Category Archives: Black history

Ham & Shem Egyptians & Hebrews in The land of The blacks Bilad al Sudan

 

 

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In this post I am going to examine the descendants of Shem and Ham according to the Bible. I will be exploring oral accounts and scientific and visual evidence of who they were and where they lived also. This post will also explore the modern descendants and what they might look like now and the theories surrounding them.

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I don’t know about you, but when I think of black people and who they descend from I think of Ham.  This is an opinion that has been slowly fed to the population over years. We descend from Ham and Ham was cursed however there are some of the opinion that this was fabricated to justify slavery and the entire Nation of Ham was not cursed and only the biblical figure Canaan was technically cursed.

Through researching where the ancestors of West African slaves come from I found that many of the tribes share an oral history passed down and even have copies of the Torah or Hebrew Bible that they state they brought from Israel.

African history has been white washed and although in this society we state that colour doesn’t matter there continues to be a white washing of history. There has been an attempt to destroy and play down the significance of the African and Asian race in contributing to history. Examples slightly off point before we get into this post,  include the removal of the nose on African Statues to try to make their race unidentifiable.

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There has been a visual misinterpretation of biblical figures such as promoting a white Jesus

 

 

Yet the Pope and many parts of Europe pray to a black Madonna Mary and Jesus.

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Jesus black!! watch this short clip https://youtu.be/IwL4CGf7PDU

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Watch a reconstruction of Adam below

 https://youtu.be/qOgzEj6dR8c

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Artaxerxes III, predecessor of Darius III, from his Tomb at Persepolis

Detail from Darius III's palace

Detail from Darius III's palace

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Click link below to begin and then press the back button.

Ham: The Origin of Black Africans and Black Arabs In The Bible

 

From the above link blacks in the Bible

Ham’s Sons (Genesis 10:6)

  1. Cush (Sudan)
  2. Mizraim (Egypt)
  3. Phut (Libya)
  4. Canaan (Israel)

Ham’s Grandsons Through Cush

  1. Seba
  2. Havilah
  3. Sabtah
  4. Raamah
  5. Sabtecha
  6. Nimrod

Ham’s Grandsons Through Mizraim

  1. Ludim
  2. Anamim
  3. Lehabim
  4. Naphtuhim
  5. Pathrusim
  6. Casluhim
  7. Caphtorim

Ham’s Grandsons Through Canaan

  1. Sidon
  2. Heth
  3. Jebusite
  4. Amorite
  5. Girgasite
  6. Hivite
  7. Arkite
  8. Sinite
  9. Arvadite
  10. Zemarite
  11. Hamathite

Interestingly, the sons of Phut are not mentioned, but we know that they existed because Phut’s lineage is mentioned in general several times in scripture.

http://www.blackhistoryinthebible.com/the-hamites/ham-the-father-of-africans/

this post will be exploring the descendants of Ham and Shem highlighting how they mixed to create the Afro Asiatic Africa and Middle East that we know of today.

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Firstly we know that Ham Shem and Japheth were brothers and Noah was their father and everyone in the world descends from this family according to the Bible. Therefore as scientists have proven we descend from a common ancestor.

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There is a lot of information out there regarding the Kingdom of Kush which the Bible states was the boundary of Noah’s son through Ham. The Kingdom of Kush stretched to Egypt Ethiopia and Sudan and some suggest through to Arabia and further East.

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Abrahams-Descendants

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On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your offspring I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates,

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Mizraim A son of Ham, and father of various African races, Genesis 10:6, but particularly of the Egyptians, to whom his name was given. Mizraim is also the Hebrew word for Egypt in the Bible, and this country is still called Misr in Arabic.

http://biblehub.com/topical/m/mizraim.htm

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nounplural Negroes.

1.

Anthropology. (no longer in technical use) a member of the peoples traditionally classified as the Negrorace, especially those who originate in sub-Saharan Africa.

 

 

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 noun: Semite; plural noun: Semites 

  1. a member of any of the peoples who speak or spoke a Semitic language, including in particular the Jews and Arabs.
From modern Latin Semita, via late Latin from Greek Sēm ‘Shem’, son of Noah in the Bible, from whom these peoples were traditionally supposed to be descended.
Strong’s Concordance
Eber: “region beyond,” a descendant of Shem, also the name of several Israelites

Original Word: עֵ֫בֶר

INT: and Shelah the father of Eber

 

People called Eber in the bible Noun: 

A Gadite chief 1 Chronicles 5:13ᵐ5 Ωβηδᵐ5LΕβερ.

 Benjamite names:

a. 1 Chronicles 8:12ᵐ5 Ωβηδᵐ5L Αβερ.

b. 1 Chronicles 8:22 (עֵבֶר van d. H. Ginsb; עֶבֶד Baer),ᵐ5 Ωβδη, A Ωβηδᵐ5L Αβερ.

4 a priest Nehemiah 12:20 ᵐ5L Αβεδ.

 

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The path some of the Hebrews took from Jerusalem to West Africa the tribes Ashanti Yoruba  mentioned below.

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The Jamaican Akan Root

You are Judah! your Root is Akan

Ours is the story of the scriptures.

The prophecies of the Bible accurately describes the series of migrations of the Hebrew Israelites throughout the continent of Africa, especially to West Africa, where the infamous trans-Atlantic slave trade took place. Many of the tribes of West Africa, such as the Ashanti, Fulani, Akan, Yoruba , etc., have oral histories stating that they are descendants of the nation of Israel, and their cultural practices are exactly the same as described in the bible. Therefore, many of the Africans captured and transported to America and throughout the western hemisphere were Hebrew Israelites. History and prophecy validates the claim of many African-Americans that they are actual descendants of the so-called lost tribes of Israel. The Prophecies and Historical Evidence of the Migration of the Scattered Tribes of Israel in Africa

The recent discovery of the Israelite tribe in South Africa named the ‘LEMBA’ tribe, has sparked renewed interest in this subject. If we read and discern the ‘biblical prophecies’ that describe the ‘scattering’ (diaspora)’ of the nation of Israel (the Hebrew Israelites), we will discover that GOD (YAHWEH) has fulfilled his promise to ‘scatter his people Israel throughout ‘ALL’ nations and countries’ and among ‘all tribes,’ especially throughout the continent of Africa.

“And the LORD shall ‘scatter’ (disperse) you among ‘all people’ (tribes), from the one end of the earth even unto the other.” Deuteronomy 28:64.

Read the full article at the link below

https://www.modernghana.com/news/609011/the-jamaican-akan-root.html

 

The African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem are comprised of approximately 2,000 men, women and children residing in three development towns – – Dimona, Arad and Mitzpe Ramon – – in southern Israel. We maintain a vibrant culture which includes a communal lifestyle, a vegan diet, a system of preventive health care and high moral standards – – a holistic approach to life based on righteousness. Our intent is to live according to the laws and prophecies of God.

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As a direct result of their disobedience to the laws and commandments of God, the ancient Hebrew Israelites were held captive by various nations including the Egyptians, Assyrians and Babylonians. In 70 C.E. the remnants of The African Hebrew Israelites were driven from Jerusalem by the Romans into different parts of the world, including Africa. Many Hebrew Israelites migrated to West Africa where they, once again, were carried away captive – this time by Europeans on slave ships – to the Americas along with other African tribes people.

In 1966 our spiritual leader, Ben Ammi, had a vision that it was time for the Children of Israel who remained in America (the land of their captivity) to return to the Holy Land (the land of their origin).

In 1967, after almost two thousand years in the Diaspora, four hundred Hebrew Israelites were inspired by the spirit of God to make an exodus from America. According to plan, they settled in Liberia’s interior to purge themselves of the negative attributes they had acquired in the captivity. After spending a two-and-one-half year period in Liberia, The African Hebrew Israelites were prepared to make the last portion of their journey home, returning to Israel in 1969.

http://africanhebrewisraelitesofjerusalem.com/?page_id=2

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(Nehemiah Chap. 1) Aramaic to English Old Testament

5 And said, I beseech thee, O LORD God of heaven, the great and terrible God, that keepeth covenant and mercy for them that love him and observe his commandments:

6 Let thine ear now be attentive, and thine eyes open, that thou mayest hear the prayer of thy servant, which I pray before thee now, day and night, for the children of Israel thy servants, and confess the sins of the children of Israel, which we have sinned against thee: both I and my father’s house have sinned.

7 We have dealt very corruptly against thee, and have not kept the commandments, nor the statutes, nor the judgments, which thou commandedst thy servant Moses.

8 Remember, I beseech thee, the word that thou commandedst thy servant Moses, saying, [If] ye transgress, I will scatter you abroad among the nations:

9 But [if] ye turn unto me, and keep my commandments, and do them; though there were of you cast out unto the uttermost part of the heaven, [yet] will I gather them from thence, and will bring them unto the place that I have chosen to set my name there.

 

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Understanding The Good News: The Eve’s Erhverhs

And it shall come to pass in that day, that Yahweh shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, from lower Egypt, and from upper Egypt, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth.

Isaiah 11:11-12

The Eve’s Erhverhs is one of the titles given to the Ewe people spread across West Africa. Ethnic groups such as the Ewe of Ghana and Togo, the Ga-Dangme of Ghana and the Yoruba of Nigeria are a part of what scholars call Eve’s Erhverh’s. The ancestors of these groups migrated from Israel after the destruction of the first and second temples and due to other wars and tragedy’s. Sadly, after centuries of living a relatively peaceful life in West Africa they were captured and shipped in the millions to the “new world” in the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

https://eslkevin.wordpress.com/2017/08/23/understanding-the-good-news-the-eves-erhverhs/

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The Definition of Niger

In Spanish, we find another more familiar word that also has the same meaning:

  • Negro: Mid 16th century: via Spanish and Portuguese from Latin niger, nigr- black. – Oxford Dictionary

Spanish is a Latin based language, and Latin was spoken by the Roman conquerors that the Hebrews referred to as Gentiles (Matthew 20:19). The early uses of the word niger and later negro, were not racist, but were more descriptive of skin color. When slaves were brought to the Americas, the descriptive terms were later turned into racial slurs meant to degrade slaves and their descendants.

Simeon – He was surnamed Niger, pronounced “nee-jer”, which means “black skin” in Latin.

Saul – Later renamed Paul, he was from the tribe of Benjamin, and was mistaken for an Egyptian (Acts 21:38).

http://www.blackhistoryinthebible.com/hidden-history/from-niger-to-nigger-simeon-and-the-other-black-apostles/

 

Biafra

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It is a Nation. The word Biafra is coind from two IGBO WORDS ‘bia’ which means COME and ‘fara’ which means LIVE. The people are part of the AFAR ethnic group in the horn of Africa, although CHRISTIANS. They are also from NRI KINGDOM and part of the LOST TRIBE OF ISRAEL.They were amalgameted to be part of Nigeria in 1914 by the British government led by Frederick Lugard. The people of Biafra do not see themselves as NIGERIANS. Between 6 July 1967 and 15 January 1970, about 3.5 million Biafrans were killed in a genocide war led by the British and the Nigerian government when they seceded from Nigeria.They lost the war and were once more integrated into Nigeria.They own the eastern and southern part of Nigeria. They are still seeking for their freedom Independence from Nigeria. The nationality is Biafran.

https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Biafra

Below maps show Deserts of Seth in Biafra, Kingdom of Judah and Euphrates river
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A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden, and there it divided and became four rivers. The name of the first is the Pishon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good; bdellium and onyx stone are there. The name of the second river is the Gihon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Cush. And the name of the third river is the Tigris, which flows east of Assyria. And the fourth
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The film, titled “Black Jews, Juifs noir en Afrique,” focuses on a dozen African tribes – in Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon and other countries – each with a Jewish story. Some claim to be descendants of the Bible’s 10 Lost Tribes. Others believe that their ancestors were Jews who emigrated from Judea to Yemen looking for gold.

Rabbinical authorities have not accepted any of the groups as Jewish under halakhah, Jewish law, although all the tribes strive to be recognized as such at some level or another.

Edith Bruder, who has been studying these Jewish groups for more than a decade and wrote the book “The black Jews of Africa, history, identity, religion,” turned to Gavron for the film, which is expected to be released in the coming months.

“In sub-Saharan Africa, you can find ‘Judaic’ tribes in Ghana, Nigeria, Mali, Uganda, Cameroon, South Africa, Zimbabwe and even in Sao Tome and other countries. There are many of them,” Bruder said. “It is really a vast subject.”

The two women are documenting Sabbath celebrations in remote African villages, Ghanaian Jews practicing circumcision and Jewish-African traditional marriage ceremonies. They have even been deep into the forests filming black Jews preparing their “kosher” meals – in their own tradition, the way the Torah explains it simply – not mixing the meat of the veal with its mother’s cow milk.

read more: https://www.haaretz.com/jewish/features/tracing-the-lost-tribes-to-jewish-communities-in-africa-1.458224

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Ramses II

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Haile selassie descendant of King Solomon and Queen Sheba and Menelik below.

 

 

 

 

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Ethiopia [N] [E] [H]

(burnt faces). The country which the Greeks and Romans described as “AEthiopia” and the Hebrews as “Cush” lay to the south of Egypt, and embraced, in its most extended sense, the modern Nubia, Sennaar, Kordofan and northern Abyssinia , and in its more definite sense the kingdom of Meroe. ( Ezekiel 29:10 ) The Hebrews do not appear to have had much practical acquaintance with Ethiopia itself, though the Ethiopians were well known to them through their intercourse with Egypt. The inhabitants of Ethiopia were a Hamitic race. ( Genesis 10:6 ) They were divided into various tribes, of which the Sabeans were the most powerful. The history of Ethiopia is closely interwoven with that of Egypt. The two countries were not unfrequently united under the rule of the same sovereign. Shortly before our Saviours birth a native dynasty of females, holding the official title of Candace (Plin. vi. 35), held sway in Ethiopia, and even resisted the advance of the Roman arms. One of these is the queen noticed in ( Acts 8:27 )

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Modern discoveries prove their close racial and linguistic connection with Southern Arabia and particularly with the kingdom of Sheba (the Sabeans), that most powerful people whose extensive architectural and literary remains have recently come to light. The Sabean inscriptions found in Abyssinia go back some 2,600 years and give a new value to the Bible references as well as to the constant claim of Josephus that the queen of Sheba was a “queen of Ethiopia.” The Falashas are a Jewish community living near Lake Tsana, of the same physical type and probably of the same race as other Abyssinians. Their religion is a “pure Mosaism” based upon the Ethiopic version of the Pentateuch, but modified by the fact that they are ignorant of the Hebrew language (Jewish Encyclopedia). It is uncertain when they became Jews. The older scholars thought of them as dating back to the Solomonic era, or at least to the Babylonian captivity. Since the researches of Joseph Halevy (1868), some date within the Christian era has seemed preferable, notwithstanding their ignorance of Talmudic rules. However, the newly discovered fact that a strong Jewish community was flourishing at Syene in the 6th century BC makes it clear that Jewish influence may have been felt in Ethiopia at least that early. Although Abyssinians are noted for their strict adherence to ancient custom, Jewish characteristics are prominent all over the entire country. The opening formula of the king in every official letter–“The Lion of the Tribe of Judah has Conquered!”–is no more Jewish than scores of ordinary phrases and customs. Although it is barely possible that some rites, like circumcision and observance of the Sabbath, may have been received from the ancient Egyptians or Christian Coptics (The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge Encyclopedia) yet a strong Hebrew influence cannot be denied. All travelers speak of the “industry” of the Falashas and of the “kindliness and grave courtesy” of the Abyssinians. Besides those named above there are many communities of mixed races in Ethiopia, but the ancient basis is invariably Negro, Semitic or Egyptian

https://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionary/ethiopia/

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Semitic 
sɪˈmɪtɪk/
adjective
  1. 1.
    relating to or denoting a family of languages that includes Hebrew, Arabic, and Aramaic and certain ancient languages such as Phoenician and Akkadian, constituting the main subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic family.
  2. 2.
    relating to the peoples who speak Semitic languages, especially Hebrew and Arabic.

