Category Archives: Black history

This is the original list of returned escaped slaves in Jamaica.

 Return of the ACCOMPONG Maroons 27TH OCTOBER 1831 CO 140/121

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/MaroonsAccompong.htm

 

OFFICERS

Lieutenant-colonel Andrew White

61

Lieutenant Robert Reid Peate

54

Captain James Rowe

61

Lieutenant Richard Rowe

30

Captain William Dennis Reid

55

Lieutenant John Reid

53

Captain James Dennis Foster

57

Lieutenant John Watson

43

 

PRIVATES

 

William Adlam

54

George Reid

34

John Adlam

22

Robert Hugh Reid

43

Samuel Adlam

18

Thomas Reid

35

Colin Adlam

18

George Roache

39

Charles Austen

44

Thomas Roache

40

Samuel Anderson

26

Samuel Roden

32

Joseph Barrett

26

Charles Rowe

56

Edward Barrett

22

Henry Rowe

35

William Brice

26

Billy Rowe

30

Frank Cross

36

James Rowe

29

John Cross

43

William Rowe (sambo)

40

Thomas Cross

44

Robert Salmon

33

Thomas Cross, jun.

19

Smallin Smith

26

Thomas Currie (mulatto)

23

Quao Smith

22

William Davis

54

Thomas Smith

37

Barnet Dennis (mulatto)

45

Joseph Smith

30

Joseph Dennis (sambo)

29

Barnet Smith

35

Rodger Reid Dennis

55

Cabina Smith

41

William Dowan (mulatto)

26

Alexander Shilletto

31

Alexander Faulkner

26

Thomas Stretch

23

Samuel Faulkner

28

James Stone

38

Matthew Farquharson

37

James Swaby

39

Antonio Flesharkey (quadroon)

21

Robert Virvin

54

John Griffith

56

John Webb

22

Thomas Holliday

26

Thomas White

31

James Haughton

36

John White

21

Charles George Ludwig (quadroon)

22

Robert White

19

Richard Miles

33

Billy Wright

25

Edward Peate

25

Robert Wright

34

Billy Peate

25

William Wright

31

Thomas Peate

24

Samuel Wright

25

John Peate

30

James Wright

19

Samuel Pight

36

Samuel Barrett

18

Lewis Pight

35

James Montague

18

Charles Quarrey

26

 

 

 

 

WOMEN

 

Fanny Austin

53

Ann Rowe

26

Nanny Austin

77

Ellen Rowe

28

Catherine Barrett

51

Bess Rowe

27

Bash Beat

51

Debby Rowe

19

Barbara Boucher

69

Grace Salmon

60

Charlotte Bookay (mulatto)

23

Jane Salmon

31

Bella Brice

23

Bess Salmon

30

Nancy Carr

43

Nancy Salmo [Salmon]

27

Mary Carr

41

Polly Salmon

26

Peggy Carr

37

Jenny Salmon

23

Catherine Cooper

59

Webb Salmon

23

Bella Crisp

36

Susanna Shaw

27

Sophy Currie (mulatto)

21

Bess Shannel (mulatto)

56

Dorothy Darling (sambo)

35

Phœbe Smith

68

Eliza Davis

38

Mary Stretch (mulatto)

25

Jane Dennis

30

Frances Stretch (mulatto)

26

Louisa Dennis

23

Janet Quarrey

20

Catherine Dockery (mulatto)

46

Bess Venhillin

62

Mary Dockery

70

Mary Walpole

36

Dido Falconer

36

Christiana White (sambo)

60

Mary Falconer

60

Elcey White

27

Juba Falconer

23

Manna White

26

Nelly Foster

50

Eliza Johnston White

26

Nancy Griffith

19

Amelia White

24

Mary Griffith

24

Elizabeth Wright

51

Julina Griffith

26

Suckey Wright

51

Dido Holliday

43

Nelly Wright

48

Leah Myers

19

Ann Wright

32

Julina Peate

23

Mary Wright, 1st

32

Eliza Quilman

23

Mary Wright, 2d

25

Leah Quarrey

26

Polly Wright

32

Jenny Reid

73

Susanna Wright

24

Suckey Reid

19

Enthy Wright

25

Nelly Reid

42

Maria Wright

23

Bessy Roache

49

Jane Finlayson Wright

26

Susanna Rowe

60

Grace Wright

25

Lucy Rowe

22

Debby Wright

21

Mary Rowe

36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BOYS

 

William Anderson

5

William Reid

6

Robert Barrett

16

Billy Pight

2

William Barrett

11

James Reid

3

William Banista

16

Alick Roden (mulatto)

4

John Collins

3

William Ricketts

6

James Collins

6

Alexander Russell (mulatto)

3

Robert Cunningham

2

Quao Rowe

18

Colin Cross

8

Thomas Rowe, two months

 

Henry Cross

4

William Rowe

2

William Crosley

7

John Rowe

16

Lewis Degan

16

Charles Samuel Salmon

3

William Dennis

15

Samuel Smith

2

Thomas Dennis

17

James Stone

8

Edward Dennis

11

James Swaby

9

Frederick Dennis

11

Robert Vidal

9

James Donald (quadroon)

14

Charles Watson

6

Robert Furguson

9

William Webb

16

William Furguson

8

Crawford White

15

John Griffith

6

David Shaw White

11

William Holliday

16

James White, 1st

10

John Holliday

2

James White, 2d

4

George Macquirk

5

Boohe Williams

13

George Augustus Maycharge (quadroon)

7

Charles Wright

11

Edward Miles

17

John Wright

10

William Pennycooke (mulatto)

2

Joseph Wright

2

Samuel Albert Pight

2

James Wright

4

Antonio Pight

8

Thomas Wright

 

Charles Pight

10

Quao Wright

2

Robert Peate

3

 

 

 

GIRLS

 

Jane Alexander

4

Jane McLachlan (quadroon)

12

Mary Barrett

11

Crissy Ogilvie (sambo)

15

Nelly Barrett

8

Sarah Palmer (mulatto)

15

Margaret Barrett

6

Kitty Peate

15

Eliza Cross

2

Molly Peate

15

Grace Cross

16

Nancy Peate

12

Sophia Cross

11

Nancy Pight (mulatto)

5

Dorothy Cross

13

Juba Pight, seven months

 

Isabella Cross

11

Mary Anderson, five ditto

 

Mary Cross

9

Sophia Doman, four ditto

 

Sabina Cross

8

Carolina Reid

10

Susanna Cross

10

Margaret Rowe, 1st

15

Rebecca Cross

6

Margaret Rowe, 2d

7

Cecilia Cross

3

Rosanna Rowe

7

Cuba Dennis

15

Elizabeth Russell

5

Bess Farquharson

6

Frances Watson Salmon

2

Agnes Farquharson

4

Polly Salmon

5

Phœbe Falconer (mulatto)

14

Mary Shaw

5

Venue Foster

2

Catherine Shokea

13

Agnes Foster

2

Rosanna Salmon (mulatto)

3

Susanna Flesharskey (quadroon)

15

Frances Stone

3

Lydia Griffith

14

Ann Stone

4

Charlotte Gordon (quadroon)

16

Caroline Jane Thompson

2

Ann Harris

5

Ellen Vervin

17

Jane Holliday

4

Elizabeth Vervin

15

Piercy Holliday

12

Beche Vervin

13

Sally Holliday

8

Sarah Vervin 1st

17

Jane Horton

3

Sarah Wright 2d

3

Nancy Hoffman (mulatto)

9

Susanna Wright

2

Fanny Macquirk

3

Sarah Wright 1st

17

Ann Horton

6

Diana Wright

12

Mary Miles

3

Kitty Wright

13

Isabella Miles

5

Mary Wright 1st

7

Isabella Ludwig

14

Mary Wright 2d

2

Beche Lerman

13

Nelly Wright

5

Caroline Jones

5

Phœbe Wright

10

 

SUPERANNUATED, 1

 

MAJOR James Roache

76

 

 

FROM OTHER TOWNS

 

 

MALES, 3

 

Robert Adlam

10

John Reid

13

Dicky Clerke [Clarke?]

18

 

 

 

FEMALES, 7

 

Ruthy Dennis

49

Fanny Reid

18

Elizabeth Quilman

24

Hannah Reid

13

Eliza Reid

23

Joan Reid

9

Lydia Reid

21

 

 

 

 

 

RESIDING OUT OF TOWN

 

MALES, 35

 

James Alego, Kingston

21

George Smith, Lucea

13

George Allen, Trelawny

10

Kennedy Smith, Ditto

11

Jeremiah Allen, ditto

8

Henry Smith, ditto

8

Allen, ditto

4

William Smith 1st, Westmoreland

37

Allen, ditto

2

William Smith 2d, Dry-Harbour

6

Richard Burrowes, Stoney-Hill

31

William Smith 3d, Lucea

2

Robert Creighton, Westmoreland

24

——–Smith, sambo, Lucea

6

Thomas Creighton, ditto

22

——–Wedderburn, Westmoreland

2

Joseph Creighton, Ditto

19

James White, ditto

10

Thomas Douglass, ditto

14

Robert White, ditto

2

William Fullerton, ditto

21

——–Wright, ditto

2

———–Fullerton, ditto

2

——–Wright, ditto

2

John Hewitt, Spanish-Town

37

Richard Wolf, ditto

11

William Humphries, St. James’s

55

William Wolf, ditto

9

Edward Tullough, Montego-Bay

2

——–Wolf, ditto

4

Robert Shannel, Spanish-Town

15

James Cunningham, Montego-Bay

2

Joseph Shannel, ditto

18

——–Haughton, Westmoreland

2

William Shannel, ditto

19

 

 

 

WOMEN, 36

 

Mary Allen, Kingston

20

Sarah Harrison, St. Elizabeth’s

6

Susanna Adlam, St. James’s

24

Susanna Harrison, ditto

4

Sarah Adlam, ditto

27

Ann Hinds, St. James’s

3

Mary Austin, Westmoreland

51

Bella Inniss, Dry-Harbour

27

Nancy Austin, Rio-Bueno

57

Elizabeth Murray, Falmouth

25

Eliza Clarke, Falmouth

20

Harriot Murray (quadroon), ditto

3

Betsey Clarke, St. James’s

23

Ann Matthewson, Trelawny

6

Jane McGibbon Clarke, ditto

24

Mary Price, Rio-Bueno

26

Eliza Creighton, St. Elizabeth’s

13

Sarah Price, ditto

27

Elizabeth Cross, St. James’s

20

Ann Pight, Trelawny

6

Ann Dennon, Lucea

8

Jane Reid, Westmoreland

24

Bess Fullerton (mulatto), Dry-Harbour

19

Polly Rowe, Falmouth

57

Kitty Fullerton, ditto

25

Hannah Smith, ditto

50

Jane Farquharson, St. James

 

Rachel Smith, ditto

28

Mary Farquharson, ditto

3

Mary Smith, ditto

25

Lucy Haughton, Westmoreland

24

Mary-Ann Tomlinson, Westmoreland

3

Peggy Haughton, ditto

27

Beneba Peate

2

Ann Holliday, Lucea

25

Jane Wannup, Stoney-Hill

60

 

 

 

 

NAMES OF SLAVES

 

MALES, 7

 

Billy Boskew, alias William Rowe to captain Rowe

29

James Foster, to estate of late maroon

41

Charles Reid, to ditto

10

Foster, alias Jacob Alves, to colonel Foster

6

Joe, to ditto

 

John Ogilvie (mulatto), to ditto

14

 

 

Solomon Herbs

2

 

FEMALES, 9

 

Betty, to captain Rowe

8

Dolly, alias Darley, to Molly Dockery

46

Olive, to ditto

33

Rachel, to ditto

47

Phillis 1st, to ditto

32

Betty Graham, to ditto

1

Phillis 2d, alias Elizabeth, to ditto

8

Bessy, to estate of the late colonel Foster

18

Chance, to Molly Dockery

12

 

 

 

Black History Pt 1: The True Identity of the West African Slaves PT 1

blackpeopleshistory

In this and the next series of articles on black history, I will show without any shadow of doubt; the true identity of African-Americans and black people from the Caribbean by revealing the identity  of their  ancestors who originated from West Africa.

