Category Archives: Black history

Rice production in Nigeria

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Slaves were taken from Windward & Rice coast which was described as Senegal and also from The Gold Coast which covered Ghana and areas such as Nigeria and Benin. The word Niger is obviously from the surrounding areas of Niger and Nigeria. Nigeria still has a large rice trade shown in the first picture above.

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Interestingly enough I am related to some Perez who were taken from Nigeria and Accra Ghana by the Spanish. They were taken to the carribean islands America England Haiti and Spain and portugal. The four corners of the earth as described in the Bible. Rice and Gold played a huge part in the European interest in Africa aswel as Ivory.

The below post is from http://www.Naij.com

What role is occupied by rice production in Nigeria? What are the major rice producing states in Nigeria? Nigeria is the largest producer of rice in West Africa. The demand for this product in Nigeria still continues to grow. The government is making efforts to promote rice production and import to meet the demand of the population. Increasing importance is given to rice cultivated in the valleys of Niger and its tributaries – Sokoto, Kaduna, Benue. In the province of the Niger was established country’s first experienced irrigation system, in order to irrigate rice fields in the area of about 400 ha. Rice production in the country reaches 200-250 thousand tons. Bear in mind that rice is mainly grown in moisted areas of Eastern Africa (the Nile valley or Madagascar).

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Rice farming types Nigeria has rice fields of three types. 1st type On the first type of fields rice is grown with continuous flooding until the crop is almost ripe, and before gathering harvest the water is eliminated. This method is used in about 90% of world rice production. 2nd type Such rice is grown without irrigation in areas with high rainfall. Both of these methods can be used to plant the same sorts of rice, but in the first case, the crop is usually better. 3rd type Such rice is grown in floodplains during floods. It is done with rapidly elongating stems, and panicles float on the water surface. Annually, this method of rice growing is only possible on small pieces of land, in comparison with the other types of rice farming, it gives much poorer crop even at the time using of other methods. However, it is a very important source of food for the population of river valleys in Asia. Rice producing states in Nigeria READ ALSO: Natural resources in Nigeria Main pecularities of Nigeria rice farming The main environmental factors limiting rice production are temperature and soil moisture. Rice is a plant which loves plants, but too high temperature can lead to its excessive vegetative growth and mutual shading of shoots in crops. The abundance of sunny days, creating favourable conditions for photosynthesis, usually contributes to a greater harvest. Nigerian farmers tips On rice fields with the hilly terrain, rice is growning on sloping terraces, enclosed by ramparts that keep water. Sandy soils, despite the low natural fertility, with adequate treatment often give the highest yields. When sowing rice in dry soil, it should be immediately flooded, and then you need to change the water depth, depending on the phase of development of plants, control weeds and pests. When gathering crops with combine, grain moisture content should in average be 18-22%, and it should not be lower than 16%, otherwise it can crack.

What are rice producing states in Nigeria? Rice producing states in Nigeria Here you will see a list of rice producing states in Nigeria Northern states: Benue; Borno; Kaduna; It’s the main producing rice state. Kano. Nigerian farmers produce here UMZA rice. Niger. Mama Happy rice is the main product of rice production in this state. Taraba. Southern states: Enugu; Cross River; Ebonyi. Here they produce rice having the same name as the state has. Nigeria largest rice production enterprises Capital Rice, the largest rice exporter in Thailand, has offered to combine efforts with West African conglomerate Stallion Group to create a joint venture for the management of rice plant in Nigeria. African countries buy different varieties of Thai rice, but parboiled rice still remains the most loved among consumers of the Western coast of the continent. Former President of the Association of Thai rice exporters said that Nigeria permits foreign companies to grow rice and manage enterprises specializing in the processing of grain to reduce dependence on exports of rice and achieve food sovereignty. READ ALSO: History of agriculture in Nigeria before independence Now you know everything about rice production in Nigeria.  

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Exploration of The Hebrews descended from the tribe of GAD

 

As the Hebrews continued toward the border of their promised land they fought and subdued the people who occupied the land where they were traveling. As a result a large part of what is now Jordan became the territory of the tribes of Gad, Reuben and Manasseh. Moses allowed those tribes to have their inheritance […]

My Grandmother use to tell us that we descend from the Tribe of GAD. Interestingly enough our ancestry DNA links us to the GA Tribe of Ghana, the Bantu of South Africa and the Mali region.

Check out this video by a self named Gentile as he confirms who the real Jews are  https://youtu.be/bEDfrBBPZzg

DEUTERONOMY in the bible.

….if thou shalt hearken…. to do all his commandments….God will set thee on high above all nations of the earth:…Blessed shalt thou be in the city and blessed shalt thou be in the field. Blessed shall be the fruit of thy body…the fruit of thy ground;;;;the fruit of thy cattle…Blessed shalt thou be when thou comest in, and blessed shalt thou be when thou goest out. The Lord shall cause thine enemies…to be smitten before thy face: they shall come out against thee one way, and flee before thee seven ways……And the Lord shall make thee the head and not the tail….But it shall come to pass, if thou shall not hearken to the voice of the Lord thy God, that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee. Cursed shalt thou be in the field. Cursed shall be the fruit of thy body, and the fruit of thy land. Cursed shalt thou be when thou comest in, and cursed shall thou be when thou goest out. The Lord shall send upon thee cursing, vexation, and rebuke….The Lord shall make the pestilence cleave unto thee, until he have consumed thee from off the land….The Lord shall bring a nation against thee from far…..And he shall besiege thee in all thy gates…..and thou shalt eat the….. flesh of thy sons and of thy daughters…in the siege. (from Deuteronomy 28:1-53)

Friends, if you think this is gross, you need to know that it really came to pass eventually, for the Hebrews, the Israelites, the chosen people of God turned their backs on him. Their blessings went away and the curses came upon them, exactly as said.  Jeremiah records: They that be slain with the sword are better than they that be slain with hunger:….the hands of the pitiful women have sodden their own children: they were their meat in the destruction of the daughter of my people. (Lamentations 4:9-10)

Further, the Lord told them: And ye shall be left few in number, whereas you were as the stars of heaven for multitude….And the Lord shall scatter thee among all people…And among these nations shalt thou find no ease….(Deuteronomy 28: 62,64-65) And so it has been. The Jews have been scattered over the face of the planet, and continue to be persecuted. Anti Semitism is everywhere, even in the U.S.

