Category Archives: Berber

The Living descendants of the Egyptians: article by All empires.com

One fact that was meant to be hidden is that the M2 lineage carrying, Niger-Congo/Kordofanian speaking, broad featured (“true Negro”) populations of Equatorial Africa and their New World extensions are the living descendants of the ancient Egyptians (and Hebrews). They do not want us to know that we were at the basis of all of these ancient civilizations and not as slaves but masters (Sidi Badr). WE DID NOT ORIGINATE IN WEST AFRICA, BUT AS ATTESTED TO BY EVERY TRIBAL ELDER WE ORIGINATED IN NUBIA-EGYPT (see the black and white map below) IN EASTERN AFRICA. These two civilizations were the oldest (Nubia), longest lasting and greatest (most contributing) civilizations in World History. The ancient Egyptian civilization is much older than the 5,000 year date given by “traditional”(liars) Egyptologist but instead it’s over 12,000 years old. Older black and or African scholars still alive today like Theophile Obenga and Dr. Yosef Ben Jochannan  for decades have debunked the Western lead lies in regards ancient Egypt and to the “Bantu Migration” from Cameroon and the ridiculous lie that the ancient Egyptian language is not related to Niger-Congo. African scholars (who actually speak African languages) have long criticized the entire “Afro-Asiatic” category of African languages. This video explains the basics behind the dilemma.
End

Above is a quote from the article click the below link for the full post which I recommend. I will be compiling my own research on the above matter and my previous post Reclaiming the African in My African American Ethnicity — Ariana Fiorello-Omotosho The previous post is of a African descendant brought to the New world in slavery from Nigeria and Cameroon. The analysis of her DNA by a professional company traces her genealogy to one of 2 places (I would personally say both places) Egypt or Palestine. If you have read my post on my Akan and Igbo ancestors you will be aware that I also have a DNA match cousin who’s ancestry was tracing back to Egypt and Saudi Arabia rather than palestine 1000-2000 years ago.

Click below for the full post (The article is mind blowing and needs to be read more than once to be truly absorbed in my opinion)

http://www.allempires.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=35257

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Juba II of Mauritania & his wife Cleopatra

Juba II was a Berber prince from Africa Proconsulare.

 

He was the only child and heir of King Juba I of Numidia; his mother’s identity is unknown. In 46 BC, his father was defeated by Julius Caesar(in Thapsus, North Africa). Numidia became a Roman Province.[1] His father had been an ally of the Roman General Pompey.

Juba II was brought to Rome by Julius Caesar and he took part in Caesar’s triumphal procession. In Rome he learned Latin and Greek, became romanized and was granted Roman citizenship.[1]Through dedication to his studies, he is said to have become one of Rome’s best educated citizens, and by age 20 he wrote one of his first works entitled Roman Archaeology.[1] He was raised by Julius Caesar and later by his great-nephew Octavian (future Emperor Caesar Augustus). While growing up, Juba II accompanied Octavian on military campaigns, gaining valuable experience as a leader. He fought alongside Octavian in the battle of Actium in 31 BC. They became longtime friends.

Restored to the throneEdit

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC – 27 BC. Juba II established Numidia as an ally of Rome. Juba II would become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Probably as a result of his services to Augustus in a campaign in present-day Spain, between 26 BC and 20 BC the Emperor arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II, giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen.[2]

Mauretania

mr-area


Edit

When Juba II and his queen moved to Mauretania, they renamed their new capital Caesaria(modern CherchellAlgeria), in honor of Augustus. The construction and sculpture projects at Caesaria and another city, Volubilis, display a rich mixture of EgyptianGreek and Roman architectural styles.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II’s policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. The Kingdom of Mauretania was of great importance to the Roman Empire. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean, particularly with Spain and Italy. Mauretania exported fishgrapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process.[3] Tingis (modern Tangier), a town at the Pillars of Hercules (modernStrait of Gibraltar) became a major trade centre. In Gades, (modern Cádiz) and Carthago Nova (modern CartagenaSpain, Juba II was appointed by Augustus as an honorary Duovir (a chief magistrate of a Roman colony or town), probably involving trade, and was also a Patronus Colonaie.[citation needed]

The value and quality of Mauretanian coins became distinguished. The Greek historian Plutarchdescribes him as ‘one of the most gifted rulers of his time’. Between 2 BC – AD 2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar (a grandson of Augustus), as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler and Juba II died in 23. Juba II was buried alongside his first wife in the Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania. Ptolemy then became the sole ruler of Mauretania.

Marriages and childrenEdit

Mauritania's King Ptolemaeus I (1 BC – 40 AD), son of Cleopatra Selene and King Juba II (52-50 BC – 23 AD

Above Mauritania’s King Ptolemaeus I (1 BC – 40 AD), son of Cleopatra Selene and King Juba II (52-50 BC – 23 AD.jpg

This Artifact that was recovered from Burrows Cave was identified as King Ptolemaeus I who was born here in the 2nd Land of Egypt in 26 BC
  • A daughter of Cleopatra and Juba, whose name has not been recorded, is mentioned in an inscription. It has been suggested that Drusilla of Mauretania was that daughter, but she may have been a granddaughter instead. Drusilla is described as a granddaughter of Antony and Cleopatra, or may have been a daughter of Ptolemy of Mauretania.[4]
  • Second marriage to Glaphyra, a princess of Cappadocia, and widow of Alexander, son of Herod the Great. Alexander was executed in 7 BC for conspiracy against his father. Glaphyra married Juba II in 6 AD or 7 AD. She then fell in love with Herod Archelaus, another son of Herod the Great and Ethnarch of Judea. Glaphyra divorced Juba to marry him in 7 AD. Juba had no children with Glaphyra.

AuthorEdit

The tomb of Juba II and his wife inTipazaAlgeria

Juba wrote a number of books in Greek and Latin on history, natural history, geography, grammar, painting and theatre. He compiled a comparison of Greek and Roman institutions known as Όμοιότητες (Similarities).[5] His guide to Arabia became a bestseller in Rome. Only fragments of his work survived. He collected a substantial library on a wide variety of topics, which no doubt complemented his own prolific output. Pliny the Elder refers to him as an authority 65 times in the Natural History and in Athens, a monument was built in recognition of his writings. His extant writings are published and translated in Roller:Scholarly Kings (Chicago 2004).

Natural historyEdit

Juba II was a noted patron of the arts and sciences and sponsored several expeditions and biological research. He also was a notable author, writing several scholarly and popular scientific works such as treatises on natural history or a best-selling traveller’s guide to Arabia.

According to Pliny the Younger, Juba II sent an expedition to the Canary Islands and Madeira.[6]Juba II had given the Canary Islands that name because he found particularly ferocious dogs (canarius – from canis – meaning of the dogs in Latin) on the island.

Juba’s Greek physician Euphorbus wrote that a succulentspurge found in the High Atlas was a powerful laxative.[7] In 12 BC, Juba named this plant Euphorbia after Euphorbus, in response toAugustus dedicating a statue to Antonius Musa, Augustus’s own personal physician and Euphorbus’ brother.[7] Botanist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus assigned the name Euphorbia to the entire genus in the physician’s honor.[8]Euphorbia was later called Euphorbia regisjubae (“King Juba’s euphorbia”) to honor the king’s contributions to natural history and his role in bringing the genus to notice. It is now Euphorbia obtusifolia ssp. regis-jubae. The palm tree genus Jubaea is also named after Juba.

Flavius Philostratus recalled one of his anecdotes: “And I have read in the discourse of Juba that elephants assist one another when they are being hunted, and that they will defend one that is exhausted, and if they can remove him out of danger, they anoint his wounds with the tears of the aloe tree, standing round him like physicians.”[9]

 

Cleopatra VII Philopator (GreekΚλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69[1] – August 12, 30 BC[2]), known to history as Cleopatra, was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, briefly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion. After her reign, Egypt became a provinceof the recently established Roman Empire.

Cleopatra was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a Greek family of Macedonian origin[3]that ruled Egypt after Alexander the Great‘s death during the Hellenistic period. The Ptolemies spoke Greek[4] throughout their dynasty, and refused to speak Late Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian were used on official court documents such as the Rosetta Stone.[5] By contrast, Cleopatra did learn to speak Egyptian[6] and represented herself as the reincarnation of the Egyptian goddess Isis.

Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her fatherPtolemy XII Auletes, and later with her brothersPtolemy XIII Theos Philopator and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As queen, she consummated a liaison with Julius Caesarthat solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated Caesarion, her son with Caesar, to co-ruler in name.

After the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar’s legal heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and sonPtolemy Philadelphus (her unions with her brothers had produced no children). Antony committed suicide after losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian’s forces, and Cleopatra followed suit. According to a popular belief, she killed herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC.[7] She was outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh by his supporters, but he was soon killed on Octavian’s orders. Egypt then became the Roman province of Aegyptus.

Cleopatra VII Philopator
Kleopatra-VII.-Altes-Museum-Berlin1.jpg

Bust believed to be of Cleopatra VII, Altes Museum, Berlin
Queen of Ptolemaic Kingdom

Accession to the throne

Ptolemaic Queen (Cleopatra VII?), 50-30 B.C., 71.12,Brooklyn Museum

The identity of Cleopatra’s mother is unknown, but she is generally believed to be Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt, the sister or cousin and wife of Ptolemy XII Auletes, or possibly another Ptolemaic family member who was the daughter of Ptolemy X and Cleopatra Berenice III Philopator if Cleopatra V was not the daughter of Ptolemy X and Berenice III.[10] Cleopatra’s father Auletes was a direct descendant of Alexander the Great‘s general Ptolemy I Soter, son ofArsinoe and Lagus, both of Macedonia.

Centralization of power and political corruption led to uprisings in and the losses of Cyprus andCyrenaica, making Ptolemy XII Auletes’ reign one of the most calamitous of the dynasty. Ptolemy went to Rome with Cleopatra; Cleopatra VI Tryphaena seized the crown but died shortly afterwards in suspicious circumstances. It is believed (though not proven by historical sources) that Berenice IV poisoned her so that she could assume sole rulership. Regardless of the cause, she ruled until Ptolemy Auletes returned in 55 BC with Roman support, capturing Alexandria aided by the Roman general Aulus Gabinius. Berenice was imprisoned and executed shortly afterwards, her head allegedly being sent to the royal court on the decree of her father, the king. Cleopatra now became joint regent and deputy to her father at age 14, although her power would have been severely limited.

Ptolemy XII Auletes died in March 51 BC. His will made 18-year-old Cleopatra and her 10-year-old brother, Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, joint monarchs. The first three years of their reign were difficult due to economic failures, famine, deficient floods of the Nile, and political conflicts. Cleopatra was married to her young brother, but she quickly made it clear that she had no intention of sharing power with him.