About three hundred years ago during the Trans Atlantic Trade many black people were uprooted from West Africa and taken as slaves to the Americas. Since then, their descendants in the Caribbean and in both North and South America, have not stopped searching for their roots. These black people have wondered about the slave trade, why it happened and which people they belong to in Africa. Because of this gap in their black history, descendants of the slaves who are conscious of their identity have worried about their true identity for the longest time.
To find answers, many have turned to DNA profiling to…

View original post 1,747 more words

Jews of Bilad el-Sudan, a summary of the history of Mali & Senegal

The Songhai Empire, c. 1500
Jews of the Bilad al-Sudan (Judeo-Arabicאַהַל יַהוּדּ בִּלַדּ אַל סוּדָּן‎) describes West African Jewish communities who were connected to known Jewish communities from the Middle EastNorth Africa, or Spain and Portugal.Various historical records attest to their presence at one time in the GhanaMali, and Songhai empires, then called the Bilad as-Sudan from the Arabic meaning Land of the Blacks. Jews from SpainPortugal, and Morocco in later years also formed communities off the coast of Senegal and on the Islands of Cape Verde. These communities continued to exist for hundreds of years but have since disappeared due to changing social conditions, persecution, migration, and assimilation.

Early historyEdit

According to most accounts, the earliest Jewish settlements in Africa were in places such as EgyptTunisia,and Morocco. Jews had settled along the Upper Nile at Elephantine in Egypt. These communities were augmented by subsequent arrivals of Jews after the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, when 30,000 Jewish slaves were settled throughout Carthage by the Roman emperor Titus.

Africa is identified in various Jewish sources in connection with Tarshish and Ophir.[1] The Septuagint,[2] and Jerome,[3] who was taught by Jews, and very often the Aramaic Targum on the Prophets, identify the Biblical Tarshish with Carthage, which was the birthplace of a number ofrabbis mentioned in the Talmud. Africa, in the broader sense, is clearly indicated where mention is made of the Ten Tribes having been driven into exile by the Assyrians and having journeyed into Africa.[4] Connected with this is the idea that the river Sambation is in Africa. The Arabs, who also know the legend of the Beni Musa (“Sons of Moses”), agree with the Jews in placing their land in Africa.

Page from the Tarikh es-Sudan which describes Za/Zuwa Alyaman coming from Yemen and settling in Kukiya.

As early as Roman times, Moroccan Jews had begun to travel inland to trade with groups ofBerbers, most of whom were nomads who dwelt in remote areas of the Atlas Mountains. Jews lived side by side with Berbers, forging both economic and cultural ties; some Berbers even began to practice Judaism. In response, Berbers spirituality transformed Jewish ritual, painting it with a belief in the power of demons and saints. When the Muslims swept across the North of Africa, Jews and Berbers defied them together. Across the Atlas Mountains, the legendary Queen Kahina led a tribe of 7th century Berbers, Jews, and other North African ethnic groups in battle against encroaching Islamic warriors.

In the 10th century, as the social and political environment in Baghdad became increasingly hostile to Jews, many Jewish traders there left for the MaghrebTunisia in particular. Over the following two to three centuries, a distinctive social group of traders throughout the Mediterranean world became known as the Maghrebi, passing on this identification from father to son.

According to certain local Malian legends a mention in the Tarikh al-Sudan may have recorded the first Jewish presence in West Africa with the arrival of the first Zuwa ruler of Koukiya and his brother, located near the Niger River. He was known only as Za/Zuwa Alayman (meaning “He comes from Yemen”). Some local legends state that Zuwa Alayman was a member of one of the Jewish communities that were either transported or voluntarily moved from Yemen by the Ethiopians in the 6th century C.E. after the defeat of Dhu Nuwas. The Tarikh al-Sudan, states that there were 14 Zuwa rulers of Kukiya after Zuwa Alyaman before the rise of Islam in the region.[5]There is debate on whether or not the Tarikh es-Soudan can be understood in this manner.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_of_Bilad_el-Sudan

Travel and trade in Songhai

Present day Kuba King. Source: Daniel Laine (2001) National Geographic, from www.news.nationalgeographic.com

The slave trade was also important for the economic development of West Africa. For a very long time, West African kingdoms had relied on slaves to carry out heavy work. The Songhai kingdom under the rule of Askia Mohammed used slaves as soldiers. Slaves were trusted not to overthrow their rulers. Slaves were also given important positions as royal advisers. Songhai rulers believed that slaves could be trusted to provide unbiased advice unlike other citizens who held a personal stake in the outcome of decisions. Another group of slaves was known as palace slaves or the Arbi. The Arbi slaves served mainly as craftspersons, potters, woodworkers, and musician. Slaves also worked on village farms to help produce enough food to supply the growing population in towns.

The Asante kingdom of the Akan people grew in about the 15th and 16th century into a powerful kingdom in the most southern parts of West Africa, present day Ghana. This growth was made possible by the rich gold mines found in the kingdom. The Akan people used their gold to buy slaves from the Portuguese. Since 1482, the Portuguese who were interested in obtaining Asante gold, had opened a trading port at El Mina. As a result, their first slave trade in West Africa was with the Akan people. The Portuguese bought the slaves from the kingdom of Benin, near the Niger Delta in Nigeria. Slave labour made it easy for the Akan people to shift from small scale agriculture to large scale agriculture (Giblin 1992). The shift transformed the Asante kingdom and it developed a wealthy agricultural and mining economy.

The Akan people needed slaves to work their gold mines and farms. Passing traders and a growing population in the Asante towns demanded increasing supplies of food. The slave trade with the Portuguese continued until the early 1700s. The Akan people supplied the Portuguese with slaves to work on sugar plantations in Brazil. A small number of slaves were kept in the Asante kingdom. However, by this period, the Atlantic slave trade dominated trade with West Africa. Kingdoms like the Asante and Dahomey used their power to raid societies like the Bambara, Mende, and Fulanis for slaves. The kingdom of Benin is the only known kingdom in West Africa to abolish slave trading in Benin. The slave trade ban was succesful and forced the Portuguese to search for slaves elsewhere in West Africa. However, Dutch traders took over the role. From the 1600s the Dutch dominated the West african and Atlantic Slave trade.

The Portuguese and Dutch governments were unable to colonise West African kingdoms because they were too strong and well organised. As a result, the slave and ivory, rubber and gold trades remained under the control of Asante, Fon, and Kongo kingdoms. In 1807, the British government abolished the slave trade. Because West African kingdoms did not co-operate with the British, the slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean continued. However, the slave trade declined in areas where the British had influence, for example the Gold Coast.

Travel and trade in Songhai Trade significantly influenced the course of history in West Africa. The wealth made through trade was used to build larger kingdoms and empires. To protect their trade interests, these kingdoms built strong armies. Kingdoms that desired more control of the trade also developed strong armies to expand their kingdoms and protect them from competition. Long distance trade helped the local economy and supported internal trade. Merchants travelling between towns across the Sahara needed places to rest and stock up with food for the journey across the Sahara desert. Food would be provided by local markets that relied on local farms for supplies. This practice allowed merchants to plan long trips knowing that local markets would provide food and shelter. For this reason, many kingdoms in West Africa encouraged agricultural improvements to meet this need. Often this meant uniting smaller farmers, traders and societies into stronger trading blocs. For example, the Kuba kingdom in present day Congo brought together different cultures under a single authority and used the Congo River as a main transport link to other distant kingdoms. As a result, smaller traders joined with each other like the Chokwe and Lunda kingdoms under a single broad-based trade. This led to the increase of ivory and rubber trade between these kingdoms and with Portuguese traders. Present day Kuba King. Source: Daniel Laine (2001) National Geographic, from http://www.news.nationalgeographic.com The slave trade was also important for the economic development of West Africa. For a very long time, West African kingdoms had relied on slaves to carry out heavy work. The Songhai kingdom under the rule of Askia Mohammed used slaves as soldiers. Slaves were trusted not to overthrow their rulers. Slaves were also given important positions as royal advisers. Songhai rulers believed that slaves could be trusted to provide unbiased advice unlike other citizens who held a personal stake in the outcome of decisions. Another group of slaves was known as palace slaves or the Arbi. The Arbi slaves served mainly as craftspersons, potters, woodworkers, and musician. Slaves also worked on village farms to help produce enough food to supply the growing population in towns. The Asante kingdom of the Akan people grew in about the 15th and 16th century into a powerful kingdom in the most southern parts of West Africa, present day Ghana. This growth was made possible by the rich gold mines found in the kingdom. The Akan people used their gold to buy slaves from the Portuguese. Since 1482, the Portuguese who were interested in obtaining Asante gold, had opened a trading port at El Mina. As a result, their first slave trade in West Africa was with the Akan people. The Portuguese bought the slaves from the kingdom of Benin, near the Niger Delta in Nigeria. Slave labour made it easy for the Akan people to shift from small scale agriculture to large scale agriculture (Giblin 1992). The shift transformed the Asante kingdom and it developed a wealthy agricultural and mining economy. The Akan people needed slaves to work their gold mines and farms. Passing traders and a growing population in the Asante towns demanded increasing supplies of food. The slave trade with the Portuguese continued until the early 1700s. The Akan people supplied the Portuguese with slaves to work on sugar plantations in Brazil. A small number of slaves were kept in the Asante kingdom. However, by this period, the Atlantic slave trade dominated trade with West Africa. Kingdoms like the Asante and Dahomey used their power to raid societies like the Bambara, Mende, and Fulanis for slaves. The kingdom of Benin is the only known kingdom in West Africa to abolish slave trading in Benin. The slave trade ban was succesful and forced the Portuguese to search for slaves elsewhere in West Africa. However, Dutch traders took over the role. From the 1600s the Dutch dominated the West african and Atlantic Slave trade. The Portuguese and Dutch governments were unable to colonise West African kingdoms because they were too strong and well organised. As a result, the slave and ivory, rubber and gold trades remained under the control of Asante, Fon, and Kongo kingdoms. In 1807, the British government abolished the slave trade. Because West African kingdoms did not co-operate with the British, the slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean continued. However, the slave trade declined in areas where the British had influence, for example the Gold Coast. For further resources click here

See also https://blackhistory938.wordpress.com/2017/08/06/the-migration-of-judah/

 https://blackhistory938.wordpress.com/2017/06/06/the-hebrew-israelites-and-the-trans-atlantic-slave-trade-connection/

“BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES “BY ANGELFIRE.COM

Bambara people

Link to post

The Bambara (BambaraBamana or Banmana) are a Mandé people living in Africa, primarily inMali but also in GuineaBurkina Faso and Senegal.[1][2] They are considered to be amongst the largest Mandé ethnic groups, and are the dominant Mandé group in Mali, with 80% of the population speaking the Bambara language, regardless of ethnicity.

