aurora and LatvianAuseklis.[33]:230-232 Zeus, the Greek king of gods, is cognate to Latin Iūpiter, Old German Ziu, and Indic Dyaus, with whom he shares similar mythologies.[33]:230-232[124] Other deities, such asAphrodite, originated from the Near East.[125][126][127][128]

Greek deities varied locally, but many shared panhellenic themes, celebrated similar festivals, rites, and ritual grammar.[129] The most important deities in the Greek pantheon were the Twelve Olympians: Zeus, HeraPoseidonAthenaApollo,Artemis, Aphrodite, HermesDemeterDionysus,Hephaestus, and Ares.[123]:125-170 Other important Greek deities included HestiaHades and Heracles.[122]:96-97 These deities later inspired the Dii Consentes galaxy of Roman deities.[122]:96-97

Leviticus 18:1-30

And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, “Speak to the people of Israel and say to them, I am the Lord your God. You shall not do as they do in the land of Egypt, where you lived, and you shall not do as they do in the land of Canaan, to which I am bringing you. You shall not walk in their statutes. You shall follow my rules and keep my statutes and walk in them. I am the Lord your God. You shall therefore keep my statutes and my rules; if a person does them, he shall live by them: I am the Lord. …

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The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet was in common use in the ancient Israelite kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Following the exile of the Kingdom of Judah in the 6th century BCE, in the Babylonian exileJews began using a form of the Assyrian script, which was another offshoot of the same family of scripts. The Samaritans, who remained in the Land of Israel, continued to use the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet.

During the 3rd century BCE, Jews began to use a stylized, “square” form of the Aramaic alphabet that was used by the Persian Empire (which in turn was adopted from the Assyrians),[8] while the Samaritans continued to use a form of the Paleo-Hebrew script, called the Samaritan script. After the fall of the Persian Empire, Jews used both scripts before settling on the Assyrian form. For a limited time thereafter, the use of the Paleo-Hebrew script among Jews was retained only to write the Tetragrammaton.[9]

LettersEdit

The chart below compares the letters of the Phoenician script with

those of the Paleo-Hebrew and the present Hebrew alphabet, with

names traditionally used in English.

Phoenician Paleo-Hebrew Samaritan Square Hebrew English name
Aleph Aleph א Aleph
Beth Bet ב Bet
Gimel Gimel ג Gimel
Daleth Daled ד Dalet
He Heh ה He
Waw Vav ו Waw
Zayin Zayin ז Zayin
Heth chet ח Heth
Teth Tet ט Teth
Yodh Yud י Yodh
Kaph Khof כ/ך Kaph
Lamedh Lamed ל Lamedh
Mem Mem מ/ם Mem
Nun Nun נ/ן Nun
Samekh Samekh ס Samekh
Ayin Ayin ע Ayin
Pe Pey פ/ף Pe
Sadek Tzadi צ/ץ Tsade
Qoph Quf ק Qoph
Res Resh ר Resh
Sin Shin ש Shin
Taw Tof ת Taw

                                                                Ancient EgyptianEdit

A
“Aleph”
in hieroglyphs

Aleph

Early
Hebrew
Middle
Hebrew
Late
Hebrew
Modern
Hebrew
Pictograph: Ox Head
Meanings: Power, Authority, Strength
Sound: ah, eh

Beyt

Early
Hebrew
Middle
Hebrew
Late
Hebrew
Modern
Hebrew
Pictograph: Floorplan of a Tent
Meanings: Family, House, In
Sound: B, Bh (v)

http://www.ancient-hebrew.org/alphabet_letters_beyt.html

Bet/Vet 

Variations on written form/pronunciationEdit

Name Symbol IPA Transliteration Example
Vet ב /v/ v vote
Bet בּ /b/ b boat

Other common letters in biblical text

Shin

Early
Hebrew
Middle
Hebrew
Late
Hebrew
Modern
Hebrew
Ancient Name: Shin
Pictograph: Two front teeth
Meanings: Sharp, Press, Eat, Two
Sound: Sh