But, God is not finished with his people the Hebrews: And the Lord shall scatter you among the nations. But if from thence thou shalt seek the Lord thy God, thou shalt find him…When thou art in tribulation, and all these things are come upon thee, even in the latter days, if thou turn to the Lord thy God…he will not forsake, neither destroy thee, nor forget the covenant of thy fathers which he sware unto them. (Deuteronomy 4:27,29-31)

Repentance was the key to restoring the Israelites to right relationship with God. It still is, not only for Israel, but for us who are not Israel. God is not mean, but his laws can not be set aside or ignored, for there are consequences for sin. He has provided the way for us all, through Jesus, to be forgiven and set on the right path, toward heaven, and not toward hell.

Extract from Into the Promised Land — toxawaytellit

 

I am going to explore in this post the Hebrew Teachings in the Old Testament And Tanakh and of the Hebrew Israelites.

For me there has always been a need to explore the religions. I grew up reading the bible. There are so many different versions of the Bible which has caused much divide and critics from religions such as the Jewish Rabbis and Muslim Imams. Yesterday I started to read the Tanakh and found chapters which have been omitted from the King James Version of the Bible which relates to and addresses the tribes of Judah.


http://haitianisraelites.weebly.com/25-beliefs-of-the-hebrew-israelites.html Extract below outlining the Hebrew belief.                                                  

    25 Common Beliefs of the Hebrew Israelites

  1. Most Hebrew Israelites believe that the Torah(Law), or the first five books of a Christian bible, Genesis, Exodus,Leviticus, Numbers,Deuteronomy must be observed. This include the feasts (Leviticus 23), circumcision,weekly shabbat, tithes, offerings(burnt or not), consecration(Nazarites),eating clean foods, fasting,and the celebration of new moons.
  2. Most Hebrew Israelites believe that Yahshua, Yeshua, or Yahwahshi,Yahshayah,known as Jesus in Christianity, is the prophet prophesied by Moses (Deut 18:18). He was a teacher, he observed and never taught against the torah, he was a Jew(offspring of Judah),he was a man of color and the father(Ahayah) called him his son as he also called himself the son of the father. He came for the lost sheep Israel(Matt 15:25). He was crucified and rose out of the dead in three days.
  3. Most Hebrew Israelites believe that “The white men” or Europeans are descendants of Israel’s twin brother Esau, also known as Edom.(Genesis 25:25). They also believe that The Most High, at the end of days has a stern punishment reserved for Esau’s children for enslaving the Hebrew Israelites.
  4. Most Hebrew Israelites believe that the descendants of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade slaves are the true and authentic chilren of Israel from the House of Judah(Levi,Judah,Benjamin) who went to Africa in 70 A.D fleeing Roman Persecution. They use as reference “From Babylon To Timbukto” which states that 1000 000 Israelites fled to Africa during the Roman Persecution and a prophecy found in Deut 28:68, which states that the Hebrew Israelites would return to Egypt(House of Bondage), in ships and no one would redeem them.
  5. Most Hebrew Israelites also believe that the Native Americans and their descendants, known as Hispanics are descendants of the 10 Lost tribes of the House of Israel. According to several Hebrew Israelites’ websites, the Native Americans, known as Native Indians, were exiled by the Assyrian King Salmanasar 722 B.C in ships. It took them one year to have gotten to the place, which is known today as America(North, South and Central). No one lived on the place before their arrival.(2nd Esdras 13:45-49, Apocrypha). They also use the pyramid build by the aztecs to support their assertion.
  6. Most Hebrew Israelites believe that baptism with water can and should be done.
  7. Most Hebrew Israelites believe in marriage between a man and a woman.
  8. Most Hebrew Israelites believe that the term Black Hebrew Israelites is not appropriate but is simply a pleonasm as the Hebrew Israelites were originally black.
  9. Most Hebrew Israelites refuse to accept the Talmud because it was written by Europeans during the the first century.
  10. Most Hebrew Israelites refuse to be called Jewish because the term Jew-ish is more definable as someone who is “sort of a Jew” or someone who follow Judaism, a religion they do not follow.
  11. Most Hebrew Israelites do not support marriage between a gentile(Non-Israelite) and an Israelite(Negroes,Hispanics, Native Americans,Seminole Indians)
  12. Most Hebrew Israelites believe that the term Negroe can be used to define the descendents of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade slaves and can be use to distinguish them from the Africans(Hamites).
  13. Most Hebrew Israelites believe that Israel (not the State of Israel) will be a nation again.
  14. Most Hebrew Israelites believe that the Arabs(Ishmaelites), The Africans(Hamits) and the Europeans(Edomites) work together to enslave the House of Judah(Judah, Benjamin,Levi).
  15. Most Hebrew Israelites believe that being an Israelite is not a religion but a nationality and a lifestyle.
  16. Most Hebrew Israelites believe that the fall of United States and the European rule is eminent.
  17. Most Hebrew Israelites reject Islam because it was founded by an Ishmaelite.
  18. Most Hebrew Israelites practice separatism instead of racism. In order words, Hebrew Israelites don’t judge based on color but whether you’re part of the Twelve Tribes of Israel or not
  19. Most Hebrew Israelites reject the Khabbalah
  20. Most Hebrew Israelites reject the Quran
  21. Most Hebrew Israelites reject Christmas, Halloween, and Easter.
  22. Most Hebrew Israelites reject Homosexuality
  23. Most Hebrew Israelites reject Transgenderism
  24. Most Hebrew Israelites refused to be called or compared as Christian.
  25. Most Hebrew Israelites believe that this(underneath) is the Twelve Tribe of Israel plus the rest scattered, who should be able to find their tribes by their father’s blood.

 This was written by Kohath A. Ben Levy

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An interesting article  http://ezinearticles.com/?Come-Out-Of-Babylon-My-People&id=8020251

According to Etymologist Lew White, Dr. C. J. Koster, and the Institute for Scripture Research, we have been lied to for over 1600 years. You can read about it in Lew’s book called “Fossilized Customs and in C. J.’s book called “Come Out of Her MY People” as well as in “The Scriptures”, a non-paganized Bible translation.

