Category Archives: Carribean slavery

My Jamaican & American slave ancestors Scott Johnson & Davis

My maternal grandmother spoke of being from Clarendon Jamaica. She was what we call red skin, a fair lady compared to my other side and it showed. She boasted of Indian heritage and had the hair to prove it. She was proud of being from Redhills. They were described as Creole. These black people would have been more likely to be given less strenuous work possibly a house slave rather than a field slave. There was a mentality of remaining light and not mixing with darker people leftover from slavery because they were treated better.

Below French and Portuguese creole people


Language in Exile: Three Hundred Years of Jamaican Creole

Barbara LallaJean D’Costa · 2009 · Language Arts & Disciplines

Three Hundred Years of Jamaican Creole Barbara Lalla, Jean D’Costa … Under Hispanic rule in Jamaica the Arawaks (Taino speakers) had contact with Spanish colonists, Portuguese Christians and Jews …

Language in Exile: Three Hundred Years of Jamaican Creole


It appears that not only is my mother’s side mixed with Irish but the term Creole in Jamaica referred to people born in America and possibly mixed.

My grandmother and her family I now know was mixed with Polish/Russian Irish and Spanish Portuguese which would have given her an Asian look. Her Great Grand mother has now been proven to have been of Asian and American Indian descent. I traced  my Polish side to a Coleman spelt Kolmann in Poland or Russia. The Polish Coleman was a war ship builder who travelled to America.

Below an advert for a Ben Coleman or Brown. Notice he is described as of brown complexion and Mexican looking.


See picture directly below of Spanish Africans owned by Russians. I have an actual image of who I believe to be one of my Spanish ancestors’ and she does not look European she looks like a cross between the two ladies in the picture. I also listened to a documentary which explained that in the past the Jews in Spain were not only European looking but African looking also. I am highlighting this fact as Spanish ancestry does not confirm the appearance of the person.


So from what I can determine some of my ancestors were taken by Spanish invaders to Spain England and America and Jamaica. The people taken were of African descent their job title was indentured servant. The Spanish slave trader raped his servant. The Spanish appears to relate to both slave and owner in my case and one of the Jewish merchants was an Ashkenazi Jew from Europe. The other part of my Spanish lineage relates to possibly a Sephardic Jew in Spain who was exiled to Africa or Sao Tome and shipped from Elmina castle in Ghana or Benin. Many of the tribes in Africa are related so family members would have been shipped to different places and they would have been direct family members and distant relatives. Once enslaved tribes were mixed together and the slaves had children.

My grandmother said on her grandmothers side there was Indian heritage. I have found that we are related to the Smiths and Davis both of which have relatives in American Indian Choctow areas in America. This is a image of Sallie Newby Smith.


Kentucky Counties with Free Negro Slave Owners in 1830
[book source: Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830 compiled and edited by C. G. Woodson, pp.4-6]

  1. Fayette County (13), [Lexington] (15) – Nancy Scott, Peter Whiting, Robert Gray, Charlotte Lewis, Richard Bird, William Tucker, Jesse Smith, Nathan Keifer, Benjamin Tibbs, Jane Brittain, Hannah Travis, Wittshire Brackenridge, Harvey Phillips, Frank Lee, Nicholas Black — Peter Davis, Adam B. Martin, Isaac Howard, William Burk, Benjamin Caulden, Peter Francess, Ben Williams, Anaka Shores, Jer’y Allen, Alexander Allen, Samuel Dunlap, Rhody Clark, Robert Smith

To add some background to this information there were free people of colour who traded in slaves.

The above video is where an Eboe slave speaks of being taken from Africa to the America’s. The man gives his true account of being enslaved by ‘his own people’. This could have been by the Taino Afro and Portuguese Creole free people who owned slaves during this period. In America it is suggested that during the late 18th century there were more black slave masters than white.