Yud 

Early
Hebrew
Middle
Hebrew
Late
Hebrew
Modern
Hebrew
Ancient Name: Yad
Pictograph: Arm and closed hand
Meanings: Work, Throw, Make, Praise
Sound: Y, iy

History & Reconstruction

The Early Semitic pictograph of this letter is , an arm and hand. The meaning of this letter is work, make and throw; the functions of the hand. The Modern Hebrew name yud is a derivative of the two letter word (yad), a Hebrew word meaning “hand,” the original name for the letter. Click for link

Ah Ba =Ahb = ABBA = Father

Aleif Ah Bet = Alphabet

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Arabic alif

Written as ا, spelled as الِف and transliterated as alif, it is the first letter in Arabic. Together with Hebrew Aleph, Greek Alpha and Latin A, it is descended from Phoenician ʾāleph, from a reconstructed Proto-Canaanite ʾalp “ox”.

Alif is written in one of the following ways depending on its position in the word:

Arabic bāʾEdit

The Arabic letter ب is named باء bāʾ (bāʔ). It is written in several ways depending on its position in the word:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bet_(letter)

 

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syriac_serto
Syrian Alphabet

 

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Visit this site below to hear the audio pronunciation of the Hebrew letters http://ahayahyashiyaphoenicianpaleohebrew.blogspot.co.uk/search/label/Hebrew%20Lesson%20Videos

yah-names-1

yahuwah

Proper noun

  1. (religion) Name of the Abrahamic deity according to some interpretations of the Hebrew scriptures.

Origin

Vocalization of the Hebrew Tetragrammaton (יהוה) peculiar to some “Sacred Name” new religious movements found online, especially Seventh-Day Adventist. Attested since 1998.


Read more at http://www.yourdictionary.com/yahuwah#VAlOB12ZWvp5ysfj.99

YAHUAH ALAHEIM

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YahuahNoOtherSM

MASHIACH  YAHUSHA

YASHA/ YASHIYAH

YahushuaTransliteration

YahushaGreekLatinHebrew2

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Strong’s Concordance 2268
Esaias: Isaiah, an Israelite prophet

Original Word: Ἠσαΐας, ου, ὁ
Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine
Transliteration: Esaias
Phonetic Spelling: (hay-sah-ee’-as)
Short Definition: Isaiah
Definition: Isaiah, the prophet.

NAS Exhaustive Concordance

Word Origin
of Hebrew origin Yeshayahu
http://biblehub.com/str/greek/2268.htm

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Jah or Yah (Hebrew: יהּ‬ Yah) is a short form of Yahweh (in consonantal spelling YHWH Hebrew: יהוה‬, called the Tetragrammaton), the proper name of God in the Hebrew Bible. … It is otherwise mostly limited to the phrase Hallelujah and theophoric names such as Elijah.

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Check this out if you want more background info out http://christianitybeliefs.org/the-falling-away/the-names-of-the-father-and-the-son/

One theory is that YHWH had been inserted by Jewish scholars centuries ago. Some say that YHWH goes back to Ba’al. Look at the strong’s Concordance below Yah and Baal associated together. Ba’al is the Hebrew word for Lord. YHWH is considered the Most High and Sovereign Power of the Hebrews.
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Strong’s Concordance
Bali: “my Baal,” a symbolic name for Yah

Original Word: בַּעְלִי
Part of Speech: Noun Masculine
Transliteration: Bali
Phonetic Spelling: (bah-al-ee’)
Short Definition: Baali

NAS Exhaustive Concordance

Word Origin
from baal with pronoun suff.
Definition
“my Baal,” a symbolic name for Yah
NASB Translation
Baali (1).

Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance

Baali

From ba’al with pron. Suff.; my master; Baali, a symbolical name for Jehovah — Baali.

see HEBREW ba’al

Strong’s Concordance
baal: owner, lord

Original Word: בַּ֫עַל
Part of Speech: Noun Masculine
Transliteration: baal
Phonetic Spelling: (bah’-al)
Short Definition: owner

NAS Exhaustive Concordance

Word Origin
from baal
Definition
owner, lord

http://biblehub.com/hebrew/1167.htm

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 The first African slaves wrote in Hebrew.

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FIRST AFRICAN BAPTIST CHURCH

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Also, on the ends of each pew, all of which are original and date back hundreds of years, the wavy lines of cursive Hebrew have been scratched into the wood. Our guide wasn’t able to translate any of the words, but he did tell us that a few Ethiopian tourists had visited recently and instantly recognized it. Apparently, it’s still used by Jewish communities in Africa.

Kongo Cosmograms, Underground Railroad Patchwork, Cursive Hebrew… now this is the kind of unexpected history which totally interests me! If you’re the same, make sure to visit the First African Baptist Church, either for the tour or for the Sunday service.

First African Baptist Church – Website

 

Also see the below from

https://butv.biafra.land/news/remember-to-forget-no-more-o-house-of-the-hebrews-the-igbos/

 REMEMBER TO FORGET NO MORE, O; HOUSE OF THE HEBREWS–THE IGBOS

         