B. Jesus:

• Seven reasons I know that “Jesus” is not the Savior’s name.

1. “Jesus” is a Greek name. Our savior was Hebrew.

• What does the name mean?

According to Lew White, “Jesus” means “Hail Zeus” or “Praise Zeus”, the primary Greek pagan god.

2. Records indicate His name is spelled “YOD HEY VAV SHIN AYIN”. Any first year Hebrew student can tell you that this does not spell “Jesus”.

3. The Scriptures tell us that the Father’s name is contained in the Son’s name. The Father’s name is not contained in “Jesus”.

4. When Ken Thornburg of California tried to cast a demon out in the name of “Jesus”, the demon said back to him “You can’t cast me out in my name”. Demons are terrified of Messiah’s name and they hate it. A demon is not ever going to be named by it.

5. You might be thinking that “Jesus” couldn’t possibly be the name of a demon. Unfortunately I have personal experience to the contrary. I met a girl who was attending Awanas meetings wednesday evenings at a local Christian church when she was 7 years old. One day she started lying and telling horrible disgusting things to anybody that would listen. Her mother discovered this all started when she went forward at Awanas to give her life to “Jesus”. She obviously got the demon. Her mother lived with that demon for 7 long years and have no doubt that it was the demon Jesus speaking through her. I was warned 2 years after the fact that a 7 year old is too young to ask Christ into her life because children that young don’t have discernment of spirits. They can’t tell who they are inviting in. And, when you’re only going by the name “Jesus”, you obviously don’t know what you’re going to get.

6. I met a man named David in a singles group in Monroe, Washington. David was married, but God told him to meet someone, there; ME. And through a rather odd series of events, my boat wound up in Houston, Texas where David lives. When I went there to get it, David and his wife, Susan, told me this story:

“We were at a Passover celebration when a very tall man was teaching. He was very knowledgeable and taught with great authority. After the meeting and the teacher left, the Pastor asked David where he got such a great teacher to which David replied “I didn’t get him, I thought you did”. No one seemed to know where he came from”.

• What does He prefer to be called?

“Before the teacher left, he said, referring to David and the Pastor calling Him “Lord”; they prefer to be called “Yahuveh” and “Yavehshua”. These are Sacred, Holy names. Do not disrespect or abuse them. If you do, the plagues written in the Book of the Revelation will be upon you”.

David and Susan added “they are very powerful because they call directly upon God. And don’t try to demand anything, but always ask “if it be your will” because you will get what you ask for and if it’s not God’s will, you could have the Revelation plagues upon you.”

7. My spirit testifies to the validity of these names. I know that I know that they put me directly in contact with my heavenly father. In contrast, the name “Jesus” never gave me the same experience, even though I had been a Christian for many years previous. I even met a lady at Camano Chapel near Seattle and mentioned that “Jesus” was never His name, and she replied, “I know that Jesus is the name of a demon”.

• How did the name “Jesus” get into the Bible?

Jesus is the name that the Messianic Jews started proclaiming as the Messiah around the 4th century AD when they were trying to spread the good news of the Gospel all over Western Europe. Unfortunately, the Greeks hated the Jews and weren’t about to accept a Jewish God. So, they falsified His name, calling Him a name that was almost identical to their pagan sun god, “Iesous”. They wrote the name “Jesus” into the Greek New Testament in place of the Hebrew name he had always been known by up until that time.

C. Lord & Adonai:

• Why does the Bible tell us that “The Lord” is our God?

In addition to the name of the Son of God being falsified for over 1600 years, the name of God the Father in the Old Testament was replaced with “Lord” or “The Lord” to appease the pagans who worshipped many different lords such as “Baal’, “Sol”, “Ahura”, etc. In the New Testament, God and the Son of God are both translated “Lord” or “The Lord” so they are indistinguishable, leading one to believe that the Son of God is His own father, an obviously RIDICULOUS CONCLUSION! In the original Hebrew, we find they have different names and different functions. The name of God was given to us as “Yahuveh”; not “The Lord”, “Jesus”, “Adonai” or “Jehovah.”

• What do “Lord” and “Adonai” mean?

In the Scriptures, “Lord” is only used to refer to pagan, counterfeit gods. In addition, many demons are referred to by the title of “lord” and, of course, Satan is always referred to as “Lord Satan” by his demonic followers. “Adonai” is a counterfeit name that was used by the Hebrews when they were held captive in Babylon. They used it so their captives would not find out the true name of God.

• What’s wrong with using these names?

Using insulting names such as these is a violation of the commandment where God said “Thou shall not bring my name to nothing” or as Lew White says “Thou shall not falsify my name”

• What does God prefer to be called?

According to the Passover teacher (angel) that David and Susan told me about, He prefers to be called “Yahuveh”

D. Prayer:

• Turbo-charge your prayer life by using our Heavenly Father’s preferred name that puts you directly into that Holy place where Moses was when God told him to take off his shoes because he was on Holy ground. And, I always pray the way St. Paul taught us… in the name of “Yavehshua”. Paul never even knew the name “Jesus”.

 

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/8020251According to Etymologist Lew White, Dr. C. J. Koster, and the Institute for Scripture Research, we have been lied to for over 1600 years. You can read about it in Lew’s book called “Fossilized Customs and in C. J.’s book called “Come Out of Her MY People” as well as in “The Scriptures”, a non-paganized Bible translation.

The tribe of Ga

Ancestry DNA shows I have an African ancestor by the name of Quartey. I searched the name in Google and found they are descendants of the Ga tribe from Accra Ghana. I am going to research this tribe and continue to update this post with my findings. My DNA shows I am 7% Nigerian and 12% Ivory Coast Ghana.

SHEIKH MUSTAFA’S INTRODUCTION IS BELOW type his name into Google to find his blog or check out my re blogs.