Bambara, Bamana
BambaraSenegal.jpg

Bambara people in upper Sénégal river valley, 1890. (illustration from Colonel Frey’s Côte occidentale d’Afrique, 1890, Fig.49 p.87)
Total population
(2,700,000 (2005))
Regions with significant populations
MaliGuineaSenegalBurkina FasoNigerIvory CoastMauritania
Languages
Bambara language
Religion
Islam
Related ethnic groups
Mandinka peopleSoninke peopleDiola, other Mande speaking groups.

Contents

HistoryEdit

The Bamana originated as a royal section of the Mandinka people. They are founders of the Mali Empire in the 13th Century. Both Manding and Bambara are part of the Mandé ethnic group, whose earliest known history can be traced back to sites near Tichitt (now subsumed by theSahara in southern Mauritania), where urban centers began to emerge by as early as 2500 BC. By 250 BC, a Mandé subgroup, the Bozo, founded the city of Djenne. Between 300 AD and 1100 AD, the Soninke Mandé dominated the Western Mali, leading the Ghana Empire. When the MandéSonghai Empire dissolved after 1600 AD, many Mandé-speaking groups along the upper Niger river basin turned inward. The Bamana appeared again in this milieu with the rise of a Bamana Empire in the 1740s, when the Mali Empire started to crumble around 1559.

While there is little consensus among modern historians and ethnologists as to the origins or meaning of the ethno-linguistic term, references to the name Bambara can be found from the early 18th century.[3] In addition to its general use as a reference to an ethno-linguistic group,Bambara was also used to identify captive Africans who originated in the interior of Africa perhaps from the upper Senegal-Niger region and transported to the Americas via ports on theSenegambian coast. As early as 1730 at the slave-trading post of Gorée, the term Bambara referred simply to slaves who were already in the service of the local elites or French.[4]

Growing from farming communities in Ouassoulou, between Sikasso and Ivory Coast, Bamana-age co-fraternities (called Tons) began to develop a state structure which became the Bambara Empire and later Mali Empire. In stark contrast to their Muslim neighbors, the Bamana state practised and formalised traditional polytheistic religion, though Muslim communities remained locally powerful, if excluded from the central state at Ségou.

The Bamana became the dominant cultural community in western Mali. The Bambara language, mutually intelligible with the Manding and Dyula languages, has become the principal inter-ethnic language in Mali and one of the official languages of the state alongside French.

End

Musa Musa and Islam in Mali

Musa Keita was referred to (and is most commonly found as) Mansa Musa in Western manuscripts and literature. His name also appears as Kankou Musa, Kankan Musa, and Kanku Musa. ‘Kankou’ is a popular Manding female name, thus Kankou Musa reads “Musa whose mother was Kankou”.

Other alternatives are Mali-koy Kankan Musa, Gonga Musa, and the Lion of Mali.[11][12]

Lineage and accession to the throneEdit

Genealogy of the kings of the Mali Empire based on the chronicle of Ibn Khaldun[13]

What is known about the kings of the Malian Empire is taken from the writings of Arab scholars, including Al-Umari, Abu-sa’id Uthman ad-Dukkali, Ibn Khaldun, and Ibn Battuta. According to Ibn-Khaldun’s comprehensive history of the Malian kings, Mansa Musa’s grandfather was Abu-Bakr Keita (the Arabic equivalent to Bakari or Bogari, original name unknown − not thesahabiyyAbu Bakr), a brother of Sundiata Keita, the founder of the Malian Empire as recorded through oral histories. Abu-Bakr did not ascend the throne, and his son, Musa’s father, Faga Laye, has no significance in the History of Mali.[14]

Mansa Musa Keita came to the throne through a practice of appointing a deputy when a king goes on his pilgrimage to Mecca or some other endeavor, and later naming the deputy as heir. According to primary sources, Musa was appointed deputy of Abubakari Keita II, the king before him, who had reportedly embarked on an expedition to explore the limits of the Atlantic Ocean, and never returned. The Arab-Egyptian scholar Al-Umari quotes Mansa Musa as follows:

“The ruler who preceded me did not believe that it was impossible to reach the extremity of the ocean that encircles the earth (the Atlantic Ocean). He wanted to reach that (end) and was determined to pursue his plan. So he equipped two hundred boats full of men, and many others full of gold, water and provisions sufficient for several years. He ordered the captain not to return until they had reached the other end of the ocean, or until he had exhausted the provisions and water. So they set out on their journey. They were absent for a long period, and, at last just one boat returned. When questioned the captain replied: ‘O Prince, we navigated for a long period, until we saw in the midst of the ocean a great river which was flowing massively.. My boat was the last one; others were ahead of me, and they were drowned in the great whirlpool and never came out again. I sailed back to escape this current.’ But the Sultan would not believe him. He ordered two thousand boats to be equipped for him and his men, and one thousand more for water and provisions. Then he conferred the regency on me for the term of his absence, and departed with his men, never to return nor to give a sign of life.”[15]

Musa’s son and successor, Mansa Magha Keita, was also appointed deputy during Musa’s pilgrimage.[16]

Islam and pilgrimage to MeccaEdit

From the far reaches of the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus River, the faithful approached the city of Mecca. All had the same objective to worship together at the most sacred shrine of Islam, the Kaaba in Mecca. One such traveler was Mansa Musa, Sultan of Mali in Western Africa. Mansa Musa had prepared carefully for the long journey he and his attendants would take. He was determined to travel not only for his own religious fulfillment, but also for recruiting teachers and leaders, so that his realms could learn more of the Prophet‘s teachings.

–Mahmud Kati, Chronicle of the Seeker

Musa was a devout Muslim, and his pilgrimage to Mecca made him well-known across northern Africa and the Middle East. To Musa, Islam was “an entry into the cultured world of the Eastern Mediterranean”.[17] He would spend much time fostering the growth of the religion within his empire.

Musa made his pilgrimage between 1324–1325.[18][19] His procession reportedly included 60,000 men, including 12,000 slaves[20] who each carried 4 lb (1.8 kg) of gold bars and heralds dressed in silks who bore gold staffs, organized horses, and handled bags. Musa provided all necessities for the procession, feeding the entire company of men and animals.[21] Those animals included 80 camels which each carried 50–300 lb (23–136 kg) of gold dust. Musa gave the gold to the poor he met along his route. Musa not only gave to the cities he passed on the way to Mecca, includingCairo and Medina, but also traded gold for souvenirs. It was reported that he built a mosque every Friday.[citation needed]

Musa’s journey was documented by several eyewitnesses along his route, who were in awe of his wealth and extensive procession, and records exist in a variety of sources, including journals, oral accounts, and histories. Musa is known to have visited the Mamluk sultan of EgyptAl-Nasir Muhammad, in July 1324.[22]

But Musa’s generous actions inadvertently devastated the economy of the regions through which he passed. In the cities of Cairo, Medina, and Mecca, the sudden influx of gold devalued the metal for the next decade. Prices on goods and wares greatly inflated. To rectify the gold market, on his way back from Mecca, Musa borrowed all the gold he could carry from money-lenders in Cairo, at high interest. This is the only time recorded in history that one man directly controlled the price of gold in the Mediterranean.[23]

 

THE INDIGENOUS BERBERS OF AFRICA – BY NATURAL MYSTICS

Indigenous Berber, the Blue men, with the eponymous blue cloth veil

One of the most misrepresent people in North Africa are the indigenous Berber people. These beautiful women are not shown on mainstream television, movies and rarely in print. These are the descendants of the ancient Berbers that the ancient Romans spoke of and wrote about.

The original indigenous Berbers were the North African ancestors of the present day dark-brown peoples of the Sahara and the Sahel, mainly those called Fulani, Tugareg, Zenagha of Southern Morocco, Kunta and Tebbu of the Sahel countries, as well as other dark-brown arabs now living in Mauretania and throughout the Sahel, including the Trarza of Mauretania and Senegal, the Mogharba as well as dozens of other Sudanese tribes, the Chaamba of Chad and Algeria.” The Westerners have chosen to concentrate on the most recent world of the Arab and Berber-speaking peoples and present it as if it is a world that has always been. “It is like comparing the Aztecs of five hundred years ago with the ethnic mix of America today,” wrote Reynolds. “The story of when North Africa was Moorish and Arabia, the land of Saracens, has yet to be told.”

– Dana Reynolds, Anthropologist

Anthropologist, Dana Reynolds traced the African roots of the original North African peoples through a dozen Greek and Byzantine (neo-Roman writers) from the first to the sixth century A.D. “They describe the Berber population of Northern Africa as dark-skinned [modern Europeans call dark brown skin color, as black-skinned] and woolly-haired.” Among these writers who wrote about the Berbers were Martial, Silius Italicus, Corippus and Procopius.

Saint Augustine was a dark-skinned Berber and many of the later Roman emperors would have trouble getting citizenship in some of today’s European states.

– Professor Mikuláš Lobkowicz, the former rector of the Munich university and current director of the Institute of Central and East European Studies in Eichstätt.

There are those who say that the Berber is part of the African story of Ham, from the land of Ber, the son of biblical figure Ham.

The original inhabitants of Ireland before the Celts invaded were Berber people who stretch all the way from Saharan Africa to Western Ireland. In North Africa they are known as Berbers, the original people before the Arab invasion of North Africa, they were known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as “barbarians,” the Tuaregs of Nigeria, Niger, Chad, etc. are a Berber people.

https://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-indigenous-berbers-of-africa-by-natural-mystics/comment-page-1/#comment-75794

 

Nok culture

nok

Nok Culture spanned the end of the Neolithic (Stone Age) and start of the Iron Age in sub-Saharan Africa, and may be the oldest organized society in sub-Saharan Africa; current research suggests it predated the founding of Rome by some 500 years. Nok was a complex society with permanent settlements and centres for farming and manufacturing, but we are still left guessing who the Nok were, how their culture developed, or what happened to it.

https://www.thoughtco.com/what-was-the-nok-culture-44236

Wikipedia extract below 

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nok_culture

The function of Nok terracotta sculptures is still unknown. For the most part, the terracotta is preserved in the form of scattered fragments. That is why Nok art is well known today only for the heads, both male and female, whose hairstyles are particularly detailed and refined. The statues are in fragments because the discoveries are usually made from alluvial mud, in terrain made by the erosion of water. The terracotta statues found there are hidden, rolled, polished, and broken. Rarely are works of great size conserved intact making them highly valued on the international art market.

