Category Archives: Biblical Hebrew

The Living descendants of the Egyptians: article by All empires.com

One fact that was meant to be hidden is that the M2 lineage carrying, Niger-Congo/Kordofanian speaking, broad featured (“true Negro”) populations of Equatorial Africa and their New World extensions are the living descendants of the ancient Egyptians (and Hebrews). They do not want us to know that we were at the basis of all of these ancient civilizations and not as slaves but masters (Sidi Badr). WE DID NOT ORIGINATE IN WEST AFRICA, BUT AS ATTESTED TO BY EVERY TRIBAL ELDER WE ORIGINATED IN NUBIA-EGYPT (see the black and white map below) IN EASTERN AFRICA. These two civilizations were the oldest (Nubia), longest lasting and greatest (most contributing) civilizations in World History. The ancient Egyptian civilization is much older than the 5,000 year date given by “traditional”(liars) Egyptologist but instead it’s over 12,000 years old. Older black and or African scholars still alive today like Theophile Obenga and Dr. Yosef Ben Jochannan  for decades have debunked the Western lead lies in regards ancient Egypt and to the “Bantu Migration” from Cameroon and the ridiculous lie that the ancient Egyptian language is not related to Niger-Congo. African scholars (who actually speak African languages) have long criticized the entire “Afro-Asiatic” category of African languages. This video explains the basics behind the dilemma.
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Above is a quote from the article click the below link for the full post which I recommend. I will be compiling my own research on the above matter and my previous post Reclaiming the African in My African American Ethnicity — Ariana Fiorello-Omotosho The previous post is of a African descendant brought to the New world in slavery from Nigeria and Cameroon. The analysis of her DNA by a professional company traces her genealogy to one of 2 places (I would personally say both places) Egypt or Palestine. If you have read my post on my Akan and Igbo ancestors you will be aware that I also have a DNA match cousin who’s ancestry was tracing back to Egypt and Saudi Arabia rather than palestine 1000-2000 years ago.

Click below for the full post (The article is mind blowing and needs to be read more than once to be truly absorbed in my opinion)

http://www.allempires.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=35257

Reclaiming the African in My African American Ethnicity — Ariana Fiorello-Omotosho

As I continue to question my identity, I try to place myself in the context of my ethnic backgrounds and my biological race. I know who I am. I understand some of the reasons as to why I am me. I have done extensive research into the hiSTORIES of my ancestors, both biological and adoptive. […]

via Reclaiming the African in My African American Ethnicity — Ariana Fiorello-Omotosho

The original inhabitants of America. The Copper coloured races.

In this post I am going to be exploring the theory that America was part of Africa. This post will also explore the history of the Copper coloured races found in America and the Carribean by Christopher Columbus.

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There is evidence that when Christopher Columbus got to America he discovered the Copper coloured races there. Christopher Columbus also thought he was in India. Christopher Columbus did not discover America as the continent was already inhabited.

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Below a negro slave is described as copper coloured.

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The copper colour

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If you have read some of my other posts you will be aware that I study the Hebrew Israelites movement past and present. My opinion on the so-called 12 tribes chart was that it was flawed specifically with regards to Mexico however evidence has been brought to my consciousness of a knowledge of the Torah dating back to ancient times in that region. I will explore some of the information out there below.

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The stone engravings in New Mexico are near Los Lunas, some 20 miles from Albuquerque. The locals knew the mountain as the “Cliff of Strange Writings.”

In Eidsmoe’s report, he describes the letters as paleo-Hebrew, an early form of Hebrew writing dated by some experts to about 500 B.C.

The writing, when translated, roughly is:

“I [am] Jehovah your God who has taken you out of the house of slaves of land of Egypt. Not there be other gods before my face. You shall not make idol. [You must] not take name Jehovah in vain. Remember day of the sabbath to keep holy. Honor your father and your mother so that will be long your days upon that ground that Jehovah your God to you has given. You must murder not. Not you commit adultery. You must steal not. [You must] not give testimony against neighbor as witness false. You must desire not [the] wife of your neighbor and all that is your neighbor’s.”

An Internet search offers some interesting perspectives on the stone.

A report posted on the Ohio State website says the script is the Old Hebrew alphabet and documents that James Tabor of the Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte in 1996 interviewed the now-deceased Frank Hibben, a retired New Mexico archaeologist.