The Portuguese had been importing slaves from Africa for over a century, and the Spanish had enslaved the Indians in Central and South America to work the mines and to grow crops. John Smith had been a slave himself, after being captured by the Turks. He claimed that a beautiful woman helped him escape, a story that parallels his tale of Pocahontas.2

The Virginia colony lacked a legal framework for slavery until 40 years after that date, and the great increase in the slave population did not start until 1700. Tobacco was a labor-intensive crop. Each slave or indentured servant working on a tobacco plantation may have processed 10,000 plants a year. That would require bending over 10,000 times to plant seeds, 10,000 times to dig seedlings from the early planting bed, 10,000 times to plant seedlings in a field…

As plantation agriculture spread up the Potomac River, the demand for field workers exceeded the supply of people in the colonies and England willing to do such work. The economic solution was to obtain laborers from another source – slaves from Africa, imported through the Caribbean islands as well as directly from that continent. In the 1660’s, the demand for labor in Virginia exceeded the supply of indentured servants from England after the end of the civil war there.

slavery was developed in Virginia so planters could acquire a cheap labor force to grow tobacco
slavery was developed in Virginia so planters could acquire a cheap labor force to grow tobacco
Source: Library of Congress, Tyler, His Family and His Allegiance to the South

The Virginia colony revised its laws in that decade to establish that blacks could be kept in slavery permanently, generation after generation. An influx of slaves was spurred at the same time by a drop in the value of sugar grown on Caribbean islands, causing the planters there to sell their “property” to the tobacco farmers in Virginia.3

There is a continuing debate regarding whether racism against blacks preceded the adoption of a legal system upporting lifetime slavery in Virginia, or whether the practice of slavery triggered the colonists’ racist attitudes. Blacks were not automatically slaves in the early colonial days. Some held property, married, and raised families outside the institution of slavery.

In the 1660’s, however, the government of the colony (not the officials in London…) established the legal framework for perpetual servitude based on color. “Every year between 1667 and 1672 the General assembly enacted legislation which increasingly defined a Virginian’s status by skin color. Similar laws followed in 1680, 1682, and 1686. By the final decade of the seventeenth century, those characteristics most associated with the plantation society of the eighteenth century were already evident.”4


Johnson, Milly Born in Africa in 1770 listed on the consensus in 1880 in the US Woods, KY mother born in Africa

Johnson, Robert born in 1852 KY mother born in  Frankfort, IN Kentucky Father from Africa 1880 consensus

Smith, Charles S.born in 1844 Tunica County, MS mother from Africa father from Mexico


These Smiths have connections to Foster Davis Taylor and Johnson’s surnames.

Here is the DNA of my Smith DNA matches


Regions: Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers

Trace Regions: Great Britain, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Ireland, Cameroon/Congo, Finland/Northwest Russia, Iberian Peninsula, Asia Central, Senegal


Regions: Benin/Togo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Senegal, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo

Trace Regions: Nigeria, Ireland, Great Britain, Mali, Europe East


The Davis below is described as half blood indian


There may also be a connection between my Davis and Mary Black who is possibly the daughter of Chief Black Fox. These connections link the Davis to the Cherokee and Jewish community in Chocotaw.


The Choctaw (In the Choctaw languageChahta)[note 1] are a Native American people originally occupying what is now the Southeastern United States (modern-day AlabamaFloridaMississippi, and Louisiana). Their Choctaw language belongs to the Muskogean language family group.

The Choctaw are descendants of the peoples of the Hopewell and Mississippian cultures, who lived throughout the east of the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. About 1,700 years ago, the Hopewell people built Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork moundlocated in what is central present-day Mississippi. It is still considered sacred by the Choctaw. The early Spanish explorers of the mid-16th century in the Southeast encountered Mississippian-culture villages and chiefs.[2


For the Choctaw who remained in or returned to Mississippi after 1855, the situation deteriorated. Many lost their lands and money to unscrupulous whites.[88] The state of Mississippi refused the Choctaw any participation in government.[88] Their limited understanding of the English language caused them to live in isolated groups. In addition, they were prohibited from attending any of the few institutions of higher learning, as the European Americans considered them free people of color and excluded from the segregated white institutions. The state had no public schools prior to those established during the Reconstruction Era.[88]


Mississippi Choctaw Delegation to Washington (1914)Edit

From left to right, Chief Wesley Johnson, T. B. Sullivan, Culberson Davis, James E. Arnold, and Emil John.