The terracotta figures are hollow, coil built, nearly life sized human heads and bodies that are depicted with highly stylized features, abundant jewelry, and varied postures.

wikipedia Page

The Nok culture is an early Iron Age population whose material remains are named after the Hamvillage of Nok in Kaduna State of Nigeria, where their famous terracotta sculptures were first discovered in 1928. The Nok Culture appeared in northern Nigeria around 1000 BC and vanished under unknown circumstances around 500 AD, thus having lasted for approximately 1,500 years.[1]

CeramicsEdit

Potsherds are the most abundant archaeological artefacts at Nok sites. Since 2009, excavated pottery has been undergoing systematic analysis with a central aim to try and establish a chronology. Certain attributes of the pottery such as decoration, shape and size appear with an increasing frequency and then disappear being replaced with different pottery attributes. This change can sometime allow one to divide the progression into different intervals based on the different attributes. In total approximately 90,000 potsherds have been collected, and out of that 15,000 have been considered diagnostic meaning that they are decorated, sherds from the rim or the bottom of the vessel, or they have handles or holes in them. The results of the pottery analysis can be delineated into three distinct time periods: Early, Middle, and Late.

Early Nok Period ceramicsEdit

From approximately c. 1500–900 BC the pottery of the Early Nok Period are mostly small and not very well preserved. They seem to be richly decorated with various elaborate patterns directly below the vessels’ rims and covering a large part of the ceramic body. The lines made on the pottery seem to be remarkably fine or curving lines. There tends to be many lines which are close together and some even have criss-crossing lines beneath the rim. Pottery frequently had everted and broad, thick rims.

Middle Nok Period ceramicsEdit

The Middle Nok Period is approximately from c. 900–300 BC and with this time period there is a dramatic increase of sites, terracotta fragments and iron objects. Instead of the early period’s decoration which tended to cover most of the pot instead there is a decorative band which is bordered by deep horizontal lines. This band appears on the pots’ upper half or directly under the rim of the bowls. Some bands have a sharp ends as well as impressed zigzag lines or an incised wave or arc. Unlike the Early Nok period the Middle Nok ceramics tend to have more variety in the rim with everted rims, open bowls, bowls with inverted rims and incised line ornaments on the rims’ lips.

Late Nok Period ceramicsEdit

The Late Nok period is from approximately c. 300–1 BC and has only a few known sites. There is little pottery available for analysis but from the pottery that was found there is a decrease in the strictness of the ornamental band. While the band is still used they are being more complexly decorated with additional patterning. There also tends to be a returning pattern of body decoration. The variety of rim sizes and types seem to be increasing even more than in the Middle Nok period.

FarmingEdit

GrainsEdit

At almost all Nok sites there are charred plant remains consisting of firewood and plant material for cooking. Pearl millet remains tend to frequent Nok sites. Pearl millet is one of Africa’s oldest grain crop. It is highly productive and are remarkably resistant to adverse growing conditions such as droughts. Cowpea also appears at sites but less frequently and valued upon their high protein content. So far, pearl millet and cowpeas seem to be the only crops with seem to be cultivated by the Nok people. It is unclear whether they ate or farmed tubers of any kind. The numerous grinding stones found at Nok sites indicate that the grains were most likely ground into flour and made into a type of porridge.[9]

FruitEdit

The collection of wild fruits is attested to the hard pits found at many Nok sites. At some sites, fruit and seeds of other wild plants such as grasses and legumes with small seeds were discovered. Overall there is not a huge selection of plant remains which could be due to different preservation abilities.[9]

Trees and FarmingEdit

The Nok people probably used an agroforestry system which is a plot of land of cultivated crops with useful trees in the same plot of land. These plots are ecologically sustainable and inter-cropping of trees and several cultivated plant species were common from the savannas to the rain forest with its origins going back to the first millennium BC, right at the time of the Nok culture. Most West African trees are not domesticated but are part of the wild vegetation which is left after farmers clear their fields of their crops. Because they are left to grow they multiply naturally without needing to be planted. Trees can produce food, medicine and animal feed.[9]

AnimalsEdit

Because of the acidic soil, there are no bones that have preserved so there is no evidence for which animals if any the Nok people utilized. The only evidence for animals during the Nok culture period is the depictions of animals as figurines or terracotta sculptures.[9]

Looting and repatriationEdit

Since the 1970s, Nok terracotta figures have been heavily looted. Even larger-scale lootingcommenced in the Nok cultural area in 1994, and by 1995 two main local traders emerged. Each of the main traders could employ approximately 1,000 diggers to unearth terracottas every day. Although the majority of the terracottas were fragmented, some were intact and sellable.[10]Because of this, hundreds of Nok Culture sites have been illegally dug in search of these terracotta sculptures. Valuable information about the Nok Culture is lost when these objects are taken from out of the ground and removed from their archaeological contexts.[9]

In 1979, Nigeria’s National Commission of Museums and Monuments Decree established theNational Commission for Museums and Monuments (NCMM), which is used to manage Nigeria’s cultural heritage. NCMM Decree number 77 made it illegal for anyone other than authorized personnel to buy or sell antiquities within Nigeria or export an antiquity without a permit from the NCMM.[10] Towards the end of the 1990s the federal government of Nigeria implemented the NCMM, which initiated a series of actions to work out strategies for combating the problems of looting and to map out a plan of action. The general consensus was that laws governing antiquities and penalties for offenders needed to be strictly enforced and that all archaeological sites should be monitored. The NCMM also recommended more aggressive public enlightenment campaigns as well as a series of sensitization programs across the nation. These programs are considered a success in terms of increased awareness by law enforcement agents, as well as the Nigerian customs authorities and Interpol.[9] However, not all of the recommendations were implemented, because the Nigerian government did not have the resources to face the enormity of some of the challenges. For example, the government did not have the resources to place monitors at all archaeological sites, and terracotta figures still slip through Nigeria’s borders.

MA’AT (Truth and Justice), The Spirituality of the African race.   The Bible is a creation of man.

 3 January 2013 | Feature Article
59

Except for the Africans, every race or tribe in the world has its own spirituality and religions. The Jews have kabbalism, Indians Hinduism and Buddhism, Chinese Confucianism, Caucasians Christianity with their own son as the son of God; Arabs Islam with their son as Allah’s messenger. Africans are the only race in the world besotted to their masters’ Gods and yet Africans invented spirituality and religions. This document is a very important one and is for your own good. As a book, it would cost you money to acquire but we are sending it to you free of charge. Do not abuse the gesture, treat the document with respect. If you cannot read all of the document at once because of time constrains, file it to read later to arm yourself well for the future. Every African receiving documents from me is free to post them on their timeline and send copies to everyone they can reach via e-mails, through blogs, other internet groups, sites or newspapers to publish as a means of informing every African alive and mobilizing us into one family.

African ancestors created spirituality and religion with the launch of the Mystery system, 6,112 years ago. They created over 2000 Gods and Goddesses, the first such in the world, with twelve principal deities that included God Ausar, Goddess Auset, Goddess Ma’at and God Heru, the later being the first human Son of God in history. Ethiopians known as Chaldeans, after colonizing what later became Mesopotamia 6,012 years ago, fashioned the Persian religion from the Mystery System. The religion passed through several phases including Albigensianism as its last relic before resurfacing as Zoroastrianism about 2500 years ago. Ethiopians known now in India as the Dravidians, invaded India between 3250 and 2750 BCE, to establish a civilization in the Indus Valley (see Pears Cyclopaedia, Pelham Books), and give India, Hinduism, which combines elements of their beliefs: the caste system, circumcision, magic, witchcraft, with the influence of the Osirian Mystery System. Hindus are polytheists who worshipped a number of nature-gods, including the cow.

Moses, a Nubian and the incestuous child of Pharaoh Seti I and his daughter, Bathia, adopted Akhnatons’ monotheistic version of the Mystery System to give the Hebrews Kabbalah as they migrated in 1230 BCE, after 400 years sojourn in Egypt, in search of their ‘Promised’ land. Prince Siddhartha Gautama, known as Buddha, a Dravidian, was born around 563 BCE among the Sakya people in Kapilavatthu now Lumini in the lowland Terai region of Nepal, dominated then by the Dravidian (Ethiopian) population. His features, including his thick lips, confirm his Dravidian origin. He gave India Buddhism.

Master K’ung or K’ung-fu-tzu (Latinized as Confucius) was Black. He was born around 551 BCE in the feudal state of Lu, in today’s Shantung province of China. He was trying to improve his people’s way of life by reforming their feudal leadership. He preached that destiny was the synonym of Nature and that Nature decides ones class in life. Prayer is unhelpful in this regard but destiny once received could willfully be prevailed upon for wider choices. He discouraged (witchcraft human sacrifice), prevalent in China at the time and advocated that spirits could be respected but kept at a distance because: “If you cannot serve man, how do you know to serve spirits.” He gave China, Confucianism.

Council of Nicaea (325 CE) created the Jesus Christ phantom. Dr. Martyn Percy, the famous canon expert once wrote and I quote: “The Bible did not arrive by fax from heaven.” The Bible is a creation of man. Man, not God, writes history, and history is always from the perspective of the conqueror, not the conquered. It is the elite, the most powerful in society, that defines the society’s reality, and that is exactly what Constantine did after subduing African influence in the world. In Emperor Constantine’s days, the official Roman religion was Sun worship, (i.e. the African Egyptian cult of Sol Invictus or the Invincible Sun). They called it the Jovian Mystery System and Constantine was the Chief priest.

During the reign of Constantine, and over three hundred years after the alleged crucifixion of Jesus, the Christian population had grown to the extent of posing serious threat to the unity of Rome. The Christians were constantly warring with the Pagans and threatening to tear Rome apart. Constantine, a smart opportunist, decided to tinker with both religions to create a monster one. Constantine converted his Sun God worshippers to Christianity by creating an amalgam, a hybrid, a fusion of ‘Pagan’s’ symbols, dates, rituals, and ideas, into the growing Pagan-Christian traditions of the time, to produce something that compromised and overwhelmed both parties. Constantine produced a sacred entity outside the scope of the human world whose power was therefore unchallengeable by mere mortals, and called it the Roman Catholic Church. To do this, he conveyed his 325 CE Council of Nicaea that produced the Nicaea creed.