REMEMBER TO FORGET NO MORE, O; HOUSE OF THE HEBREWS–THE IGBOS, ALL OVER PLANET EARTH. UDO’NU!!! THE 12 TRIBES OF YAHSAR’AL WHO LIVE IN IGBOLAND OF BIAFRA IN WEST AFRICA; AND, WHO ARE SCATTERED ALL OVER THE WORLD ARE THE HEBREWS | HEEBOES | IGBOS=CHILDREN OF THE MOST HIGH YAH, CREATOR AND OWNER OF THE UNIVERSE. THEY ARE ALL CALLED IGBO AS A CORRUPTION OF HEBREW | HEEBOE | IGBO. THE 12 TRIBES OF THE HEBREWS ON EARTH STILL LIVE TOGETHER IN IGBOLAND TILL DATE–MANY HEBREWS ARE SCATTERED ALL OVER THE WORLD AS WE SPEAK. CHRISTIANS, “MANY” BLACK AND BROWN MUSLIMS AS WELL AS “MANY” BLACK AND BROWN PEOPLE OF PLANET EARTH ARE HEBREWS –IGBOS WHO WERE FORCED TO CONVERT TO BABYLON THE GREAT (WORLD EMPIRE OF RELIGIONS) OR DIE. THESE HEBREW BROTHERS AND SISTERS CHOSE TO LIVE IN SIN INSTEAD OF DYING FOR THE SPIRITS–A RESULT OF DEUTERONOMY 28:15-68 CURSES AGAINST THE HEBREWS–THE IGBOS. The 12 Sons/Tribes of Yah’Shara’Ala (Yahsar’al) are: Raawban (Changed to Reuben); ShaMiwan (Changed to Simon); LawYah (Changed to Levi); Yahawadah (changed to Judah), Dahhniyah (Changed to Dan) Napathalyah (Changed to Naphtali); Gad (Gad); Ahshar (Changed to Asher); YahsShaKar (Changed to Issachar); Zabalawan (Changed to Zebulon) BanYahyan (changed to Benjamin); PLUS The Sons of Yahsho’v (Changed to Joseph) Ahparayam (Changed to Ephraim) Manasha (Changed to Manasseh) NOTE: All Original Hebrew–Igbo name were changed by The Roman Empire, Zionist Fake Hebrews called JEWS in IsraEL, The Vatican and All Religions, England and All Monarchies, United Nations and All Politicians, The Elite/The Rich, All Secret Societies, IMF, World Bank, Money =NEW WORLD ORDER OF LUCIFER=the Synagogue of Satan spoken about in Revelation 2:9 and 3:9. “Find the Igbos ANYWHERE; then, you have found the Hebrews EVERYWHERE” Obioha Ehyinnayah Ezekwesiriyah 2015 (The Last Messenger of Yahusha Ha Mashiyahkh=ha’Mashiriyah–in Igbo, till date. NOW, KNOW THIS… Our Hebrew Land which was given to our ancestors by our Heavenly Father and creator-YAH was/is called YAH’SHARA’ALA in Igbo language (Yahsar’al)–now corrupted as Isra’EL. The ever hidden but now REVEALED truth is that; “EL” is a Demon a.k.a Fallen Angel a.k.a Alien or God, gods, Chi, Arusi etc=Lucifer, Satan, Devil(s)=partners to United Nations and All politicians, All Religions and Secret Societies. The Shadow Government of this World you dO not see and/or know. This REVEALED truth Cancels any usage of “EL” (as Suffix or Prefix) to define/describe the Most High YAH,–the Creator of the Universe and the maker/owner of Everything Everywhere. The Ala’yem (Alayim) of The Hebrews–The Igbos. Negative Vibrations: Example: 1. El’ohim means Demons/gods. 2. Isara’EL means land dedicated to Demons/gods _____________________________________ Positive and Fruitful Vibrations “AL” is for YAH “AL” was taken from “ALA”. “Ala” means “LAND” in Igbo Language till date. As you know, Yahsar’AL (corrupted as Isra’EL) is YAH’S own portion of LAND on Planet Earth which YAH gave to his Hebrew Bloodline–The Igbos, forever. Examples: 1. Ala’lue’YAH was corrupted as Hallelujah. (Jah is Jabulon=Demon). Ala’lue’YAH (pronounced as AlalueYAH) means in the Igbolanguage till date: “Let YAH have His own PORTION of Land”. This is what became Yah’Shara’Ala which is often pronounce as Yahsar’al and was later corrupted as Isra’EL by the Roman Empire a.k.a Zionist Fake Hebrews called Jews of Revelation 2:9 and 3:9=Synagogue of Satan–Satanic Europeans who claimed Yahsar’al, renamed and dedicated our Hebrew Land to their EL Demon. Tufiakwaa! Aru!!! Satan was allowed to do this because the Children of Yahsharala (Yahsar’al) were under the CURSES of Deuteronomy 28:15-68. Yah has forgiven his Children on the condition that they do not follow any one or thing called EL, god, Chi, Arusi, Satan, Lucifer, Alien, Demon, Fallen Angel anymore forever and ever. See the Ten Commandments and the Torah (Turah) of YAH. Example 2. Ala’ye’m (Alayem/Alayim): The Igbo words “Ala’ye’m” (Alayem/Alayim) was corrupted to EL’ohim (EL is a Demon). Ala’Ye’m (Alayem/Alayim) is Igbo language which means: “being dependent on the Land of Yahsar’al”–the Blessed Land of YAH. A direct English Translation of Ala’Ye’M (Alayem/Alayim) is “Land-Provide”. This was so because All the Hebrews Blessed the Most High YAH whenever they remember the promised land they received from the Most High YAH their Hebrew Heavenly Father. So Ala’Ye’M (Alayem/Alayim) was used as title for the Most High YAH who gave the Land (Ala) to the Hebrews–The Igbos. (Note: “NOTE: In the Igbo language, “to give” means “Ye’M” while LAND is still called “Ala” in Igbo language till date. Ala’ye’m (Alayem/Alayim)=Land-Provide | ye’m’Ala=Give-Me-Land. Till date In Igboland, “Ala” is used to bless or to Curse and “Ala” is everything to the Hebrews—The Igbos. Therefore, the Ancient Hebrew words/language is still the Igbo words/language till today (with some data corruption here and there.. Hence it is now easier for the Igbos–The True Hebrew Yahsar’alites to reconnect to their Ancient Past now that YAH is Here. it is a Miracle from YAH. All Praise YAH forever and ever. AlalueYAH!!! Example 3. In ◄ Exodus 3:14 ► You read: “The Most High said to (Moshe (changed to Moses), “I AM WHO I AM. This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’” This is highly misleading. Why? Because the Hebrew translation of “I AM” is “AHAYAH” which when spoken in Igbo language of today, you have Aha’Yah (meaning HIS NAME). The Vatican Roman Empire removed the SACRED name of the The Most High YAH and Lied to the World that ◄ Exodus 3:14 ►said “I AM”is the name of the Almighty YAH. However, Aha’Yah (Igbo) AHAYAH (Hebrew ) was also the topic of ◄ Exodus 3:13 ► because Moshe (Moses) said to the Most High, “Suppose I go to the Hebrews and say to them, ‘The Heavenly Father of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ Then what shall I tell them?”. You see how The Roman Empire and all the Religions use Language to deceive the Whole World? Revelation 12:9 and 13:14 completely fulfilled. Therefore, ◄ Exodus 3:14 ► should read as follows: “The Most High said to Moshe (changed to Moses), “I AM YAH… This is what you are to say to the Hebrews: ‘YAH… has sent me to you.’” In Igbo language, an Igbo would say: “YAH BU AHA’YAH (AHAYAH) YES!!!THE HEBREWS–THE IGBOS, ARE BACK. YAH’S SPIRITS NOW NOW RULE PLANET EARTH (MIDST ONGOING JUDGEMENT-DAY-DESTRUCTION), IN SEARCH OF HIS HEBREW BLOODLINES AS HE REUNITES HIS IGBO CHILDREN BY HIMSELF—ISAIAH 11:11-12. HAPPENING RIGHT NOW! All Praise YAH forever and ever. Ala’lue’YAH aka!!! Shaluwm! Shalayim!!! Udo na Ngozi diri Umu Igbo/Hebrew nile. This Revelation from The Most High YAH; via Yahusha HaMashiyahkh (ha’mashiriyah), is delivered this 25815 by: Angelippo#7777777_HEBREW_IGBO Angel of the Most High Creator of the Universe, maker and owner of everything everywhere assigned to the Hebrews__The Igbos on Planet Earth. Igbo=12 tribes of Yah’Shara’Ala (Yahsar’al) Warning: Never call our Hebrew Inheritance from YAH “IsraEL”anymore. Our Land and inheritance from YAH is called Yah’Shara’Ala. This is the name of the Land of the Hebrews—The Igbos Forever and ever Praising YAH. Shaluwm! Shalayim!!! Udo na Ngozi diri Umu Igbo nile.