In August 51 BC, relations completely broke down between Cleopatra and Ptolemy. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemy’s name from official documents and her face alone appeared on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. In 50 BC, Cleopatra came into serious conflict with the Gabiniani, powerful Roman troops left behind by Aulus Gabinius to protect Ptolemy XII Auletes after his restoration to the throne in 55 BC. The Gabiniani killed the sons of the Roman governor of Syria, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, when they came to ask the Gabiniani to assist their father against the Parthians. Cleopatra handed the murderers over to Bibulus in chains, whereupon the Gabiniani became bitter enemies of the queen.[11] This conflict was one of the main causes of Cleopatra’s fall from power shortly afterward. The sole reign of Cleopatra was finally ended by a cabal of courtiers led by the eunuchPothinus, in connection with half-Greek general Achillas, and Theodotus of Chios. Circa 48 BC, Cleopatra’s younger brother Ptolemy XIII became sole ruler.[12]

Cleopatra tried to raise a rebellion around Pelusium, but was soon forced to flee with her only remaining sister, Arsinoe IV.[13]

Relations with Rome

Assassination of Pompey

While Cleopatra was in exile, Pompey became embroiled in Caesar’s Civil War. Pompey fled toAlexandria from the forces of Caesar, seeking sanctuary after his defeat at the Battle of Pharsalusin late 48 BC. Ptolemy was thirteen years old at that time, and had set up a throne for himself on the harbor. From there, he watched as Pompey was murdered on September 28, 48 BC, by one of his former officers, now in Ptolemaic service. He was beheaded in front of his wife and children, who were on the ship from which he had just disembarked. Ptolemy is thought to have ordered the death to ingratiate himself with Caesar, thus becoming an ally of Rome, to which Egypt was in debt at the time. This act proved a miscalculation on Ptolemy’s part. Caesar arrived in Egypt two days later, and Ptolemy presented him with Pompey’s severed head. Caesar was enraged. Pompey was Caesar’s political enemy, but he was a Roman consul and the widower of Caesar’s only legitimate daughter, Julia, who died during childbirth. Caesar seized the Egyptian capital and imposed himself as arbiter between the rival claims of Ptolemy and Cleopatra.

Relationship with Julius Caesar

Cleopatra was eager to take advantage of Julius Caesar‘s anger toward Ptolemy and had herself (at the approximate age of 21) secretly smuggled into Caesar’s palace to meet with him. Plutarchgives a vivid description in his Life of Julius Caesar[14] of how she entered past Ptolemy’s guards rolled up in a carpet that Apollodorus the Sicilian was carrying.[15] She became Caesar’s mistress and gave birth to their son Ptolemy Caesar in 47 BC, nine months after their first meeting. He was nicknamed Caesarion, which means “little Caesar.”

At this point, Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra’s claim to the throne. Mithridates raised the siege of Alexandria, and Caesar defeated Ptolemy’s army at theBattle of the Nile. Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile,[16][17] and Caesar restored Cleopatra to her throne with younger brother Ptolemy XIV as her new co-ruler.[18][19][20] When Caesar left Egypt, he left three legions there under the command of Rufio.[21]

Cleopatra VII and her sonCaesarion at the Temple of Dendera

Caesar was thirty-one years older than Cleopatra when they met; they became lovers during Caesar’s stay in Egypt between 48 BC and 47 BC. Cleopatra claimed that Caesar was the father of her son and wished him to name the boy his heir; but Caesar refused, choosing his grandnephewOctavian instead. During this relationship, it was also rumored that Cleopatra introduced Caesar to her astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria, who proposed the idea of leap days and leap years. This was not new; they were proclaimed in 238 BC but the reform never took effect. Caesar made this the basis of his reform of the Roman calendar in 45 BC, and the Egyptian calendar was reformed along these lines in 26 BC.

Cleopatra, Ptolemy XIV, and Caesarion visited Rome in mid-46 BC. The Egyptian queen resided in one of Caesar’s country houses, which included the Horti Caesaris just outside Rome (as a foreign head of state, she was not allowed inside Rome’s pomerium).[22][23] The relationship between Cleopatra and Caesar was obvious to the Roman people and caused a scandal because the dictator was already married to Calpurnia. But Caesar even erected a golden statue of Cleopatra represented as Isis in the temple of Venus Genetrix (the mythical ancestress of Caesar’s family), which was situated at the Forum Julium.[24][25] Cicero said in his preserved letters that he hated the foreign queen.[23] Cleopatra and her entourage were still in Rome when Caesar was assassinated on 15 March 44 BC,[26] and after his death returned with her relatives to Egypt. When Ptolemy XIV died, allegedly poisoned by his older sister, Cleopatra made Caesarionher co-regent and successor and gave him the epithets Theos Philopator Philometor (Father-loving and mother-loving God).[27][28][29]

Cleopatra in the Roman Civil War

In light of her former relationship with Caesar, Cleopatra sided with his party, led by Mark Antonyand Octavian, in the civil war against the assassins of Caesar, led by Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Brutus and Cassius left Italy and sailed to the east of the Republic, where they conquered large areas and established military bases. At the beginning of 43 BC, Cleopatra formed an alliance with the leader of the Caesarian party in the east, Publius Cornelius Dolabella, who also recognized Caesarion as her co-ruler.[30][31] However, by July, Dolabella was encircled in Laodicea and then committed suicide.

Cassius wanted to invade Egypt to seize its treasures and punish Cleopatra for her support for Dolabella. Egypt, famine-stricken, weak militarily on land, and in the throes of an epidemic, seemed an easy target. Cassius also wanted to prevent Cleopatra from bringing reinforcements for Antony and Octavian, but he was prevented from invading Egypt when Brutus summoned him back to Smyrna at the end of 43 BC. Cassius tried to blockade Cleopatra’s route to the Caesarians by positioning 60 ships and a legion of elite troops, commanded by Lucius Staius Murcus, at Cape Matapan in the south of the Peloponnese. Nevertheless, Cleopatra sailed with her fleet from Alexandria to the west along the Libyan coast to join the Caesarian leaders, but she was forced to return to Egypt because her ships were damaged by a violent storm and she became ill. Staius Murcus learned of the queen’s misfortune and saw wreckage from her ships on the coast of Greece. He then sailed with his ships into the Adriatic Sea.[32]

Cleopatra and Mark Antony

Antony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Denarius, 32 BC. Obverse: Diademed bust of Cleopatra, CLEOPATRA[E REGINAE REGVM]FILIORVM REGVM. Reverse: Bust of M. Antony, ANTONI ARMENIA DEVICTA

Mark Antony was one of the triumvirs who ruled Rome in the power vacuum following Caesar’s death. He sent his intimate friend Quintus Delliusto Egypt in 41 BC, to summon Cleopatra to him inCilician Tarsus, ostensibly in order to answer questions about her loyalty–during the Roman civil war, she allegedly had paid much money to Cassius. It seems that, in reality, Antony wanted Cleopatra’s promise to support his intended war against the Parthians. Cleopatra arrived in great state, and (at the approximate age of 28) so charmed Antony that he chose to spend late 41 BC to early 40 BC with her in Alexandria.[33]

To safeguard herself and Caesarion, she had Antony order the death of her sister, Arsinoe IV, who had been banished to the Temple of Artemisin Roman-controlled Ephesus for her role in leading the Siege of Alexandria (47 BC). The execution was carried out in 41 BC on the steps of the temple, and this violation of temple sanctuary scandalised Rome.[34] Cleopatra also retrieved her strategos (military governor) of Cyprus Serapion, who had supported Cassius against her wishes.[35]

On 25 December 40 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to twins fathered by Antony, Alexander Helios andCleopatra Selene II. Four years later, Antony visited Alexandria again en route to make war with the Parthians. He renewed his relationship with Cleopatra and, from this point on, Alexandria was his home. He married Cleopatra according to the Egyptian rite (a letter quoted in Suetonius’ The Twelve Caesars suggests this), although he was married at the time to Octavia the Younger, sister of his fellow triumvir Octavian. He and Cleopatra had another child, Ptolemy Philadelphus.

A tetradrachm of Cleopatra VII, Syriamint

Cleopatra and Caesarion were crowned co-rulers of Egypt and Cyprus at the Donations of Alexandria in late 34 BC, following Antony’s conquest of ArmeniaAlexander Helios was crowned ruler of Armenia, Media, and Parthia; Cleopatra Selene II was crowned ruler ofCyrenaica and Libya; and Ptolemy Philadelphus was crowned ruler of PhoeniciaSyria, and Cilicia. Cleopatra was also given the title of “Queen of Kings” by Antonius.[36] Her enemies in Rome feared that she “was planning a war of revenge that was to array all the East against Rome, establish herself as empress of the world at Rome, cast justice from Capitolium, and inaugurate a new universal kingdom.”[37] Caesarion was showered with many additional titles, including god, son of god, and King of Kings, and was depicted as Horus.[38] Egyptians thought that Cleopatra was a reincarnation of the goddess Isis, as she called herself Nea Isis.[39]

Relations between Antony and Octavian had been disintegrating for several years; they finally broke down in 33 BC, and Octavian convinced the Senate to levy war against Egypt. In 31 BC, Antony’s forces faced the Romans in a naval action off the coast of Actium. Cleopatra was present with a fleet of her own. According to Plutarch, Cleopatra took flight with her ships at the height of the battle, and Antony followed her.[40] Following the Battle of Actium, Octavian invaded Egypt. As he approached Alexandria, Antony’s armies deserted to Octavian on August 1, 30 BC. To finance her war against Octavian, Cleopatra took gold from the tomb of Alexander the Great, which had been previously robbed.[41]

There are a number of unverifiable stories about Cleopatra. One of the best known is that she playfully bet Antony, at one of the lavish dinners which they shared, that she could spend ten million sestertii on a dinner. He accepted the bet. The next night, she had a conventional, unspectacular meal served; he was ridiculing this, when she ordered the second course — only a cup of strong vinegar. She then removed one of her priceless pearl earrings, dropped it into the vinegar, allowed it to dissolve, and drank the mixture. The earliest report of this story comes fromPliny the Elder and dates to about 100 years after the banquet described would have happened. The calcium carbonate in pearls does dissolve in vinegar, but slowly unless the pearl is first crushed.[42]

Death

The Death of Cleopatra by Guido Cagnacci, 1658

The ancient sources, particularly the Roman ones, are in general agreement that Cleopatra killed herself, at age 39, by inducing an asp(Egyptian cobra) to bite her. The oldest source isStrabo, who was alive at the time of the event and might even have been in Alexandria. He says that there are two stories — that she applied a toxic ointment or that she was bitten by an asp on her breast — but he said in his writings that he was not sure whether Cleopatra poisoned herself or was murdered.[43] Several Roman poets writing within ten years of the event mention bites by two asps,[44][45][46] as does Florus, a historian, some 150 years later.[47] Velleius, sixty years after the event, also refers to an asp.[48][49] Other authors have questioned these historical accounts, stating that it is possible that Augustus had her killed.[50] In 2010, German historian Christoph Schaefer challenged all other theories, declaring that the queen had actually died from drinking a mixture of poisons. After studying historical texts and consulting with toxicologists, the historian concluded that the asp could not have caused the quick and pain-free death claimed by most sources, since the asp venom paralyses parts of the body, starting with the eyes, before causing death. Living when and where she did, Cleopatra would have known of the violent and painful effects of an asp’s venomous bite, so it is unlikely that it was the cause of her death. Also, the asp’s bite is not always fatal. Schaefer and his toxicologist Dietrich Mebs have theorized that Cleopatra used a mixture of hemlockwolfsbane, and opium.[51]