INTRODUCTION by SHEIKH MUSTAFA

Quarteys’ all over the world are descendants of the Royal Family of Kpakpatse We clan of the Asεrε group of the Ga speaking people, which is one of the seven quarters (Akutséii) that constituted the Ashiedu Kεtεkε District within the Odododiodioo Constituency of the Ga Mashie Community in Accra. The Asεrε group of people comprises of five different clans which relocated to the coastal settlements of Little Akra (Ga Mashie) after the destruction of Great Akra (Ayawaso) by the Akwamus in the early Sixteen Century. Among them is the Kpakpatse We Royal Family, whose history we shall discuss in this discourse.

That is the end of SHEIKH MUSTAFA quote.

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History and Cultural Relations

The Ga have lived in southern Ghana for more than a thousand years. They largely displaced or intermarried with the indigenous Kpeshi people, established their system of rotating slash-and-burn horticulture, and eventually adopted maize as a primary staple as opposed to the earlier millet. The date of the earliest settlement at Accra is not known, but that settlement was flourishing by the fifteenth century. Accra developed from a series of contiguous settlements formed at different times by different peoples who developed a coherent but flexible sense of Ga identity.

The growth of Accra was stimulated by the arrival of the Europeans, the first being the Portuguese, who built a small fort there in 1482. In the seventeenth century the English, Dutch, Swedes, and Danes established spheres of influence, entering into a preexisting coastal trade. Further growth came with the destruction of the original capital, Ayawaso, 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers) northwest of Accra, by the Akwamu kingdom in 1677. After being in a tributary relationship with the Akwamu until 1730, Accra regained and largely maintained its independence until it was occupied by the British in 1874. By the beginning of the nineteenth century Accra had a population of approximately 7,500 to 10,000 and was well developed, with extensive interior and exterior trade connections. Merchants in Accra acted as middlepersons in the trade of slaves, gold, and other commodities between the Europeans and the Asante kingdom to the north. From the 1820s on European missionaries arrived in the area and had a substantial impact.

Ga ethnicity was constructed out of many strands because of the multiplicity of trade contacts, religious influences, founding ethnicities, and cross-cultural contacts fostered by intermarriage. A common saying at Asere is, “There is no such thing as a pure Ga.” Not only were many European and inland African ethnicities represented in Accra over hundreds of years, but also the lateral coastal connections produced migrations of Brazilian, Sierra Leonean, and Nigerian families, who formed clans and assumed Ga identity.

Around the turn of the twentieth century Accra experienced a series of disasters, including famines, a fire in 1894, an earthquake in 1906, bubonic plague, and the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, as well as continuous emigration of skilled laborers. A severe earthquake in 1939 destroyed much of Central Accra and gave added impetus to settle in new suburban settlements such as Kaneshie and Adabraka.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences-and-law/anthropology-and-archaeology/people/ga

 

The tribe of Ga are descendants of GAD and are the hebrew Israelites. They left Egypt and migrated to Ghana via Nigeria and Ethiopia there is much discussion around this on the internet.

http://www.ghanadot.com have great information regarding this. Below is a quote from their blog.


The Ga-Dangmes claim to be descendants DAN and GAD, the fifth and seventh sons of Jacob. Biblical history suggests that Jacob, whom God named YISRAEL had Leah as his wife who gave birth to four sons for him. When Leah noticed that she had passed child-bearing age, she gave her maid servant, ZILPAH to wife. Through Zilpah, Jacob had Dan and Gad and four more sons. Jacob has two sons with Rachel. Gad’s fifth son was Eri who later formed a clan known as Erites (Genesis 30:9, Genesis 46:16, Numbers 26:15-19 and Deuteronomy 3:12; Genesis 30:4-8 3:12.The descendant of Eri, son of Gad are believed to have founded the Nri Kingdom around 900 A.D of the South Eastern and parts of the mid-western Igboland in Nigeria with other tribes of Levi, Zebulon, Ephraim and possibly more. In the Book of numbers, the Bible had made extensive references to the children of Israel, which includes Gad and Dan and their children (Numbers 1:1-54).

Biblical history strongly lends support to the claim by Ga-Dangmes that they are HEBREW ISRAELITES due to the fact Ga-Dangme names are found throughout the OLD TESTAMENT. Examples are: NIIKOILAI (Rev:2, 6, 15); AMASA (2 Samuel 17, 25; 1 Chronicle 33 20-21 DJAANI/JANNE, 2 Timothy 3: 8; AMON, 2 Chronicle 33: 20-21; ASHALE (ASAHEL), 1 Chronicle 2:16, 2 Samuel 2: 18-19.

King AYI KUSHI, spelled Cush in Hebrew, Genesis 10: 6 Jeremiah 13:23, Isaiah 18:12) led the Ga-Dangmes from Cush in Jerusalem to Ayawaso and was the founder of the GA DYNASTY. It is believed that the Ga-Dangmes Kingdom at AYAWASO was the first Kingdom in GHANA. It is interesting that Queen Dode (Dodi) Akabi’s name DODI is a Hebrew Name. Also, the name of the hunter, KADI, who found a group people at OSU DOKU and introduced them to the Nungua Mantse, is a Hebrew name. The Nungua Mantse, in consultation with the Ga Mashi Mantse gave Osu lands to the “KADI GBOI” as people of Osu were referred to.

Ga-Dangmes custom of circumcision of their male born and their patriarch traditions further lend support to their Hebrew Israelites origins (Genesis 17: 1-12). The HOMOWO FESTIVAL (the PASSOVER) celebrated by the Ga-Dnagmes supports their claim that they are Hebrew Israelites, descendants of children of Jacob (Exodus 13: 1-10); Exodus 12: 1-50; Numbers 9:1-5

According to Abbey in his book KEDZI AFO JORDAN (1968), Ga-Dangmes tradition during which they put money in the coffins of their deceased relatives prior to burial is an ancient Hebrew Israelites custom. In ancient Israel of the Bible, the deceased were said to be buried across the river Jordan. Coins placed in the coffins of the deceased believing that  their spirits will use it in “paying” for their passage across the River Jordan. The “abayan”, cloth belonging to the deceased, which is torn to pieces, and each piece placed on the left wrist of the deceased relatives and very close friends, is an ancient Jewish custom. Also, the DIPO or OTUFO customs of the Ga-Dangmes are said to be ancient Hebrew Israelites customs. These and ancient traditional customs still observed by Ga-Dangmes clearly lend credence to their claim that they are of Hebrew Israelites origins.