By 1907, the Mississippi Choctaw were in danger of becoming extinct. The Dawes Commission had sent a large number of the Mississippi Choctaws to Indian Territory, and only 1,253 members remained.[107] Meetings were held in April and May 1913 to try to find a solution to this problem.[108][109][110][111] Wesley Johnson was elected chief of the newly formed Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana Choctaw Council at the May 1913 meeting.[112][113][111] After some deliberation, the council selected delegates to send to Washington, D.C. to bring attention to their plight. Historian Robert Bruce Ferguson wrote in his 2015 article that:

In late January 1914, Chief Wesley Johnson and his delegates (Culbertson Davis and Emil John) traveled to Washington, D. C. … While they were in Washington, Johnson, Davis, and John met with numerous senators & representatives and persuaded the federals to bring the Choctaw case before Congress. On February 5th, their mission culminated with the meeting of President Woodrow Wilson. Culbertson Davis presented a beaded Choctaw belt as a token of goodwill to the President.[112][114][11


Below the Cole listed is related to the Davis and Johnson line I am tracing.

The group also included Talking Warrior, Red Fort, Nittahkachee, who was later Principal Chief; Col. Robert Cole and David Folsom, both Choctaw of mixed-race ancestry; Captain Daniel McCurtain, and Major John Pitchlynn, the U.S. interpreter,


Foster, Sallie.
Creek by blood. Files: Report of November 15, 1007, from Commissioner to Five Civilized Tribes. Creek N. B. No. 370. June 19, 1906, application was made to the Commissioner to the Five Civilized Tribes for the enrollment of Sallie Foster, born January 17, 1907. as a citizen by blood of the Creek Nation under the act of April 20, 1906. Said Sallie Foster is a child of Noah Foster, whose name was identified upon the approved roll of Creek Indians opposite No. 477, and Jennatta Foster. February 27, l907. the commissioner rendered his decision denying the application for the enrollment of said child for the reason that sufficient information was not secured to determine whether or not said Jennatta Foster was a Creek citizen, or whether or not she and Noah Foster were married. Said decision was on that date, forwarded to the department. March 4, 1907, the parents of this child appeared before the commissioner and gave testimony in the matter of its enrollment, for which it was found that the child’s mother is enrolled upon the approved roll of Creek citizens opposite No. 3907, as Jennette Johnson, and on that date the commissioner wired the department as follows: “Referring to Creek new-born case of Sallie Foster, transmitted on February 27, 1907, together with decision denying for insufficient evidence, the parents of said child have this evening appeared, and from their testimony mother is identified as Jennette Johnson, opposite Creek Indian roll No. 3907. I therefore recommend that name of said Sallie Foster be this day placed upon Creek newborn schedule and approved. Child 1 year old. Sex, female; blood, full; card No. 370.”


William E Edwards was described as being Portugese and having dark skin and black wavey hair. At some point he had a plantation in LA.

There was also a William Edwards Owner of Fellowship Hall in St Andrew, Jamaica. Deceased by 1809.

Below is a Portuguese Native


Below Arawak Indians

Here is a distant Edward DNA match below


Regions: Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Europe West

Trace Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Senegal, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Native American


The below shows a Slave owner by the name of Davis.


Afro -Native American Indian descendants below

This side of my Jamaican family originated in America.

Recently Ancestry DNA has located 3rd and 4th cousin matches for me by the names of Chang Chung & Chong. This line share Mali Senegal and Spain in common.

Below are their results


Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Mali, Ivory Coast/Ghana

Trace Regions: Senegal, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Africa North, Native American, Iberian Peninsula


Regions: Asia East, Benin/Togo, Polynesia, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Ireland/Scotland/Wales

Trace Regions: Great Britain, Nigeria, Asia Central, Mali, Africa North, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Europe West, European Jewish, Iberian Peninsula, Europe South, Scandinavia, Senegal



Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Ireland/Scotland/Wales

Trace Regions: Senegal, Mali, Great Britain


Below Sheila Chong the first Miss Jamaica


I also found these listings shown directly below

Chong or Green, Aldred Louis, son of Thomas Chong & Eugenia Green, res Kingston.  Sponsors Phoebe Wilson & L. G. Hopkin, b 2/18/1907, bap 3/7/1907 by E. Armon Jones, p. 28 #478


Chang, Hermine Maria b 1932. F= Wellington Chang. VIII, 78 #570

Chang, Theresa b 1933. F= Joseph Chang. VIII, 119 #847

Chang, Veronica L. b 1931. F= Willie Kee Chang. VIII, 26 #178


The name Hermine Maria appears in my Spanish line. The names Hermine and Maria are used repeatedly through the Lopez and Pérez line. It appears Lopez and Chang intermarried. I will be researching this further. Online I saw a Pérez and Chang descendant born in 1907 who lived in Novia Scotia Canada. If this is a distant relation it would explain the Spanish and Asian connection. 