The Death of Cleopatra by Reginald Arthur, 1892

Plutarch, writing about 130 years after the event, reports that Octavian succeeded in capturing Cleopatra in her mausoleum after the death of Antony. He ordered his freedman Epaphroditusto guard her to prevent her from committing suicide, because he allegedly wanted to present her in his triumph. However, Cleopatra was able to deceive Epaphroditus and kill herself nevertheless.[52] Plutarch states that she was found dead, her handmaiden Iras dying at her feet, and handmaiden Charmion adjusting her crown before she herself fell.[53] He then goes on to state that an asp was concealed in a basket of figs that was brought to her by a rustic and, finding it after eating a few figs, she held out her arm for it to bite. Other stories state that it was hidden in a vase and that she poked it with a spindle until it got angry enough to bite her on the arm. Finally, he indicates that, in Octavian’s triumphal march back in Rome, an effigy of Cleopatra with an asp clinging to it was part of the parade.[54]

Suetonius, writing about the same time as Plutarch, also says Cleopatra died from an asp bite.[55]

Classical sources say that Cleopatra was bitten on the arm,[56][57][58] but she is more usually depicted in medieval and Renaissance iconography with asps at her breast, a tradition followed by Shakespeare.[59]

The Death of Cleopatra by Juan Luna, 1881.

Cleopatra is depicted taking her own life with the bite of a venomous serpent. Adam Lenckhardt (Ivory).[60] The Walters Art Museum.

Plutarch tells us of the death of Antony. When his armies deserted him and joined with Octavian, he cried out that Cleopatra had betrayed him. She locked herself in her monument with only her two handmaidens, fearing his wrath, and sent messengers to tell Antony that she was dead. Believing them, Antony stabbed himself in the stomach with his sword, and lay on his couch to die. Instead, the blood flow stopped, and he begged any and all to finish him off. Another messenger came from Cleopatra with instructions to bring him to her, and he consented, rejoicing that Cleopatra was still alive. She would not open the door, but tossed ropes out of a window. After Antony was securely trussed up, she and her handmaidens hauled him up into the monument. This nearly finished him off. After dragging him in through the window, they laid him on a couch. Cleopatra tore off her clothes and covered him with them. She raved and cried, beat her breasts, and engaged in self-mutilation. Antony told her to calm down, asked for a glass of wine, and died upon finishing it.[61]

The site of their mausoleum is uncertain, though the Egyptian Antiquities Service believes that it is in or near the temple of Taposiris Magna, southwest of Alexandria.[62]

Caesarion, Cleopatra’s son by Caesar, was proclaimed pharaoh by the Egyptians after Alexandria fell to Octavian. Caesarion was captured and killed, his fate reportedly sealed when one of Octavian’s advisers paraphrased Homer: “It is bad to have too many Caesars.”[63] This ended the Hellenistic line of Egyptian pharaohs and, in fact, the line of all Egyptian pharaohs. The three children of Cleopatra and Antony were spared and taken back to Rome, where they were taken care of by Antony’s wife Octavia Minor. Octavian arranged the marriage of the daughter, Cleopatra Selene, to Juba II of Mauretania.[64]

Character and cultural depictions

Statue of Cleopatra asEgyptian goddess; Basalt, second half of the 1st century BC. Hermitage, Saint Petersburg

Cleopatra Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners by Alexandre Cabanel (1887).

Cleopatra was regarded as a great beauty, even in the ancient world. In his Life of Antony,Plutarch remarks that “judging by the proofs which she had had before this of the effect of her beauty upon Caius Caesar and Gnaeus the son of Pompey, she had hopes that she would more easily bring Antony to her feet. For Caesar and Pompey had known her when she was still a girl and inexperienced in affairs, but she was going to visit Antony at the very time when women have the most brilliant beauty.”[65] Later in the work, however, Plutarch indicates that “her beauty, as we are told, was in itself neither altogether incomparable, nor such as to strike those who saw her.”[65] Rather, what ultimately made Cleopatra attractive were her wit, charm and “sweetness in the tones of her voice.”[65]

Cassius Dio also spoke of Cleopatra’s allure: “For she was a woman of surpassing beauty, and at that time, when she was in the prime of her youth, she was most striking; she also possessed a most charming voice and knowledge of how to make herself agreeable to everyone. Being brilliant to look upon and to listen to, with the power to subjugate everyone, even a love-sated man already past his prime, she thought that it would be in keeping with her role to meet Caesar, and she reposed in her beauty all her claims to the throne.”[65]

These accounts influenced later cultural depictions of Cleopatra, which typically present her using her charms to influence the most powerful men in the Western world.

Cleopatra was also renowned for her intellect. Plutarch writes that she could speak at least nine languages and rarely had need of an interpreter.[66]

Ancestry

The high degree of inbreeding amongst the Ptolemies is also illustrated by Cleopatra’s immediate ancestry, of which a reconstruction is shown below.[67] Through three uncle–niece marriages and three sister–brother marriages, her family tree collapses to a single couple at four, five or six generations back (counting through different lines).[68]

It has often been said that “there was not one drop of Egyptian blood in the Ptolemaic line”,[69] and that the Romans, in all their anti-Cleopatra propaganda, made no mention of any illegitimacy against her.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleopatra

Ancestors of Cleopatra VII of Egypt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Ptolemy V Epiphanes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Ptolemy VIII Physcon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Cleopatra I of Egypt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Ptolemy IX Lathyros
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Ptolemy VI Philometor (brother of no. 8)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Cleopatra III of Egypt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Cleopatra II of Egypt (sister of no. 8)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Ptolemy XII Auletes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Ptolemy V Epiphanes (= 16)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Ptolemy VIII Physcon (= 8)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Cleopatra I of Egypt (= 17)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Cleopatra IV of Egypt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Ptolemy VI Philometor (= 18)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Cleopatra III of Egypt (= 9)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Cleopatra II of Egypt (= 19)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Cleopatra VII
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Ptolemy V Epiphanes (= 16)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Ptolemy VIII Physcon (= 8)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Cleopatra I of Egypt (= 17)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Ptolemy X Alexander I
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Ptolemy VI Philometor (= 18)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Cleopatra III of Egypt (= 9)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Cleopatra II of Egypt (= 19)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Cleopatra V Tryphaena
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Ptolemy VIII Physcon (= 8)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Ptolemy IX Lathyros (= 4)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Cleopatra III of Egypt (= 9)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Berenice III
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Ptolemy VIII Physcon (= 8)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Cleopatra Selene of Syria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Cleopatra III of Egypt (= 9)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Several persons appear multiple times in Cleopatra’s ancestry. For instance, her mother was her father’s niece and thus not only her mother but also her cousin. This family tree attempts to present those relationships in a more easily-understood format.

Ptolemy V Epiphanes Cleopatra I
Ptolemy VI Philometor Cleopatra II
Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra III
Cleopatra Selene of Syria Ptolemy IX Lathyros Cleopatra IV
Ptolemy X Alexander I Berenice III
Cleopatra V Ptolemy XII Auletes
Cleopatra VII

Ephraim, Bene Ephraim & Banu Ifran, Kush & Kish & the Berbers.

Smith’s Bible Dictionary

Ephraim

(double fruitfulness), the second son of Joseph by his wife Asenath. (B.C. 1715-1708.) The first indication we have of that ascendancy over his elder brother Manasseh which at a later period the tribe of Ephraim so unmistakably possessed is in the blessing of the children by Jacob. (Genesis 48:1) …

ATS Bible Dictionary

Ephraim

The second son of Joseph, born in Egypt, Genesis 41:52. Although the youngest, he yet had the chief blessing of his grandfather Jacob, and the tribe was always more distinguished than that of Manasseh, Genesis 48:8-20 Numbers 2:18-21. The portion of Ephraim was large and central, and embraced some of the most fertile land in all Canaan. It extended from the Mediterranean across to the Jordan, north of the portions of Dan and Benjamin and included Shiloh, Shechem, etc. A range of mountainous country, which runs through it, is called “the mountains of Ephraim,” or “mount Ephraim.” This extends also farther south into the portion of Judah, and is there called “the mountains of Judah.” Samaria, the capital of the ten tribes, being in Ephraim, this latter name is often used for the kingdom of Israel, Isaiah 11:13 Jeremiah 31:6 50:19.

The FOREST of Ephraim, where Absalom lost his life, was on the east side of the Jordan, near Mahanaim, 2 Samuel 18:6-8.

The TOWN called Ephraim, to which the Savior withdrew from his enemies, John 11:54, was probably the same place mentioned in 2 Chronicles 13:19, and called Ophrah in Joshua 18:23 1 Samuel 13:17. See also 2 Samuel 13:23. It is supposed to be the present Taiyibeh, on a hill overlooking the Jordan valley, five miles northeast of Bethel.

http://biblehub.com/topical/e/ephraim.htm

slide_31

Link to below post

Nimrod, Nibiru, Anunnaki

Study by: Rob Skiba

In the prior post, I laid the foundation for what was going on before and immediately after the Flood as it pertains to the ancient gods. I also showed you what they did that so provoked the God of Heaven to destroy a world that had already been thoroughly corrupted. The Pre-Flood world was an amazing and terrifying place full of hybrids. Our world is turning into the same thing today. But Yeshua warns us:

For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect’s sake those days shall be shortened.” – Matthew 24:21-22  

God HAD to step in during the days of Noah in order to preserve mankind, the animals, plants and even the planet itself from the corruption of the gods. Consider how bad it was during the time of the Flood, then consider carefully what Yeshua (Jesus) has to say about the days ahead.

And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; Men’s hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken. And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory.  – Luke 21:25-2

We next need to look at the Sumerian family of gods (which became that of the Assyrians and Babylonians) .

000

Wikipedia notes that the Sumerian religion refers to the mythology, pantheon, rites and cosmology of the Sumerian civilization, further stating:

The Sumerian religion influenced Mesopotamian mythology as a whole, surviving in the mythologies and religions of the Hurrians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and other culture groups.