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Shem and Ham have been mixing for centuries and sharing and debating and fighting over scriptures and land.

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Ishmael the Shemite and Egyptian

(28) Concerning Kedar . . .–The name belonged to a tribe of the Bedouin type, descended from Ishmael (Genesis 25:13), and at this time conspicuous as supplying the markets of Tyre with sheep and goats (Ezekiel 27:21). In PP. 120:5 it appears as the representative of the fierce nomadic life of the Arabians. Hazor appears as the name of many cities in Palestine (Joshua 11:1Joshua 15:23;Joshua 19:36), but the combination with Kedar points to quite a different region. The probable explanation is that Jeremiah uses the term (as a like word, haz?rein, is used in Isaiah 42:11 for the “villages” of Kedar) for the region in which the Kedar Arabs had ceased to be nomadic, and had made a permanent settlement. According to Niebuhr (Assur u. Bab., p. 210) it answers to the modernHadschar in the angle formed by the southern course of the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf.

 

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Genesis 17:20

And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation.

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Genesis 17:23

And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham’s house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God had said unto him.

Genesis 17:25

And Ishmael his son [was] thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.

Genesis 17:26

In the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son.

Genesis 25:12

Now these [are] the generations of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s handmaid, bare unto Abraham:

Genesis 25:13

And these [are] the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam

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Genesis 25:17

And these [are] the years of the life of Ishmael, an hundred and thirty and seven years: and he gave up the ghost and died; and was gathered unto his people.

Genesis 28:9

Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife.

Chronicles-1 1:29

These [are] their generations: The firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; then Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam,

Chronicles-1 1:31

Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael.

Chronicles-1 8:38

And Azel had six sons, whose names [are] these, Azrikam, Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and Hanan. All these [were] the sons of Azel.

Chronicles-1 9:44

And Azel had six sons, whose names [are] these, Azrikam, Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and Hanan: these [were] the sons of Azel.

Chronicles-2 19:11

And, behold, Amariah the chief priest [is] over you in all matters of the LORD; and Zebadiah the son of Ishmael, the ruler of the house of Judah, for all the king’s matters: also the Levites [shall be] officers before you. Deal courageously, and the LORD shall be with the good.

Chronicles-2 23:1

And in the seventh year Jehoiada strengthened himself, and took the captains of hundreds, Azariah the son of Jeroham, and Ishmael the son of Jehohanan, and Azariah the son of Obed, and Maaseiah the son of Adaiah, and Elishaphat the son of Zichri, into covenant with him.

Ezra 10:22

And of the sons of Pashur; Elioenai, Maaseiah, Ishmael, Nethaneel, Jozabad, and Elasah.

Jeremiah 40:8

Then they came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, even Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and Johanan and Jonathan the sons of Kareah, and Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth, and the sons of Ephai the Netophathite, and Jezaniah the son of a Maachathite, they and their men.

Jeremiah 40:14

And said unto him, Dost thou certainly know that Baalis the king of the Ammonites hath sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah to slay thee? But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam believed them not.

Jeremiah 40:15

Then Johanan the son of Kareah spake to Gedaliah in Mizpah secretly, saying, Let me go, I pray thee, and I will slay Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and no man shall know [it]: wherefore should he slay thee, that all the Jews which are gathered unto thee should be scattered, and the remnant in Judah perish?

Jeremiah 40:16

But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam said unto Johanan the son of Kareah, Thou shalt not do this thing: for thou speakest falsely of Ishmael.

Jeremiah 41:1

Now it came to pass in the seventh month, [that] Ishmael the son of Nethaniah the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, and the princes of the king, even ten men with him, came unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and there they did eat bread together in Mizpah.

Jeremiah 41:2

Then arose Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and the ten men that were with him, and smote Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan over the land.

Jeremiah 41:3

Ishmael also slew all the Jews that were with him, [even] with Gedaliah, at Mizpah, and the Chaldeans that were found there, [and] the men of war.

Jeremiah 41:6

And Ishmael the son of Nethaniah went forth from Mizpah to meet them, weeping all along as he went: and it came to pass, as he met them, he said unto them, Come to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam.

Jeremiah 41:7

And it was [so], when they came into the midst of the city, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah slew them, [and cast them] into the midst of the pit, he, and the men that [were] with him.

Jeremiah 41:8

But ten men were found among them that said unto Ishmael, Slay us not: for we have treasures in the field, of wheat, and of barley, and of oil, and of honey. So he forbare, and slew them not among their brethren.

Jeremiah 41:9

Now the pit wherein Ishmael had cast all the dead bodies of the men, whom he had slain because of Gedaliah, [was] it which Asa the king had made for fear of Baasha king of Israel: [and] Ishmael the son of Nethaniah filled it with [them that were] slain.

Jeremiah 41:10

Then Ishmael carried away captive all the residue of the people that [were] in Mizpah, [even] the king’s daughters, and all the people that remained in Mizpah, whom Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had committed to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam: and Ishmael the son of Nethaniah carried them away captive, and departed to go over to the Ammonites.

Jeremiah 41:13

Now it came to pass, [that] when all the people which [were] with Ishmael saw Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that [were] with him, then they were glad.

Jeremiah 41:14

So all the people that Ishmael had carried away captive from Mizpah cast about and returned, and went unto Johanan the son of Kareah.

Jeremiah 41:15

But Ishmael the son of Nethaniah escaped from Johanan with eight men, and went to the Ammonites.

Jeremiah 41:16

Then took Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that [were] with him, all the remnant of the people whom he had recovered from Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, from Mizpah, after [that] he had slain Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, [even] mighty men of war, and the women, and the children, and the eunuchs, whom he had brought again from Gibeon:

Jeremiah 41:18

Because of the Chaldeans: for they were afraid of them, because Ishmael the son of Nethaniah had slain Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, whom the king of Babylon made governor in the land.

Races_mankind

arabs

muhammad-in-the-bible-20-638

Sons+of+Ishmael+and+Esau+in+the+Future

Family tree of Abraham 2

Extract from rastalivewire Prophet Mohammed the Black Arab

http://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-original-black-arabs-of-arabia-part-4-the-black-stone-the-black-tribe-of-koreysh-black-prophet-mohammed/

Mohammed himself, who was to unite the whole of Arabia, thus appears to have had a prominent African-Kushitic lineage. According to al-Jahiz a renowned Black Arab writer and philosopher of Ethiopian origin who had lived in Baghdad, “…the guardian of the sacred Kaaba–Abd al-Muttalib, “fathered ten Lords, Black as the night and magnificent.” One of these men was Abdallah, the father of Muhammad.

JA Rogers, one of the most pre-eminent of Black African historians had the following to say of Muhammad(pbuh):

“Mohamet, himself, was to all accounts a Negro. A contemporary of his describes him as “large mouthed,” and “bluish-colored, with hair that was neither straight nor curly…Mohamet’s mother was also African. His grandfather, Abd el Motalib, is spoken of as being “very dark.”…A Negroid strain, more or less predominant, ran through the whole. As Keane says, “All who accepted the Koran became merged with the conquerors in a common Negroid population.”

Diop in “Orgin of Civillization” stated forthrightly that:

“….the entire arab people, including the Prophet [Muhammad(pbuh)] is mixed with Negro blood. All educated Arabs are conscious of that fact.”

Ethiopia and the Black Muslim Arabs

In the 5th and 6th century, the pre-eminece of Ethiopia was still putative in the Arabia and surrounding regions. As such, Mecca was teeming with millions of Black Cushitic Arabian and Ethiopian scientists, engineers, soilders, philosophers, writers, social revolutionaries. Besides the probable Ethiopian origins of Muhammed, Islam was deeply associated with Ethiopia, and was overwhelmingly influenced by Ethiopia in terms of the formation of its basic tenets, the elaboration of its doctrine and the development of its philosophy. According to tradition, the first Muslim killed in battle was Mihdja–a Kushitic Black Arab. Another Black Arab that greatly influenced Islam was Bilal, probably of Ethiopian-Yemenite extraction, who was such a pivotal figure in the development of Islam that he has been referred to as “a third of the faith.

” Many of the earliest Muslim converts were original descendants of the ancient Black Arabs,or they were African soliders, administrators, scientist that stayed over from the 70,000 man Ethiopian army that ruled Yemen in these times. In fact, the very survival of the Islamic faith in its most susceptible periodwas due tothe intervention of the Ethiopian King of Axum, who saved the earliest followers of Muhammed seeking refuge in Ethiopia from persecution in Arabia. They were given safety, succor and further education and instruction by the Priests of Ethiopia.

These early teachings underlaid the elaboration and further development of Islamic thought and they remain fundamental in Islamic teachings of today. It is therefore no wonder that Muhammed had instructed his followers to always be kind and considerate to the Ethiopians because they are a kindred nation of great righteousness.

John G Jackson, another pillar of Black History stated in his book “The Story of The Moors In Spain” that:

“At the present time Arabia is inhabited by two distinct races, namely the descendents of the old Adite,Kushite, or Ethiopian race, known under various appellations, and dwelling cheify at the south, the east, and the central parts of the country, but formerly supreme throughout the whole peninsula; and the semitic Arabians—Mohamet’s(pbuh) race—found cheifly in the Hejaz and at the north. In some districts of the country, these races more or less mixed and since the rise of Mohametanism, the language of the Semites, known to us as Arabic, has almost wholly superceded the old Ethiopian or Kushite tongue….”

Taharqo

57da7b742f5f47fa50c3c7933828bf0a--african-history-ethiopia

images-225

fefba493a59b16dd10651aced87e52b0--african-hair-african-beauty

images-321

images-364

71c6cc0b00ba33760519670ffdedf2fe--sudan-african-women

upper-egyptians.png
main-qimg-62ce4e812f30a388297ecd54658be8a6-c

 

 

da6a2efea7942e9c6c3ed1651d4f5d2c--sudan-africa

13129539_1134405333246883_1259521139_n

fb72f42a08f0bbfc09752492f018cd13--syrian-women-ethiopian-people

f0f88679307b08f12329dc4d013ad3e6--african-culture-african-history

28f27706ceb80291c473baacb2e365e6--two-men-sudan

Berbers
469ac544488b33610ebeb111502ebf13--timbuktu-mali-tuareg-people

painting.jpg5

painting.jpg6A_painting62

ethiopia-tutsi-jewish-king-mwambutsaiv-ghana-tutsiisraelitesi-falashaisraelites-nigeria-tsafrica-15608701

9ce1d9d49d4c8f622faa9b79de024759--hebrew-israelite-truths-lamentations

20942754621_05f562983f_o-1

DM1M225P

Igbo-Language-Resourcesghana-anloewe-girls-at-the-hogbetsoto-festival-picture-id549027823images-275images-337B78G5QUCcAAvRwO764b11e24d7ffab554c4665b6abf143e
MPP-Hm1

BzW5LD_IIAAobaw

OOA_map

I will be constantly updating this post so feel free to check back at a later date for added information and links.

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My jamaican slave ancestors Scott and Johnson

 

My maternal grandmother spoke of being from Clarendon jamaica. She was what we call red skin, a fair lady compared to my other side and it showed. She boasted of Indian heritage and had the hair to prove it. She was proud of being from Redhills. They were described as creole. These black people would have been more likely to be given less strenuous work possibly a house slave rather than a field slave. There was a mentality of remaining light and not mixing with darker people leftover from slavery because they were treated better. It appears that not only is my mother’s side mixed with Irish but the term Creole in Jamaica referred to people born in America and possibly mixed.

My grandmother and her family I now know was mixed with Polish/Russian and Spanish which would have given her an Asian look. I traced  my Polish side to a Coleman spelt Kolmann in Poland or Russia. The Polish Coleman was a war ship builder who travelled to America.

Below an advert for a Ben Coleman or Brown. Notice he is described as of yellow complexion and Spanish looking.

images-262

See picture directly below of Spanish Africans owned by Russians. I have an actual image of who I believe to be my Spanish ancestor and she does not look European she looks like a cross between the two ladies in the picture. I also listened to a documentary which explained that in the past the Jews in Spain were not only European looking but African looking also. I am highlighting this fact as Spanish ancestry does not confirm the appearance of the person.

images-44

So from what I can determine some of my ancestors were taken by Spanish invaders to Spain and then England and America and Jamaica. The people taken were of African descent their job title was indentured servant. The Spanish slave trader raped his servant. The Spanish appears to relate to both slave and owner in my case and the Jewish merchant was an Ashkenazi Jew from Europe Spain and Russia.

This side of my Jamaican family originated from St Thomas-in-the-East later moving to Clarendon.

map-of-clarendon-jamaica.jpg

Neighbouring towns to Clarendon include St Elizabeth St Ann

 

saint-thomas

 

The Scott family ethnicity

My grandmother said this part of the family had Indian ancestry. I expected to have Indian ancestry but I found it instead in my DNA matches. This part of my ancestry has Ivory Coast Ghana Nigeria Cameroon, Congo African south eastern Bantu Iberian Peninsula Finland/Russia Europe East Ireland in common.