Central and West  Asian connections are clear through the DNA of some of my cousins. The Native American has Asian and African central hunter gatherers DNA, in my family. From what I can piece together the mixing of my mother’s side occurred in America in the Chocotaw areas. So far I have found evidence of the African Spanish Russian and Chinese and Mexican ancestors mixing from the 1600s. Further down we will see some DNA results of such admixture.

See this Jamaican Chinese woman below who resembles my Maternal side


Almira, the Jamaican-Chinese daughter of Chong Quee, who migrated to the island from Shenzhen, pictured in the 1960s. She is the grandmother of the author. Photo: Hugh family collection

Now compare The Yakut tribe from Russia that I match on Gedmatch

A Yakut woman in traditional dress

The majority of Yakut males belong to Haplogroup N3a(89%).[15]

North_Sea 1.82 Pct
Atlantic 1.60 Pct
Baltic 1.23 Pct
Eastern_Euro 1.20 Pct
West_Med 0.43 Pct
Red_Sea 0.60 Pct
South_Asian 0.06 Pct
Southeast_Asian 0.17 Pct
Oceanian 0.08 Pct
Northeast_African 4.12 Pct
Sub-Saharan 88.66 Pct

Looking deeper into this these Asian genes I have learnt that they come from South and East Asia. I have ancient Indian DNA which is South Asian and Vitanemese DNA which is East Asian.

Wikipedia states

The Asian Caribbean populations were the result of Coolie slaves and indentured labourers that were brought here by the Coolie Trade to work in mines, sugar plantations etc,


Asians in Jamaica below

In the 19th Century The British encouraged the Vitanemese to migrate for work to Jamaica.

The British parliament made a study of prospects for Chinese migration to the West Indies in 1811, and in 1843 made an attempt to recruit Chinese workers to come to JamaicaBritish Guiana, and Trinidad and Tobago, but nothing came of it.[5] The two earliest ships of Chinese migrant workers to Jamaica arrived in 1854, the first directly from China, the second composed of onward migrants from Panama who were contracted for plantation work.[6] A further 200 would arrive in the years up until 1870, mostly from other Caribbean islands. Later, in 1884, a third wave of 680 Chinese migrants would arrive. With the exception of a few from Sze Yup, most of these migrants were Hakka people from DongguanHuiyang, and Bao’an. This third wave of migrants would go on to bring more of their relatives over from China.[4]

Moving back to my ancestry:

Some of my family were transported to St Thomas-in-the-East later moving to Clarendon.


Neighbouring towns to Clarendon include St Elizabeth St Ann. This line of the family also lived in Kingston.


Family Connections Scott’s Johnson Gordon Pérez Cole Watt Watson Burton Fuller Bent Davis Fernandez


This Mary Burton below is a likely relative. The Mary below is likely of Greek admixture.  She could also be a person from the same plantation. The description Mulattoe confirms she is considered mixed. The name Mary Burton as a first or middle name is popular with this family line.

9. Mary Burton Constantine – born Jul 20 1821 in Kingston, Jamaica. Baptised Mary Burton daughter of John Constantine and his wife Eleanor free Mulattoes, 19 Dec 1820.

Constantine (name) – Wikipedia › wiki › Constant…

Jump to Constantine as a surname · Constantine (/ˈkɒnstəntaɪn/ or /ˈkɒnstəntiːn/; Latin: Cōnstantīnus, Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, Kōnstantînos) is a masculine given name and surname which is derived from the Latin name Constantinus, a hypocoristic of the first names Constans and Constantius, both meaning “constant, steadfast” in Latin.


Annie L. Burton was born in Clayton, Alabama in 1858. Her mother was a house slave but ran away from the plantation after being whipped but returned after the Civil War when all slaves had been freed.

Burton moved to Boston where she became a domestic servant. She married in 1888 a man who worked as a valet in Braintree.

In 1909 Burton published her book, Memories of Childhood’s Slavery Days and a short biography of Abraham Lincoln.