The problem at the time, was whether Auset, (who was the Virgin Birth Mother in the ancient African Mystery System, imbibed by the Jovian Mystery, which was being adapted by the Church Bishops, should continue to take precedence over her son Heru, as in the ancient African myth). In the end, God Ausar, (re-named Yahweh), retained his double roles as the Holy Ghost (misunderstood by Christians as the universal ‘Spirit’), and as the human ‘God the Father’ in the African Mysteries, 4,425 years earlier, (who became the Christian Ghost Impregnator), of Mother Auset, re-named Mary, with Auset’s Virgin Son, Heru, (renamed Jesus).

In other words, “Holy” and “Virgin Birth,” were transferred to Jesus and Mary, from Heru and Auset. Jesus became born in Bethlehem and acquired higher rank than his contrived mother. He was supposed to be her first child and to have been miraculously conceived. His foster-father was given the name Joseph, and the carpentry profession, to appeal to humility. The name ‘Christ,’ came from the Greek translation of Christos (meaning anointed), taken from the Hebrew title of Messiah. The Bishops at the Nicaea Council in 325 CE, decided that Jesus, who was supposed to have been baptized as, and called Emmanuel before the Conference, was born in Bethlehem in Judea. All these were happening some 325 years after the purported death of Jesus.

Constantine called and chaired the 325 CE, Nicaea Council, which had 219 Bishops in attendance. Many Bishops turned down Constantine’s invitation to the conference. All the issues raised at the Nicaea Council were debated and voted for, including the role of Bishops, the administration of sacraments, and the divinity of Jesus. The Bishops had several sittings at the Council to perfect their strategy in the guise of separating truth from heresy. The story of how Bishop Arius was commanded by the Bishop of Alexandria to quit his beliefs or be declared a heretic, and how Arius’ writing were ordered destroyed, is eloquent of many things that happened when the Christian religion was being formulated. Bishop Arius was beheaded for saying Christ is not God. Read the lost books of the Bible.

There is nothing divine about the Bible. Humans put it together under vicious acrimonious human circumstances. The Christo in you, as preached by Paul, was the Christian emphasis until the Nicaea Council in 325 CE. Christo was not supposed to be an historical person. The vote to make Jesus (Christo), Christ, divine, human/spirit, and the ‘only Son of God,’ was very dicey and close.

The following statement is taken verbatim from ‘The Encyclopaedia Britannica.’ “Constantine himself presided and actively guided the discussions. He personally proposed the crucial formula expressing the relation of Christ to God in the creed issued by the council as of one substance with the Father … .Overawed by the emperor, the bishops, with two exceptions only, signed the creed, many of them much against their inclination…….”

This is the most important creed in Christendom. It was proposed by the Emperor, to the consternation of many of the bishops in attendance. But out of fear not to offend the Emperor, all but two of the Bishops signed the creed. Today, the Church claims that Jesus is some special breed of God, and that the Bible is some divinely inspired document. Jesus’ divinity was critical because if the Pagan God Heru, was divine and the only ‘Son of God,’ the new amalgam could not afford to be less so, as a means of unifying the two warring Roman groups, and the Roman Empire.

The Kushite (Ethiopian) kabala, soaked in magic and the knowledge of the stars, set the tone for the Islamic religion in Persia, 1000 years before Islam. The Persian (Sabaean) version revered the Venus-Sun-Moon and prayed to the sun at different phases of its course. They had no idols or images and no priesthood. They directed their prayers to the seven planets; had 30 days fasting as in Egypt; prayed seven times each day, with their faces turned towards the north, and the prayers taking place during the same phases daily. They believed in a future life and deified their dead ancestors. Zenzen, a sacred spring, Kaaba, a sacred stone, constructed by Ishmael, son of Abraham and Hagar (the Egyptian Black woman), the historical ancestors of all Arabs and Muhammad, and pilgrimage to Mecca as in Moslem times, already existed over one thousand years before the birth of Muhammad in 570 CE. Abdulai Kabiru, known worldwide as Prophet Muhammad, adopted the Kushian religion and reduced the prayers in Islam to compulsory five, to relieve humanity, making the other two prayers optional.

Religion is perhaps the most potent binding force possible. In fact, there is no other binding force as potent and total. It encompasses a people’s outlook, traditions, culture and philosophy of life. The food we eat and how we prepare it, our manner of dressing, the names we bear, the way we speak or rear our children and our attitudes to life generally are controlled by our spiritually influenced cultures and traditions. But because of public persecution and the mental and psychological damage we have suffered as a result of slavery and colonialism, we are ashamed to flaunt what is ours. We hide our native essence behind the ‘popular’ alien ones.

Every conquering religion claims superiority over those before it and that life began with its advent. Without destroying what is on the ground there is no space for the new religion to begin to breathe and expand. After 2,000 years of Christianity and 1,500 years of Islam, they remain the minority religions of the world compared with their older spiritual movements in Asia and China. Christianity and Islam draw a significant chunk of their membership from conquered people, especially from Blacks. So, they are religions of coercion rather than of freewill, and that makes them even less spiritual.

We as a group are the most bastardized of people on earth by foreign religions and ideas. Our masters’ baby religions take away our human essence, values and worth, by insisting that our native attributes are evil, primitive, and irrelevant. If we marry in our traditional way, it is barbaric and uncivilized. Our burial rites are savage and ungodly. Our history began with our enslavement and colonization, and our IQ is lower than that of the Chimpanzee. So we openly throw away our African traditions to aspire to the benefits of our masters’ ‘superior’ ways of life. We bleach, hot-comb our hair, answer our oppressors’ names, and aspire to speak, think, and dress like them. Now we are neither White nor Black. If anything, we are half Arab or White and half Black, and we are confused because we cannot progress as a people until we decide who we want to be. And if we choose to become fully Arab or Caucasian, are we acceptable to them? We cannot pull ourselves out of our pains through foreign religions that disrespect our humanity, contributions, and largely treat us as lower than wild animals. To move up, we must demolish what is holding us down. That is why the truth about spirituality is being exposed now and through Africa, the cradle from where life, spirituality and religions began.

For every race or group of people, there must be a guide, a spiritual rallying point, a centre of gravity that holds its children together before it can begin to impact on civilization. We as a people desperately need a common spirituality, a code of ethics and discipline. Unfortunately, our ancestors’ belief systems were usurped, doctored, and cannibalized by other racial groups to suppress and enslave us en-mass. We must re-claim and re-Africanize our long lost, or hidden from us spiritual body of ideas, to suit our purpose and empower and fruitfully propel our collective dreams.

African people must gradually lead the world back to its original glorious path of virtuous civilization terminated abruptly some three thousand five hundred years ago by Yahweh, and two thousand years ago by the West taking their cue from Yahweh. We must return to Ma’at. We must bring back the Ausarian (coined from Ausar) principle of world development, which is the original and ultimate form of civilization. This is democracy based on the tripod principles of African communalism, with Ma’at as the binding force. All African dominated governments of the world are to adopt the Ausarian concept of government. Political parties based on the Ausarian concepts are to be formed to take over their national governments from their current Setian (coined from Set or Seth or Satan), control. All Africans, must stop serving the usurping extraterrestrial deity that has declared war on them, and return to Ma’at for their salvation.

Within a sea of evil, an oasis of good can be created that can steadily grow in concentric circles to eventually and totally overwhelm the evil. The speed at which the concentric circles grow would depend on the dedication of members and the strength of their spirituality. It might make slow progress initially because of possible opposition from the oppressive status quo. It will eventually develop its own momentum and speed that cannot be reversed by anyone from within or without.

We are Africans and we are poised to take back our inheritance as human origin, to repair, guide and lead the world aright with Ma’at. Whether in Africa or the Diaspora, we are a special breed of people. Our ancestors created all the original religious myths that rule the world today. They pioneered civilization and we are proud of them all. The blood of Ausar, Auset, Imhotep, Chaka, Nzingha, Nehenda, Prempeh, Toure, Hannibal, L’overture, Truth, Douglas, Shadd, Tubman, Kuzwayo, Marcus Garvey, DuBois, Azikiwe, Nkrumah, Kenyatta, C.L.R. James, Padmore, Albertina, Martin Luther King, Malcolm X and Mandela runs in our veins.

Religions are deceit instruments through indoctrination for mass exploitation. Spirituality is individual spiritual relationship with the inner self and the universal mind. There is no deity or messiah to worship in spirituality and Ma’at is the mother of spirituality and the source from which all other spiritual veneer branched out in tribal directions: Buddhism, Confucianism. Spirituality nurtures gradually at peculiar one-on-one pace, because while we are all potential gods in our own rights, and masters of our individual fates, we each have responsibility for the well-being of others. Religions and faiths create dichotomy between ‘Gods’ and humans to foster the master or select elite syndrome, to numb followers, to raise a loyal tribe of mindless servants, useful as idiots.

Spirituality works for good and evil as with other sciences, but when used for good only, it is called Ma’at. That was what gave the world, Egypt and her scintillating civilization. Ma’at is the mother of universal spirituality; the most potent spirituality in the world; the highest level of science for humans; the ultimate cosmology; the repository of comprehensive knowledge of the cosmos, and therefore of humanity and creation. Ma’at is an open friendly cosmology, founded on respect for observable truth and logic. The deity of the supreme cosmology is justice, honesty and truth. Ma’at is preoccupied with truth, justice, scholarship and honesty. It is the microcosm of the best of the entire African spiritual firmament and its focus is science and verifiable logic. In other words, members worship intellect and scholarship.

We venerate the pursuit of knowledge and scholarship and we love all of humankind and nature. Because of our love of knowledge, we are the ultimate authority on the alchemic process that can transform our brains into the philosophers’ stone. Human brains are capable of much more than we think. It is an electrically powered and electricity-generating organ, composed of an estimated one hundred billion neurons. Each neuron produces and transmits electrical impulses which travel from the cell body down long fibers called axons to reach a junction, or synapse, with another neuron. At the junction point, the electrical impulses or the fire chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters, cross the synaptic gap to receptors on the next cell. Having received the message, that neuron then generates its own electrical impulse and sends it to other neurons to which it is connected.

Each neuron can be connected to thousands of other neurons, each simultaneously sending and receiving impulses to and from thousands of other neurons–so one neuron can electrically alter millions of other neurons. Studies have shown that ascension can happen in one of two ways, evolutionarily or spiritually. Ascension occurs when a human evolves the ability to use about ninety percent of his or her brain capacity. The ancients who ascended naturally reached this point without the aid of technology. They developed the DNA resequencer, a device capable of making humans so advanced that they could perform telepathy and telekinesis; use superhuman precognition and senses at phenomenal speed and strength; achieve perfect health, the gift to self-heal rapidly and the power to heal by touch; and the ability to use many parts of their mind to fully focus on something. Spiritual ascension can occur through meditation when one is pure of spirit and in the search for enlightenment and has a fully opened mind, and has shed one’s fears and attachment to the mortal world. In the process of ascension through meditation, many beings obtain the same supernatural abilities that users of the DNA resequencer receive.