The report said Hibben first saw the text in 1933, and was taken to the site by a guide who had seen it as a boy in the 1880s. Estimates then were that the carvings were 500-2,000 years old.

Another idea floated was that the engravings are a Samaritan mezuzah, a large slab of stone containing the Ten Commandments. And since Samaritan shipowners were known to live in Greek communities, it could place the artifact in the Byzantine period.

Roger L. Williamson writes at Ancient-Hebrew.org the carver was a man “of many ports of call and could speak multiple languages phonetically, but not a man versed in letters.” Further, the analysis concluded the carver knew the Mosiac Law but was not a priest.

https://www.wnd.com/2010/03/129385/

Read more at https://www.wnd.com/2010/03/129385/#H8OccKA2Rph155Sm.99

Did King Solomon’s Navy Discover America?

A Burdensome Stone ARUTZ SHEVA (Israeli National News) – By Tamar Yonah – December 18, 2007 Mystery Mountain, Los Lunas, New Mexico. That’s where a fascinating find was discovered with the Hebrew inscription of the Ten Commandments. What is amazing about this find, is that the ten commandments were written in a Hebrew script that is so ancient, it was last used around and up to the Babylonian expulsion. This means it was probably written between 2,500-3,000 years ago! How did this script, as well as the text of the ten commandments wind up in New Mexico, so many centuries ago? “Over two thousand years before Columbus “discovered” America there were people of semitic origin in New Mexico worshipping the God of Israel. How can this possibly be reconciled with known history?
It is seemingly apparent that the financial backing to launch a Hebrew-Phoenician voyage of world exploration could have readily occurred during the reign of King Solomon of Israel. Solomon worshipped the true God of Israel and had the means to fund explorative voyages to other lands.
With Solomon’s main port being located on the Red Sea it would be difficult to explain how his fleet would have entered America through the Atlantic drainage. ( Reference note: Kings I 9:26) :And king Solomon made a navy of ships in Eziongeber, which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red sea, in the land of Edom.27 And Hiram sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had knowledge of the sea, with the servants of Solomon. Tarshish , however, had access to the Atlantic. The reign of Solomon was enveloping the entire world. Israel’s close neighbor, Phonecia, and their expert navigators were working with the servants of Solomon from both countries ports.
The ships of Tarshish sailed extremely long voyages to bring back all kinds of raw materials and items (copper & other ores, flora & fauna samples, “exotic” animals, etc.). ( Reference note: Chronicles 2 -Chapter 9): For the king’s ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Huram: every three years once came the ships of Tarshish bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks. It would help explain the need of three year journeys if the seamen had to cross the ocean to come to these far off isles in America. The fact that the trading ships of Phoenicia did have docks in ancient America can be proved from inscriptions they left behind. The Los Lunas site is located along the Puerco River which is tributary of the Rio Grande River. The Rio Grande is definitely in the Atlantic drainage. It would have been entirely possible for the Hebrew-Phonecian sailors to access the area of the stone.” So, did King Solomon’s navy discover America, bringing back exotic animals, plants, and rare minerals to Jerusalem? Could it be that this mystery rock was written by Jews who sailed to America in King Solomon’s navy? Could it be that they taught certain tribes of native American Indians monotheism and morality? Were these Jews sabbatical fly by night teachers, or did they go on permanent ‘shlichut’ (sent out as an ambassador) to spread knowledge of the One True G-d and His Ten Commandments? Or could it have been that some Jews left the ship, going on an expedition, got stuck or stranded, missing the boat back? – – – –http://www.israelnationalnews.com/Blogs/Message.aspx/2384

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Jesus came through the lineage of David of the tribe of Judah. Revelations describes his appearance as seen above.

Below is map showing that in the mid 1700’s there was an area within negroland that was known as the kingdom of Juda.

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Take a look at where Kindgdom of Juda in Africa was located on the map. It was in the area near to to the Gulf of Guniea next to Ghana which was the Gold Coast and Benin which was the Slave coast.

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In this map above in the Benin area it states Jahu

Let’s look at the word Jahu. Jahu sounds like Jew or Juda but let’s look deeper.

Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance

Jah, the Lord

Contraction for Yhovah, and meaning the same; Jah, the sacred name — Jah, the Lord, most vehement. Compare names in “-iah,” “- jah.”

see HEBREW Yhovah

Forms and Transliterations

בְּיָ֣הּ בְּיָ֥הּ ביה יָ֑הּ יָ֔הּ יָ֖הּ יָ֗הּ יָ֡הּ יָ֣הּ יָ֨הּ ׀ יָ֬הּ יָ֭הּ יָּ֑הּ יָֽהּ׃ יָהּ יה יה׃ bə·yāh beYah bəyāh Yah yāh

https://biblehub.com/str/hebrew/3050.htm

Above it states Jah is a contraction of Yhovah. So what does Yhovah mean??

Strong’s Concordance 3068
Yhvh: the proper name of the God of Israel

Original Word: יְהֹוָה
Part of Speech: Proper Name
Transliteration: Yhvh
Phonetic Spelling: (yeh-ho-vaw’)
Short Definition: LORD

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Theophoric names

Yeho or “Yehō-” is the prefix form of “YHWH” used in Hebrew theophoric names; the suffix form “Yahū” is just as common, which has caused two opinions:

  1. In former times (at least from c.1650 CE), the prefix pronunciation “Yehō-” was sometimes connected with the full pronunciation “Yehova”, derived from combining the Masoretic vowel points for “Adonai” with the consonantal tetragrammaton YHWH.
  2. Recently, as “Yahweh” is likely an imperfective verb form, “Yahu” is its corresponding preterite or jussive short form: compare yiŝtahaweh (imperfective), yiŝtáhû (preterit or jussive short form) = “do obeisance”.[10]

The first argument is believed by George Wesley Buchanan in Biblical Archaeology Review; Smith’s 1863 A Dictionary of the Bible;[11] Section # 2.1 The Analytical Hebrew & Chaldee Lexicon (1848)[12]in its article הוה‎.

The second argument is supported on grammatical grounds because shortening to “Yahw” would end up as “Yahu” or something similar, and forms like Yo (יוֹ‬) contracted from Yeho (יְהוֹ‬) and the suffix “-yah”,[13] as well as “Yeho-“ or “Yo”[14] can most readily be explained as derivatives of “Yahweh” rather than from “Yehovah”.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetragrammaton

Let’s also look at hayah

HAYAH =I Am Was And Will be
Ehyeh is the first person form of hayah, “to be”, and owing to the peculiarities of Hebrew grammar means both “I am”, “I was”, and “I will be”
The KJV Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon
Strong’s Number: 01961 Browse Lexicon
Original Word Word Origin
hyh a primitive root [compare (01933)]
Transliterated Word TDNT Entry
Hayah TWOT – 491
Phonetic Spelling Parts of Speech
haw-yaw  Verb
Definition
  1. to be, become, come to pass, exist, happen, fall out
    1. (Qal)
      1. —– 1a
    2. to happen, fall out, occur, take place, come about, come to pass 1a
    3. to come about, come to pass
      1. to come into being, become 1a
    4. to arise, appear, come 1a
    5. to become 1a
      1. to become 1a
      2. to become like 1a
      3. to be instituted, be established
      4. to be 1a
    6. to exist, be in existence 1a
    7. to abide, remain, continue (with word of place or time) 1a
    8. to stand, lie, be in, be at, be situated (with word of locality) 1a
    9. to accompany, be with
    10. (Niphal)
      1. to occur, come to pass, be done, be brought about
      2. to be done, be finished, be gone
King James Word Usage – Total: 75
was, come to pass, came, has been, were happened, become, pertained, better for thee

The Hebrew lexicon is Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius Lexicon; this is keyed to the “Theological Word Book of the

 

With some background information lets turn back to The Kindgom Of Juda. The Kindgom Of Juda was situated in the bend/CROOK of West Africa in the Benin Slave coast area. History lets us know slaves were taken from that area.

The Atlantic ocean was once called the Ethiopian Ocean look at the image below.

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Let’s go back to a map showing how South America was once part of Africa. Which part was it connected to. See below. Yes it was connected to the area Europeans called the Kindgom of Juda. It was called the Kindgdom of Juda because the people were said to be descendants of David and his dynasty.