End of extract from Ghana. Com blog

Through my own research I have found that the Ga-Dnagmes believe in one supreme being and an evil being who we would call Satan in Europe society. The tribe also believe there are good and bad spirits. The tribe believe that our ancestors guide us through life. People are held accountable in this community for their actions. Many people would have you believe that all of these people worship deities and animals and spirits which is not the case. There are good and bad types of worship and the bad takes the direction of black magic, spirit worship and sacrifices to a number of God’s in my opinion and the opinion of some of the Ghanian community. A documentary I watched discussed this very point and even the indigenous Igbo of the land are aware of this and confirm the difference in the 2 religions. An interesting point is that for 1000s of years there have been people who believed in one God. Religion unfortunately has used it’s power to dominate and rule over certain people claiming all men worshiped numerous God’s and therefore had to be taken under control. Slavery is heavily documented in The Bible and Quran and historical documents breathe life to the story.

Fort James was built in 1673 in Accra as a trading port.  It appears that the slaves were shipped straight from Ghana to Jamaica and other ports that I have yet to explore. In researching my heritage I identified that my paternal line traces back to Accra Ghana. I stored the picture below as my investigations led to Elmina Ghana. Many slaves were transported from the castle below.

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Elmina is conveniently located at the shore line providing a means of transporting the slaves at the time. This castle was used in Ghana to ship the slaves across the continent.

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Some of the people enslaved were described as AKAN  in the slave records. These Africans were from The slavery Gold Coast and would likely have spoken a number of languages which are still in use today.

 

Currently English is the official language of Ghana and the Ga are a mixture of peoples concentrated in the capital, many first-language Ga speakers also know English, one or more of the Akan languages (Fante or Twi), and/or Ewe. These are the languages that they speak in that area.

Further information can be found online http://www.encyclopedia.com they state the following:

The oldest area of settlement in Accra, now known as Central Accra, is composed of seven quarters, among which Asere, Abola, and Gbese are oldest and considered to be the most traditionally Ga. Otublohum originally was settled by people from Akwamu and Denkyera to the northwest. These four quarters make up Ussher Town, the area placed under Dutch jurisdiction in the seventeenth century. The other three quartersAlata or Nleshi, Sempe, and Akanmadzeare said to be of later origin. Alata was settled by Nigerian workers imported to construct a European fort. These three quarters are commonly called James Town and formed the original area of British jurisdiction at Accra. Asere is by far the largest quarter in terms of population and area. All quarters have clan houses known as wekushia, the original homes of Ga patrilineages, and chiefs called mantsemei.

Extract above from http://www.encyclopedia.com

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Ghanian Tour Guide

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My DNA interestingly enough shows the migration of africans down the coast of Africa from Mali and Senegal down to Nigeria Ghana Benin Togo Cameroon and Congo

It is also to be noted that the tribe of Ga are no longer just found in Africa. There are claims that the chereokee Indians and native Americans also originate from this tribe. I will be exploring their heritage and other tribes later in this blog.

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A personal account of St George Castle in Elmina is below by the New York Times

http://www.nytimes.com/1990/11/25/travel/the-slave-fortresses-of-ghana.html?pagewanted=all

Elmina, 93 miles west of Accra, at the western edge of Ghana’s central region, is different. Here the highway looks out on coconut groves lining the beach, and the massive weight of St. George’s Castle, at the end of the bay’s long sweep, is clear even from a distance. Here the contrasts that characterize Europe’s first footholds on the continent make themselves felt: the gray and white of the stone against the turquoise and green of the sea, the fortified solidity of the structure against the airy openness of the horizon.

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Built in 1482 by the Portuguese in the area they called Mina de Ouro (the gold mine), after they found vast quantities of the precious metal there, the castle is the oldest European structure in sub-Saharan Africa. For more than 100 years the area around Elmina was the center of a thriving trade in gold, ivory and peppers, which the Africans supplied in abundance, and cloth, beads, metals and hardware, which the Portuguese brought from Europe.

After two unsuccessful attempts to take it, the Dutch captured the castle in 1637 with an assault from the land. Mindful of similar threats, they built Fort Coenraadsburg on St. Iago Hill, where it keeps watch to this day over St. George’s rear. The great castle then became the African headquarters of the Dutch West Indies Company, whose business was supplying the needs of the New World’s great plantations. Foremost among these was the need for labor; the Dutch became the slave trade’s masters.

Elmina’s storerooms were converted to dungeons as other European powers built lodges and forts on what became known as the Gold Coast and began competing fiercely for their share of the trade from the mid-1600’s on. The building that once housed a Portuguese Catholic Church became Elmina’s slave market, where African dealers brought their captives, many of them victims of tribal wars. By the 18th century an estimated 68,400 slaves were exported from Africa each year, of whom about 41,000 came from West Africa, according to published accounts of the times. Of those, 10,000 left Elmina’s shores when the castle was operating at full capacity, according to Ghana’s Museums and Monuments Board.

See also The Ga-Dangme of Ghana

Major Ethnic Groups Of Ghana

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The Igbo tribe

 

 

I traced my ancestry back to the first slaves of Jamaica my father’s side was described as Igbo. A fantastic lead for me to discover more about who these ancestors were. The Igbo tribe are from West Africa and are found in Nigeria. This would describe my 7% Nigerian ancestry.

See the link below to see what Lagos is like now.

Lagos City Photo Blog: Kaye Whiteman’s LAGOS

The Oba of Lagos claim Lagos State is not part of Yoruba land.

The Oba of Lagos, Oba Rilwan Akiolu, has claimed that Lagos State is not part of Yoruba land.

Akiolu’s statement is coming barely a week after he publicly humiliated the Ooni of Ife, Oba Adeyeye Ogunwusi at an event.

The statement reads: “Coming from the palace, with what I was told by my late paternal grandmother who is a descendant of Oba Ovonramwen Nogbaisi and also reading from factual Historical books, let me share this Knowledge with you all on Eko/Lagos.