Developing spiritually in Ma’at, is based on the principles of alchemy, which was created by our ancestors for the development of the human race. The spirit world is enveloped in electromagnetism that connects with our spirit doubles and other realities. Universal laws govern the realities, and man is capable of transcending all of them. That is what spiritual evolution is about. It is the knowledge of these subtle realities, and how to harness them for spiritual advancement based on Thoth’s laws, that ancient Africans chiseled into the fine art (that marries spirituality with science), used largely today by the Jews and some elite secret societies, and which has given us nanotechnology, such as the Internet.

Our ancestors taught that spiritual development or progress is possible in degrees through disciplined intellect, adoption of ethical principles and balance in one’s life. That one needs to allow disciplined subtle forces, to dominate ones physical essence. The secret knowledge the adepts taught, was about the mastery of these subtle forces progressively to achieve higher consciousness. Initiates, through purity of thoughts and actions, meditation, service to humanity, and spiritual discipline, became perfect in the act. Aggregate spiritual energy source then gradually, fully occupies their forms individually, for their astral journeys to their cosmic destination. There is therefore a clean spiritual-cum-scientific way to grow spiritually without getting involved in diabolical witchcraft. How to acquire the power of the spirits and the forces wholesomely and decently is one of the most highly guarded spiritual secrets in the world.

The system is called alchemy, and it was created by an African teacher described by ancient Africans as the “Thrice Greatest:” the greatest of all philosophers, the greatest of all priests, the greatest of all kings. His African names included: “Thoth,” “Tehuti,” and “Theuth.” The West knows him as “Hermes Trismegistus.” He was the world’s first “Adept” or “Master.” The system of alchemy is the only known way of genuine spiritual development, and is through the transmutation of the spirit. The Book of Thoth, written in hieroglyphic symbols, provides the key to the mysteries and how to acquire power of the spirits and other forces. Thoth, the father of alchemy, taught that everything (animal or vegetable), is composed of one common element or matter. That, the motivating principle or active agent of matter, in the evolutionary process, is spirit. That, this active agent or spirit, could be released to achieve transmutation. That transmutation or the ripening of matter is a common phenomenon to all things, leading ultimately to perfection of prime matter in all things, in unity with the kingdom and purpose of Tu-SoS. That, the ripening process, could be speeded up, through the imitation of nature in the laboratory. That when the perfect metal of nature is achieved, a perfect philosophic, (body), gold, or receptacle, is required to contain the released spirit. That this done, further transmutations are possible through the agency of the philosophic gold or the philosopher’s stone, and the rigorous imitation of nature.

Every living entity is composed of the four elements, (Fire, Water, Air, and Earth), in unison. Each element in turn consists of two qualities as follows: Fire (dryness and heat), Water (moistness and coldness), Air (heat and moistness), Earth (moistness and dryness). An element may change into another by substituting one quality for another. For example, if coldness is replaced with heat in water, it changes into air (vapour). In the same way, transmutation is possible in the human stone through images symbolic of death such as torturing, killing, separating etc. Prime matter is possible only by the reduction of each element to its essence and combined with other refined elements, to reach the chaotic state of original matter i.e., Genesis. This seed of things could then be treated in a warm vessel or womb of resurrection of what had been killed. By freeing and purifying one’s own spirit, a reciprocal event occurs in nature, but this could not be done without first creating the philosopher’s stone. This is the fifth element, which is the Prime matter of the world, the Fiat, the Word, the pneumatic Logos, the Spirit of Tu-SoS.

Tu-SoS and Man cannot be united except through a perfect medium of body. There are twelve stages in the alchemic work; each symbolized by a house of zodiac. Before embarking on the process, one must first bring order into his life. You must be a perfectly virtuous being, thinking no evil and doing no evil, to be able to achieve the benefits of the process. Nigredo symbolizes the death stage. This is the stage when matter being worked on is killed and when basic form is broken down to free the spirit contained in it. This usually is the most difficult aspect of the alchemist’s work. Alchemists describe this stage as a descent into hell, a period of great doubts when the subject could go mad and even also commit suicide. Very few people go beyond this stage and no one has a blue print on how to survive it. All anyone can hope for is to resort to prayers and leave everything to blind fate. This stage is symbolized by torture, amputation, dissolution, and calcinations, by burning waters, decapitation, wounding, flaying, drowning, starvation, separation, and grinding. To achieve all these, one must be separated completely from material comfort, be alone even in a crowd, helpless, hopeless, deprived, and starved silly.

The Albedo is often referred to as the dawn state. This is the stage when one is stepping out of the darkness of nigredo; a time of washing and cleansing of the impurities. The stage represents transition from base lead to silver and is often represented by a feminine figure such as the moon or nature. It is associated with the symbol of rebirth. While nigredo represents a moment of spiritual death, albedo represents a moment of baptism but the sun has not yet made an appearance. The Rubedo is the period of totally new awareness. This stage is marked by symbols of royalty and domination signaling the birth of the philosopher’s stone.

Alchemy, a divine art, has been laced with severe secrecy from day one. Thoth taught the art mainly to the sons of kings. Thoth’s alchemy produced the long stream of African leaders, seers and priests, who pioneered learning and civilization for mankind. The science is, in modern times, associated with magic, mysteries, astrology and chemistry. Francis Bacon believed in the philosopher’s stone, which could turn base matter into gold, and in an elixir of life, to give eternal youth. Modern researches into radioactivity confirm the possibility of transmutation of certain elements. To permanently conceal African contributions, the art was labeled Paganism by the elite who stole the science to use it to control the world. They have benefited immensely from it over the years; particularly through their elite Thoth inspired secret societies that now collectively dominate aspects of the original techniques. When the creators of the art play at it, the usurpers call them Pagans to discourage mass involvement, while secretly appropriating the secret to ensure their permanent stranglehold on the rest of humanity, and particularly the authors of the art.

All ancient African Gods, including Ammon, Tehuti, Ausar, Auset, Heru and others have been assigned a number of creative projects to supervise and nurture to success. One-week of every month for seven months ‘Festival of the Gods’ would take place annually in honour of the relevant African Gods at the Menephtheion, to bring together the leading artistes, scholars and entrepreneurs from around the world in the following disciplines:

Fashion/Cosmetics/Hairdressing and styles Painting/Sculpting/Crafts

Poetry/Writing
Film/Theatre/Video
Music
Dance/Comedy
Spiritual (incorporating the annual pilgrimage) 
The Menephtheion (meaning): the mind and heart of the African world, co-ordinates the thinking, focus and actions of the entire African race. The Menephtheion is the international headquarters of the Pan African Movement and the spiritual heartbeat of the African race. The Menephtheion, in fact, is to the African world, what the Vatican is to the Roman Catholic Church. All the leading thinkers of the African race, in or out of the citadels of learning are entitled to apply to come on the board of Muses through self and or third party recommendations and nominations. Send your resume and previously (published or not) original piece of writing or research work in any field of knowledge, aimed at solving any of our problems uniquely, and moving us forward collectively as a race. The board of Muses of the African race meets once a year to review the Black Agenda and scrupulously vet applications received, and those admitted into the board are honoured at a special annual ceremony and become entitled to use the title: Muse of the Menephtheion (mm. letters after name), or ‘Muse’ before name, and to participate at the annual Congress of Muses of the African race.

Our pre-occupation in Ma’at is to raise members’ self-help efforts to an art through individual involvement, intellect and unity. Our ambition is individual membership involvement and material and spiritual success. Our message is that no individual is alone; we are who we are because we are members of a family, community, society and race. There is no conceited economic baron or leader among us. No competition between members, only love and sharing of our pains and fortunes collectively and honestly. We love our ancestors because they gave us life. Our one name for our ancestors is Ausar. We love humanity because we are all from the same womb. Working patiently and diligently, we hope to use our collective goodwill, abundant physical energy, enthusiasm for hard work, our widow’s mite and love of goodness and truth to build a fortress of virtue and success. This in time would be a magnet on its own to install the ultimate New World Order of virtuous civilization.

Ma’at is not interested in the idle activities of waiting for the return of a Messiah or praying endlessly, which both imply attempts to avoid direct responsibly for one’s actions and self. It is strong on self-empowerment, enlightenment, enrichment, invocation, and the organization of often latent energy to enable the individual excel. It is not fetish but rational, philosophical, pragmatic, and is uncluttered with senseless restrictions. It is lively and boisterous in celebration of the purest essence of life. It is the binding cosmology of our race, and it is not negotiable because before we became Christians or Muslims etc, we were Black and African, and Ma’at represents this peculiar essence in all of us. It represents our souls as a unique people.

When people pray, for instance, it is not to God Yahweh, a White God that we pray, it is to our guardian spirits, or spirits created by us, or spirits that know us individually and care about us, such as of our dead parents, husbands, wives, siblings, children, and close relatives, that we pour out our hearts without knowing that that is what we are doing. They are the only ones whose listening devices or antennas are permanently tuned to us individually, and whose acute undivided attention is forever fixed on us. They are the only ones who take our prayers to heart because they know us intimately and care. They are the ones who try to help as best as possible, despite difficult physical barriers and constraints. They are the ones best positioned to come, and can come quickly to our aid, because they have a stake in our welfare and wellbeing. In some cases, they act out of guilt feeling of having left us abruptly, or so soon before fulfilling certain obligations and commitments owed us as parents, etc.

But when we dump our ancestors for alien ones, we render our saviours and protectors helpless and that is why our pains as a people seem to have no terminal point. Africans are the only race of people in the world worshipping other races’ Gods, Whites, Arabs and so on, and yet we moan endlessly that we are not making progress as a people. We are asking other people’s Gods to liberate us from their children and that is impossibility. Every parent fights to protect his or her own.

Individual spiritual activities. There is a physical and a spiritual nature to man. What tends to happen in real life is that we concentrate all our energies on fulfilling our physical to the detriment of our spiritual needs. In our quests for survival, we crave very hard for material things until such become insatiable and yet our lives remain dodged by all sorts of fear. The fear of losing our properties, loved ones, and of dying so soon, our selves.

We have material comfort and still we remain unfulfilled. Most religions (including Christianity and Islam), insist that we give up material quest for spiritual peace to reign. Even then, pains have refused to abate in the world. African spirituality believes that we can keep our wealth and be free from fear at the same time. That our spiritual and physical nature can be synchronized. That the synchronization requires conscious individual efforts that demand hard work in our chosen careers, unforced, clean, virtuous and wholesome spirit, fasting and healthy eating regime, abstinence from injurious life-threatening habits, and strong devotion to individual meditation. There is nothing mysterious about this. You must give your vocation your best shots at all times; you must be a good person at heart and in spirit; you must eat well and fast now and again, and you must meditate at a given time daily.

Meditate by your-self or with others. Meditation could be for ten, fifteen, thirty or more minutes, depending on the time you have, the complexity of the issues you are ruminating on, convenience, and your physical location at the time. You could meditate whether you are at home or the office or in a public place or in an aircraft, or moving vehicle, including public transport. If you are at home and can find the time, meditation could last for thirty minutes or more.

Choose a time of day or night that suits you best, preferably in the morning, or evening, or at night before going to bed. You should try to stick daily by whatever time you choose, because your spiritual twin would be waiting for you at the time and you can’t afford to keep the spirit waiting. Meditation is not a prayer session.