Ethnicity

Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali, Great Britain, Cameroon/Congo, Ireland

Trace Regions: Africa Southeastern Bantu, Nigeria,,

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Europe West, Mali

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Native American, Europe East, Scandinavia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa North

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Mali, Benin/Togo

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Senegal, Asia Central, Africa North, Middle East, Native American, Finland/Northwest Russia, Ireland

Ethnicity

Regions: Ireland, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Scandinavia, Great Britain, Europe West

Trace Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Iberian Peninsula, Europe East, Nigeria, Senegal, Italy/Greece, Asia South

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Great Britain, Senegal, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers

Trace Regions: Ireland, Polynesia, Asia Central, Asia East, Finland/Northwest Russia, Europe West, Scandinavia, Native American, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Europe West, Mali

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Native American, Europe East, Scandinavia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa North

Family Connections Scott’s Johnson Gordon Pérez cole watt Watson Burton Fuller Bent

The European Johnson DNA matches I have

Ethnicity

Regions: Great Britain, Scandinavia, Ireland, Europe West, Caucasus

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Asia Central, Europe East, Finland/Northwest Russia

The black Johnson ancestry matches below

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Benin/Togo

Trace Regions: Senegal, Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Scandinavia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Cameroon/Congo, Melanesia, Mali

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu

Trace Regions: Senegal, Benin/Togo, Polynesia, Native American, Finland/Northwest Russia, Europe West, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Asia Central

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo, Senegal, Benin/Togo, Mali

Trace Regions: Ireland, Middle East, Polynesia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa North, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Mali, Senegal

Trace Regions: Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Finland/Northwest Russia, Cameroon/Congo, Ireland, Europe West, Asia Central, Scandinavia, Iberian Peninsula, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Native American

Ethnicity

 

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain

Trace Regions: Italy/Greece, Benin/Togo, Europe West, Europe East, Native American, Ireland, Polynesia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Scandinavia

 

Looking specifically at the Europe East nine my DNA which also shows as Russian Polish in some of my DNA matches. I traced ancestry to a Russian ancestor who built war ships that were used in Poland.

The below are not my results but are to dig deeper into this European ancestry.

AncestryItalb

AncestryDNA+detail+Jewish+results

It is clear that my Europe East comes from a Jewish Slave merchant.

 

Possible African Tribe connections

IGBO

Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.

They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.

Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Jonkonnu, a parade held in Jamaica, is attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. The Igbo also influenced language with actions such as “sucking-teeth” coming from the Igbo “ima osu” and “cutting-eye” from Igbo “iro anya”.

Words were added to Jamaican Patois when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,”di” to be (in state of)”, which became “de”.

(Photo shows:an Igbo bride in Nigeria, with “red colouring similar to some Jamaicans).

Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.

They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.

Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Jonkonnu, a parade held in Jamaica, is attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. The Igbo also influenced language with actions such as “sucking-teeth” coming from the Igbo “ima osu” and “cutting-eye” from Igbo “iro anya”.

Words were added to Jamaican Patois when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,”di” to be (in state of)”, which became “de”.

(Photo shows:an Igbo bride in Nigeria, with “red colouring similar to some Jamaicans). Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.

They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.

Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Jonkonnu, a parade held in Jamaica, is attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. The Igbo also influenced language with actions such as “sucking-teeth” coming from the Igbo “ima osu” and “cutting-eye” from Igbo “iro anya”.

Words were added to Jamaican Patois when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,”di” to be (in state of)”, which became “de”.

(Photo shows:an Igbo bride in Nigeria, with “red colouring similar to some Jamaicans)

via faajihub.com

images-256

Native to African

EWE

benin1-3

Ewe

They are particularly found in southern Togo (formerly French Togoland), Volta Region in southeastern Ghana (formerly British Togoland), and in southwestern parts of Benin. The Ewe region is sometimes referred to as the Ewe nation or Eʋedukɔ́ region (Togoland in colonial literature). Wikipedia

 

YORUBA

Yoruba2a

yorubaland_map-1

The will of John Scott Owner of Clarendon Park in Clarendon, Tower Hill in St Mary, and The Retreat St Thomas-in-the-East, Jamaica.

Scott, Honorable John heirs of, Retreat 234/ 30

 

1807 [EA] – 1811 [LA] → OWNER
1817 [EA] – 1823 [LA] → PREVIOUS OWNER
1809 [EA] – 1811 [LA] → OWNER
1800 [EA] – 1801 [LA] → OWNER

 

Addresses (1)

Garboldisham Hall, Garboldisham, Norfolk, East Anglia, England

Plotted in St Thomas-in-the-East as a sugar estate with a cattle mill and a windmill in James Robertson’s 1804 map of Jamaica.

To the King’s most excellent Majesty, this map of the island of Jamaica, constructed from actual surveys. . . (London, J. Robertson, 1804), based on Robertson’s survey of the county of Surrey which he compeleted in 1798.
1810
[Number of enslaved people] 261(Tot)
[Name] Retreat
[Stock] 157

Registered to Hon. John Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1811) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/AL11STIE.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in for 1810.

See below link

https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146633646

 

saint-thomas

Golden Grove, Jamaica

St Thomas

List of Original Negroes on Golden Grove Estate, Living this 30th June 1790.

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/Mslavegg.htm

In census records slaves are listed as being mainly either coromantee or Eboe on the Golden Grove Plantation. The Scott’s Hall Maroons are recorded as handing over Maroons that they captured. When my Maroon ancestor was handed in it was by Maroons which I didn’t understand for a while.

 The History of Jamaica(1774), to have been the site of “the first rebellion of importance, on record, [which] happened in the year 1690, when between three and four hundred slaves, belonging to…  Sutton’s plantation in Clarendon… killed the white man entrusted with the care of it and seized upon a large store of fire arms… [after which they] proceeded to the next plantation, and murdered the overseer…”[3]

I read some of the records of what they did to Maroons if they were captured. Maroons would be killed in painful slow ways such as having their hands cut off and bleeding death. Death by castration to name a few. Oral accounts state that when the treaty was signed by only one group of the Maroons The Ashanti, the Koromantee Maroons were not happy about it. The Maroons who received their own land were bound by the treaty to keep the peace between the Maroons and plantation owners and police.

Golden Grove Sugar Factory. St. Thomas, Jamaica

by Julaine Schexnayder
(New Iberia, LA USA)

Golden Grove Sugar Factory. St. Thomas, Jamaica

For tourists and natives alike here is a photo of a beautiful place, off the beaten path. 

We have visited this area, in St. Thomas Parish in the southeast near the coast, several times in recent years. If it is unique and unusual places you are looking for, this is one of them.

Golden Grove, which now consists of a sugar plantation and factory, was established in 1734. The company employs a large number of workers seasonally and year round.

http://www.my-island-jamaica.com/golden-grove-sugar-factory-st-thomas-jamaica.html

A 2 hour audio Jamaican man explains African history before slavery below

https://youtu.be/WiAgA_xjVcU

See these records of St Elizabeth Plantation owners link below

Bennett, Frances Ann, Montrose 46/ 48

Bennett, Joseph, Spring Garden 30/ 16

Bennett, Montague deceased, Spice Grove 21/ 1

Bennett, Thomas, Spring Garden 21/ 2

Bent, Ann R., 7

Bent, Henry, Cherry Moia 6/ 5

Bent, John B., Cotton Tree Hill 8/ 20

Bent, Margaret Powell, 4

Bent, Nicholas, Tryall 13

Bent, Stephen, Mango Hill 3/ 6

Bent, Susanna E., 17

Brown, Charlotte, 5

Brown, Eleanor, 7

Bruce, John and Alexander, 14/ 3

Burt, Mary, 10

Burton, Catherine, 3/ 10

Burton, Frances T., 16

Burton, George William deceased, 5/ 40

Burton, John, Mount Providence 1/ 8

Burton, John, 7/ 14

Burton, Judith Ann, 7/ 20

Burton, Nicholas, 3

Burton, Nicholas, 9

Ebank, Caleb, 15/ 109

Ebanks, A. J. B. and M., 16/ 30

Ebanks, Ann M., 4/ 4

Ebanks, Anthony, 22/ 10

Ebanks, Augustus senior, 3/ 2

Ebanks, Benjamin, Castle Cary 2

Ebanks, Eliza G., 3/ 10

Ebanks, John, 9/ 27

Ebanks, John, 15/ 5

Ebanks, Margaret P., 4/ 1

Ebanks, Mary, 8

Ebanks, Richard, 7/ 28

Edwardes, John, 12/ 2

Edwardes, Margaret, Cool Retreat 5

Edwardes, Margaret, 13

Elliott, David, 2/ 5

Ellison, Henry, 3/ 2

Esson, Andrew, Pond Side 12/ 165

Exton, Margaret, 15/ 20

Facey, Thomas, 6/ 20

Facey, William, 5/ 10

Farquharson, Charles, Spring Vale 132/ 330

Fergusson, Robert, 10/ 20

Johnson, John, 8/ 2

Johnson, John, 1/ 1

Johnson, Samuel, 6/ 40

Johnson, William, 10

Scott, F. Hutchinson, 3/ 16

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/Al20p13.htm

 

ST. THOMAS IN THE EAST, AND ST. DAVID

Custos Rotulorum, and Chief Judge, Hon. Simon Taylor, Esq.

Assistant judges and of the Quorum[Esquires]

*Hon. John Scott

*Hon. Henry Shirley

*K. Osborn

+Hon. C. Bryan

*Samuel Delpratt

Peter Robertson

Robert Logan

William Vick

*William Bryan

Robert Telfer

Thomas Leigh

John Kelly

+William Holgate

N. A. Grant

William Ker

Robert Ferguson

*William Milner

James Codrington

John Stewart

Thomas McKenzie

*John Carlyle

James Ouchterlony

Thomas Thomson

Samuel Thomson

Commissioners of the Supreme Court, James Ouchterlony, William Kerr, John Myrie, Esqs.

Clerk of the Peace and Court, Isaac Panton, Esq.

Clerk of the Vestry, F. F. Hill, Esq.

Coroner, William Vick, Esq.

Poundkeeper Morant-Bay, T. O’Brien Warren

Poundkeeper St. Davids, James Henderson

Collecting Constable St. Thomas in the East, John Noble

Collecting Constable St. David’s, J. Ouchterlony

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/AL08List2.htm

MORANT DIVISION

Allen, Agnes, 8

Beckford, Honorable Nathaniel deceased, Spring Garden 184/ 37

Berwick, Newell, 14/ 2

Buchan, William, Church Hill 32

Champneys, Sir Thomas, Nutt’s River 264/ 27

Chapman, Jane, 6

Collard, J. M. deceased, Stoney Gut 85/ 42

Cope, John Freeman, Belvidere 351/ 113

Crean, Eleanor estate of, 6

Downie, Margaret, 10

Dunkerly, James, Greenwood Castle 4

Durham, Sarah, 4

Edwards, Ann, 12

Ellis, Richard, 10/ 4

Fergusson and Blair, Roselle 158/ 100

Fitch, Joseph estate of, York and Mount Prosperous 141/ 33

Fitzgerald, George, 15/ 1

Fleck, Henry, 18/ 2

Forbes, William, 8

Foulis, John, Arshdeal 34/ 18

Galloway, Rachel Reid, 18

Gildea, Margaret, 3

Gwynn, A. deceased, Middleton 169/ 11

Hamilton, Charlotte, 8

Hardie, Mary, 7/ 5

Hicks, John W., Pembroke Hall and Hicks’ Hall 193/ 13

Homan, Mary, 5

Hurst, Harriet, 4

Jackson, Joseph, 10

Jordan, Margaret, 9

Kennedy, Margaret, 24/ 4

Laurie, William Kennedy, Woodhall 149/ 2

Logan, Thomas, 28/ 4

Mallet, Mary Ann, 8

Marks, Elizabeth, 4

McCourtie, Thomas, 4/ 10

McGibbon, John deceased, Wilmington 33

McGregor, Alexander, 4

McGregor, Patrick, 3/ 1

Miles, Philip John, Golden Valley 185/ 23

Milne, Alexander, 5/ 2

McKay, Philip, 4/ 2

McKenzie, Cecilia, 6

McQueen, Neil, 4

Munro, Catherine, 6

O’Hagan, Michael, 6

Osborn, Kean, Montpelier 174

Paterson, Duncan D., Bannockburn 58/ 2

Pedley, John, Stanton 201/ 36

Poole, Nicholas W., 1/ 4

Porteous, James, Bonhill and Lochaber 55/ 22

Reallo, John N., 6

Reid, Rachael, 18

Riley, Ann, 6

Robertson, Margaret, 6

Scholar, Charles, 10/ 4

Scott, Charles, Hermitage 62/ 22

Scott, Honorable John heirs of, Retreat 234/ 30

Snodgrass, Hew deceased, 4/ 4

Spence, Hugh, 10/ 3

Stewart, John, 7

Stoddart, Ann, 18

Strathie, Mary, 10

Taylor, Ebenezer 134/ 8

Taylor, George Watson, Burrowfield 84/ 145

Taylor, Honorable Simon and Sir John heirs of, Lyssons 515/ 66

End

1790 ALMANAC

PUBLIC OFFICERS

Link to site for Jamaican family search 

Stephen Fuller Esq., Agent for the Island in Great Britain

William Duncan Esq., Agent General

Colonel E. M. Despard, Superintendent at the Bay of Honduras

John James, Esq., Commander of all the Maroons

James Mont. James, Esq., Superintendent of Trelawny Town

Peter Ingram Esq., Superintendent of Charles Town

Alexander Forbes, Esq., Superintendent of Accompong Town

Charles Douglas Esq., Superintendent of Moore Town

John Sp. Brodbelt, junior, Esq., Superintendent of Scott’s Hall Town

William Dunlop Esq., Notary Public

William Holgate Esq., Auditor General of the Revenue

William Smith Esq., Master of the Revels

John Clement Esq., Public Messenger

G. S. Sutherland Esq., Clerk of the Markets

John Edward Shackleford, Esq., Island Store Keeper

James Murry Esq., Acting ditto

Thomas Dancer, M.D., Botanist, and Physician to the Bath

Dr. Francis Rigby Brodbelt, Surgeon to the Spanish Town Gaol

Mr. Lawrence Hunter, Surgeon to the Kingston Gaol

Mr. Alexander Aikman, King’s Printer

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

William Dunlop Esq.,Secretary of the Island

Deputies

Kingston, Robert Boog Esq.

Savanna-la-Mar, George Murray Esq.

Port Antonio, James Charlton

Montego Bay, Donald Campbell

Lucea, Nathaniel Gray

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Eliphalet Fitch Esq.Receiver General

Deputies

Spanish Town, James Jones Esq.