Thus, the Sumerian/Assyrian/Babylonian beliefs are often lumped into the title, “Mesopotamian” as they all centered around that same region of the globe. Concerning the Mesopotamian religion Wikipedia goes on to say:

Some, such as the historian Jean Bottero, have made the claim that the Mesopotamian religion is the worlds oldest faith although there are several other claims to that title. Although as writing was invented in Mesopotamia, it is certainly the oldest faith in written history. What we know about Mesopotamian religion comes from archaeological evidence uncovered in the region, particularly literary sources, which are usually written in cuneiform on clay tablets and which describe both mythology and cultic practices. However, other artifacts can also be used as the Mesopotamians’ “entire existence was infused by their religiosity, just about everything they have passed on to us can be used as a source of knowledge about their religion.”

Although it mostly died out 1600 to 1700 years ago, Mesopotamian religion has still had an influence on the modern world, predominantly because much Biblical mythology that is today found in Judaism,Christianity, Islam and Mandeanism shares some overlapping consistency with much older ancient Mesopotamian myths, in particular the Creation Myth, the Garden of Eden, The Great Flood, Tower of Babel and mythical Biblical characters such as Nimrod and Lilith (the Assyrian Lilitu). In addition the story of Moses’ origins shares a striking similarity with that of Sargon of Akkad, and the Ten Commandments mirror older Assyrian-Babylonian legal codes to some degree. It has also inspired various contemporary Neopagan groups to begin worshipping the Mesopotamian deities once more, albeit in a way often different from that of the Mesopotamian peoples.

….

Note what Wikipedia has to say about Mesopotamia’s history

The peoples of Mesopotamia originally consisted of two peoples, the Semitic Akkadians (later to be known as Assyrians and Babylonians) and the Sumerians. These peoples were not originally one united nation, but members of various different city-states. In the fourth millennium BCE, when the first evidence for what is recognizably Mesopotamian religion can be seen with the invention in Mesopotamia of writing circa 3,500 BCE, the Sumerians appeared, although it is not known if they migrated into the area in pre historic times or whether they were some of the original inhabitants. They settled in southern Mesopotamia, which became known as Sumer, and had a great influence over the Semitic Akkadian peoples and their culture. The Sumerians were incredibly advanced, as well as inventing Writing, they also invented Mathematics, Wheeled Vehicles, Astronomy, Astrology, The Calendar and created the first City States/Nations such as Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Isin, Umma and Larsa. In the north, in an area known as Akkad, a civilisation known as the Akkadian arose, who spoke a semitic language that was distinct from that of the Sumerians who spoke a language isolate.

So, the earliest evidence of any civilization seems to point to the 3,500 BC timeframe. Wikipedia says that the Sumerians were “incredibly advanced” and that they invented writing, mathematics and all sorts of other sciences and innovations. Well, look at what happened in 3,500 BC (in the chart above). According to the Book of Enoch, that’s when the Watchers showed up! Enoch also records that the Fallen taught men those very things listed above (and more)!

Thus, I believe that the Anunnaki – a race so named because they were “Princess of the Royal (genetic) Seed” (or some translate it as, “Those who from heaven to earth came”) – were the “sons of God” or the Sumerian equivalent of the giant Greek Titans, the Hebrew Watchers and Pre-Flood Nephilim – the first super-advanced parents and hybrid offspring to walk the earth.

….

 

Notice how researchers like to say that many stories in the Old Testament represent “shorter versions of” or “copies of” ancient Sumerian writings. We read the same thing in the paragraph from Wikipedia above. Well, while doing my research, I found a Short Chronology Timeline of ancient cultures and in that timeline something immediately jumped out at me. The earliest records point to one of the first kings of the Mesopotamian region, a man known as Sargon

Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great “The Great King” (Akkadian Šarru-kīnu, meaning “the true king” or “the king is legitimate”),was an Akkadian emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 23rd and 22nd centuries BC.The founder of the Dynasty of Akkad, Sargon reigned from 2,270 to 2,215 BC (short chronology).He became a prominent member of the royal court of Kish, killing the king and usurping his throne before embarking on the quest to conquer Mesopotamia. He was originally referred to as Sargon I until records concerning an Assyrian king also named Sargon (now usually referred to as Sargon I) were unearthed.

Many have made the connection that “Kish” is the “Cush” of the Bible (Nimrod’s father according to Genesis). So, is this record saying that Nimrod killed his father? It would seem so. The above quoted Wikipedia source also makes the connection that Sargon may in fact be Nimrod:

Stories of Sargon’s power and that of his empire may have influenced the body of folklore that was later incorporated into the Bible. A number of scholars have speculated that Sargon may have been the inspiration for the biblical figure of Nimrod who figures in the Book of Genesis as well as in midrashi and Talmudic literature.  The Bible mentions Akkad as being one of the first city-states of Nimrod’s kingdom, but does not explicitly state that he built it.

That author suggests that this Sargon character was the “inspiration for the biblical figure of Nimrod” implying that the Bible merely borrowed its story from elsewhere. But I submit that the Bible is simply confirming the story – just from a Hebrew perspective (as dictated to Moses by God). Nimrod is not a name. It is a title that means, “the rebellious one.” That certainly seems to fit the above description of Sargon. Notice also the sculpture of this character to the right. It has one eye missing! Keep this in mind as we continue this study.

The date given for his reign is 2,270 – 2,215 BC. That believed date almost perfectly fits the timeframe depicted in my Biblical Timeline of Human History Chart as being just prior to the Tower of Babel (which of course was built by Nimrod)!

http://www.timetobelieve.com/corruption/nimrod-nibiru-and-anunnaki/

158

sargons-birth-placed-in-basket-set-adrift-in-river-to-16206881SargonBustSargon+of+Akkad

 

The Bene Ephraim (Hebrewבני אפריים‎) Bnei Ephraim (“Sons of Ephraim”), also called Telugu Jews because they speak Telugu, are a small community living primarily in Kotha Reddy palem, a village outside ChebroluGuntur District, and in Machilipatnam, Krishna DistrictAndhra PradeshIndia, near the delta of the River Krishna.[1] They claim to be descendants of the Tribe of Ephraim, of the Ten Lost Tribes, and since the 1980s have learned to practice modern Judaism.[2]

Bnei Ephraim
Total population
350
Regions with significant populations
Andhra PradeshIndia
Languages
TeluguHebrew
Religion
Judaism
Related ethnic groups
Tradition
JewsIndian JewsEthnobiology
Indian

Contents

HistoryEdit

The Bene Ephraim claim descent from the Tribe of Ephraim, and say that they traveled from Israel through western Asia: Persia, Afghanistan, Tibet and into China for 1,600 years before arriving in southern India more than 1,000 years ago.[3] They hold a history which they say is similar to that of the shift of AfghanJews and PersianJewishBene IsraelBnei Menashe in the northeastern Indian states of Mizoram and Manipur, who received recognition in 2005 from the Chief Rabbinate of Israel. (The latter people must still go through a formal conversion process to become citizens of Israel.)

During the medieval period they have worked as farm laborers. While practising Judaism, they adopted some Christianity after the arrival of British Baptistmissionaries during the early 19th century.[3]

Their leader, Shmuel Yacobi, went to Jerusalem in the 1980s and became convinced they were of Jewish descent.[3] Because of the long period in which the people were not practising Judaism, they did not develop any distinctly identifiable Judæo-Telugu language or dialect. (See Jewish languages.)

Since the 1980s, about fifty families in Kotha Reddy Palem have studied Judaism, learnedHebrew, and built an operating synagogue. They celebrate all Jewish holidays and often use theirTorah scroll and read Hebrew.

Today Hebrew is being used as a living language rather than limited to liturgy. The community has been visited over the years by rabbis from the chief rabbinate in Israel to study their Jewish tradition and practices. The Chief Rabbi has to recognise the community as being of Jewish descent. The rabbis have taught today’s Judaism and converted many Indian Jews, while some women eventually married to a rabbi family, many married in the past to Jewish people, but not attached to homeland Israel they still must relocate. They have sought recognition from many rabbis around the world.[1] They always practiced their own Caviloth [Oral Traditions and customs] such as: burying the dead, eating cow and beef meat, marriage under Chuppah, observing Shabbat and other Hebrew, Israel and Jewish Festival and maintaining Elders Court System etc.[10].

According to the Washington Times in 2006

Many think the Bnei Ephraim Jews are trying to escape poverty and that they want to leave this region of Andhra Pradesh where six successive years of drought and crop failure have driven more than 3,000 peasants into debt and to suicide.[3]

Chandra Sekhar Angadi, a social scientist in neighboring Karnataka, said of the Telugu Jews:

They are among the poorest of Jews in the world. They are desperate for the recognition by Israel’s chief rabbinate simply to be guaranteed a passport from that country where they can lead a much better life—away from this life of poverty and hunger[3]

There are certain Oral Traditions among Bene Ephraim: traditions known as Cavilah Traditions. There are about 450 ancient halakhic customs, habits and Hebrew Cultural Elements among them that continued since prehistoric times and Exodus. They shared some of those elements with the Ereb Rab Telugu people. Burying the dead, eating kosher animal meat, marriage under chuppah, burial customs, 7 day purification, bar/bath mitzvah, Hebrew words, sayings and many other usages. The Ereb Rab Telugu people re-made Amaravati as their capital today and the Bene Ephraim are hopeful to find their hidden Torah Scrolls, Hebrew literature and ancient valuables when the Government digs out during constructing the new capital for Andhra Pradesh State[10].

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bene_Ephraim

Banu Ifran

Page issues

The Ifranids, also called Banu IfranIfran, or the children of the Ifran (Arabicبنو يفرن‎, Banu Yifran), were a Zenata Berber tribe prominent in the history of pre-Islamic and early Islamic North Africa.In the 8th century, they established a kingdom in Central Maghreb, Algeria with Tlemcen as its capital.

The Banu Ifran resisted or revolted against foreign occupiers—RomansVandals, and Byzantines—of their territory in Africa. In the seventh century, they sided with Kahina in her resistance against the Muslim Umayyad invaders. In the eighth century they mobilized around the dogma of sufri, revolting against the Arab Umayyads and Abbasids.

In the 10th century they founded a dynasty opposed to the Fatimids, the Zirids, the Umayyads, the Hammadids and the Maghraoua. The Banu Ifran were defeated by the Almoravids and the invading Arabs (the Banu Hilal and the Banu Sulaym)[1] to the end of the 11th century. The Ifranid dynasty [2] was recognized as the only dynasty that has defended the indigenous people of the Maghreb, by the Romans referred to as the Africani.[3] In 11th century Iberia, the Ifrenid founded aTaifa of Ronda since 1039[4] at Ronda in Andalusia and governed from Cordoba for several centuries.[5]

Contents

HistoryEdit

Tlemcen, a capital of Banu Ifran

The Banu Ifran were one of the four major tribes of the Zenata or Gaetulia[6] confederation, and were known as expert cavalrymen. According to Ibn Khaldoun, “Ifrinides” or “Ait Ifren” were successfully resisting Romans, Vandals and Byzantines who sought to occupy North Africa before the arrival of the Muslim armies. According to Corippus in his Iohannis,[7] during the reign of Justinian I between 547 and 550, the Banu Ifran challenged the Byzantine armies under John Troglita to war.[8][9][10][11] Their chief Abu Qurra rebuilt the city of Tlemcen in Algeria in 765 (formerly, it was a Roman city named Pomaria). They opposed the Egyptian Fatimid Caliphate, aligning themselves with the Maghrawa tribe and the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba, although they themselves became Kharijites. Led by Abu Yazid, they surged east and attackedKairouan in 945. Another leader, Ya’la ibn Muhammad captured Oran and constructed a new capital, Ifgan, near Mascara. Under the leadership of their able general Jawhar, who killed Ya’la in battle in 954,[12] the Fatimids struck back and destroyed Ifgan, and for some time afterward the Banu Ifran reverted to being scattered nomads in perpetual competition with their Sanhajaneighbours. Some settled in regions of Spain, such as Málaga. Others, led by Hammama, managed to gain control of the Moroccan province of Tadla. Later, led by Abu al-Kamāl, they established a new capital at Salé on the Atlantic coast, though this brought them into conflict with the Barghawata tribes on the seaboard.