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Part of the land of the Kindgom of Juda in Africa was separated to form South America as shown above

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Below the map as it use to be shown. Upside down with South Africa at the top. Also note the other lands that are rarely discussed surrounding what we call our world. “The whirled” looks pretty flat from that angle.

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Below is a reconstruction of how an original Native American would have looked.

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http://howafrica.com/proof-africans-were-first-on-american-soil-3d-face-of-10000-yr-old-african-caveman-could-settle-historic-debate/

Nicknamed Apiuna, his skull was found deep inside a cave in Brazil 50 years ago. Now a graphic designer has reconstructed his face and what you can see may settle the debate regarding Africans being the first to land on the American continent!

The Mirror.co.uk wrote:

This skull, found in the same archaeologically rich region, has similar traits to today’s American Indians.

The discovery of the African’s face challenges the thinking about the American continents’ first pioneers.

Apiuna bears a close likeness to Luzia, the name given to the 11,500-year-old skull of a young African woman, whose remains are the oldest ever found on the South American continent.

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My cousin DNA matches with Native American Indian are Davis and I see them listed in the documentary above. I feel overwhelmed to know that the Indian Great Grandmother my grandmother spoke of lived on and her descendants are alive today. I myself do not have Native American DNA and can only assume it was a grandmother in marriage only and not a blood connection. I have Native American and Spanish Puerto Rican cousins who share my African ancestry.

Mexican art shares a similarity with African and Egyptian art parrallelling the customs the ancestors learnt when they were there.

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In Mexico there are ancient Pyrimads built by the original inhabitants long before Europeans arrived in the land.

These huge figure heads below show who some of them were.

The Olmecs – Who They Were, Where They Came From Still Remains A Mystery

A. Sutherland – AncientPages.com – Of all the lost civilizations of Mesoamerica, that of the Olmec is the oldest and the most mystifying. We know very little about the Olmec – a mysterious culture considered by many as the Mother Civilization of Mesoamerica, that laid the foundation for the Mesoamerican cultural traditions.

They arose suddenly and with no apparent prior gradual development. It is difficult to precisely locate the Olmec civilization in time.

They arose suddenly and with no apparent prior gradual development

Their beginnings  have traditionally been placed between 1400 and 1200 BC, and Olmec remains discovered at the Preclassic shrine, El Manatí, near San Lorenzo moved further back to “at least” 1600–1500 BC. It seems that the Olmec had their roots in early farming cultures, which began between 5100 BC and 4600 BC.

The Mesoamerican Olmec flourished around 1400 BC near the Bay of Campeche off the Gulf of Mexico. They inhabited the south-eastern part of the state of Veracruz and Tabasco western part of the state, with three most important centers of La Venta, San Lorenzo and Tres Zapotes.

Other evident signs of their presence are related to Puebla, Morelos, Guerrero, which means that they occupied the area from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast. Most likely, the expansion of them reached up to the countries of Central America: Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

The Olmec portrayed Africans (perhaps African rulers) who must have played an important role among ancient people who carved gigantic depictions to honor them.

Nicknamed Olmeca (‘Rubber People’) because they lived in the area known for its rubber trees, the Olmec were strangers.

In addition to building large thrones and monuments, the Olmec carved colossal sized heads weighing up to fifty tons and transported them nearly sixty-two miles to the Olmec heartland.

Who they were, where they came from is uncertain. The generally accepted belief is that the culture arose from people in the area, although many believe they represent Mongoloid people, while others suggest the Olmec have originally come from Africa.

But who were these unknown Africans? Did they arrive from the lands of North Africa?

In fact, there is a number of issues related to the Olmec civilization and one of these issues, is the Olmec true origin.

Olmec Enigma

The Olmec portrayed Africans (perhaps African rulers) who must have played an important role among ancient people who carved gigantic depictions to honor them.
The African descent and possible transatlantic crossings of people millennia ago seem too controversial  to accept but is there any other explanation?

According to Mexican anthropologists having difficulties to accept the Africans’ presence and their importance in this part of the world, the so-called Olmec were not strangers from across the seas, but indigenous people, Mesoamericans, with face characteristics having a resemblance to Africans.

Ivan Van Sertima (1935-2009), a Guyanese-born associate professor of Africana Studies at Rutgers University in the United States and the foremost authority on the African presence in ancient America, proved that many Olmec cultural traits were of African origin:

“A study of the Olmec civilization reveals elements that so closely parallel ritual traits and techniques in the Egypto-Nubian world of the same period that it is difficult to maintain [that] all these are due to mere coincidence.”