Port Antonio, Mr. John Harris

Montego Bay, McLaurin Gillies

Lucea, Mr. William Brown

Savanna-la-Mar, George Murray Esq.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Alexander Robertson Esq.,Naval Officer

Deputies

Lucea, Donald Malcolm Esq.

Port Antonio, Mr. George Minot

Sav. la Mar, George Murray Esq.

Montego Bay, E. Montague Esq.


LIST OF SURVEYORS IN COMMISSION

[Surname/Given Name]

Brown Alexander

Burt Alexander

Burton Edward

Brydone ___

Clarke Robert

Campbell William

Cawley Stephen

Dalton Peter

Edgar Archibald

Ferguson James

Forbes Al.

Foss Matthew

Fraser William

Grant Patrick

Graham Robert

Gordon Robert

Gibson Robert

Kirkwood Robert

Leslie Robert

McDowal, J.

Munro Thomas

Morris Samuel

Murdoch John

Pierce William

Rome John

Ranken Alexander

Rosindell Robert

Smellie William

Sherriff Alexander

Syms James

Sutherland John

Schaw Edward

Savory Samuel

Speering Charles

Trought, Nicholas

Turnbull Archibald

Voce William

Whitaker John

Wilson Hugh

 

End

Tracing my Benin/Togo ancestry

 

 

Benin (US: /bɪˈnn, –ˈnɪn/ bǝ-NEEN or –NINUK: /bɛˈnn/ beh-NEENFrenchBéninpronounced [benɛ̃]), officially the Republic of Benin (FrenchRépublique du Bénin) and formerlyDahomey, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north. The majority of its population lives on the small southern coastline of the Bight of Benin, part of the Gulf of Guinea in the northernmost tropical portion of the Atlantic Ocean.[7] The capital of Benin is Porto-Novo, but the seat of government is in Cotonou, the country’s largest city and economic capital. 

c44e25497563075db611e62fb9b5c5fa--vernacular-architecture-sites

The official language of Benin is French. However, indigenous languages such as Fonand Yoruba are commonly spoken. The largest religious group in Benin is Roman Catholicism, followed closely by IslamVodun andProtestantism. Benin is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation ZoneLa Francophonie, theCommunity of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Petroleum Producers Association and the Niger Basin Authority.[9]

 

From the 17th to the 19th century, the main political entities in the area were the Kingdom of Dahomey along with the city-state of Porto-Novo and a large area with many different tribes to the north. This region was referred to as the Slave Coast from as early as the 17th century due to the large number of slaves shipped to the New World during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. After slavery was abolished, France took over the country and renamed it French Dahomey. In 1960, Dahomey gained full independence from France, and had a tumultuous period with many different democratic governments, military coups and military governments.

Precolonial historyEdit

The current country of Benin combines three areas which had different political and ethnic systems prior to French colonial control. Before 1700, there were a few important city states along the coast (primarily of the Aja ethnic group, but also including Yoruba and Gbe peoples) and a mass of tribal regions inland (composed of Bariba, Mahi, Gedevi, and Kabye peoples). The Oyo Empire, located primarily to the east of modern Benin, was the most significant large-scale military force in the region and it would regularly conduct raids and exact tribute from the coastal kingdoms and the tribal regions.[13] The situation changed in the 1600s and early 1700s as the Kingdom of Dahomey, which was of Fon ethnicity, was founded on the Abomey plateau and began taking over areas along the coast.[14] By 1727, king Agaja of the Kingdom of Dahomey had conquered the coastal cities of Allada and Whydah, but it had become a tributary of the Oyo empire and did not directly attack the Oyo allied city-state of Porto-Novo.[15] The rise of the kingdom of Dahomey, the rivalry between the kingdom and the city of Porto-Novo, and the continued tribal politics of the northern region, persisted into the colonial and post-colonial periods.[16]

The Dahomey Kingdom was known for its culture and traditions. Young boys were often apprenticed to older soldiers, and taught the kingdom’s military customs until they were old enough to join the army.[17] Dahomey was also famous for instituting an elite female soldier corps, called Ahosi, i.e. the king’s wives, or Mino, “our mothers” in the Fon language Fongbe, and known by many Europeans as the Dahomean Amazons. This emphasis on military preparation and achievement earned Dahomey the nickname of “black Sparta” from European observers and 19th century explorers like Sir Richard Burton.[18]

Portuguese EmpireEdit

Map of the Kingdom of Dahomey, 1793

The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery;[19] otherwise the captives would have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. By about 1750, the King of Dahomey was earning an estimated £250,000 per year by selling Africans to the European slave-traders.[20] Though the leaders of Dahomey appeared initially to resist the slave trade, it flourished in the region of Dahomey for almost three hundred years, beginning in 1472 with a trade agreement with Portuguese merchants, leading to the area’s being named “the Slave Coast”. Court protocols, which demanded that a portion of war captives from the kingdom’s many battles be decapitated, decreased the number of enslaved people exported from the area. The number went from 102,000 people per decade in the 1780s to 24,000 per decade by the 1860s.[21]

Dahomey Amazons with the King at their head, going to war, 1793

The decline was partly due to the banning of the trans-Atlantic slave trade by Britain and other countries.[20] This decline continued until 1885, when the last slave ship departed from the coast of the present-day Benin Republic bound for Brazil, a former Portuguese colony, that had yet to abolish slavery.

The capital’s name Porto-Novo is of Portuguese origin, meaning “New Port”. It was originally developed as a port for the slave trade.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benin

 

The Kingdom of Dahomey was established around 1600 by the Fon people who had recently settled in the area (or were possibly a result of intermarriage between the Aja people and the local Gedevi). The foundational king for Dahomey is often considered to be Houegbadja (c. 1645–1685), who built the Royal Palaces of Abomey and began raiding and taking over towns outside of the Abomey plateau.[2]

Victims for sacrifice – from The history of Dahomy, an inland Kingdom of Africa, 1793.

Rule of Agaja (1708–1740)Edit

King Agaja, Houegbadja’s grandson, came to the throne in 1708 and began significant expansion of the Kingdom of Dahomey. This expansion was made possible by the superior military force of King Agaja’s Dahomey. In contrast to surrounding regions, Dahomey employed a professional standing army numbering around ten thousand.[4] What the Dahomey lacked in numbers, they made up for in discipline and superior arms. In 1724, Agaja conquered Allada, the origin for the royal family according to oral tradition, and in 1727 he conquered Whydah. This increased size of the kingdom, particularly along the Atlantic coast, and increased power made Dahomey into a regional power. The result was near constant warfare with the main regional state, the Oyo Empire, from 1728 until 1740.[5]The warfare with the Oyo empire resulted in Dahomey assuming a tributary status to the Oyo empire.[6]

End of the kingdomEdit

The kingdom fought the First Franco-Dahomean War and Second Franco-Dahomean War with France. The kingdom was reduced and made a French protectorate in 1894.[7]

In 1904 the area became part of a French colony, French Dahomey.

In 1958 French Dahomey became the self-governing colony called the Republic of Dahomey and gained full independence in 1960. It was renamed in 1975 the People’s Republic of Benin, and in 1991 the Republic of Benin. The Dahomey kingship exists as a ceremonial role to this day.

PoliticsEdit

Early writings, predominantly written by European slave traders, often presented the kingdom as an absolute monarchy led by a despotic king. However, these depictions were often deployed as arguments by different sides in the slave trade debates, mainly in the United Kingdom, and as such were probably exaggerations.[2][6] Recent historical work has emphasized the limits of monarchical power in the Kingdom of Dahomey.[3] Historian John Yoder, with attention to the Great Council in the kingdom, argued that its activities do not “imply that Dahomey’s government was democratic or even that her politics approximated those of nineteenth-century European monarchies. However, such evidence does support the thesis that governmental decisions were molded by conscious responses to internal political pressures as well as by executive fiat.”[8] The primary political divisions revolved around villages with chiefs and administrative posts appointed by the king and acting as his representatives to adjudicate disputes in the village.[9]

The kingEdit

King Ghezo displayed with a royal umbrella

The King of Dahomey (Ahosu in the Fon language) was the sovereign power of the kingdom. All of the kings were claimed to be part of the Alladaxonou dynasty, claiming descent from the royal family in Allada. Much of the succession rules and administrative structures were created early by HouegbadjaAkaba, andAgaja. Succession through the male members of the line was the norm typically going to the oldest son, but not always.[10] The king was selected largely through discussion and decision in the meetings of the Great Council, although how this operated was not always clear.[2][8] The Great Council brought together a host of different dignitaries from throughout the kingdom yearly to meet at the Annual Customs of Dahomey. Discussions would be lengthy and included members, both men and women, from throughout the kingdom. At the end of the discussions, the king would declare the consensus for the group.[8]

The royal courtEdit

Key positions in the King’s court included the migan, the mehu, the yovogan, the kpojito (or queen-mother), and later the chacha (or viceroy) of Whydah. The migan (combination of mi-our and gan-chief) was a primary consul for the king, a key judicial figure, and served as the head executioner. The mehu was similarly a key administrative officer who managed the palaces and the affairs of the royal family, economic matters, and the areas to the south of Allada (making the position key to contact with Europeans).

Relations with other statesEdit

The relations between Dahomey and other countries were complex and heavily impacted by the Gold trade. The Oyo empire engaged in regular warfare with the kingdom of Dahomey and Dahomey was a tributary to Oyo from 1732 until 1823. The city-state of Porto-Novo, under the protection of Oyo, and Dahomey had a long-standing rivalry largely over control of the Gold trade along the coast. The rise of Abeokuta in the 1840s created another power rivaling Dahomey, largely by creating a safe haven for people from the slave trade.

MilitaryEdit

The military of the Kingdom of Dahomey was divided into two units: the right and the left. The right was controlled by the migan and the left was controlled by the mehu. At least by the time ofAgaja, the kingdom had developed a standing army that remained encamped wherever the king was. Soldiers in the army were recruited as young as seven or eight years old, initially serving as shield carriers for regular soldiers. After years of apprenticeship and military experience, they were allowed to join the army as regular soldiers. To further incentivize the soldiers, each soldier received bonuses paid in cowry shells for each enemy they killed or captured in battle. This combination of lifelong military experience and monetary incentives resulted in a cohesive, well-disciplined military.[11] One European said Agaja’s standing army consisted of, “elite troops, brave and well-disciplined, led by a prince full of valor and prudence, supported by a staff of experienced officers.”[12]

In addition to being well-trained, the Dahomey army under Agaja was also very well armed. The Dahomey army favored imported European weapons as opposed to traditional weapons. For example, they used European flintlock muskets in long range combat and imported steel swords and cutlasses in close combat. The Dahomey army also possessed twenty-five cannons.

When going into battle, the king would take a secondary position to the field commander with the reason given that if any spirit were to punish the commander for decisions it should not be the king.[9] Unlike other regional powers, the military of Dahomey did not have a significant cavalry (like the Oyo empire) or naval power (which prevented expansion along the coast). The Dahomey Amazons, a unit of all-female soldiers, is one of the most unusual aspects of the military of the kingdom.

Dahomey AmazonsEdit

Dahomey female soldiers

The Dahomean state became widely known for its corps of female soldiers. Their origins are debated; they may have formed from a palace guard or from gbetos (female hunting teams).[13]

They were organized around the year 1729 to fill out the army and make it look larger in battle, armed only with banners. The women reportedly behaved so courageously they became a permanent corps. In the beginning the soldiers were criminals pressed into service rather than being executed. Eventually, however, the corps became respected enough that King Ghezoordered every family to send him their daughters, with the most fit being chosen as soldiers.[dubious ]

EconomyEdit

The economic structure of the kingdom was highly intertwined with the political and religious systems and these developed together significantly.[9] The main currency was Cowry shells.

Domestic economyEdit

The domestic economy largely focused on agriculture and crafts for local consumption. Until the development of palm oil, very little agricultural or craft goods were traded outside of the kingdom. Markets served a key role in the kingdom and were organized around a rotating cycle of four days with a different market each day (the market type for the day was religiously sanctioned).[9]Agriculture work was largely decentralized and done by most families. However, with the expansion of the kingdom agricultural plantations began to be a common agricultural method in the kingdom. Craft work was largely dominated by a formal guild system.[14]

Herskovits recounts a complex tax system in the kingdom, in which officials who represented the king, the tokpe, gathered data from each village regarding their harvest. Then the king set a tax based upon the level of production and village population. In addition, the king’s own land and production were taxed.[9] After significant road construction undertaken by the kingdom, toll booths were also established that collected yearly taxes based on the goods people carried and their occupation. Officials also sometimes imposed fines for public nuisance before allowing people to pass.[9]

ReligionEdit

Left: Dance of the Fon chiefs during celebrations. Right: The celebration at Abomey (1908). Veteran warriors of the Fon king Béhanzin, son of king Glele.

The Kingdom of Dahomey shared many religious rituals with surrounding populations; however, it also developed unique ceremonies, beliefs, and religious stories for the kingdom. These included royal ancestor worship and the specific vodunpractices of the kingdom.