“Modern day Lagos was founded by Prince Ado, the son of the Oba of Benin, Prince Ado was the first Oba of Lagos, the son of the Bini King, Prince Ado, named the town Eko until the Portuguese explorer Ruy de Segueira changed the Maritime town to Lagos, which at that time from 1942 was Portuguese expedition center down the African Coast.

It was a major centre of the slave trade until 1851. Lagos was annexed by Britain via the Lagos treaty of cession in 1861, ending the consular period and starting the British Colonial Period. The remainder of modern day Nigeria was seized in 1886 when the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria was established in 1914 Lagos was declared its capital due to the struggle of the Bini King.

“Lagos experienced growth prior to the British Colonial rule and even more rapid growth during the Colonial rule throughout the 1960s, 70s, continued through the 80s and 90s till date. Thanks to the Awori’s, Bini’s, Yoruba’s, migrants across the nation and world at large, as no particular group of people can take the glory alone.

“Lagos is made up of Lagoons and creeks. The Lagos lagoon, Lagos Harbour, five cowne creeks, Ebute-Metta creeks, Porto-Novo creeks, New canal, Badagry creeks, Kuramo waters and Light house creeks.

“The Awori’s and Bini’s are known to be the first settlers of the Eko land. The Awori’s are speakers of a distinct dialect close to that of the Yoruba language with a rich Bini mixture. Traditionally, Awori’s were found in Ile-Ife, they were known to be the Bini’s who followed their self-exiled Prince, the first son of the Ogiso (now called Oba) of Benin Kingdom, whose step-mother was after his head.

“The exiled Benin Prince Izoduwa known to the Yorubas as Ooduwa (Oduduwa) was made ruler of the Ife people due to his powers and followers from the Great Benin-Kingdom.

“Izoduwa (Ooduwa) was made the first King of Ile-Ife in 1230 AD. His followers from his father’s Kingdom in Benin are the today’s Awori people who settled in Eko now called Lagos.

“In the 1300, the King of Benin-Empire heard from one of his traders who was a settler in Eko on how the Bini’s were treated by the Awori’s who lived in their area. Upon hearing this, the King of Benin commanded the assembling of a war expedition, led by his son, Prince Ado, which headed the settlement of the Awori’s and demanded explanation.

“On arriving Eko, Prince Ado and his Army were more than received. The Aworis asked the Bini Prince to stay and become their leader. Ado agreed on the condition that they surrender their sovereignty to the Oba of Benin, to which the people agreed. Hearing this, the King of Benin gave his permission for Prince Ado and the expedition to remain in Eko.

“The Oba of Benin sent some of his chiefs including the Eletu, Odibo, Obanikoro and others to assist his son, Oba Ado in the running of Eko.

“From the crowing of Prince Ado as the first Oba of Lagos (then called Eko), Lagos served as a major center for slave trade from which the Aworis, the Oba of Benin and his son the Oba of Lagos and all the children/descendants who took over as his successors for over four centuries supported the trade.

“The Oba of Benin was the head of the Benin Empire which are the present day Western, Southern and Eastern modern day Nigeria. The King never obliged anyone to speak the Bini language as he believed everyone was entitled to their own choice of language.

“The name Eko was given to it by the first king of Lagos, Oba Ado, the young and vibrant Prince from Benin. Eko was the land now known as Lagos Island, where the king palace was built.

“The palace is called Idugaran meaning “palace built on pepper farm” Oba Ado and the warriors from Benin together with the early Bini’s settlers in Eko and the Awori people settled in the southern part of Eko called “Isale Eko”. “Isale literally means bottom “. Must have been used to indicate downtown (as in down town Lagos)

“Until the coming in of the Benin’s 1300AD , Lagos geographical boundary was Lagos mainland, Lagos Island, the seat of the Oba of Lagos then consisted of a pepper farm and fishing post. No one was living there.

“About 1450 AD some Yorubas who hailed from Isheri in Ogun-state and Ekiti were allowed by the King to settle in Eko during a war, they came in a very large numbers thereby surpassing the numbers of the Awori’s and Bini’s. (Hence Yorubas claim to own Eko due to their numbers).

“Oba Ado fell in love with a beautiful woman whose father was Awori and mother a daughter to one of the chief; they had two sons and also a daughter Erelu Kuti, who begot Ologun Kutere who later became King.”

http://dailypost.ng/2017/05/03/lagos-not-belong-yorubas-oba-akiolu/

see my other posts

Béhanzin, The Last King of Dahomey, Benin

Igbo people in Jamaica

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Hebrew tribes

IGBO is short for HEBREW. Check out these YouTube videos.  “The Nigerian Igbo Israelite connection” or ” Biafra/Igbo put down your” the latter by Eunice Young. I was absolutely amazed to discover that they too believe that they are the hebrew Israelites. In Igbo land and Igbo culture there is a story that has been passed down to pretty much all of them regarding where they came from. They were forced to migrate out of Egypt. The reason that I am quite shocked is that my mother has always said that we are from the tribe Gad a Hebrew tribe. I can see now that the Jamaican slaves orally passed the information down so that it came to pass to people like my mom and myself. Reading the bible for myself about 15 years ago I came to the conclusion that black people were the real Israelites.

I found this YouTube video after completing this post: https://youtu.be/8yz2FDflwlc

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The bible and Deutronomey describe what happened to the slaves and what continues to happen to black people. I saw this for myself it is quite clear to me in the bible.

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A 1747 map of Africa show what we call “The Gold Coast” which was then called “The Kingdom of Juda”

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The slaves were sold in Jamaica and America below is a genuine advert of that time describing Heeboes for sale.

 

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The Igbo tribe claim to have been worshiping only one God since before the bible and Koran was written. Of course I had to do more research on this. If the Igbo get their culture from information passed to them by their forefathers in Egypt then the next step for me was to look into what did the Egyptians believe.  I had heard of the ancient city of Kemet which was a rich empire before invasion. See Ashra kwesi “Wake up African people” or any of his lectures. Ashra tours these historical sites and explains the writing a on the walls. All religions came from the teachings of ancient Kemet. Please watch Ashra Kwesi’s lectures the evidence is compelling. The writing on the walls in Egypt mean that it is fact not opinion.