The dynasty of the Ifrinids, Ibn Khadloun, Histoire des Berbères, section Banou Ifran

During the 11th century, the Banu Ifran contested with the Maghrawa tribe for the control of Morocco after the fall of the Idrisid dynasty. Ya’la’s son Yaddū took Fes by surprise in January 993 and held it for some months until theMaghrawa ruler Ziri ibn Atiyya returned from Spain and reconquered the region.

In May or June 1033, Fes was recaptured by Ya’la’s grandson Tamīm. Fanatically devoted to religion, he began a persecution of the Jews,[13]and is said to have killed 6000 of their men while confiscating their wealth and women, but Ibn Khaldoun says only persecution without killing.[14] Sometime in the period 1038-1040 theMaghrawa tribe retook Fes, forcing Tamīm to flee to Salé.

Soon after that time, the Almoravids began their rise to power and effectively conquered both the Banu Ifran and their brother-rivals the Maghrawa.

EtymologyEdit

Ifran is a plural for Afar, Efri or Ifri; it is probably derived from the last of these, which means “cave” in Berber. Other possibilities are that their name is derived from one of the major gods of the pagan Berbers, Ifrou, or that the name is derived from the region of Yifran in present-day north-west Libya[15] where they may have originated.

The name of the Ifran tribe has many alternative spellings, such as Ifuraces or Afar in Latin, or Ifrinidi, Iforen, Fren, Wafren, Yefren, Yafren, or Yafran, but all of the names mean simply “The Sons of Ifri”. The banu- was added by the Arab writers, who called them “ben ifren” or “Ifrinid”.

ReligionEdit

Before IslamEdit

As of Hadrian (136), representingAfrica

Among the Ifran, animism was the principal spiritual philosophy. Ifri was also the name of a Berber deity, and their name may have an origin in their beliefs.[16][16] Ifru rites symbolized in caves were held to gain favor or protection for merchants and traders. The myth of this protection is befittingly depicted on Roman coins.[17][18]

Ifru was regarded as a sun goddess, cave goddess and protector of the home.[19][20] Ifru or Ifran was regarded as a Berber version of Vesta.

Dehia, usually referred to as The Kahina was the Dejrawa Berber queen, prophetess, and leader of the non-Muslim response to the advancing Arab armies. Some historians claim Kahina was Christian,[21] or a follower of the Judaic faith,[13][22][23] though few of the Ifran were Christians, even after more than half a millennium of Christianity among the urban populations and the more sedentary tribes. Ibn Khaldun simply states that Ifran were Berbers, and says nothing of their religion before the advent of Islam.

During IslamEdit

The Banu Ifran were opposed to the Sunnis of the Arab armies. They eventually converted, but summoned under the Kharidjite movement within Islam. Ibn Khaldun claimed that the “Zenata people say they are Muslims but they still oppose the Arab army.”.[24][25] After 711, the Berbers were systematically converted to Islam and many became devout members of the faith.

DynastyEdit

Preceded by
Rustamid and Umayyad Dynasty
Ifrinid Dynasty
950- 1066
Succeeded by
Almoravid dynasty

Ifran in SpainEdit

Ronda was built by Abu Nour in 1014

The Banu Ifran were influential in Spain in the 11th century AD. The Ifran house of Corra ruled the Andalusian city Ronda in SpainYeddas was the military leader of the Berber troops who were at war against the Christian king and El Mehdi.Abu Nour or Nour of the house of Corra became lord of Ronda and then Seville in Andalusia from 1023 to 1039 and from 1039 to 1054. The son of Nour bin Badis Hallal ruled Ronda from 1054 to 1057, and Abu Nacer from 1057 to 1065.[26]

Yorubas – Sons of Ephraim

Picture

 

Yorubas – Sons of Ephraim

As stated in my books regarding the Igbos, the father of the Yoruba people, Oduduwa traveled with Gad’s sons, Eri, Areli and Arodi from North Africa, likely Egypt and settled in what today is known as Nigeria. This would coincide with Yoruba oral history that they believe to come from outside of West Africa and thus it would be no surprise that we might find Israelites, Hebrews and Jews among the Yoruba.

Oduduwa was said to be a descendant of Hamm, through Nimrod also called Lamurudu, this according to Yoruba Christian Samuel Johnson in 1880. Sultan Bello, Caliph of Sokoto was quoted in 1820 by Hugh Clapperton to have said that the Yoruba people were descendants of a Canaanite tribe.  And S.O. Obiaku a Nigerian Historian claimed the Yoruba’s to originate from the Sudan or what was known as Cush/Kush (Ethiopia).

However, some say “Yoruba” is a corruption of the name “Jacob” or in Hebrew, “Yacob.” Others assert that Yoruba is from “Yerubbaal,” the “People of against Baal.”

But the current Yoruba Jewish population who claim to come from the Israeli tribe of Ephraim was said to have been driven to Yorubaland from Morocco by Muslims and eventually mingled with Yoruba people. These black Jews in southern Nigeria are called the “Emo Yo Quaim”, or “Strange People”, by the native Africans, but these black Jews call themselves, “B’nai Ephraim” or “Sons of Ephraim”. These Jews who claim that their ancestors came from Morocco is supported by their language which appears to be a mixture of Maghrebi Arabic and local Negro speech. Thus abu (“father”) has become Yaaba, from the Hebrew word “Abba” and “Umm” (“mother”) is “Em” from the Hebrew, “Ima”. Nevertheless, most of their language is similar to the Yoruba’s around them.

These Yoruba, “Sons of Ephraim” observe certain Jewish customs, among which are the great holy days, naming of children on the 8th day, etc. In almost every way, these black Jews are like the Yorubas, and are hardly distinguishable from them, except for some outstanding Hebrew observances.

But there is doubt whether any from this group exists today among the Yoruba.

There is a clan among the Yoruba People called the “Ijeeu,” which is believed to be a corruption of the word “Hebrew” or “Jew.” They are looked down upon by the rest of the Yoruba for displaying Igbo-like character and traits, one of which is business prowess. There is even a town in Yorubaland called, “Ijuee-Igbo.” Much if the Ijeeu people resent and deny this connection with them and Ndi Igbo.

http://www.hebrewigbo.com/yoruba—sons-of-ephriam.html

The evidence of the Hebrew culture and its language found only in Igboland (Hebrew land), Nigeria attest to the validity of the Holy Bible.

There are Udo Shrines all over Anambra State, Nigeria & there is one in Japan and in Honduras erected by early Igbo settlers of these lands.

The word for peace in original Hebrew (Igbo) is “udo”. The Hebrew deity of peace is also called “Udo,” when pronounced with a high pitch.

https://blackhistory938.wordpress.com/2017/06/16/my-igbo-slave-ancestor/

 

Extract below added and link to original post as my research is also leading to this conclusion.

CATHERINE ACHOLONU’S APPRAISAL OF THE RESEARCH

of  Dr. BARRY FELL & EDO NYLAND

 

 

        “All the words that researchers Edo Nyland and Dr. Barry Fell transcribed were Igbo words, which I could easily read and translate. When I told Nyland that I had translated the words he transcribed from Ogam stones he did not believe me at first. When Hugo Kennes found my work on the Internet and started informing all the Ogam researchers he knew including Nyland, Nyland asked him to get an Igbo dictionary from me.  After a meeting with Pellech in Belgium, she convinced me to write further details for her site, and that led to my doing the Igbo Ogam VCV Dictionary.”  [Please also see New York Times article].


“Nyland’s use of the word 
Saharan might not be too far off the mark. However, he did not check West Africa, which has language links with North Africa because the direction of migrations from the Niger has been both northward and southward through the Ages. For example the Berber etymology of Barbarian is related to Igbo in the sense that (according to Herodotus) the word means ‘stranger’. Igbo

word for “Stranger” is “Obiarabia.”

 

          “My thesis is that Egypt was the main outpost from where West African Kwa (Kwush/Kush) culture was exported to the rest of the world. Igbo is the Mega-Kwa language – the Kushite mother-language. Kush is the major bearer of this civilization. Ethiopia was not just an East Africa location, but lay West too. According to Homer, it was in Sunset Ethiopia that the Gods congregated, and the people were called “the Blameless Ethiopians in whose land the gods held banquets”. We have discovered the lost city of this Pre-historic Civilization, with its array of beautiful bronze and pottery works lost to living memory and posing an Enigma to African and World History.”

 

          “My analyses of the early archaeology of Sumer and of the Akkadian/Sumerian/Canaanite (Semitic) languages shows that all of them without exception were children of the Igbo language and that the earliest inhabitants of Sumer had Igbo lifestyles in religion, architecture, clothing, etc., even in the recipe for soap-making (wood-ash/potash boiled in oil).”

 

          “Igbo is in the family of Niger-Congo languages called Kwa by European linguists, which includes many Nigerian and West African languages like Ashanti, Akan, Yoruba and Benin (Edo). Igbo, I find to be closest to the original mother of that language family. In fact my finding is that in order to not let the Igbo know that it was their language that birthed the others, the linguists invented the word Kwa, which was originated from Akwa Nshi (Igbo for ‘First People’, also the local name of the Nigerian monoliths that represent First People on the planet). This word was used also by the ancient Egyptians to describe the West African, in fact Igbo-speaking, Sea People (Kwush, see Martin Bernal – Black Athena ) who brought civilization to the Aegean and the Levant during the Hyksos (which means ‘Kwush’) Exodus. Kwush, also pronounced Kush means in Semitic and in Igbo ‘People of the Esh/Eshi’. Eshi are the so-called ‘Blameless Ethiopians’ of Homer. In Sumer and in Igbo, the word meant ‘Righteous/Sons of God/Descendants of the Adama (see The Nag Hammadi Scriptures and the Torah). Adam was Adama before the Fall. After he fell he became Adam, a word, which in Igbo means ‘I have Fallen’. Today in Igbo land we still have the descendants of the Immortal First People. They have never ceased to go by Adam’s original name – ‘Adama’. They are the Land Chiefs in Igbo land.”