https://youtu.be/ZzQzG0H6d_A

Names of God

A number of traditions have lists of many names of God, many of which enumerate the various qualities of a Supreme Being. The English word “God” (and its equivalent in other languages) is used by multiple religions as a noun or name to refer to different deities, or specifically to the Supreme Being, as denoted in English by the capitalized and uncapitalized terms “god” and “God”.[1] Ancient cognate equivalents for the word “God” include proto-Semitic Elbiblical Hebrew ElohimArabic ‘ilah, and biblical Aramaic Elah. The personal or proper name for God in many of these languages may either be distinguished from such attributes, or homonymic. For example, in Judaism the tetragrammaton is sometimes related to the ancient Hebrew ehyeh (I will be). In the Hebrew bible, the excellent name of The God (SWT) is revealed directly to the beloved prophet Musa (SAWS), in Chapter 3, verse 14 of the book of Exodus, namely: “I Am”.

Correlation between various theories and interpretation of the name of “the one God”, used to signify a monotheistic or ultimate Supreme Being from which all other divine attributes derive, has been a subject of ecumenical discourse between Eastern and Western scholars for over two centuries.[2] In Christian theology the word must be a personal and a proper name of God; hence it cannot be dismissed as mere metaphor.[3] On the other hand, the names of God in a different tradition are sometimes referred to by symbols.