Royal ancestor worshipEdit

Early kings established clear worship of royal ancestors and centralized their ceremonies in theAnnual Customs of Dahomey. The spirits of the kings had an exalted position in the land of the dead and it was necessary to get their permission for many activities on earth.[9] Ancestor worship pre-existed the kingdom of Dahomey; however, under King Agaja, a cycle of ritual was created centered on first celebrating the ancestors of the king and then celebrating a family lineage.[3]

The Annual Customs of Dahomey (xwetanu or huetanu in Fon) involved multiple elaborate components and some aspects may have been added in the 19th century. In general, the celebration involved distribution of gifts, human sacrifice, military parades, and political councils. Its main religious aspect was to offer thanks and gain the approval for ancestors of the royal lineage.[3] However, the custom also included military parades, public discussions, gift giving (the distribution of money to and from the king), and human sacrifice and the spilling of blood.[3]

Dahomey cosmologyEdit

Dahomey had a unique form of West African Vodun that linked together preexisting animist traditions with vodun practices. Oral history recounted that Hwanjile, a wife of Agaja and mother of Tegbessou brought Vodun to the kingdom and ensured its spread. The primary deity is the combined Mawu-Lisa (Mawu having female characteristics and Lisa having male characteristics) and it is claimed that this god took over the world that was created by their mother Nana-Buluku.[9] Mawu-Lisa governs the sky and is the highest pantheon of gods, but other gods exist in the earth and in thunder. Religious practice organized different priesthoods and shrines for each different god and each different pantheon (sky, earth or thunder). Women made up a significant amount of the priest class and the chief priest was always a descendent of Dakodonou.[2]

 

The Fon people, also called Fon nuAgadja or Dahomey, are a major African ethnic and linguistic group.[1][2] They are the largest ethnic group in Benin found particularly in its south region; they are also found in southwest Nigeria and Togo. Their total population is estimated to be about 3,500,000 people, and they speak the Fon language, a member of the Niger-Congo languagegroup.[1]

Fon people
D263- amazone dahoméenne. - L1-Ch5.png

A female warrior of the Fon people
Total population
4.1 Million
Regions with significant populations
Benin (39% of its population) and Nigeria (less than 1% of its population)
Languages
Fon
Related ethnic groups
Aja,Ewe,Yoruba

The history of the Fon people is linked to theDahomey kingdom, a well organized kingdom by the 17th-century but one that shared more ancient roots with the Aja people.[2]The Fon people traditionally were a culture of an oral tradition and had a well developed polytheistic religious system.[3]They were noted by early 19th-century European traders for their N’Nonmitonvpractice or Dahomey Amazons– which empowered their women to serve in the military, who decades later fought the French colonial forces in 1890.[4][5]

Most Fon today live in villages and small towns in mud houses with corrugated iron gable roofs. Cities built by the Fon includeAbomey, the historical capital city of Dahomey, and Ouidah on what was historically referred to by Europeans as theSlave Coast. These cities became major commercial centres for theslave trade. A significant portion of the sugar plantations in the French West Indies, particularlyHaitiandTrinidad, were populated with slaves that came from the Slave Coast, through the lands of Ewe and Fon people.[6]

Contents

OriginEdit

The Gbe language area. Map of the Fon (purple) and other ethnic groups, according to Capo (1988). Since the seventeenth century, the Fon have been concentrated in the Benin region and the southwestern part of Nigeria.

The Fon people, like other neighboring ethnic groups in West Africa, remained an oral traditionsociety through late medieval era, without ancient historical records. According to these oral histories and legends, the Fon people originated in present day Tado, a small Aja town now situated near the Togo-Benin border. Their earliest rulers were originally a part of the ruling class in the Aja kingdom of Allada (also called Ardra kingdom).[2][6]

The Aja people had a major dispute, one group broke up and these people came to be the Fon people who migrated to Allada with king Agasu. The sons of king Agasu disputed who should succeed him after his death, and the group split again, this time the Fon people migrated with Agasu’s son Dogbari northwards to Abomey where they founded the kingdom of Dahomey sometime about 1620 CE. The Fon people have been settled there since, while the kingdom of Dahomey expanded in southeast Benin by conquering neighboring kingdoms.[2]

The Oral history of the Fon further attributes the origins of the Fon people to the intermarrying between this migrating Allada-nu Aja group from the south with the Oyo-nu inhabitants in the (Yoruba) Kingdoms of the plateau. These Yorubas were known as the Igede, which the Ajas called the Gedevi.[7][8] The fusion of the immigrant Aja conquerors and the original Indigenous Yorubas of the Abomey plateau thus created a new culture, that of the Fon.

…..  also

Slavery, Bight of BeninEdit

The Fon people did not invent slavery in Africa, nor did they have a monopoly on slavery nor exclusive slave trading activity. The institution of slavery long pre-dates the origins of the Fon people in Aja kingdom and the formation of kingdom of Dahomey. The sub-Saharan and the Red Sea region, states Herbert Klein – a professor of History, was already trading between 5,000 to 10,000 African slaves per year between 800 and 1600 CE, with a majority of these slaves being women and children.[15] According to John Donnelly Fage – a professor of History specializing in Africa, a “slave economy was generally established in the Western and Central Sudan by about the fourteenth century at least, and had certainly spread to the coasts around the Senegal and in Lower Guinea by the fifteenth century”.[16]

Slave shipment between 1501-1867, by region[17][note 1]
Region Total embarked Total disembarked
Kongo people region 5.69 million
Bight of Benin 2.00 million
Bight of Biafra 1.6 million
Gold Coast 1.21 million
Windward Coast 0.34 million
Sierra Leone 0.39 million
Senegambia 0.76 million
Mozambique 0.54 million
Brazil (South America) 4.7 million
Rest of South America 0.9 million
Caribbean 4.1 million
North America 0.4 million
Europe 0.01 million

By the 15th-century, Songhay Empire rulers to the immediate north of Fon people, in the Niger River valley, were already using thousands of captured slaves for agriculture.[15] The demand for slave labor to produce sugarcane, cotton, palm oil, tobacco and other goods in the plantations of European colonies around the globe had sharply grown between 1650 to 1850. The Bight of Benin was already shipping slaves in late 17th-century, before the Fon people expanded their kingdom to gain control of the coast line.[18] The Fon rulers and merchants whose powers were established on the Atlantic coast between 1700 to 1740, entered this market.[16] The Fon people were divided on how to respond to the slave demand. Some scholars suggest that Fon people and Dahomey rulers expressed intentions to curtail or end slave trading, states Elizabeth Heath, but historical evidence affirms that the Benin coastline including the ports of the Dahomey rulers and the Fon people became one of the largest exporter of slaves.[2]

The kingdom of Dahomey, along with its neighbors kingdom of Benin and Oyo Empire, raided for slaves and sold their captives into transatlantic slavery. The competition for captives, slaves and government revenues, amongst the African kingdoms, escalated the mutual justification and pressure. The captives were sold as slaves to the Europeans from the Bight of Benin (also called the Slave Coast), from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century.[19] The Fon people were both victims and also ones who victimized other ethnic groups. Some captives came from wars, but others came from systematic kidnapping within the kingdom or at the frontiers as well as the caravans of slaves brought in by merchants from the West African interior. The kingdom of Dahomey of Fon people controlled the Ouidah port, from where numerous European slave ships disembarked. However, this was not the only port of the region, and it competed with the ports controlled by other nearby kingdoms on the Bight of Benin and the Bight of Biafra.[19]

The Fon people, along with the neighboring ethnic groups such as the Ewe people, disembarked in French colonies to work as slaves in the plantations of the Caribbean and coasts of South America. They were initially called Whydah, which probably meant “people sold by Alladah”. The word Whydah phonetically evolved into Rada, the name of West African community that embarked in slave ships from the Bight of Benin, and is now found in HaitiTrinidadFrench Antilles and other nearby islands with French influence.[6] In some Caribbean colonial documents, alternate spellings such as Rara are also found.[20]

The slave traders and ship owners of European colonial system encouraged competition, equipped the various kingdoms with weapons which they paid for with slaves, as well as built infrastructure such as ports and forts to strengthen the small kingdoms.[21] In 1804, slave trading from the Bight of Benin was banned by the Great Britain, in 1826 France ban on slave purchase or trading came into effect, while Brazil banned slave imports and trading in 1851.[2][22] When slave exports ceased, the king of Fon people shifted to agricultural exports to France, particularly palm oil, but used slaves to operate the plantations. The agricultural exports were not as lucrative as slave exports had been in past. To recover the state revenues, he leased the ports in his kingdom to the French through a signed agreement in late 19th century. The French interpreted the agreement as ceding the land and ports, while the Dahomey kingdom disagreed.[2] The dispute led to a French attack in 1890, and annexation of the kingdom as a French colony in 1892.[23] This started the colonial rule experience of the Fon people.[2]

End

The Fon culture has a mixture of Ewe and Yoruba presence in it. In the city of Abomey, as a result of Yoruba presence, the Fon people there have their original culture, mixed with Yoruba whom defeated their Oyo kingdom whiles in the city of Ouidah, its more like that of their Ewe brothers and sisters with whom they all migrated from Tado.
Whether by part of empire of Dahomey by itself or their enemy states, many Fon slaves were sold to European traders, who exported to Americas. So, many descendants of the Fon now live in the Americas as a result of the Atlantic slave trade. In United States they were mostly in Louisiana,New Orleans. Together with other cultural groups from the Fon homeland region such as the Yoruba and Bantu, Fon culture merged with French, Portuguese or Spanish to produce distinct religions (Voodoo, Mami Wata, CandomblÉ and SanterÍa), dance and musical styles (ArarÁ, Yan Valu). As a result of what the Fons did to their fellow brethrens through their slave trading activities,the Fons and other voodoo practicing tribes in Benin has instituted annual Voodoo festival for to invite all Africans in diaspora to visit their homeland. The festival falls on the second week of January every year at the Benin city of Ouidah.

http://www.africanamerica.org/topic/fon-people-benin-s-empire-builders-of-the-past-kingdom-of-dahomey-and-an-unrepentant-practitioners-of-voodoo-religion

THE AJA PEOPLE

Aja-4.jpg

The Aja are a group of people native to south-western Benin and south-eastern Togo.[1] According to oral tradition, the Aja migrated to southern Benin in the 12th or 13th centuries from Tado on theMono River, and c. 1600, three brothers, Kokpon, Do-Aklin, and Te-Agdanlin, split the ruling of the region then occupied by the Aja amongst themselves: Kokpon took the capital city of Great Ardra, reigning over the Allada kingdom; Do-Aklin founded Abomey, which would become capital of the Kingdom of Dahomey; and Te-Agdanlin founded Little Ardra, also known as Ajatche, later called Porto Novo (literally, “New Port”) by Portuguese traders and the current capital city of Benin.

Aja are an ethnic group also found in the South Sudan state of Western Bahr el Ghazal. They mostly live along the upper reaches of the Sopo River.[1]

Ewe People of Ghana, Togo, Nigeria , Benin and Ivory Coast.
Ewe People also known as Evê can be found in Ghana, Togo, Benin, some parts of Nigeria and Ivory Coast, they are part of the Gbe Speaking People and related to the Fon, Mina and Aja people. According to Professor Amenumey he claimed they originally came from Ketu in Dahomey Present day Benin which is considered as a Yoruba area, they were eventually forced which led to migration from eastward as a result of the expansions others claimed the Eweland extended from the mono river on the western border of Dahomey Present day Benin across Present day Togo and into the present day southeastern Ghana which is believed to be formely British Togoland as far as the volta river, from the south to the north and extend from the coast into the heavily forest hills.

https://rediscoveringafricaheritage.wordpress.com/2017/07/11/ewe-people-of-ghana-togo-nigeria-benin-and-ivory-coast/

THE GREAT BINI EMPIRE: AN AFRICAN LEGACY By RASTA LIVeWIRE

When the great Benin empire reached the zeniths of its power, it extended its boundaries and exercised power over all the west African lands bordering the entire stretch of the bight of Benin, from the mouth of the river Volta in the west and eastward to the present day Congo and to the delta of river Niger in the east e.g. Ghana, Republic of Benin, both across the borders of modern Nigeria. Onitsha on the Niger and many other cities such as Asaba, Agbor, Isele-Uku, Warri, Idah e.t.c. Many of these states and other cities owe their corporate existence to the ancient Benin Empire. The influence of the great Benin Empire was said to have even extended to the present day Sierra Leone in the west.

The legendary fame of the Great Benin empire was such that the name Benin had many meanings, e.g. there was Benin-city and Benin empire, Benin river close to the new Benin (Warri) and there is the bight of Benin and the Benin district comprising of Sapele and Warri. Beyond the Gulf of Benin, the great Benin Empire’s legendary fame was indeed wide spread. Several European states heard about the empires might and civilized attitudes, many sought for it.

That a vast stretch of the West African coastline bears the name ” BIGHT OF BENIN” is no accident of history. Even until these day, it quite evident and amazing how the cultural influence of the ancient Benin empire remains strong till today. An independent republic of former Dahomey in 1975 decided to change its name to the republic of Benin as a way of reconnecting its roots to Africa’s once glorious kingdom.

The republic of Togo on the other hand named some of her prestigious institutions after the great Benin empire e.g. Universite du Benin, Togo hotel du Benin e.t.c. President Gnassingbe Eyadema during his 1974 visit to Benin City openly stated that the Togolese people originated from the ancient Benin Empire. His open declaration was cardinal in the sense that it ended the historical dilemma that clouded the ancient Benin and present day Benin speaking Yoruba influence on many West African nations. The Political & Spiritual Purpose of the Holy Land nations.

Today, the people of Onitsha across the Niger, the Isekiris, Urobos, Isian and Ijaws just to mention but a few all proudly trace their venerated royal lineages to the ancient Benin empire.

https://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-great-bini-empire-african-legacy/comment-page-1/

20170429_160330

My highest ancestry regions are Benin Togo 40% Cameroon Congo 22% Ivory Coast Ghana 12%

I also have 2% Iberian Peninsula Portuguese/Spanish which correlates with Benin history and the Portuguese slave history.

 

Ewe people show high Benin and Togo and Ghana

Ga Dangme show high Togo and Ghana

Yoruba show high Benin and Togo and Ghana and Nigeria

Below results are similar to mine above and are African American

ancestry

GHANA (Ewe from Peki/Volta region) 

EWE

benin1-3

Ewe

They are particularly found in southern Togo (formerly French Togoland), Volta Region in southeastern Ghana (formerly British Togoland), and in southwestern parts of Benin. The Ewe region is sometimes referred to as the Ewe nation or Eʋedukɔ́ region (Togoland in colonial literature). Wikipedia

This is a very insightful even if perhaps counterintuitive breakdown for a Ghanaian person. The predominant score is afterall “Benin/Togo” combined with a smaller but still considerable proportion of “Ivory Coast/Ghana”. The socalled “Benin/Togo” region has been reported very frequently and also with high scores among African Americans and also West Indians. Often surprisingly so. I have no complete certainty about the ethnic background of the person whose DNA results are being shown above. However judging from his name and his family’s location in theVolta regionof Ghana, nearby the Togolese border. And more specifically their hometown being Peki, a traditional Ewe state, this person could very well be anEwe, an ethnic group living in eastern Ghana as well as southern Togo (see alsothis map).

https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/ancestrydna/african-results/

 Ewe People of Ghana, Togo, Nigeria , Benin and Ivory Coast.

Ewe People also known as Evê can be found in Ghana, Togo, Benin, some parts of Nigeria and Ivory Coast, they are part of the Gbe Speaking People and related to the Fon, Mina and Aja people. According to Professor Amenumey he claimed they originally came from Ketu in Dahomey Present day Benin which is considered as a Yoruba area, they were eventually forced which led to migration from eastward as a result of the expansions others claimed the Eweland extended from the mono river on the western border of Dahomey Present day Benin across Present day Togo and into the present day southeastern Ghana which is believed to be formely British Togoland as far as the volta river, from the south to the north and extend from the coast into the heavily forest hills.