 

          “Biblical Kush was named after the Ikwu Eshi/KwushIkwu Eshi literally means in Igbo – ‘Descendant/Lineage of the Eshi’.”


“The 
Sea People were related to the Hebrews. They all spoke Semitic languages. They were the founders of Greece, Crete, Troy, and Rome. They were the CariansDanaansAcheans, and Myceneans, not excluding the Hittites. The writing systems they gave to Crete and early Middle East have been mostly found on the Igbo Ukwu excavated artifacts (see The Lost Testament), while the surviving words from their period had many Igbo cognates. Their exodus began in Egypt, remember? And Egypt, according to our findings was an outpost of an originally West African civilization in the time of Osiris (10,000 B.C.), whose Nigerian equivalent bore the Ogam scarifications on his face as his personal signature. We have found many hieroglyphs and pyramid symbols of Egypt on body adornments of ancient Nigerian gods and monuments.”


“Ogam was a writing system, not a language. Ancient Africans had other writing forms, too. Egyptian hieroglyphics was not a language; it was a writing system that could only be read correctly and meaningfully if you know the language. In this case, Igbo, the original Kwa.”

https://blackhistory938.wordpress.com/2017/06/15/the-history-of-slavery-in-west-africa/

069996c87e590830db493970c9f15985

Berbers

 

Berbers or Amazighs (Berber languagesⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ Imaziɣen; singular: ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ Amaziɣ / Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting the Maghreb. They are distributed in an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Niger River in West Africa. Historically, they spoke Berber languages, which together form the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. Since the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the seventh century, a large number of Berbers inhabiting the Maghreb (Tamazgha) have in varying degrees used as lingua franca the other languages spoken in North Africa. After the colonization of North Africa by France, “the French government succeeded in integrating the French language in Algeria by making French the official national language and requiring all education to take place in French.”[31] Foreign languages, mainly French and to some degree Spanish, inherited from former European colonial powers, are used by most educated Berbers in Algeria and Morocco in some formal contexts, such as higher education or business.

 

Most Berber people live in North Africa, mainly in Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco.[2] Small Berber populations are also found in NigerMaliMauritaniaBurkina Faso and Egypt, as well as large immigrant communities living inFranceCanadaBelgium, the Netherlands,Germany, and other countries of Europe.[32][33]

The majority of Berbers are Sunni Muslim.[34]The Berber identity is usually wider than language and ethnicity, and encompasses the entire history and geography of North Africa. Berbers are not an entirely homogeneous ethnicity and they encompass a range of societies and ancestries. The unifying forces for the Berber people may be their shared language, or a collective identification with Berber heritage and history.

 

The name Berber derives from an ancient Egyptian language term meaning “outlander” or variations thereof. The exonym was later adopted by the Greeks, with a similar connotation. Among its oldest written attestations, Berber appears as an ethnonym in the 1st century AD Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.[38]

Despite these early manuscripts, certain modern scholars have argued that the term only emerged around 900 AD in the writings of Arab genealogists,[39] with Maurice Lenoir positing an 8th or 9th century date of appearance.[40] The English term was introduced in the 19th century, replacing the earlier Barbary.

The Berbers are the Mauri cited by the Chronicle of 754 during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, to become since the 11th century the catch-all term Moros (in Spanish; Moors in English) on the charters and chronicles of the expanding Christian Iberian kingdoms to refer to the Andalusi, the north Africans, and the Muslims overall.

For the historian Abraham Isaac Laredo[41] the name Amazigh could be derived from the name of the ancestor Mezeg which is the translation of biblical ancestor Dedan son of Sheba in theTargum. According to Leo AfricanusAmazigh meant “free man”, though this has been disputed, because there is no root of M-Z-Gh meaning “free” in modern Berber languages. This dispute, however, is based on a lack of understanding of the Berber language[neutrality is disputed] as “Am-” is a prefix meaning “a man, one who is […]” Therefore, the root required to verify this endonym would be (a)zigh, “free”, which however is also missing from Tamazight‘s lexicon, but may be related to the well attested aze “strong”, Tizzit “bravery”, or jeghegh “to be brave, to be courageous”.[42][original research?]

Further, it also has a cognate in the Tuareg word Amajegh, meaning “noble”.[43][44] This term is common in Morocco, especially among Central Atlas, Rifian and Shilah speakers in 1980,[45] but elsewhere within the Berber homeland sometimes a local, more particular term, such as Kabyle orChaoui, is more often used instead in Algeria.[46]

The Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines mentioned various tribes with similar names living in Greater “Libya” (North Africa) in the areas where Berbers were later found. Later tribal names differ from the classical sources, but are probably still related to the modern Amazigh. TheMeshwesh tribe among them represents the first thus identified from the field. Scholars believe it would be the same tribe called a few centuries afterwards in Greek as Mazyes by Hektaios and as Maxyes by Herodotus, while it was called after that Mazaces and Mazax in Latin sources, and related to the later Massylii and Masaesyli. All those names are similar and perhaps foreign renditions of the name used by the Berbers in general for themselves, Imazighen.

Hoggar painting

PrehistoryEdit

The Maghreb region in northwestern Africa is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers from at least 10,000 BC.[47] Local cave paintings, which have been dated to twelve millennia before present, have been found in the Tassili n’Ajjer region of southern Algeria. Other rock art has been observed in Tadrart Acacus in the Libyan desert. A Neolithic society, marked by domestication and subsistence agriculture, developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean region (the Maghreb) of northern Africa between 6000 and 2000 BC. This type of life, richly depicted in the Tassili n’Ajjer cave paintings of southeastern Algeria, predominated in the Maghreb until the classical period. Prehistorical Tifinagh scripts were also found in the Oran region.[48] During the pre-Roman era, several successive independent states (Massylii) existed before the king Masinissa unified the people of Numidia.[49][50][51]

HistoryEdit

In historical times, the Berbers expanded south into the Sahara (displacing earlier populations such as the Azer and Bafour). Much of Berber culture is still celebrated among the cultural elite in Morocco and Algeria.

The areas of North Africa that have retained the Berber language and traditions best have been, in general, Morocco and the Hautes Plaines of Algeria (KabylieAurès etc.), most of which in Roman and Ottoman times had remained largely independent. The Ottomans did penetrate the Kabylie area, and to places the Phoenicians never penetrated, far beyond the coast, where Turkish influence can be seen in food, clothes and music. These areas have been affected by some of the many invasions of North Africa, most recently that of the French.[citation needed]

OriginsEdit

faience tile from the throne of Pharaoh Ramesses III depicting a tattooed ancient Libyan chief (ca. 1184 to 1153 BC).

Around 5000 BC, the populations of North Africa were primarily descended from the makers of the Iberomaurusian and Capsian cultures, with a more recent intrusion associated with the Neolithic Revolution.[52] The proto-Berber tribes evolved from these prehistoric communities during the Late Bronze to Early Iron Age.[53]

Uniparental DNA analysis has established ties between Berbers and other Afroasiatic speakers in Africa. Most of these populations belong to the E1b1b paternal haplogroup, with Berber speakers having among the highest frequencies of this lineage.[54] Additionally, genomic analysis has found that Berber and other Maghreb communities are defined by a shared ancestral component. This Maghrebi element peaks among Tunisian Berbers.[55] It is related to the Coptic/Ethio-Somali, having diverged from these and other West Eurasian-affiliated components prior to the Holocene.[56]

In 2013, Iberomaurusian skeletons from the prehistoric sites of Taforalt and Afalou in the Maghreb were also analyzed for ancient DNA. All of the specimens belonged to maternal clades associated with either North Africa or the northern and southern Mediterranean littoral, indicating gene flow between these areas since the Epipaleolithic.[57] The ancient Taforalt individuals carried the mtDNA haplogroups U6HJT and V, which points to population continuity in the region dating from the Iberomaurusian period.[58]

Ancient Libyan delegation atPersepolis.

Human fossils excavated at the Ifri n’Amr or Moussa site in Morocco have been radiocarbon-dated to the Early Neolithic period, ca. 5,000 BC. Ancient DNA analysis of these specimens indicates that they carried paternal haplotypes related to the E1b1b1b1a (E-M81) subclade and the maternal haplogroups U6a and M1, all of which are frequent among present-day communities in the Maghreb. These ancient individuals also bore an autochthonous Maghrebi genomic component that peaks among modern Berbers, indicating that they were ancestral to populations in the area. Additionally, fossils excavated at the Kelif el Boroud site near Rabat were found to carry the broadly-distributed paternal haplogroup T-M184 as well as the maternal haplogroups K1T2 and X2, the latter of which were common mtDNA lineages in Neolithic Europeand Anatolia. These ancient individuals likewise bore the Berber-associated Maghrebi genomic component. This altogether indicates that the Late Neolithic Kelif el Boroud inhabitants were ancestral to contemporary populations in the area, but also likely experienced gene flow from Europe.[59]

AntiquityEdit

Heracles wrestling with the Libyan giant Antaeus

The grand tribal identities of Berber antiquity (then often known as ancient Libyans)[60] were said to be three (roughly, from west to east): theMauri, the Numidians near Carthage, and theGaetulians. The Mauri inhabited the far west (ancient Mauretania, now Morocco and central Algeria). The Numidians were located in the regions between the Mauri and the city-state of Carthage. Both the Numidians and the Mauri had significant sedentary populations living in villages, and their peoples both tilled the land and tended herds. The Gaetulians were less settled, with predominantly pastoral elements, and lived in the near south on the margins of the Sahara.[61][62][63] For their part, the Phoenicians came from the perhaps most advanced multicultural sphere then existing, the Fertile Crescent. Accordingly, the material culture of Phoenicia was likely more functional and efficient, and their knowledge more explanatory, than that of the early Berbers. Hence, the interactions between Berbers and Phoenicians were often asymmetrical. The Phoenicians worked to keep their cultural cohesion and ethnic solidarity, and continuously refreshed their close connection with Tyre, the mother city.[64]

The earliest Phoenician landing stations located on the coasts were probably meant merely to resupply and service ships bound for the lucrative metals trade with the Iberian peninsula.[65]Perhaps these newly arrived sea traders were not at first particularly interested in doing much business with the Berbers, for reason of the little profit regarding the goods the Berbers had to offer.[66] The Phoenicians established strategic colonial cities in many Berber areas, including sites outside of present-day Tunisia, e.g., the settlements at VolubilisChellah and Mogador (now in Morocco). As in Tunisia these centres were trading hubs, and later offered support for resource development such as olive oil at Volubilis and Tyrian purple dye at Mogador. For their part, most Berbers maintained their independence as farmers or semi-pastorals although, due to the exemplar of Carthage, their organized politics increased in scope and acquired sophistication.[67]

Berber Kingdoms in Numidia, c. 220 BC (green: Masaesyli under Syphax; gold: Massyli under Gala, father of Masinissa; further east: city-state of Carthage).