More and more people are being awakened to what happened in the past and how the 12 tribes of Judah came to be scattered around the world.

Below is a list of the nations and their bible related ancestors, according to some.

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There is a very detailed summary of the Hebrew Israelites at https://carm.org/black-hebrew-israelites Matt Smith the president of the above company details their beliefs in an honest unbiased account. Of course we can all argue the reasons why it is false or true but I came to the same conclusion as the Hebrew Israelites. Direct to quote from website:

  1. The Identity of the Hebrew Israelites
    1. “The Hebrew Israelites are the modern descendants of the ancient Israelites. The Hebrew Israelites have been scattered to the four corners of the earth. They reside in all lands among all people, they are suffering from the curses that are found in the law books of Leviticus chapter 26 and Deuteronomy chapter 28. Today they are known by the bywords and proverbs of “BLACKS, AFRICAN AMERICANS, AFRO AMERICANS, NEGROES, NIGGERS, ETC. The Hebrew Israelites are the true descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. They are the priest of the Most High.”12
    2. “…The Most High said the Curses found in Leviticus 26 and Deuteronomy 28 are the Identifying mark. Whatever people are suffering the curses in their entirety are the true Israelites.  This site has proven that the so called black man and woman of the western hemisphere who got to this part of the world as captives in the bottom of slave ships. Fit the full scriptural description of Israel, any other people who are claiming Israelite heritage must fit the full description of Israel in the latter days.”
  2. Jesus
    1. “Some of Israel do believe in the Messiah and some don’t. Even among the ones who don’t there exist a slight separation of what they believe about the messiah, this can also be found among the ones who do believe. There isn’t one universal belief about the Messiah among Hebrew Israelites. Well not yet.”13
  3. The Bible
    1. There are mistranslations in the King James Version, but it does contain truth: “Although a few mistranslation exist in the KJV, such as the name Jew, Jesus and Jehovah in my humble opinion this translation is still very useful and still contains THE truth.”
    2. There are other books that belong in the Bible: “These are books that were removed FROM the bible, by so called Roman Catholic authroities. I highly recommend you get these missing books, they are part of scripture, in many cases they fill in the missing blank in some of the 66 “canonized” bible books.  For instance In the book of Genesis chapter 6 the sons of Yah are mention who have taken on the daughter of men, this passage is very controversial so many interpetations have been given about Genesis 6. But the book of Enoch says the sons of Yah Were sinful angels who had sex with Human women (the daughters of men). Both the apostles Peter and Jude makes quotes from the book of Enoch, these missing books are just as valid as the 66 books. The book of Jasher is mention twice in the scriptures. The missing books can give you a lot of understanding, I highly advise you find a copy to increase your understanding of Yah’s Word.”

End of quote.

                   Watch Igbo Jamaican Hebrews here https://youtu.be/bxJP5JblVAg

 

the Bible and Tankh do appear to provide insight into the history and migration of man including the 12 tribes of Judah.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Obadiah

(Extract below)

Throughout most of the history of Judah, Edom was controlled absolutely from Jerusalem as a vassal state. Among the region’s great powers, Edom was held in low regard. Obadiah said that the high elevation of their dwelling place in the mountains of Seir had gone to their head, and they had puffed themselves up in pride. “Though you soar like the eagle and make your nest among the stars, from there I will bring you down,” declares the Lord. (Obadiah 1:4, NIV)

In 597 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar II sacked Jerusalem, carted away the King of Judea and installed a puppet ruler. The Edomites helped the Babylonians loot the city. Obadiah, writing this prophecy around 590 BCE, suggests the Edomites should have remembered that blood was thicker than water. ‘”On the day you stood aloof while strangers carried off his wealth and foreigners entered his gates and cast lots for Jerusalem, you were like one of them… You should not march through the gates of my people in the day of their disaster, nor gloat over them in their calamity in the day of their disaster, nor seize their wealth in the day of their disaster.”‘ (Obadiah 1:11, 13 NIV)

Obadiah said in judgement God would wipe out the house of Esau forever, and not even a remnant would remain. The Edomites’ land would be possessed by Egypt and they would cease to exist as a people. But the Day of the Lord was at hand for all nations, and someday the children of Israel would return from their exile and possess the land of Edom.

End of extract.

See also My Igbo slave ancestor

 

 

 

 

How to trace your ancestry online

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If you have decided to trace your family lineage you have joined millions of others on that same journey.  Tracing your family requires the same steps regardless of your background. It can seem daunting at first especially if you have little information to go on.

Step 1 Speak to your family and get the names dates and places of your immediate family. A good place to start is grandparents. Once you have the information of your grandparents birth days places of residence and place of birth you can then start to work backwards. Ask aunts uncles and your grandparents siblings if possibe what information they have regarding your family history.

Step 2 Locate the registers of births deaths and marriages for your grandparents parents in the country that they lived. There are places such as http://www.geneology.com and http://www.familysearch.com that hold records you can view online.

Step 3 Broaden your search to include the children as this can later prove invaluable in explaining connections and family links. Research your family surname in war records and make a note of where the people lived.

Step 4 Search the family name online using search engines such as Google.  Someone else may have already started researching your surname.

Step 5 Follow the trail back as far as you can using the records of parents and parents parents parents.

Step 6 Consider taking a DNA test.

Step 7 Ask the elders in the local community, contact teachers and historians as they may hold invaluable information.

You can search births deaths marriages at  www.familysearch.org

 

My carribean african ancestry DNA

I have always been interested in history. I cherish the memories of me and my grandmother sketching out our family tree. A passion for history was already taking set at an early age. At school, history and english classes were the only time I listened tentatively. I clung on to the teachers every word. By 15 it became quite apparent that this history curriculum had very little to do with my actual history or past and it left me wanting more. In class we learnt about Christopher Columbus amongst other explorers. As to be expected in an English school we also learnt about the Romans, Tudors Stewarts. The first and second world war were a focus for a long time. I enjoy learning about the history of England and America since they are always so closely related when it comes to politics and business and after all I was born in England. That said these things only skimmed the surface of my heritage. With a hunger for more information I soon emerced myself in books about slavery from my local library. I was horrified as I stared at diagrams of slaves packed into the bases of ships. I soon gained the general knowledge of the slavery era and transportation of africans to the carribean and America and the sort of labour they endured.