According to our deputy leader, Charles Roach, ‘prayers raise the mind up to a Supreme Being, outside of physical reality. Meditation taps on inner human forces. Both are therapeutic for the human spirit. Pan-Africa reflection is like preaching to our-selves. Our own inner voice or conscience shapes and informs our duties, obligations and actions. When we meditate, we are not petitioning anyone for anything; nor do we seek salvation through divine intercession. None but ourselves can bring us salvation. We therefore reflect on what we must do to save ourselves. We revisit the lives of our ancestors; we examine other cultures to discover what we can emulate. Meditation and reflection on the past glory and tribulations of our people, as well as pilgrimage to slave ports and transshipment centres, have a transfiguring effect on the individual.’

During meditation, sit if possible, quietly, effecting a relaxed, comfortable, pose. You should sit hassle-free, back erect, on the floor or on a cushion on the floor. It may or may not be a yogi pose since your comfort is paramount. Wear minimum clothing if you are not in public place because your pose or clothes must not cause you pain or distraction. If you cannot meditate sitting on the floor, relax on a chair or bed; close your eyes wherever you are and shut yourself off from the atmosphere around you for the duration of your meditation. You can do it without closing your eyes too, but it is easier to concentrate by blanking out surrounding physical distractions with eyes closed.

Spend the first few minutes, perhaps two to five minutes, quietly without saying a word or trying to think. Take a few deep soft breaths to ease your body. You need to be at peace with yourself, mentally, emotionally and physically. Listen to your heart beat. Let yourself, not just feel, but hear your own heart beat when silent. Then begin to psyche your sub-conscious being, (the deity) inside you. You can do this with others or alone by yourself even in a crowd, with unspoken or quiet spoken words, or murmurs, or you can remain quiet using thoughts only to meditate, accompanied with a tranquil sense of inner peace. You can do it totally with concentrated attention, drawing deeply into your inner self, demanding, psyching, focusing your spiritual half, to synchronize harmoniously with your physical half. There is no Messiah in meditation. If anything, you are your own Messiah, rallying and appropriating to yourself, all possible virtuous spiritual energies which aggregate the ancestral and divine powers of the universe, sometimes called the universal mind to which we all contribute and can partake of or share in.

At home, alone or with others, you can use deep thoughts alone for meditation, or you can combine deep thoughts with or without voice, to psyche your spirit self, demanding what needs to be done. Do this for as long as time permits. Tell your inner self, or the Great Deity inside you, what you want out of life. Detail how and when you want specific projects achieved. Ask for the health and welfare of your family, loved one’s, friends, anything legitimate, reasonable and objective. Be resolute, confident, trusting, assertive.

You must be clean in character, body, and thoughts, to achieve positive results. A thief or sinner would accumulate negative pay back. If you are a worthy person, demand what you want with authority, and confidence. Avoid merely adventurous thoughts. Concentrate and be articulate. After this, stay quiet for two to five minutes. Allow yourself to drift into a trance if you wish, by repeating a word or words concerning your most urgent requirements, or that capture/s your quest precisely and eloquently several times, at each session. You are psyching, and focusing, your spirit twin.

If you want something badly, concentrate on how to achieve it during meditation. Draw up detailed plan of action in your mind during daily meditation and keep refining this for one, two, three, four weeks or even a year or more. Be focused and resolute. Create positive images of fulfillment and identify with them. The length of time it takes to achieve your plans would depend on the hard work you devote to your plans, obstacles put in your way by others, and how spiritually clean you are. Keep quiet again for about two to five minutes to allow your spirit half absorb all you have said and done. If your eyes are closed while meditating, you may or may not need to switch your electric light off. If your electric light is off day or night, you may or may not need to light candle/s. The choice is yours and if you have to light a candle or candles, it could be scented or unscented. Some people meditate with soothing background music and some find this a distraction.

Fasting: Combine meditation with wet fasting for 1, 3 or 7 days, not every time, only during the period of your most urgent and critical quest. During fasting, eat only once in 24 hours. This we call wet fasting. Eat between the hours of 6.00 pm and 8.00 pm, and limit your main meal to not too oily food, which could be rice, beans potatoes, yam, plantains, and vegetables. Your food must not include meat but you can have fish. You can indulge in fasting longer but remember vegetarian diet alone cannot provide you with all the nutrients you need if you limit yourself too long to it. Our dry fasting means not eating in 24 hours. You can indulge in dry fasting for one day in a month, or one day in three months, unless your constitution can take more days. In both wet and dry fasting, you can drink all the water or fruit juices you need, at will. Thanksgiving (Sara): Do thanksgivings to end fasting quests, or once in a month or in three or six months, otherwise. Thanksgiving could be to your virtuous dead parents, patron ancestors, or the universal mind, of which you are part and from which you could draw inner spiritual strength. Sara could include giving of gifts or cash or cooked or uncooked food, to neighbours or total strangers or beggars on the streets. It could also be small gifts to schools or homes or institutions for the destitute. It could be a small get-together at home and is called ‘sara’ in Yoruba, Nigeria, language.

You give within your means and in replacement for what you would have spent on bad habits, such as smoking and alcohol indulgence. You can keep your reasons for the sara to yourself or share them with beneficiaries, (i.e., to thank my ancestors or to tap into virtuous universal energies for what is due to me not to be hindered, or to psyche positive energies around me to continue to work with my inner spiritual force, to strengthen my resolve and focus.

The simple steps listed here are enough to transform your life spiritually and as you become more adept at what you do, you will begin to hear your sub-conscious voice speak to you. Images and signs would begin to manifest in your dreams to sign post your direction. Your personality, intellect, self-discipline, and confidence, would begin to glow, and you would start to lose the fear of death, or any other fear. Turn your body into a clean temple (Cradle) of virtue and the world would be at your feet.

Everything you do counts, the kind of food you eat, your thoughts and actions all the time, your morality, your level of self-discipline and spirituality, all contribute to make you a great success in life. Be honest, open and accommodating, in your man, woman, relationships, and be the best brother or sister, there can be, to your loved ones, other Ma’ats and your friends and neighbours. As you develop spiritually you become immersed in the MA’AT principles of virtuous spirituality in preparation for higher callings in the Ma’at Cosmology.

If you follow our rather simple spiritual regime you would in no time lose all your fears and as you grow in Ma’at’s spirituality, and begin to acquire the power of the gods and a significant measure of control over your material and spiritual destiny. When one is called a member of the Ma’at family, it means the person is holistically focused, and is a strong pillar of strength in society. A Ma’at member is mentally stable and reliable; morally disciplined and upright, and is invariably a great family person. The Ma’at member is a lover of knowledge and an avid reader. Nothing is taboo to read to expand the member’s mind and spiritual horizon.

Group activities in Ma’at. Like kabbalism, Ma’at is a tightly knit family group, influential and directly or indirectly controlling a good chunk of local resources by virtue of hard work. Ma’at members therefore love hard work and hate being idle. They believe nothing comes easy so they put in everything they have, energy, brains and resources to excel. Members meeting place is called the ‘Ma’at,’ or ‘Mwanzo,’ or ‘Cradle,’ (or any other appropriate name in native dialect for the Cradle), just as the Church is to Christians. Members gather at the ‘Ma’at’ on a Sunday (the ancient African feast day), in a boisterous, lively, social gathering and co-operative society-like atmosphere. ‘Ma’at’ branches can add peculiar local flair and embellishments to their merry-making to capture strong community ethos. The gathering is called AFEFE (meaning, Ma’at wind that soothes and caresses), and is laced with happy revelry, suffused with drumming, singing and dancing.

A major event of the day is a lecture by a special guest of honour who may or may not be a member of Ma’at but who is knowledgeable, or is an expert in his field of lecture. The opportunity is used to invite scholars, important people in the community, government, or commerce, to educate the Ma’at members on the latest national issues and debates as they affect their well-being. Every lecture must leave the audience better informed and grateful for attending. A short question and answer session is encouraged after the speaker’s presentation.

After the lecture session, the congregation transforms into Mjane Msaada community empowerment parliament to set up projects, make levies, assign jobs and receive reports, on what have been accomplished. Mjane Msaada requires every member of the Ma’at branch to contribute an agreed levy weekly, (could be fifty, or a hundred or more units of the local currency), into a pool called Mjane Msaada, which the Ma’at branch builds up to finance projects. Members’ contributions are compulsory. So, why pay tithes, thanksgiving, etc., to enrich Priests and Alfas, when you can invest all that money in yourself in the Ma’at? A well run Ma’at branch, is expected to become a successful, efficient and highly respected hub of social, spiritual, cultural, political, intellectual and economic activities in its community within a short time. Three to five years at the most, buying up manufacturing companies, large farms and housing estates for members, office complexes to let, schools, investing in the stock exchange etc., and turning members into millionaires and business tycoons. Members are entitled to receive priority employment advantage in their Ma’at businesses as long as the applicants are qualified for the jobs.

Every race has her spiritual base. The Caucasians, Rome and Jerusalem; Arabs, Mecca, and are making millions of dollars from thousands of African spiritual tourists and pilgrims yearly. African Pilgrimage, AP, is an annual event, and takes off in March/April of every year. The first AP is planned for 2017 in Nigeria. AP brings together all the ideological tendencies and movements of the African race in celebration of our oneness and triumph as a people, and to pay homage to our illustrious ancestors. AP celebrates the family unity of all the children of Africa, from Cuba, Jamaica, Antigua, Barbados, Brazil, Guyana, Zimbabwe, Europe, USA, Australia, Ghana, South Africa, Nigeria etc. AP is to the African race, what the annual pilgrimage to Mecca is to the Arabs, or to Jerusalem is to the Christians.

With the coming on stream of the African Union (AU), the political sting of the irregular Pan African Congresses of the Pan African Movement has now become largely cosmetic. AP replaces the Pan African Congresses from the 8th Congress, to provide the anchor and propelling force for Black unity and ascendance. All future Pan-African Congresses would be known as AP, the African Pilgrimage. The African Union (AU), despite its constitutional and operational weaknesses, has considerably diluted the political importance of the Pan-African Congresses and almost rendered them irrelevant.

AP would concentrate on the areas of comparative advantage and through moral persuasion, discipline and scholarship, maintain a vibrant lobby on the AU, to ensure comprehensive, fused, and focused, self-fulfillment, advancement, and ascendance, of the entire African race. The African Union (AU) is to be lobbied, to be strengthened, to take care of the political aspirations of the entire Black race, while the Pan-African Movement, known also as (APU) the African Peoples’ Union, concentrates on the spiritual through Ma’at.