In fact for a time their numerical and military superiority (the best horse riders of that time) enabled some Berber kingdoms to impose a tribute payable by Carthage, a condition that continued into the 5th century BC.[68] Also, due to the Berbero-Libyan Meshwesh dynasty’s rule of Egypt (945-715 BC),[69] the Berbers near Carthage commanded significant respect (yet probably appearing more rustic than elegant Libyan pharaohs on the Nile). Correspondingly, in early Carthage careful attention was given to securing the most favorable treaties with the Berber chieftains, “which included intermarriage between them and the Punic aristocracy.”[70] In this regard, perhaps the legend about Dido, the foundress of Carthage (see above), as related byTrogus is apposite. Her refusal to wed the Mauritani chieftain Hiarbus might be indicative of the complexity of the politics involved.[71]

Eventually the Phoenician trading stations would evolve into permanent settlements, and later into small towns, which would presumably require a wide variety of goods as well as sources of food, which could be satisfied in trade with the Berbers. Yet here too, the Phoenicians probably would be drawn into organizing and directing such local trade, and also into managing agricultural production. In the 5th century BC, Carthage expanded its territory, acquiring Cape Bonand the fertile Wadi Majardah,[72] later establishing its control over productive farm lands within several hundred kilometers.[73] Appropriation of such wealth in land by the Phoenicians would surely inspire some resistance by the Berbers, although in warfare, too, the technical training, social organization, and weaponry of the Phoenicians would seem to work against the tribal Berbers.

As a legacy of the spread of Islam, the Berbers are now mostly Sunni Muslim. The MozabiteBerbers of the Saharan Mozabite Valley and Libyan berbers in Nafusis and Zuwara are primarily adherents of the Ibadi Muslim denomination.

In antiquity, the Berber people adhered to thetraditional Berber religion, prior to the arrival ofAbrahamic faiths into North Africa. This traditional religion heavily emphasized ancestor venerationpolytheism and animism. Many ancient Berber beliefs were developed locally, whereas others were influenced over time through contact with other traditional African religions (such as the Ancient Egyptian religion), or borrowed during antiquity from the Punic religionJudaismIberian mythology, and theHellenistic religion. The most recent influence came from Islam and pre-Islamic Arab religionduring the medieval period. Some of the ancient Berber beliefs still exist today subtly within the Berber popular culture and tradition.

Until the 1960s, there was also a significant Jewish Berber minority in Morocco,[252] but emigration (mostly to Israel and France) dramatically reduced their number to only a few hundred individuals.

Following Christian missions, the Kabyle community in Algeria has a decent-sized recently constituted Christian minority, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, and a 2015 study estimates 380,000 Muslim Algerian converted to Christianity in Algeria.[22] whereas among the 8,000[253]-40,000[254] Moroccans who have converted to Christianity in the last decades several Berbers are found; some of them explain their conversion as an attempt to go back to their “Christian sources”.[255]

Notable BerbersEdit

In Christian historyEdit

Before the arrival of Islam into the region, most Berber groups were either Christian, Jewish or Animist, and a number of Berber theologians were important figures in the development of western Christianity. In particular, the BerberDonatus Magnus was the founder of a Christian group known as the Donatists. The 4th-century Catholic Church viewed the donatists as heretics and the dispute led to a schism in the Church dividing North African Christians.[256] They are directly related to Circumcellions, a sect that worked on disseminating the doctrine in North Africa by the force of the sword.

Augustine of Hippo (Hippo being the modern Algerian city of Annaba), Scholars generally agree that Augustine and his family were Berbers, an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa,[257][258][259][260] but that they were heavily Romanized, speaking only Latin at home as a matter of pride and dignity. He is recognized as asaint and a Doctor of the Church by Roman Catholicism and the Anglican Communion and revered by the Reformed; he was an outspoken opponent of Donatism.[261]

Of all the fathers of the church, St. Augustine was the most admired and the most influential during the Middle Ages … Augustine was an outsider—a native North African whose family was not Roman but Berber … He was a genius—an intellectual giant.[262]

Many believe that Arius, another early Christian theologian who was deemed a heretic by the Christian Church, was of Libyan Berber descent. Another Berber cleric, Saint Adrian of Canterbury, traveled to England and played a significant role in its early medieval religious history.

Lusius Quietus, was the son of a Christian tribal lord from unconquered Mauretania (modern Morocco). Lusius’ father and his warriors had supported the Roman legions in their attempt to subdue Mauretania Tingitana (northern modern Morocco) during Aedemon’s revolt in 40.

Masuna (fl. 508) was a Romano-Moorish Christian king in Mauretania Caesariensis (western Algeria) who is said to have encouraged the Byzantine general Solomon, the Prefect of Africa, to launch an invasion of the Moorish kingdom of Numidia.[263]

Dihya (Berber: Daya Ult Yenfaq Tajrawt) was a Berber Byzantine Christian religious and military leader who led indigenous resistance to Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, the region then known as Numidia, known as the Algeria today. She was born in the early seventh century and died around the end of the seventh century in modern Algeria. According to al-Mālikī she was said to have been accompanied in her travels by what the Arabs called an “idol”, possibly an icon of theVirgin or one of the Christian saints.[264]

Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (c. 155 – c. 240 AD), known as Tertullian (/tərˈtʌliən/), was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa and was the first Christian author to produce an extensive corpus of Latin Christian literature. He also was a notable early Christian apologist and a polemicist against heresy, including contemporary Christian Gnosticism. Tertullian has been called “the father of Latin Christianity” and “the founder of Western theology.”

Sabellius, who was a third-century priest and theologian who most likely taught in Rome, may have been of African Berber descent. Basil and others call him a Libyan from Pentapolis, but this seems to rest on the fact that Pentapolis was a place where the teachings of Sabellius thrived, according to Dionysius of Alexandria, c. 260. What is known of Sabellius is drawn mostly from the polemical writings of his opponents.

Fadhma Aït Mansour, born in Tizi Hibel, Algeria, is the mother of writers Jean Amrouche and Taos Amrouche. Fadhma, the illegitimate daughter of a widow, was born in a Kabylie village. Later, when she was with the Sisters at Aït Manguellet hospital, she converted to Roman Catholicism. She met another Kabyle Catholic convert, Antoine-Belkacem Amrouche, whom she married in 1898.

Ahmed es-Sikeli, born in Djerba to a Berber family of the Sadwikish tribe was baptized a Christian under the name Peter, was a eunuch and kaid of the Diwan of the Kingdom of Sicily during the reign of William I. His story was recorded by his Christian contemporaries Romuald Guarna and Hugo Falcandus from Sicily and the Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun.[265]

Brother Rachid, a Moroccan Christian convert from Islam whose father is a well-known respected Imam. He is one of the most outspoken converts in the world, he hosts a weekly live call-in show on Al-Hayat channel where he compares Islam and Christianity as well as debating with Islamic scholars.

Malika Oufkir is a Moroccan writer and former “disappeared” person. She is the daughter of General Mohamed Oufkir and a cousin of fellow Moroccan writer and actress Leila Shenna. She and her siblings are converts from Islam to Catholicism, and she writes in her book, Stolen Lives: “we had rejected Islam, which had brought us nothing good, and opted for Catholicism instead.”[266]

In Islamic historyEdit

Tariq ibn Ziyad, Berber Muslim and Umayyad general who led the conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711

Tariq ibn Ziyad (died 720), known in Spanish history and legend as Taric el Tuerto (Taric the one-eyed), was a Berber Muslim and Umayyadgeneral who led the conquest of VisigothicHispania in 711. He is considered to be one of the most important military commanders in Spanish history. He was initially the deputy ofMusa ibn Nusair in North Africa, and was sent by his superior to launch the first thrust of an invasion of the Iberian peninsula. Some claim that he was invited to intervene by the heirs of the Visigothic King, Wittiza, in the Visigothic civil war.

On April 29, 711, the armies of Tariq landed at Gibraltar (the name Gibraltar is derived from the Arabic name Jabal Tariq, which means mountain of Tariq, or the more obvious Gibr Al-Tariq, meaning rock of Tariq). Upon landing, Tariq is said to have burned his ships then made the following speech, well known in the Muslim world, to his soldiers:

O People ! There is nowhere to run away! The sea is behind you, and the enemy in front of you: There is nothing for you, by God, except only sincerity and patience.

— as recounted by al-Maqqari

Ziri ibn Manad (died 971), founder of the Zirid dynasty in the Maghreb. Ziri ibn Manad was a clan leader of the Berber Sanhaja tribe who, as an ally of the Fatimids, defeated the rebellion of Abu Yazid (943-947). His reward was the governorship of the western provinces, an area that roughly corresponds with modern Algeria north of the Sahara.

Yusuf ibn Tashfin (c. 1061–1106) was the Berber Almoravid ruler in North Africa and Al-Andalus(Moorish Iberia). He took the title of amir al-muslimin (commander of the Muslims) after visiting the Caliph of Baghdad ‘amir al-Mu’minin” (“commander of the faithful”) and officially receiving his support. He was either a cousin or nephew of Abu Bakr ibn Umar, the founder of the Almoravid dynasty. He united all of the Muslim dominions in the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal and Spain) to the Maghreb (c. 1090), after being called to the Al-Andalus by the Emir of Seville.

Alfonso VI was defeated on 23 October 1086, at the battle of Sagrajas, at the hands of Yusuf ibn Tashfin, and Abbad III al-Mu’tamid. Yusuf bin Tashfin is the founder of the famous Moroccan city Marrakech (in Berber Murakush, corrupted to Morocco in English). He himself chose the place where it was built in 1070 and later made it the capital of his Empire. Until then, the Almoravids had been desert nomads, but the new capital marked their settling into a more urban way of life.

Ibn Tumart (c. 1080 – c. 1130), was a Berber religious teacher and leader from the Masmuda tribe who spiritually founded the Almohad dynasty. He is also known as El-Mahdi in reference to his prophesied redeeming. In 1125, he began an open revolt against Almoravid rule. The name “Ibn Tumart” comes from the Berber language and means “son of the earth.”[267]

Abu Ya’qub Yusuf (died on 29 July 1184) was the second Almohad caliph. He reigned from 1163 until 1184. He had the Giralda in Seville built.

Abu Yaqub al-Mustansir Yusuf II Caliph of Maghreb from 1213 until his death. The son of the previous caliph, Muhammad an-Nasir, Yusuf assumed the throne following his father’s death, at the age of only 16 years.

Al-Busiri (1211–1294) was a Sanhaja Berber Sufi poet belonging to the Shadhiliyya order being direct disciple of Sheikh Abul Abbas al-Mursi.

Ibn Battuta (born 1304; year of death uncertain, possibly 1368 or 1377) was a Berber Sunni Islamic scholar and jurisprudent from the Maliki Madhhab (a school of Fiqh, or Islamic law), and at times a Qadi or judge.[268] However, he is best known as a traveler and explorer, whose account documents his travels and excursions over a period of almost thirty years, covering some 117,000 kilometres (73,000 mi). These journeys covered almost the entirety of the known Islamic realm, extending from modern West Africa to Pakistan, India, the MaldivesSri Lanka, South-East Asia and China, a distance readily surpassing that of his predecessor, near-contemporary Marco Polo.