 

I remember my grandmother describing her 2 week journey to England by boat where she became a nurse. Previously my grandmother on my paternal side had lived in America and worked as an au pair/live in nanny. As a third generation jamaican all 4 of my grandparents were born in  jamaica and so we’re their parents. My early childhood and teenage years were filled with stories about growing up in Jamaica. My paternal grandmother spoke of living in Kingston and being born and raised in St Elizabeth. My maternal grandmother spoke of being from Clarendon jamaica. She was what we call red skin, a fair lady compared to my other side and it showed. She boasted of Indian heritage and had the hair to prove it. She was proud of being from Redhills. It is fair to say my moms mom was prejudice against dark skin despite being black herself. This type of prejudice is familiar amongst races as per history the light skinned people for a time in jamaica were treated differently sometimes called creole. These black people would have been more likely to be given less strenuous work possibly a house slave rather than a field slave. It appears that not only is my mother’s side mixed with Irish but the term Creole in Jamaica referred to people born in America and possibly mixed. My grandmother I now know was mixed with Polish/Russian and Portuguese or Spanish which would have given her an Asian look.

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Both my grandfather’s passed away before I reached 4 so information regarding their lineage was limited. At around 20 I started tracing my mother and father’s ancestry using my grandparents birth as a starting point on the jamaican census births deaths marriages. I narrowed down their parents and followed the family lines. I looked at the early census for my surname and made a note of their details. The trail soon ran dry since my grandparents were all deceased and there was no real way of knowing who their forefathers were. Fast forward just over a decade and DNA testing has now become accessible for the likes of me and you.

It would have been wonderful to share my findings with my grandparents but me and my mom joke about them looking over my shoulder as I search and discover. I took the ancestry DNA test and here are my results

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trace regions were

Mali 2% Senegal 2% 

2% iberian peninsula 1% Britain 1% Ireland 1% Europe East.  

 

I was surprised with these trace regions and surprised I had no asian DNA. I made a note before my results of what I was expecting. Looking at previous you tube videos I expected to be around 80% African with the remainder being European. So I was surprised that I am 95% african.Ancestry DNA returned 32 pages of relatives mainly 4-5th cousins with a whole host of surnames I had never heard of. I looked at the list and started to make a list of surnames that kept appearing and the names of the people. I started a family tree and ancestry dna led me to develop a family tree that is now pushing 1000 people. I checked some people out on Facebook and was surprised to see family resemblances. Where there was only a vague idea of my history I now have names places and stories that genuinely relate to my own heritage. For example in tracing my paternal grandfathers side I was led to Trelawny Spanish town in Jamaica and St James for both my paternal grandparents lineage. Records dated 1796 called some of them Maroons. I believe that because I had Maroons in my ancestry who were fighters and ran away they would have remained in black communities and were not subject to rape hence I am 95% African. 

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Uncovering 200 years of family history has taken a while. A place called James Town can be found in Accra Ghana. Elmina Port is where the slaves were shipped from straight to places like Louisianna and the West indies. There were said to be 40 ports along the coasts of Africa. The surname James runs through my ancestry and places in Jamaica and Ghana are called James Town I do not believe that this is a coincidence.

 

On my mother’s side the trail led to Senegal and Mali which was taken over by the Arabs during the time of the Songhai Empire. People were taken from Mali and Senegal and enslaved in Sudan.

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During this time and documented in the amaraic bible the slaves of  West Africa were enslaved and feared as they left Israel as only 70 people but multiplied quickly. A side from the bible tale I noted I have no East African ancestry and no East African matches. Before researching the slave era I wondered what might have happened to them. It is documented that arab slavery was different to other types of slavery and the male children and men were killed or castrated or worked to death. Of course this could be historical dramatization.

 

Finally a few months after doing the DNA test I have some native full blooded African distant cousins. I have researched the ancestry and movements of their family. So far I have managed to pinpoint ancestry in Lagos Nigeria Igbo and possibly Yoruba tribe and the Ga and Akan tribe in Accra. According to the history of the native African  surnames I was able to pinpoint where they originated from. My ancestors are showing up as migrating or being taken from Accra Ghana or surrounding regions and possibly Coromantee and Ashanti. I have identified the African surnames from my matches in migration records and their migration seems to fit my DNA Portugal, Spain, England and America and Haiti where I have DNA matches. One African ancestors DNA led to Ghana  Accra and the Asere Quarter known as the Kpakpatse We, people which I will be investigating further. I am still looking into my mother’s side but with her looking Sudanese and me having Mali and Senegal DNA it’s possible her African ancestor was from the Mendes Hausa or red Igbo peoples in that region. On a more fun note my boyfriend found my doopleganger  (my unrelated twin) and sent me the video the girl is Sudanese and we look exactly the same. 

As a very spiritual person I also have an interest in how my ancestors might fit into the bible. This is covered extensively in my other posts regarding the Hebrews.  What I have discovered is that because my ancestors were taken to Jamaica where a lot of people became Maroons they are classed as being from the tribe of Benjamin which I found difficult to understand. The bible refers to the Hebrew people as being able to hide in Africa as they looked the same but had different beliefs. The 12 tribes of Israel are identified by their persecution and their life as slaves. The Hebrews according to the Bible follow the spiritual practises of Moses Abraham and Noah and are scattered to the four corners of the earth. According to the Bible the West Africans migrated from Israel and it was the cushite kingdom of Liberia and Sudan that were the original Africans. In researching the Maroons in Jamaica I found that it was the skills they developed in Africa that helped them defend their territory and remain undefeated.

I have added some of the flags of African regions in my DNA. I have done this because as a third generation Jamaican the colours we tend to associate with ourselves are red gold and green sometimes more than the Jamaican flag. My DNA shows a link to those colours and most of the flags in my DNA represent red gold and green. I believe that it is because we are the same tribe of Hebrews.  However it is important to note that there are many tribes across Africa and not all have the Hebrew and Jewish practises.

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This has been a great journey and it is just the beginning

The flags of my DNA.