Every Black person in the world, every Ma’at member must perform AP, the African Pilgrimage, at least, once in a lifetime. The seven-day long pilgrimage, involves meetings of leaders, cultural ceremonies and events, exhibitions, seminars, spiritual home coming rituals, offers of reverences, and a mammoth carnival procession. Each pilgrim ritually slaughters a goat to the spirits of our ancestors during the pilgrimage week. Every male who has performed the pilgrimage is entitled to use the title ‘Azah’ (or Azahaaze in full) before name. Female counterparts use the title: ‘Azinii’ (or Aziniida in full) before name. Both titles mean spiritually cleansed. AP is expected to grow into one of the biggest, liveliest, spiritually fulfilling, attractive cultural, intellectual, commercial and tourists events and destinations in the world. Calabar or Badagry in Nigeria would serve as the dream venue and permanent site for the annual African Pilgrimage. Calabar has a vibrant spiritual culture and strong physical memory. It was a major seaport for slavery, providing access to slaves from the interior of Africa. In fact, 27% of all African slaves went through the Calabar port, whereas Ghana, Senegal and the Gambia combined, had only 10%.

Badagry was actually our first choice home for the African pilgrimage. That was why we held our first Black Think Tank meeting there in August 1992. The Oba of Badagry was very happy with the prospects and he gave us maximum cooperation and encouragement, but as we got nearer actualization date, the nightmarish congestion on the Expressway from Lagos to Badagry and the lack of amenities in Badagry to support bringing thousands of people there yearly for a day or a week, began to force us to re-order our plans. That is how Calabar came into the picture, the new TINAPA facilities there, were the lure but Calabar on its own confronted us with transportation logistic nightmare. Now we can transfer the annual week-long African spiritual pilgrimage back to Badagry because the Lagos State Government has embarked on expanding the Lagos – Badagry Expressway from four lanes to ten, and would provide a mono-rail and rapid bus services on the route by the end of 2013. Several cities are being developed as additional pilgrimage experience points and include: the Ogun shrine, the Yemoja festival in Oshogbo and the Oro festival in Ogun state. The Igue festival in Benin City, and the Sukur kingdom mountain in Maiduguri. The Kerengwa water falls in Nasarawa with its therapeutic health benefits. Nasarawa also provides the opportunity to visit the God of the Sun at home.

Membership of the Ma’at-Pan-African Movement-African People’s Union is the birthright of every Black person in the world. The right is inherited at birth, the same way we acquire our family names the day we were born. When you subscribe to your Ma’at-Pam-Apu birthright, you are helping to build one of the greatest Movements of people the world has ever known. Ma’at is the spiritual incubator of the Movement. Just as an Israeli is a Jew, nurtured and driven by kabbalism, a Pan-Africanist or Black is first and foremost a member of the Ma’at. Ma’at is the binding cosmology of our race, and it is not negotiable because before we became Christians, or adherents of the Islamic faith etc, we were Black and African, and Ma’at represents this peculiar essence in all of us. It represents our souls as a unique people.

Ma’at family Study Group meetings start with a quiet moment of meditation say for 2 to 5 minutes, depending on choice of the group. Attention at the meetings is given to how to build up membership, and how to help each other grow in legitimate individual activities as a member of an indivisible family group; the promotion of spiritual and social cohesion among members, and the provision of community services to help improve the transformation of our environments generally for public good. Each member volunteers time and resources to help each other and to help solve identifiable, quantifiable projects and activities useful to the group or the neighbourhood, to arrest decay and put them on the path of wealth building for the Ma’at family members. We want people who would help us take back our leadership of the world legitimately with brains and brawns. We want people who by dint of hard work and sharing, as one indivisible family in the Ma’at, would become and are seen to be among the most successful and virtuous human beings in the world. We want to win our respect back as the ancestors of the human race, the origin, the first born, because our time has come and we cannot afford to leave you behind. So, if you are Black, regardless of where you may be living in the world right now, you are an African and that means you are of the cradle, the origin, the first, and the first is the best in any language. Join the potentially one billion members’ strong African revolt.

We are taking back our leadership of the world from where our ancestors were pushed off inelegantly some 2000 years ago. Join us to colonize the world with our African walk, African swagger, African songs, African dance, African fashion, African science, African technology, African creativity, African business acumen, African scholarship, African spirituality, African joy and reverence for life. Join us to start the most thorough, most ennobling, most comprehensive, most profound revolution in human history. Join us to launch mankind’s final revolt – the destruction of hate, oppression, marginalization and racism. Join us to enthrone a world that cares, a world of love, a world that belongs to all who dwell in it. To start a Ma’at branch or to join us is easy. If you are African and do not belong to any religious faith, or you are already a leader, teacher, student, follower or adherent of Ma’at, whether in South America, USA, Canada, the Caribbean, the Pacific, Europe, Asia or Africa, you are welcome to join the universal Ma’at movement now. It is compulsory for all Africans and Blacks worldwide to switch to Ma’at right away, whether they are Christians; Muslims; adherents of traditional African faiths such as Sango, Olokun Ogun, Amadioha etc or followers of other none African religions or spiritual movements. When you switch, you can no longer practice your old faith. All that is required of you is the desire to get a Ma’at branch started or to join one near you. Two books have been prepared for the spiritual revolution. They are (a) The end of knowledge and (b) Ma’at: truth and justice. While waiting for the books, use this document to get started.

We expect you to start by inviting family members, friends and neighbours to join your Study Group and to probably start off with two or three or four members, meeting initially once a week in your home or at a chosen venue. Each member of your group is expected to invite family members, friends and neighbours to every follow-up weekly meeting, which could then be in rotation at the homes of other members that you all agree upon or that volunteer to host such meetings. We expect initially that people living in the same condo, or next door to one another, or neighbouring streets or district, or within a block or two or three of each other, or at a school, college, or work place, would begin to come together weekly as a Ma’at family group to study our two books an thoroughly familiarize themselves with what the Ma’at spirituality and movement is about. Every member of the Ma’at family study group and of Ma’at generally would be expected to get a copy each of our two mobilization books: (a) The end of knowledge and (b) Ma’at, truth and justice, eventually, to assist members individually and as a group in their studies and to serve as guide and reference documents and as comforting spiritual companions for the rest of their individual lives.

When the Study Group has grown into a family of (say twenty or more members), and the group is satisfied that members understand what Ma’at and the Movement are about, the group then elects officers such as Aggar-Ra or Agger-Re and so on, and registers and subscribes to the movement, to receive a reference code to form a street, community, work place, school, state or national Ma’at branch of the Ma’at-Pan African Movement-African People’s Union, and to be entitled as a branch to the following:

(a) A registration code number
(b) ONE BLACK WORLD, the Ma’at-Pam-Apu newsletter.
(c) Join the ‘Reparations’ Brigade.
(d) Join the Ma’at-Pan-Apu Passport (PAP) lobby.
(e) Be guided on repatriation/relocation strategies to Africa, which includes cultivation of dual citizenship of your birth place and of an African country of your choice on the continent. In the first instance, we have acquired acres of rural land in Nigeria (and more acres of land are being negotiated) for those desirous of immediate relocation to Africa.

(f) Join the Ma’at-Pam-Apu.
(g) Participate in ASSAP, the annual African Spiritual Summit and Pilgrimage.

(h) Hold office in Ma’at-Pam-Apu.
(i ) Aspire and if qualified, become a Muse of the Menephtheion (mm.).

(j) And, of course, be a shareholder in the African World Bank (AWB) along with every other African alive, through the Zawadi Kwafrica Fund.

We want people who would help us take back our leadership of the world legitimately with brains and brawns. We want people who by dint of hard work and sharing, as one indivisible family in the Ma’at, would become and are seen to be among the most successful and virtuous human beings in the world. We want to win our respect back as the ancestors of the human race, the origin, the first born, because our time has come and we cannot afford to leave you behind.

So, if you are Black, regardless of where you may be living in the world right now, you are an African and that means you are of the cradle, the origin, the first, and the first is the best in any language. Join the potentially one billion members’ strong African revolt. We are taking back our leadership of the world from where our ancestors were pushed off inelegantly some 2000 years ago. Join us to colonize the world with our African walk, African swagger, African songs, African dance, African fashion, African industry, African science, African technology, African creativity, African business acumen, African scholarship, African spirituality, African joy, reverence and love for life.

Join us to start the most thorough, most ennobling, most comprehensive, most profound revolution in human history. Join us to launch mankind’s final revolt – the destruction of hate, oppression, marginalization and racism, to enthrone a world that cares, a world of love, a world that belongs to all who dwell in it.

NAIWU OSAHON Hon. Khu Mkuu (Leader) World Pan-African Movement); Ameer Spiritual (Spiritual Prince) of the African race; MSc. (Salford); Dip.M.S; G.I.P.M; Dip.I.A (Liv.); D. Inst. M; G. Inst. M; G.I.W.M; A.M.N.I.M. Poet, Author of the magnum opus: ‘The end of knowledge’. One of the world’s leading authors of children’s books; Awarded; key to the city of Memphis, Tennessee, USA; Honourary Councilmanship, Memphis City Council; Honourary Citizenship, County of Shelby; Honourary Commissionership, County of Shelby, Tennessee; and a silver shield trophy by Morehouse College, USA, for activities to unite and uplift the African race.

Naiwu Osahon: the Sage of the New World Order, renowned author, philosopher of science, mystique, leader of the world Pan-African Movement.

Historical black figures in Europe and beyond

 

 

 

4ba512f6d7d3a3c54340b369d563275f

20170624_231402.jpg

On this date Elizabeth “Bessie” Coleman was born in Atlanta,Texas on January 26th in the year 1892 Coleman was an African American civil aviator. She was the first female pilot of African American descent and the first person of African-American descent to hold an international pilot license.


In 1915, at the age of 23, she moved to Chicago, Illinois, where she lived with her brothers and she worked at the White Sox Barber Shop as a manicurist, where she heard stories from pilots returning home from World War I about flying during the war. She could not gain admission to American flight schools because she was black and a woman. No black U.S. aviator would train her either. Robert S. Abbott, founder and publisher of the Chicago Defender, encouraged her to study abroad. Coleman received financial backing from a banker named Jesse Binga and the Defender.

Coleman took a French-language class at the Berlitz school in Chicago, and then traveled to Paris on November 20, 1920. She learned to fly in a Nieuport Type 82 biplane, with “a steering system that consisted of a vertical stick the thickness of a baseball bat in front of the pilot and a rudder bar under the pilot’s feet. On June 15, 1921, Coleman became not only the first African-American woman to earn an international aviation license from the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, and the first American of any gender or ethnicity to do so, but the first African-American woman to earn an aviation pilot’s license. Determined to polish her skills, Coleman spent the next two months taking lessons from a French ace pilot near Paris, and in September 1921 sailed for New York. She became a media sensation when she returned to the United States.

images-189images-259f8635e1783d6fa1b21e7d24577c79b5454946875c62d0ac39f46dec46c8eab35Untitled6_600_976_80_sb8d45a0eabf0524fdd18a9f9f9891bf7images-243

148d45ec10ae213f376b40842b740b50

791094f28449e688a152478ac91c8deeDutchLouise_Marie_ThereseAgrippineimages-2972017-06-21-13-03-23-2030685776maharaja7bac1-elizabeth_stuart854f9-turkey5a474-blackcoinsturkey