The DNA of my Ghanian cousin on Ancestry DNA below

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo

Trace Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Nigeria

 

YORUBA

Yoruba2a

 

yorubaland_map-1

Ga Dangme

The Ga-AdangmeGã-AdaŋbɛGa-Dangme, or GaDangme are an ethnic group in Ghana andTogo. The Ga and Adangbe people are grouped respectively as part of the Ga–Dangmeethnolinguistic group.[2][3]

Ga-Adangbes
Gã-Adaŋbɛs

[[File:

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Marcel Desailly George Ayittey Obo Addy
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Harry Aikines-Aryeetey Joseph Ankrah Eric Anang
Paul Sackey Stade francais 2012-03-03.jpg Nii amugi.png Rear Admiral David Animle Hansen.jpg
Paul Sackey Nii Amugi II David Hansen

|frameless]]

Total population
(Approximately 2.0 million[1])
Regions with significant populations
Ghana – Greater Accra Region & Eastern Region-, Togo, as well as the United KingdomGermany,Brazil the United States of America, and Canada
Languages
Ga and Adangme
Religion
Christianity • Traditional • Islam • Hinduism

The Ga-Adangmes are one ethnic group that lives primarily in the Greater AccraEastern Region and the Volta Region of Ghana. Others areas are Aného in Togo and Benin.

The Ga peoples were organized into six independent towns (Accra (Ga Mashie), Osu,LaTeshieNungua, and Tema). Each town had a stool, which served as the central object of Ga ritual and war magic. Accra became the most prominent Ga-Dangme towns and is now the heartbeat and capital of Ghana.[4] The Ga people were originally farmers, but today fishing and trading in imported goods are the principal occupations. Trading is generally in the hands of women, and a husband has no control over his wife’s money. Succession to most offices held by women and inheritance of women’s property are by matrilineal descent. Inheritance of other property and succession to male-held public offices are by patrilineal descent. Men of the lineage live together in a men’s compound, while women, even after marriage, live with their mothers and children in a women’s compound. Each Ga town has a number of different cults and many gods, and there are a number of annual town festivals.[4]

The Adangme people occupy the coastal area of Ghana from Kpone to Ada, on the Volta River and South Atlantic Ocean along the Gulf of Guinea and inland along the Volta River. The Adangme People include the Ada, Kpong,Krobo, Ningo, Osuduku, Prampram, and Shai, all speaking Adangbe of the Kwa branch of the Niger-Congo family of languages. [5] The Adangme People have the largest Population among the two related Ga-Adangme People. About 70% of the Greater Accra Regional Land is owned by the Adangmes located in Dangme East and Dangme West Districts of Ghana. Also, in the Eastern Region and Volta Region of Ghana, about 15% of lands belong to the Adangme People. These are mainly in the Manya Krobo and Yilo Krobo Districts of the Eastern Region. In the Agotime Area of Volta Region and the Adangbe Area in the Southern part of Togo.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ga-Adangbe_people

The Negro by W.E.B. Du Bois


The Negro, by W.E.B. Du Bois, [1915], at sacred-texts.com


p. 17

The below article is from http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/dbn/dbn05.htm

It only looks at Egypt Ethiopia and Sudan and information on Negroland can be found by doing a search on the Hebrew Israelites or Transatlantic slave trade on this blog.

III    ETHIOPIA AND EGYPT

The valleys of the Nile and of the Congo, the borders of the great Gulf of Guinea, the Sudan, and South Africa. These divisions do not cover all of Negro Africa, but they take in the main areas and the main lines in development.

First, we turn to the valley of the Nile, perhaps the most ancient of known seats of civilization in the world, and certainly the oldest in Africa, with a culture reaching back six or eight thousand years. Like all civilizations it drew largely from without and undoubtedly arose in the valley of the Nile, because that valley was so easily made a center for the meeting of men of all types and from all parts of the world. At the same time Egyptian civilization seems to have been African in its beginnings and in its main line of development, despite strong influences from all parts of Asia. Of what race, then, were the Egyptians? They certainly were not white in any sense of the modern use of that word–neither in color nor physical measurement, in hair nor countenance, in language nor social customs. They stood in relationship nearest the Negro race in earliest times, and then gradually through the infiltration of Mediterranean and Semitic elements became what would be described in America as a light mulatto stock of Octoroons or Quadroons. This stock was varied continually: now by new infiltration of Negro blood from the south, now by Negroid and Semitic blood from the east, now by Berber types from the north and west.

Egyptian monuments show distinctly Negro and mulatto faces. Herodotus, in an incontrovertible passage, alludes to the Egyptians as “black and curly-haired” 1–a peculiarly significant statement from

p. 18

one used to the brunette Mediterranean type; in another passage, concerning the fable of the Dodonian Oracle, he again alludes to the swarthy color of the Egyptians as exceedingly dark and even black. Æschylus, mentioning a boat seen from the shore, declares that its crew are Egyptians, because of their black complexions.

Modern measurements, with all their admitted limitations, show that in the Thebaid from one-seventh to one-third of the Egyptian population were Negroes, and that of the predynastic Egyptians less than half could be classed as non-Negroid. Judging from measurements in the tombs of nobles as late as the eighteenth dynasty, Negroes form at least one-sixth of the higher class. 1

Such measurements are by no means conclusive, but they are apt to be under rather than over statements of the prevalence of Negro blood. Head measurements of Negro Americans would probably place most of them in the category of whites. The evidence of language also connects Egypt with Africa and the Negro race rather than with Asia, while religious ceremonies and social customs all go to strengthen this evidence.

The ethnic history of Northeast Africa would seem, therefore, to have been this: predynastic Egypt was settled by Negroes from Ethiopia. They were of varied type: the broad-nosed, woolly-haired type to which the word “Negro” is sometimes confined; the black, curly-haired, sharper featured type, which must be considered an equally Negroid variation. These Negroes met and mingled with the invading Mediterranean race from North Africa and Asia. Thus the blood of the sallower race spread south and that of the darker race north. Black priests appear in Crete three thousand years before Christ, and Arabia is to this day thoroughly permeated with Negro blood. Perhaps, as Chamberlain says, “one of the prime reasons why no civilization of the type of that of the Nile arose in other parts of the continent, if such a thing were at all possible, was that Egypt acted as a sort of channel by which the genius of Negro-land was drafted off into the service of Mediterranean and Asiatic culture.” 2

To one familiar with the striking and beautiful types arising from the mingling of Negro with Latin and Germanic types in America, the puzzle of the Egyptian type is easily solved. It was unlike any of its neighbors and a unique type until one views the modern mulatto; then the faces of Rahotep and Nefert, of Khafra and Amenemhat I,

p. 19

of Aahmes and Nefertari, and even of the great Ramessu II, become curiously familiar.

The history of Egypt is a science in itself. Before the reign of the first recorded king, five thousand years or more before Christ, there had already existed in Egypt a culture and art arising by long evolution from the days of paleolithic man, among a distinctly Negroid people. About 4777 B.C. Aha-Mena began the first of three successive Egyptian empires. This lasted two thousand years, with many Pharaohs, like Khafra of the Fourth Dynasty, of a strongly Negroid cast of countenance.

At the end of the period the empire fell apart into Egyptian and Ethiopian halves, and a silence of three centuries ensued. It is quite possible that an incursion of conquering black men from the south poured over the land in these years and dotted Egypt in the next centuries with monuments on which the full-blooded Negro type is strongly and triumphantly impressed. The great Sphinx at Gizeh, so familiar to all the world, the Sphinxes of Tanis, the statue from the Fayum, the statue of the Esquiline at Rome, and the Colossi of Bubastis all represent black, full-blooded Negroes and are described by Petrie as “having high cheek bones, flat checks, both in one plane, a massive nose, firm projecting lips, and thick hair, with an austere and almost savage expression of power.” 1

Blyden, the great modern black leader of West Africa, said of the Sphinx at Gizeh: “Her features are decidedly of the African or Negro type, with ‘expanded nostrils.’ If, then, the Sphinx was placed here–looking out in majestic and mysterious silence over the empty plain where once stood the great city of Memphis in all its pride and glory, as an ’emblematic representation of the king’–is not the inference clear as to the peculiar type or race to which that king belonged?” 2

The middle empire arose 3064 B.C. and lasted nearly twenty-four centuries. Under Pharaohs whose Negro descent is plainly evident, like Amenemhat I and III and Usertesen I, the ancient glories of Egypt were restored and surpassed. At the same time there is strong continuous pressure from the wild and unruly Negro tribes of the upper Nile valley, and we get some idea of the fear which they inspired throughout Egypt when we read of the great national rejoicing which followed the triumph of Usertesen III (c. 2660-22) over

p. 20

these hordes. He drove them back and attempted to confine them to the edge of the Nubian Desert above the Second Cataract. Hemmed in here, they set up a state about this time and founded Nepata.

Notwithstanding this repulse of black men, less than one hundred years later a full-blooded Negro from the south, Ra Nehesi, was seated on the throne of the Pharaohs and was called “The king’s eldest son.” This may mean that an incursion from the far south had placed a black conqueror on the throne. At any rate, the whole empire was in some way shaken, and two hundred years later the invasion of the Hyksos began. The domination of Hyksos kings who may have been Negroids from Asia 1 lasted for five hundred years.

The redemption of Egypt from these barbarians came from Upper Egypt, led by the mulatto Aahmes. He founded in 1703 B.C. the new empire, which lasted fifteen hundred years. His queen, Nefertari, “the most venerated figure of Egyptian history,” 2 was a Negress of great beauty, strong personality, and of unusual administrative force. She was for many years joint ruler with her son, Amenhotep I, who succeeded his father. 3

The new empire was a period of foreign conquest and internal splendor and finally of religious dispute and overthrow. Syria was conquered in these reigns and Asiatic civilization and influences poured in upon Egypt. The great Tahutmes, III, whose reign was “one of the grandest and most eventful in Egyptian history,” 4 had a strong Negroid countenance, as had also Queen Hatshepsut, who sent the celebrated expedition to reopen ancient trade with the Hottentots of Punt. A new strain of Negro blood came to the royal line through Queen Mutemua about 1420 B.C., whose son, Amenhotep III, built a great temple at Luqsor and the Colossi at Memnon.

The whole of the period in a sense culminated in the great Ramessu II, the oppressor of the Hebrews, who with his Egyptian, Libyan, and Negro armies fought half the world. His reign, however, was the beginning of decline, and foes began to press Egypt from the white north and the black south. The priests transferred their power at Thebes, while the Assyrians under Nimrod overran

p. 21

[paragraph continues]Lower Egypt. The center of interest is now transferred to Ethiopia, and we pass to the more shadowy history of that land.

The most perfect example of Egyptian poetry left to us is a celebration of the prowess of Usertesen III in confining the turbulent Negro tribes to the territory below the Second Cataract of the Nile. The Egyptians called this territory Kush, and in the farthest confines of Kush lay Punt, the cradle of their race. To the ancient Mediterranean world Ethiopia (i.e., the Land of the Black-faced) was a region of gods and fairies. Zeus and Poseidon feasted each year among the “blameless Ethiopians,” and Black Memnon, King of Ethiopia, was one of the greatest of heroes.

“The Ethiopians conceive themselves,” says Diodorus Siculus (Lib. III), “to be of greater antiquity than any other nation; and it is probable that, born under the sun’s path, its warmth may have ripened them earlier than other men. They suppose themselves also to be the inventors of divine worship, of festivals, of solemn assemblies, of sacrifices, and every religious practice. They affirm that the Egyptians are one of their colonies.”

The Egyptians themselves, in later days, affirmed that they and their civilization came from the south and from the black tribes of Punt, and certainly “at the earliest period in which human remains have been recovered Egypt and Lower Nubia appear to have formed culturally and racially one land.” 1

The forging ahead of Egypt in culture was mainly from economic causes. Ethiopia, living in a much poorer land with limited agricultural facilities, held to the old arts and customs, and at the same time lost the best elements of its population to Egypt, absorbing meantime the oncoming and wilder Negro tribes from the south and west. Under the old empire, therefore, Ethiopia remained in comparative poverty, except as some of its tribes invaded Egypt with their handicrafts.

As soon as the civilization below the Second Cataract reached a height noticeably above that of Ethiopia, there was continued effort to protect that civilization against the incursion of barbarians. Hundreds of campaigns through thousands of years repeatedly subdued or checked the blacks and brought them in as captives to mingle their blood with the Egyptian nation; but the Egyptian frontier was not advanced.

A separate and independent Ethiopian culture finally began to

p. 22

arise during the middle empire of Egypt and centered at Nepata and Meroe. Widespread trade in gold, ivory, precious stones, skins, wood, and works of handicraft arose. 1 The Negro began to figure as the great trader of Egypt.

This new wealth of Ethiopia excited the cupidity of the Pharaohs and led to aggression and larger intercourse, until at last, when the dread Hyksos appeared, Ethiopia became both a physical and cultural refuge for conquered Egypt. The legitimate Pharaohs moved to Thebes, nearer the boundaries of Ethiopia, and from here, under Negroid rulers, Lower Egypt was redeemed.

The ensuing new empire witnessed the gradual incorporation of Ethiopia into Egypt, although the darker kingdom continued to resist. Both mulatto Pharaohs, Aahmes and Amenhotep I, sent expeditions into Ethiopia, and in the latter’s day sons of the reigning Pharaoh began to assume the title of “Royal Son of Kush” in some such way as the son of the King of England becomes the Prince of Wales.

Trade relations were renewed with Punt under circumstances which lead us to place that land in the region of the African lakes. The Sudanese tribes were aroused by these and other incursions, until the revolts became formidable in the fourteenth century before Christ.

Egyptian culture, however, gradually conquered Ethiopia where her armies could not, and Egyptian religion and civil rule began to center in the darker kingdom. When, therefore, Shesheng I, the Libyan, usurped the throne of the Pharaohs in the tenth century B.C., the Egyptian legitimate dynasty went to Nepata as king priests and established a theocratic monarchy. Gathering strength, the Ethiopian kingdom under this dynasty expanded north about 750 B.C. and for a century ruled all Egypt.