Who were the Africans who sailed to America before Columbus and introduced a calendar, writing, pyramid and tomb construction, mummification, as well as certain political systems and religious traditions to the native Americans?

San Lorenzo's Olmec head discovered by M.W. Stirling and his archaeological expedition.

 

Indian scholar R.A. Jairazbhoy states that the earliest settlers were ancient Egyptians led by King Ramesis III, during the 19th dynasty. Van Sertima also believes that most of the explorers sailed from Egypt, but during the much later 25th dynasty. Many other scholars insist that the navigators came from West African nations, such as Mali and Ghana.

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Now watch secret of the Olmec below

Contrary to popular belief, African American history did not start with slavery in the New World. An overwhelming body of new evidence is emerging which proves that Africans had frequently sailed across the Atlantic to the Americas, thousands of years before Columbus and indeed before Christ. The great ancient civilizations of Egypt and West Africa traveled to the Americas, contributing immensely to early American civilization by importing the art of pyramid building, political systems and religious practices as well as mathematics, writing and a sophisticated calendar.

The strongest evidence of African presence in America before Columbus comes from the pen of Columbus himself. In 1920, a renowned American historian and linguist, Leo Weiner of Harvard University, in his book, Africa and the discovery of America, explained how Columbus noted in his journal that Native Americans had confirmed that “black skinned people had come from the south-east in boats, trading in gold-tipped spears.”

One of the first documented instances of Africans sailing and settling in the Americas were black Egyptians led by King Ramses III, during the 19th dynasty in 1292 BC. In fact, in 445 BC, the Greek historian Herodotus wrote of the Ancient Egyptian pharaohs’ great seafaring and navigational skills. Further concrete evidence, noted by Dr. Imhotep and largely ignored by Euro-centric archaeologists, includes “Egyptian artifacts found across North America from the Algonquin writings on the East Coast to the artifacts and Egyptian place names in the Grand Canyon.”

In 1311 AD, another major wave of African exploration to the New World was led by King Abubakari II, the ruler of the fourteenth century Mali Empire, which was larger than the Holy Roman Empire. The king sent out 200 ships of men, and 200 ships of trade material, crops, animals, cloth and crucially African knowledge of astronomy, religion and the arts.

African explorers crossing the vast Atlantic waters in primitive boats may seem unlikely, or perhaps, far fetched to some. Such incredible nautical achievements are not as daunting as they seem, given that
numerous successful modern attempts have illustrated that without an oar, rudder or sail ancient African boats, including the “dug-out,” would certainly have been able to cross the vast ocean in a matter of weeks.

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When most people think about ancient Mexico, the first civilizations that come to mind are the Incas, Aztecs and the Maya. However, during the early 1940’s archeologists uncovered a civilization known as the Olmecs of 1200 BC, which pre-dated any other advanced civilization in the Americas.

The Olmec civilization, which was of African origin and dominated by Africans, was the first significant civilization in Mesoamerica and the Mother Culture of Mexico.

Olmecs are perhaps best known for the carved colossal heads found in Central Mexico, that exhibit an unmistakably African Negroid appearance. Ancient African historian Professor Van Sertima has illustrated how Olmecs were the first Mesoamerican civilization to use a written language, sophisticated astronomy, arts and mathematics and they built the first cities in Mexico, all of which greatly influenced the Mayans and subsequent civilizations in the Americas. “There is not the slightest doubt that all later civilizations in [Mexico and Central America], rest ultimately on an Olmec base,” once remarked Michael Coe, a leading historian on Mexico.

Africans clearly played an intricate role in the Olmec Empire’s rise and that African influence peaked during the same period that ancient Black Egyptian culture ascended in Africa.


god, and Ek-ahua, the god of war, are unquestionably Negro with dark skin and wooly hair. Why would native Americans venerate images so unmistakably African if they had never seen them before? Numerous wall paintings in caves in Juxtlahuaca depict the famous ancient Egyptian “opening of the mouth” and cross libation rituals. All these religious similarities are too large and occur far too often to be mere coincidences.