Muhammad al-Jazuli – From the tribe of Jazulah which was settled in the Sous area of Maghreb between the Atlantic Ocean and the Atlas Mountains. He is most famous for compiling the Dala’il al-Khayrat, an extremely popular Muslim prayer book.

Mohammed Awzal was a religious Berber poet. He is considered the most important author of the Shilha literary tradition. He was born around 1670 in the village of al-Qasaba in the region of Sous, Maghreb and died in 1748/9 (1162 of the Egira).

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berbers

 

Haplogroup E-V38/ E3a/ E1b1a

Haplogroup E-V38 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is primarily distributed in Africa. E-V38 has two basal branches, E-M329 (formerly E1b1c) and E-M2 (formerly E1b1a). The E-M329 subclade is today almost exclusively found in Ethiopia. E-M2 is the predominant subclade in Western AfricaCentral AfricaSouthern Africa and the African Great Lakes, and occurs at moderate frequencies in North Africa and Middle East. E-M2 has several subclades, but many of these subhaplogroups are included in either E-L485 or E-U175.

This haplogroup’s frequency and diversity are highest in the West Africa region. Within Africa, E-V38 displays a west-to-east as well as a south-to-north clinal distribution. In other words, the frequency of the haplogroup decreases as one moves from western and southern Africa toward the eastern and northern parts of the continent.[9]

Incidence of E-V38
Population group frequency References
Bamileke 96%-100% [9][10]
Ewe 97% [7]
Ga 97% [7]
Yoruba 93.1% [11]
Tutsi 85% [9]
Fante 84% [7]
Mandinka 79%-87% [1][7]
Ovambo 82% [7]
Senegalese 81% [12]
Ganda 77% [7]
Bijagós 76% [1]
Balanta 73% [1]
Fula 73% [1]
Herero 71% [7]
Nalú 71% [1]

Populations on the North West Africa, central Eastern Africa and Madagascar have tested at more moderate frequencies.

Incidence of E-V38
Population group frequency References
Tuareg from Tânout, Niger 44.4% (8/18 subjects) [13]
Comorian Shirazi 41% [14]
Tuareg from Gorom-Gorom, Burkina Faso 16.6% (3/18) [13]
Tuareg from Gossi, Mali 9.1% (1/9) [13]
Cape Verdeans 15.9% (32/201) [15]
Maasai 15.4% (4/26) [7]
Luo 66% (6/9) [7]
Iraqw 11.11% (1/9) [7]
Comoros 23.46% (69/294) [16]
Merina people (also called Highlanders) 44% (4/9) [17]
Antandroy 69.6% (32/46) [17]
Antanosy 48.9% (23/47) [17]
Antaisaka 37.5% (3/8) [17]

E-V38 is found at low to moderate frequencies in North Africa, and northern East Africa. The some of the lineages found in these areas are possibly due to the Bantu expansion or other migrations.[9][18] The E-M2 marker that appeared in North African samples stem from the Ancient Indeginous Moors[9] However, the discovery in 2011 of the E-V38 marker that predates E-M2 has led Trombetta et al. to suggest that E-V38 may have originated in East Africa (please refer to the Origins section for the details).

Incidence of E-V38
Population group frequency References
Tuareg from Al Awaynat and Tahala, Libya 46.5% (20/43) [Note 1] [19]
OranAlgeria 8.6% (8/93) [20]
Berbers, southern and north-central Morocco 9.5% (6/63) [21][Note 2]
Moroccan Arabs 6.8% (3/44) [21]
Saharawis 3.5% (1/29) [21]
Egyptians 8.33% (3/36), 1.4% (2/147), and (0/73) [9][22][23]
Tunisians 1.4% (2/148) [23]
Sudanese 0.9% (4/445) [24]
Somalis 1.5% (3/201) [18]
Ethiopians 3.4% (3/88) [25]
Oromo 2.6% (2/78) [12]
Amhara 0% (0/48)[Note 3] [12]

Outside of Africa, E-V38 has been found at low frequencies. The clade has been found at low frequencies in West Asia. A few isolated occurrences of E-V38 have also been observed among populations in Southern Europe, such as CroatiaMaltaSpain and Portugal.[26] [27][28][29]

Incidence of E-V38 in Asia
Population group frequency References
Saudi Arabians 7.6% (12/157)

[30]

Omanis 6.6% (8/121) [9]
Emiratis 5.5% (9/164) [31]
Yemenis 4.8% (3/62) [31]
Majorcans 3.2% (2/62) [29]
Qataris 4.2% (3/72) [31]
Southern Iranians 1.7% (2/117) [32]
Iraqis 1.4% (2/139) [33]
Pakistanis 1.4% (9/638) [34]
Istanbul, Turkey 1.2% (1/81) [35]

The Trans-Atlantic slave trade brought people to North AmericaCentral America and South America including the Caribbean. Consequently, the haplogroup is often observed in the United States populations in men who self-identify as African Americans.[36] It has also been observed in a number of populations in Mexico, the CaribbeanCentral America, and South America among people of African descent.

Incidence of E-V38 in populations of the Americas
Population group frequency References
U.S. Americans 7.7-7.9% [Note 4] [36]
Cubans 9.8% (13/132) [37]
Dominicans 7.69% (2/26) [38]
Puerto Ricans 19.23% (5/26) [38]
Nicaraguans 5.5% (9/165) [39]
Several populations of Colombians 6.18% (69/1116) [40]
Alagoas, Brazil 4.45% (11/247) [41]
Bahia, Brazil 19% (19/100) [42]

 

 End

 

Hammer_2000_Jew_Arab_Ychromosome

neolith

main-qimg-0f52790fb8101288968bb0c994cac676

bedouin_1

Kuwaiti population subgroup of nomadic Bedouin ancestry—Whole genome sequence and analysis

 

Population of Kuwait comprises early settlers that include tribes from Arabian and Persian countries, and nomadic Bedouins of the desert [1]. By way of analyzing genome-wide genotypes from 273 Kuwaiti natives, we recently demonstrated three distinct genetic subgroups in Kuwaiti population [2]: Kuwait P (KWP) of Persian ancestry; Kuwait S (KWS) of “city-dwelling” Saudi Arabian tribe ancestry, and Kuwait B (KWB) that includes most of the “tent-dwelling” Bedouin participants (recruited to provide samples for genotyping). The KWB is distinguished from the other two groups by a characteristic presence of 17% African ancestry (ranging from 11.7% to 39.4%); Arabian ancestry is seen more in the Saudi Arabian tribe ancestry subgroup (at 69%) than in the Bedouin group (at 40%). Populations from other states of the Arabian Peninsula also display such a characteristic presence of African ancestry: (i) analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation in Saudi Arabian samples reveals that the Saudi Arabian population harbors as much as 20% genetic contribution from Africa [3]; (ii) analysis of Saudi Arabian Y-chromosome data indicates that around 14% of the Saudi Arabian Y-chromosome pool is typical of African biogeography ancestry [4]; (iii) analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation in populations from Near East and Africa identifies a very high frequency of African lineages (specifically sub-Saharan) in the Yemen Hadramawt [5]; and (iv) analysis of genome-wide genotypes in individuals from Qatar identifies three clear clusters of genotypes with the third cluster comprising individuals with high African admixture [6].

Bedouins are “tent-dwelling” nomads who roamed the deserts of Middle East; they epitomize the best adaptation of human life to desert conditions [7]. In much of the Middle East and North Africa, the term Bedouin is used to descriptively differentiate between those (bedu) whose livelihood is based on raising livestock by mainly natural graze and those (hadar) who have an agricultural or urban base [8]. Bedouins are originally desert-dwelling tribes of the Arabian Peninsula and are particularly descendants of (i) those settled in the southwestern Arabia, in the mountains of Yemen; and (ii) those settled in North-Central Arabia. Bedouins started to spread out to surrounding deserts of Middle East (particularly Arabian and Syrian deserts) and North Africa (particularly Sinai Peninsula of Egypt and the Sahara Desert of North Africa) due to repeated droughts, growing population and tribal wars. While the “pure” urban-dwelling Arabian tribes formed the leadership class and owned vast amounts of lands, the nomadic Bedouins often worked in the lands of the Arab tribes or tended sheep and camels and moved from one location to another in search of grazing grounds. The Bedouins, as tradition dictated, often married cousins. Marrying within the family helped strengthen bonds among extended families struggling to survive the desert. This centuries-old custom of intermarriage has had devastating genetic effects [9].

….

The mitochondrial haplogroup (indication of maternal ancestry) of the Bedouin participant is determined as L3d1a1a [L3d], that is predominantly seen in West-Central Africa—among the Fulani [13], Chadians [13], Ethiopians [14], Akan people [15], Mozambique [14], and Yemen [14]. Kivisild et al. [14] analyzed mitochondrial DNA variations in 115 volunteer Yemeni donors in Kuwait (who claimed that their maternal origin was in Yemen) and found that the L macro-haplogroup (the most ancestral mitochondrial lineage) is seen in 47% of the 115 Yemeni individuals; they further found that 20 (17.4%) of the 115 Yemeni participants has the L3 mitochondrial haplogroup (that are most frequently found in sub-Saharan Africa); of these 20 participants, 6 (5.21% of 115 participants) displayed the L3d1 subclade that we observe for the individual sequenced in this study. Thus, the observation of L3d1 haplogroup for the participant in our study is consistent with Yemeni maternal origin. In order to further illustrate that the above observed L3d1 mitochondrial haplogroup is characteristic of the Bedouin sample sequenced in this study, we examined the mitochondrial haplogroups that we identified for a control group of 16 individuals from the other two subgroups of Kuwaiti population (see Supplementary Table S2); none of these 16 samples exhibit the clades of the L macro-haplogroup. Kivisild et al. [14] further compared haplotype diversity seen in Yemeni participants with those reported for Ethiopian population (East Africa); their results highlight the complexity of Ethiopian and Yemeni genetic heritage and are consistent with the introduction of maternal lineages into the South Arabian gene pool from different source populations of East Africa. Horn of Africa (a peninsula in the eastern region of the African sub-continent, enclosing Ethiopia, Somalia, Djibouti and Eritrea) is separated from the south Arabian Peninsula (particularly Yemen) by a short distance of only ~ 10 miles at the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb (the Gate of Tears); the distance across is only ~ 20 miles from Ras Menheli in Yemen to Ras Siyyan in Djibouti. Outside of Africa, L3d is mainly found in African Americans; approximately 6% of all African Americans are descendents of the L3d family line [16].

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213596014001299#bb0015

shiloh map

palancestry

Yemen_1-2Men_in_desert

 

Rashaida_1-1