The first king, Pankhy, was Egyptian bred and not noticeably Negroid, but his successors showed more and more evidence of Negro blood–Kashta the Kushite, Shabaka, Tarharqa, and Tanutamen. During the century of Ethiopian rule a royal son was appointed to rule Egypt, just as formerly a royal Egyptian had ruled Kush. In many ways this Ethiopian kingdom showed its Negro peculiarities: first, in its worship of distinctly Sudanese gods; secondly, in the rigid custom of female succession in the kingdom, and thirdly, by the election of kings from the various royal claimants to the throne. “It

p. 23

was the heyday of the Negro. For the greater part of the century. . . . Egypt itself was subject to the blacks, just as in the new empire the Sudan had been subject to Egypt.” 1

Egypt now began to fall into the hands of Asia and was conquered first by the Assyrians and then by the Persians, but the Ethiopian kings kept their independence. Aspeluta, whose mother and sister are represented as full-blooded Negroes, ruled from 630 to 600 B.C. Horsiatef (560-525 B.C.) made nine expeditions against the warlike tribes south of Meroe, and his successor, Nastosenen (525-500 B.C.) was the one who repelled Cambyses. He also removed the capital from Nepata to Meroe, although Nepata continued to be the religious capital and the Ethiopian kings were still crowned on its golden throne.

From the fifth to the second century B.C. we find the wild Sudanese tribes pressing in from the west and Greek culture penetrating from the east. King Arg-Amen (Ergamenes) showed strong Greek influences and at the same time began to employ the Ethiopian speech in writing and used a new Ethiopian alphabet.

While the Ethiopian kings were still crowned at Nepata, Meroe gradually became the real capital and supported at one time four thousand artisans and two hundred thousand soldiers. It was here that the famous Candaces reigned as queens. Pliny tells us that one Candace of the time of Nero had had forty-four predecessors on the throne, while another Candace figures in the New Testament. 2

It was probably this latter Candace who warred against Rome at the time of Augustus and received unusual consideration from her formidable foe. The prestige of Ethiopia at this time was considerable throughout the world. Pseudo-Callisthenes tells an evidently fabulous story of the visit of Alexander the Great to Candace, Queen of Meroe, which nevertheless illustrates her fame: Candace will not let him enter Ethiopia and says he is not to scorn her people because they are black, for they are whiter in soul than his white folk. She sent him gold, maidens, parrots, sphinxes, and a crown of emeralds and pearls. She ruled eighty tribes, who were ready to punish those who attacked her.

The Romans continued to have so much trouble with their Ethiopian frontier that finally, when Semitic mulattoes appeared in the east, the Emperor Diocletian invited the wild Sudanese tribe of

p. 24

[paragraph continues]Nubians (Nobadæ) from the west to repel them. These Nubians eventually embraced Christianity, and northern Ethiopia came to be known in time as Nubia.

The Semitic mulattoes from the east came from the highlands bordering the Red Sea and Asia. On both sides of this sea Negro blood is strongly in evidence, predominant in Africa and influential in Asia. Ludolphus, writing in the seventeenth century, says that the Abyssinians “are generally black, which [color] they most admire.” Trade and war united the two shores, and merchants have passed to and fro for thirty centuries.

In this way Arabian, Jewish, Egyptian, Greek, and Roman influences spread slowly upon the Negro foundation. Early legendary history declares that a queen, Maqueda, or Nikaula of Sheba, a state of Central Abyssinia, visited Solomon in 1050 B.C. and had her son Menelik educated in Jerusalem. This was the supposed beginning of the Axumite kingdom, the capital of which, Axume, was a flourishing center of trade. Ptolemy Evergetes and his successors did much to open Abyssinia to the world, but most of the population of that day was nomadic. In the fourth century Byzantine influences began to be felt, and in 330 St. Athanasius of Alexandria consecrated Fromentius as Bishop of Ethiopia. He tutored the heir to the Abyssinian kingdom and began its gradual christianization. By the early part of the sixth century Abyssinia was trading with India and Byzantium and was so far recognized as a Christian country that the Emperor Justinian appealed to King Kaleb to protect the Christians in southwestern Arabia. Kaleb conquered Yemen in 525 and held it fifty years.

Eventually a Jewish princess, Judith, usurped the Axumite throne; the Abyssinians were expelled from Arabia, and a long period begins when as Gibbon says, “encompassed by the enemies of their religion, the Ethiopians slept for nearly a thousand years, forgetful of the world by whom they were forgotten.” Throughout the middle ages, however, the legend of a great Christian kingdom hidden away in Africa persisted, and the search for Prester John became one of the world quests.

It was the expanding power of Abyssinia that led Rome to call in the Nubians from the western desert. The Nubians had formed a strong league of tribes, and as the ancient kingdom of Ethiopia declined they drove back the Abyssinians, who had already established themselves at Meroe.

p. 25

In the sixth century the Nubians were converted to Christianity by a Byzantine priest, and they immediately began to develop. A new capital, Dongola, replaced Nepata and Meroe, and by the twelfth century churches and brick dwellings had appeared. As the Mohammedan flood pressed up the Nile valley it was the Nubians that held it back for two centuries.

Farther south other wild tribes pushed out of the Sudan and began a similar development. Chief among these were the Fung, who fixed their capital at Senaar, at the junction of the White and Blue Nile. When the Mohammedan flood finally passed over Nubia, the Fung diverted it by declaring themselves Moslems. This left the Fung as the dominant power in the fifteenth century from the Three Cataracts to Fazogli and from the Red Sea at Suakin to the White Nile. Islam then swept on south in a great circle, skirted the Great Lakes, and then curled back to Somaliland, completely isolating Abyssinia.

Between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries the Egyptian Sudan became a congeries of Mohammedan kingdoms with Arab, mulatto, and Negro kings. Far to the west, near Lake Chad, arose in 1520 the sultanate of Baghirmi, which reached its highest power in the seventh century. This dynasty was overthrown by the Negroid Mabas, who established Wadai to the eastward about 1640. South of Wadai lay the heathen and cannibals of the Congo valley, against which Islam never prevailed. East of Wadai and nearer the Nile lay the kindred state of Darfur, a Nubian nation whose sultans reigned over two hundred years and which reached great prosperity in the early seventeenth century under Soliman Solon.

Before the Mohammedan power reached Abyssinia the Portuguese pioneers had entered the country from the east and begun to open the country again to European knowledge. Without doubt, in the centuries of silence, a civilization of some height had flourished in Abyssinia, but all authentic records were destroyed by fire in the tenth century. When the Portuguese came, the older Axumite kingdom had fallen and had been succeeded by a number of petty states.

The Sudanese kingdoms of the Sudan resisted the power of the Mameluke beys in Egypt, and later the power of the Turks until the nineteenth century, when the Sudan was made nominally a part of Egypt. Continuous upheaval, war, and conquest had by this time done their work, and little of ancient Ethiopian culture survived except the slave trade.

The entrance of England into Egypt, after the building of the

p. 26

Suez Canal, stirred up eventually revolt in the Sudan, for political, economic, and religious reasons. Led by a Sudanese Negro, Mohammed Ahmad, who claimed to be the Messiah (Mahdi), the Sudan arose in revolt in 1881, determined to resist a hated religion, foreign rule, and interference with their chief commerce, the trade in slaves. The Sudan was soon aflame, and the able mulatto general, Osman Digna, aided by revolt among the heathen Dinka, drove Egypt and England out of the Sudan for sixteen years. It was not until 1898 that England reëntered the Sudan and in petty revenge desecrated the bones of the brave, even if misguided, prophet.

Meantime this Mahdist revolt had delayed England’s designs on Abyssinia, and the Italians, replacing her, attempted a protectorate. Menelik of Shoa, one of the smaller kingdoms of Abyssinia, was a shrewd man of predominantly Negro blood, and had been induced to make a treaty with the Italians after King John had been killed by the Mahdists. The exact terms of the treaty were disputed, but undoubtedly the Italians tried by this means to reduce Menelik to vassalage. Menelik stoutly resisted, and at the great battle of Adua, one of the decisive battles of the modern world, the Abyssinians on March 1, 1896, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Italians, killing four thousand of them and capturing two thousand prisoners. The empress, Taitou, a full-blooded Negress, led some of the charges. By this battle Abyssinia became independent.

Such in vague and general outline is the strange story of the valley of the Nile–of Egypt, the motherland of human culture

End

p. 27

IV    THE NIGER AND ISLAM

The Arabian expression “Bilad es Sudan” (Land of the Blacks) was applied to the whole region south of the Sahara, from the Atlantic to the Nile. It is a territory some thirty-five hundred miles by six hundred miles, containing two million square miles, and has to-day a population of perhaps eighty million. It is thus two-thirds the size of the United States and quite as thickly settled. In the western Sudan the Niger plays the same role as the Nile in the east. In this chapter we follow the history of the Niger.

The history of this part of Africa was probably something as follows: primitive man, entering Africa from Arabia, found the Great Lakes, spread in the Nile valley, and wandered westward to the Niger. Herodotus tells of certain youths who penetrated the desert to the Niger and found there a city of black dwarfs. Succeeding migrations of Negroes and Negroids pushed the dwarfs gradually into the inhospitable forests and occupied the Sudan, pushing on to the Atlantic. Here the newcomers, curling northward, met the Mediterranean race coming down across the western desert, while to the southward the Negro came to the Gulf of Guinea and the thick forests of the Congo valley. Indigenous civilizations arose on the west coast in Yoruba and Benin, and contact of these with the Mediterranean race in the desert, and with Egyptian and Arab from the east, gave rise to centers of Negro culture in the Sudan at Ghana and Melle and in Songhay, Nupe, the Hausa states, and Bornu.

The history of the Sudan thus leads us back again to Ethiopia, that strange and ancient center of world civilization whose inhabitants in the ancient world were considered to be the most pious and the oldest of men. From this center the black originators of African culture, and to a large degree of world culture, wandered not simply down the Nile, but also westward. These Negroes developed the

p. 28

original substratum of culture which later influences modified but never displaced.

We know that Egyptian Pharaohs in several cases ventured into the western Sudan and that Egyptian influences are distinctly traceable, Greek and Byzantine culture and Phœnician and Carthaginian trade also penetrated, while Islam finally made this whole land her own. Behind all these influences, however, stood from the first an indigenous Negro culture. The stone figures of Sherbro, the megaliths of Gambia, the art and industry of the west coast are all too deep and original evidences of civilization to be merely importations from abroad.

Nor was the Sudan the inert recipient of foreign influence when it came. According to credible legend, the “Great King” at Byzantium imported glass, tin, silver, bronze, cut stones, and other treasure from the Sudan. Embassies were sent and states like Nupe recognized the suzerainty of the Byzantine emperor. The people of Nupe especially were filled with pride when the Byzantine people learned certain kinds of work in bronze and glass from them, and this intercourse was only interrupted by the Mohammedan conquest.

To this ancient culture, modified somewhat by Byzantine and Christian influences, came Islam. It approached from the northwest, coming stealthily and slowly and being banded on particularly by the Mandingo Negroes. About 1000-1200 A.D. the situation was this: Ghana was on the edge of the desert in the north, Mandingoland between the Niger and the Senegal in the south and the western Sahara, Djolof was in the west on the Senegal, and the Songhay on the Niger in the center. The Mohammedans came chiefly as traders and found a trade already established. Here and there in the great cities were districts set aside for these new merchants, and the Mohammedans gave frequent evidence of their respect for these black nations.

Islam did not found new states, but modified and united Negro states already ancient; it did not initiate new commerce, but developed a widespread trade already established. It is, as Frobenius says, “easily proved from chronicles written in Arabic that Islam was only effective in fact as a fertilizer and stimulant. The essential point is the resuscitative and invigorative concentration of Negro power in the service of a new era and a Moslem propaganda, as well as the reaction thereby produced.” 1

p. 29

Early in the eighth century Islam had conquered North Africa and converted the Berbers. Aided by black soldiers, the Moslems crossed into Spain; in the following century Berber and Arab armies crossed the west end of the Sahara and came to Negroland. Later in the eleventh century Arabs penetrated the Sudan and Central Africa from the east, filtering through the Negro tribes of Darfur, Kanem, and neighboring regions. The Arabs were too nearly akin to Negroes to draw an absolute color line. Antar, one of the great pre-Islamic poets of Arabia, was the son of a black woman, and one of the great poets at the court of Haroun al Raschid was black. In the twelfth century a learned Negro poet resided at Seville, and Sidjilmessa, the last town in Lower Morocco toward the desert, was founded in 757 by a Negro who ruled over the Berber inhabitants. Indeed, many towns in the Sudan and the desert were thus ruled, and felt no incongruity in this arrangement. They say, to be sure, that the Moors destroyed Audhoghast because it paid tribute to the black town of Ghana, but this was because the town was heathen and not because it was black. On the other hand, there is a story that a Berber king overthrew one of the cities of the Sudan and all the black women committed suicide, being too proud to allow themselves to fall into the hands of white men.

In the west the Moslems first came into touch with the Negro kingdom of Ghana. Here large quantities of gold were gathered in early days, and we have names of seventy-four rulers before 300 A.D. running through twenty-one generations. This would take us back approximately a thousand years to 700 B.C., or about the time that Pharaoh Necho of Egypt sent out the Phœnician expedition which circumnavigated Africa, and possibly before the time when Hanno, the Carthaginian, explored the west coast of Africa.

By the middle of the eleventh century Ghana was the principal kingdom in the western Sudan. Already the town had a native and a Mussulman quarter, and was built of wood and stone with surrounding gardens. The king had an army of two hundred thousand and the wealth of the country was great. A century later the king had become Mohammedan in faith and had a palace with sculptures and glass windows. The great reason for this development was the desert trade. Gold, skins, ivory, kola nuts, gums, honey, wheat, and cotton were exported, and the whole Mediterranean coast traded in the Sudan. Other and lesser black kingdoms like Tekrou, Silla, and Masina surrounded Ghana.

p. 30

In the early part of the thirteenth century the prestige of Ghana began to fall before the rising Mandingan kingdom to the west. Melle, as it was called, was founded in 1235 and formed an open door for Moslem and Moorish traders. The new kingdom, helped by its expanding trade, began to grow, and Islam slowly surrounded the older Negro culture west, north, and east. However, a great mass of the older heathen culture, pushing itself upward from the Guinea coast, stood firmly against Islam down to the nineteenth century.

Steadily Mohammedanism triumphed in the growing states which almost encircled the protagonists of ancient Atlantic culture. Mandingan Melle eventually supplanted Ghana in prestige and power after Ghana had been overthrown by the heathen Su Su from the south.

The territory of Melle lay southeast of Ghana and some five hundred miles north of the Gulf of Guinea. Its kings were known by the title of Mansa, and from the middle of the thirteenth century to the middle of the fourteenth the Mellestine, as its dominion was called, was the leading power in the land of the blacks. Its greatest king, Mari Jalak (Mansa Musa), made his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324, with a caravan of sixty thousand persons, including twelve thousand young slaves gowned in figured cotton and Persian silk. He took eighty camel loads of gold dust (worth about five million dollars) to defray his expenses, and greatly impressed the people of the East with his magnificence.