Professor Everett Borders notes another very important indication of African presence, which is the nature of early American pyramids. Pyramid construction is highly specialized. Ancient Egypt progressed from the original stepped pyramid of Djosser, to the more sophisticated finished product at Giza. However, at La Venta in Mexico, the Olmecs made a fully finished pyramid, with no signs of progressive learning. Olmecian and Egyptian pyramids were both placed on the same north-south axis and had strikingly similar construction methods. Tellingly, all of these pyramids also served the same dual purpose, tomb and temple.

Ancient trans-Atlantic similarities in botany, religion and pyramid building constitute but a fraction of the signs of African influence in ancient America. Other indicators include, astronomy, art, writing systems, flora and fauna.

Historically, the African people have been exceptional explorers and purveyors of culture across the world. Throughout all of these travels, African explorers have not had a history of starting devastating wars on the people they met. The greatest threat towards Africa having a glorious future is her people’s ignorance of Africa’s glorious past.

Pre-Columbus civilization in the Americas had its foundation built by Africans and developed by the ingenuity of Native Americans. Sadly, America, in post-Columbus times, was founded on the genocide of the indigenous Americans, built on the backs of African slaves and continues to run on the exploitation of workers at home and abroad.

Clearly, Africans helped civilize America well before Europeans “discovered” America, and well before Europeans claim to have civilized Africa. The growing body of evidence is now becoming simply too loud to ignore. It’s about time education policy makers reexamine their school curriculums to adjust for America’s long pre-Columbus history.

https://www.globalresearch.ca/before-columbus-how-africans-brought-civilization-to-america/5407584

African sailing has a long history. People were probably using boats before the first people left Africa. At Blombos Cave in South Africa, people were fishing about 70,000 BC, and by the time people got to Southeast Asia about 40,000 BC they certainly had early boats. Some archaeologists think even Neanderthal people used boats!

When did people invent sails for their boats?

The earliest pictures of African boats are from about 4000 BC, when they appear in Egyptian rock carvings. Probably some of these early African boats had sails – at least, their neighbors in the Arabian peninsula already did. The boats may have been made of bundles of papyrus reeds. That’s how people built some early West Asian ships and Californian Native boats, because wood was too expensive.

Brailed sails on Sea People's ships - African sailing

Brailing the sail

As early as the Old Kingdom, though, Egyptians were importing cedar wood from Phoenicia (Lebanon) to build big wooden ships that could sail on the Mediterranean and in the Red Sea. By 1200 BC, if not before, Egyptian sailors used brailing – bunching up the sail with ropes – as a quick way to use less sail when wind conditions changed.

 

Did Phoenicians sail around Africa?

But as Egypt got poorer, the center of African sailing shifted further west to Carthage. Many Phoenicians had colonized Carthage around 800 BC. Phoenicians were devoted sailors, and they brought their ships and knowledge of ship-building with them to Carthage. Around 600 BC, according to Herodotus, the Pharaoh of Egypt sent a Phoenician fleet of ships to sail around Africa. It’s possible that they really did it, starting down the coast of East Africa and returning up the Atlantic coast. During the 400s BC, Carthaginian expeditions down the Atlantic coast of Africa may also have reached as far south as Cameroon. (That’s about halfway down the coast.)

Sargasso Sea

Did Himilco explore the Atlantic Ocean?

Himilco the Navigator, a Carthaginian man who lived during the 400s BC, explored the Atlantic coast of Europe as far north as northern France, probably looking for tin to use in making bronze. Himilco reported finding lots of dangerous seaweed, too. Where was that? He may have sailed as far west as the Sargasso Sea. That’s part of the Atlantic Ocean that’s full of seaweed – and almost to the Caribbean!

Eudoxus creates trade routes to India

About 130 BC the Ptolemies in Egypt sent out an explorer named Eudoxus who figured out how to use the monsoon winds to sail to India, greatly expanding African trade with India and making East Africa much richer. Eudoxus then tried twice to sail around Africa down the Atlantic coast, but failed. (Probably he died trying.)

Abu Zayd sailing (inside the boat looking out) - African sailing

 

See also

https://blackhistory938.wordpress.com/2017/06/10/american-noun-a-native-of-america-originally-applied-to-the-aboriginals-or-copper-colored-races-found-here-by-the-europeans-link-below/