On his return he found that Timbuktu had been sacked by the Mossi, but he rebuilt the town and filled the new mosque with learned blacks from the University of Fez. Mansa Musa reigned twenty-five years and “was distinguished by his ability and by the holiness of his life. The justice of his administration was such that the memory of it still lives.” 1 The Mellestine preserved its preëminence until the beginning of the sixteenth century, when the rod of Sudanese empire passed to Songhay, the largest and most famous of the black empires.

The known history of Songhay covers a thousand years and three dynasties and centers in the great bend of the Niger. There were thirty kings of the First Dynasty, reigning from 700 to 1335. During the reign of one of these the Songhay kingdom became the vassal kingdom of Melle, then at the height of its glory. In addition to this the Mossi crossed the valley, plundered Timbuktu in 1339, and

p. 31

separated Jenne, the original seat of the Songhay, from the main empire. The sixteenth king was converted to Mohammedanism in 1009, and after that all the Songhay princes were Mohammedans. Mansa Musa took two young Songhay princes to the court of Melle to be educated in 1326. These boys when grown ran away and founded a new dynasty in Songhay, that of the Sonnis, in 1355. Seventeen of these kings reigned, the last and greatest being Sonni Ali, who ascended the throne in 1464. Melle was at this time declining, other cities like Jenne, with its seven thousand villages, were rising, and the Tuaregs (Berbers with Negro blood) had captured Timbuktu.

Sonni Ali was a soldier and began his career with the conquest of Timbuktu in 1469. He also succeeded in capturing Jenne and attacked the Mossi and other enemies on all sides. Finally he concentrated his forces for the destruction of Melle and subdued nearly the whole empire on the west bend of the Niger. In summing up Sonni Ali’s military career the chronicle says of him, “He surpassed all his predecessors in the numbers and valor of his soldiery. His conquests were many and his renown extended from the rising to the setting of the sun. If it is the will of God, he will be long spoken of.” 1

Sonni Ali was a Songhay Negro whose father was a Berber. He was succeeded by a full-blooded black, Mohammed Abou Bekr, who had been his prime minister. Mohammed was bailed as “Askia” (usurper) and is best known as Mohammed Askia. He was strictly orthodox where Ali was rather a scoffer, and an organizer where Ali was a warrior. On his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1495 there was nothing of the barbaric splendor of Mansa Musa, but a brilliant group of scholars and holy men with a small escort of fifteen hundred soldiers and nine hundred thousand dollars in gold. He stopped and consulted with scholars and politicians and studied matters of taxation, weights and measures, trade, religious tolerance, and manners. In Cairo, where he was invested by the reigning caliph of Egypt, he may have heard of the struggle of Europe for the trade of the Indies, and perhaps of the parceling of the new world between Portugal and Spain. He returned to the Sudan in 1497, instituted a standing army of slaves, undertook a holy war against the indomitable Mossi, and finally marched against the Hausa. He subdued these cities and even imposed the rule of black men on the Berber town of Agades,

p. 32

a rich city of merchants and artificers with stately mansions. In fine Askia, during his reign, conquered and consolidated an empire two thousand miles long by one thousand wide at its greatest diameters; a territory as large as all Europe. The territory was divided into four vice royalties, and the system of Melle, with its semi-independent native dynasties, was carried out. His empire extended from the Atlantic to Lake Chad and from the salt mines of Tegazza and the town of Augila in the north to the 10th degree of north latitude toward the south.

It was a six months’ journey across the empire and, it is said, “he was obeyed with as much docility on the farthest limits of the empire as he was in his own palace, and there reigned everywhere great plenty and absolute peace.” 1 The University of Sankore became a center of learning in correspondence with Egypt and North Africa and had a swarm of black Sudanese students. Law, literature, grammar, geography and surgery were studied. Askia the Great reigned thirty-six years and his dynasty continued on the throne until after the Moorish conquest in 1591.

Meanwhile, to the eastward, two powerful states appeared. They never disputed the military supremacy of Songhay, but their industrial development was marvelous. The Hausa states were formed by seven original cities, of which Kano was the oldest and Katsena the most famous. Their greatest leaders, Mohammed Rimpa and Ahmadu Kesoke, arose in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. The land was subject to the Songhay, but the cities became industrious centers of smelting, weaving, and dyeing. Katsena especially, in the middle of the sixteenth century, is described as a place thirteen or fourteen miles in circumference, divided into quarters for strangers, for visitors from various other states, and for the different trades and industries, as saddlers, shoemakers, dyers, etc.

Beyond the Hausa states and bordering on Lake Chad was Bornu. The people of Bornu had a large infiltration of Berber blood, but were predominantly Negro. Berber mulattoes had been kings in early days, but they were soon replaced by black men. Under the early kings, who can be traced back to the third century, these people had ruled nearly all the territory between the Nile and Lake Chad. The country was known as Kanem, and the pagan dynasty of Dugu reigned there from the middle of the ninth to the end of the eleventh century. Mohammedanism was introduced from Egypt

p. 33

at the end of the eleventh century, and under the Mohammedan kings Kanem became one of the first powers of the Sudan. By the end of the twelfth century the armies of Kanem were very powerful and its rulers were known as “Kings of Kanem and Lords of Bornu.” In the thirteenth century the kings even dared to invade the southern country down toward the valley of the Congo.

Meantime great things were happening in the world beyond the desert, the ocean, and the Nile. Arabian Mohammedanism had succumbed to the wild fanaticism of the Seljukian Turks. These new conquerors were not only firmly planted at the gates of Vienna, but had swept the shores of the Mediterranean and sent all Europe scouring the seas for their lost trade connections with the riches of India. Religious zeal, fear of conquest, and commercial greed inflamed Europe against the Mohammedan and led to the discovery of a new world, the riches of which poured first on Spain. Oppression of the Moors followed, and in 1502 they were driven back into Africa, despoiled and humbled. Here the Spaniards followed and harassed them and here the Turks, fighting the Christians, captured the Mediterranean ports and cut the Moors off permanently from Europe. In the slow years that followed, huddled in Northwest Africa, they became a decadent people and finally cast their eyes toward Negroland.

The Moors in Morocco had come to look upon the Sudan as a gold mine, and knew that the Sudan was especially dependent upon salt. In 1545 Morocco claimed the principal salt mines at Tegazza, but the reigning Askia refused to recognize the claim.

When the Sultan Elmansour came to the throne of Morocco, he increased the efficiency of his army by supplying it with fire arms and cannon. Elmansour determined to attack the Sudan and sent four hundred men under Pasha Djouder, who left Morocco in 1590. The Songhay, with their bows and arrows, were helpless against powder and shot, and they were defeated at Tenkadibou April 12, 1591, Askia Ishak, the king, offered terms, and Djouder Pasha referred them to Morocco. The sultan, angry with his general’s delay, deposed him and sent another, who crushed and treacherously murdered the king and set up a puppet. Thereafter there were two Askias, one under the Moors at Timbuktu and one who maintained himself in the Hausa states, which the Moors could not subdue. Anarchy reigned in Songhay. The Moors tried to put down disorder with a high hand, drove out and murdered the distinguished men of

p. 34

[paragraph continues]Timbuktu, and as a result let loose a riot of robbery and decadence throughout the Sudan. Pasha now succeeded Pasha with revolt and misrule until in 1612 the soldiers elected their own Pasha and deliberately shut themselves up in the Sudan by cutting off approach from the north.

Hausaland and Bornu were still open to Turkish and Mohammedan influence from the east, and the Gulf of Guinea to the slave trade from the south, but the face of the finest Negro civilization the modern world had ever produced was veiled from Europe and given to the defilement of wild Moorish soldiers. In 1623 it is written “excesses of every kind are now committed unchecked by the soldiery,” and “the country is profoundly convulsed and oppressed.” 1 The Tuaregs marched down from the desert and deprived the Moors of many of the principal towns. The rest of the empire of the Songhay was by the end of the eighteenth century divided among separate Moorish chiefs, who bought supplies from the Negro peasantry and were “at once the vainest, proudest, and perhaps the most bigoted, ferocious, and intolerant of all the nations of the south.” 2 They lived a nomadic life, plundering the Negroes. To such depths did the mighty Songhay fall.

As the Songhay declined a new power arose in the nineteenth century, the Fula. The Fula, who vary in race from Berber mulattoes to full-blooded Negroes, may be the result of a westward migration of some people like the “Leukoæthiopi” of Pliny, or they may have arisen from the migration of Berber mulattoes in the western oases, driven south by Romans and Arabs.

These wandering herdsmen lived on the Senegal River and the ocean in very early times and were not heard of until the nineteenth century. By this time they had changed to a Negro or dark mulatto people and lived scattered in small communities between the Atlantic and Darfur. They were without political union or national sentiment, but were all Mohammedans. Then came a sudden change, and led by a religious fanatic, these despised and persecuted people became masters of the central Sudan. They were the ones who at last broke down that great wedge of resisting Atlantic culture, after it had been undermined and disintegrated by the American slave trade.

Thus Islam finally triumphed in the Sudan and the ancient culture

p. 35

combined with the new. In the Sudan to-day one may find evidences of the union of two classes of people. The representatives of the older civilization dwell as peasants in small communities, carrying on industries and speaking a large number of different languages. With them or above them is the ruling Mohammedan caste, speaking four main languages: Mandingo, Hausa, Fula, and Arabic. These latter form the state builders. Negro blood predominates among both classes, but naturally there is more Berber blood among the Mohammedan invaders.

Europe during the middle ages had some knowledge of these movements in the Sudan and Africa. Melle and Songhay appear on medieval maps. In literature we have many allusions: the mulatto king, Feirifis, was one of Wolfram von Eschenbach’s heroes; Prester John furnished endless lore; Othello, the warrior, and the black king represented by medieval art as among the three wise men, and the various black Virgin Marys’ all show legendary knowledge of what African civilization was at that time doing.

It is a curious commentary on modern prejudice that most of this splendid history of civilization and uplift is unknown to-day, and men confidently assert that Negroes have no history.

http://www.sacred-texts.coFuu/afr/dbn/dbn06.htm

End

See also

Overview of Sudan 

From-Babylon-To-Timbuktu-by-Rudolph-R-Windsor

The Migration of Judah

Egyptians, E-thi-o’-pi-ans, Nubians and Hebrews are the Same Ethnic People: NILE VALLEY: North Africa / Sahara / Horn of Africa and West Asia..

Dr Yosef Ben Yochannan – Black America & Black Indian African Orgins

This is the original list of returned escaped slaves in Jamaica.

 Return of the ACCOMPONG Maroons 27TH OCTOBER 1831 CO 140/121

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/MaroonsAccompong.htm

 

Please note this is only one list of escaped slaves and my ancestors were found on a 1809 census aswel ( quoted from memory the record is on one of my other posts) Nanny of the Maroons started the movement of runaway slaves and founded her own towns for them. Maroon Town and Accompong. You can visit my related posts by doing a search in my search bar. Some Maroons were deported to Freetown.

My family are listed. If you are Jamaicans American Haitian your family might be listed too.

OFFICERS

Lieutenant-colonel Andrew White

61

Lieutenant Robert Reid Peate

54

Captain James Rowe

61

Lieutenant Richard Rowe

30

Captain William Dennis Reid

55

Lieutenant John Reid

53

Captain James Dennis Foster

57

Lieutenant John Watson

43

 

PRIVATES

 

William Adlam

54

George Reid

34

John Adlam

22

Robert Hugh Reid

43

Samuel Adlam

18

Thomas Reid

35

Colin Adlam

18

George Roache

39

Charles Austen

44

Thomas Roache

40

Samuel Anderson

26

Samuel Roden

32

Joseph Barrett

26

Charles Rowe

56

Edward Barrett

22

Henry Rowe

35

William Brice

26

Billy Rowe

30

Frank Cross

36

James Rowe

29

John Cross

43

William Rowe (sambo)

40

Thomas Cross

44

Robert Salmon

33

Thomas Cross, jun.

19

Smallin Smith

26

Thomas Currie (mulatto)

23

Quao Smith

22

William Davis

54

Thomas Smith

37

Barnet Dennis (mulatto)

45

Joseph Smith

30

Joseph Dennis (sambo)

29

Barnet Smith

35

Rodger Reid Dennis

55

Cabina Smith

41

William Dowan (mulatto)

26

Alexander Shilletto

31

Alexander Faulkner

26

Thomas Stretch

23

Samuel Faulkner

28

James Stone

38

Matthew Farquharson

37

James Swaby

39

Antonio Flesharkey (quadroon)

21

Robert Virvin

54

John Griffith

56

John Webb

22

Thomas Holliday

26

Thomas White

31

James Haughton

36

John White

21

Charles George Ludwig (quadroon)

22

Robert White

19

Richard Miles

33

Billy Wright

25

Edward Peate

25

Robert Wright

34

Billy Peate

25

William Wright

31

Thomas Peate

24

Samuel Wright

25

John Peate

30

James Wright

19

Samuel Pight

36

Samuel Barrett

18

Lewis Pight

35

James Montague

18

Charles Quarrey

26

 

 

 

 

WOMEN

 

Fanny Austin

53

Ann Rowe

26

Nanny Austin

77

Ellen Rowe

28

Catherine Barrett

51

Bess Rowe

27

Bash Beat

51

Debby Rowe

19

Barbara Boucher

69

Grace Salmon

60

Charlotte Bookay (mulatto)

23

Jane Salmon

31

Bella Brice

23

Bess Salmon

30

Nancy Carr

43

Nancy Salmo [Salmon]

27

Mary Carr

41

Polly Salmon

26

Peggy Carr

37

Jenny Salmon

23

Catherine Cooper

59

Webb Salmon

23

Bella Crisp

36

Susanna Shaw

27

Sophy Currie (mulatto)

21

Bess Shannel (mulatto)

56

Dorothy Darling (sambo)

35

Phœbe Smith

68

Eliza Davis

38

Mary Stretch (mulatto)

25

Jane Dennis

30

Frances Stretch (mulatto)

26

Louisa Dennis

23

Janet Quarrey

20

Catherine Dockery (mulatto)

46

Bess Venhillin

62

Mary Dockery

70

Mary Walpole

36

Dido Falconer

36

Christiana White (sambo)

60

Mary Falconer

60

Elcey White

27

Juba Falconer

23

Manna White

26

Nelly Foster

50

Eliza Johnston White

26

Nancy Griffith

19

Amelia White

24