The Burton DNA matches I have are below, in bold is what we have in common.


Regions: Nigeria, Iberian Peninsula, Native American, Benin/Togo, Italy/Greece

Trace Regions: Senegal, Europe West, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo, Asia South, Caucasus, Great Britain, Ireland, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers


Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Senegal

Trace Regions: Scandinavia, Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Europe West, Asia Central, Native American, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Great Britain, Finland/Northwest Russia, European Jewish


I found it quite interesting that Annie L Burton was a house slave. It can be quite revealing to search a family surname connection. We wont always be related to the people but there are many clues out there to where people have been scattered to and who were the main buyers and sellers during the slave trade. My guess is that as Eboe slaves, as described by the slave owners, they were more favourable. Also through rape Some slaves were  bred out in America and the Carribean specifically to create a whiter version of “The negroe”  Hence the terms Quadroon and Mulatto and the one drop of black blood rule. They were a lighter caste of black which was was preferred. Slaves were treated in humanely however some were treated worse. Becoming like, and pleasing to the master would have afforded slaves certain  privileges and work. To this day in Jamaica people still use skin lightening soaps (ie bleaching soaps)  to make themselves lighter. I can spot this line of family in my ancestry matches since they are mainly what we call red skin in contrast to some black people.

Red complexioned people of South & West African descent

Asian looking subsaharan Africans


The 21st-century San and Khoi peoples resemble those represented by the ancient Sangoan skeletal remains. These Late Stone Age people in parts of southern Africa were the ancestors of the Khoisan people who inhabited the Kalahari Desert.




The Scott family ethnicity

My grandmother said this part of the family had Indian ancestry. I expected to have Indian ancestry but I found it instead in my DNA matches.  My grandmothers family were brought to Jamaica from America. It was in America that she would have had close connections to her American Indian and Asian family. From my ancestry DNA matches the connection appears to be at least 4 generations back from me. There are 2 possibilities: 1 my mother carries a small amount of Asian DNA possibly 1-5% that was not passed to me. 2 The Asian ancestor was my grandmothers great great grandmother through marriage and blood. I have found that I have subsaharan DNA and also Mali and Senegal. Mali and Senegal are considered afro asiatic and East and West Indian DNA.

I have also seen YouTube videos and read posts of people who have retested especially because the Native Indian or Indian DNA being missing and it has been picked up a second time with a different company. Some companies show a less than 1% result where as Ancestry DNA doesn’t. DNA does not discount family accounts. This part of my ancestry has Mali Ivory Coast Ghana Nigeria Cameroon, Congo African south eastern Bantu Iberian Peninsula Finland/Russia Europe East Ireland in common.


Since writing this post I have uploaded my raw DNA to a few sights and 2 of them picked up my asian ancestry at 7% and Native American at less than 1%. It also picked up that I have ancient Mediterranean and Melenasian, Palestinian Khosian and Sans DNA.


Population African Amerindian ASI Basal Iran-Mesolithic Neolithic Oceanic EHG SEA Siberian WHG
Clovis_Amerindian 0.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Iberian_Chalcolitic 1.90 0.00 0.37 0.00 0.00 75.19 0.15 2.29 0.00 0.00 20.10
Iboussieres39 6.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 93.84
Pygmy 4.32 Pct
North-European-Mesolithic 0.24 Pct
Mesoamerican 0.08 Pct
Indian 0.55 Pct
Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic 0.39 Pct
Samoedic 0.42 Pct
Indo-Iranian 0.52 Pct
North-East-European 2.44 Pct
South-African 0.13 Pct
North-Amerind 0.14 Pct
Sub-Saharian 87.73 Pct
Near_East 2.83 Pct
Austronesian 0.21 Pct

Looking at the American Indian DNA I match these Native American Indian tribes

Apache 79.79
Aymara 98.26
Geschrieben von
Ein Aymara Mädchen lächelt. Aymara  


Bolivian_Cochabamba 92.55

Bolivia: – Cochabamba,


Bolivian_LaPaz 97.59
Cabecar 99.90
Chane 99.93
Guarani 99.94
Huichol 99.26
Inga 92.79
Kaqchikel 99.85
Mayan 91.60
Quechua_Bolivia 99.17
Piapoco 97.22
Surui 99.96
Ticuna 99.93
Wichi 99.96
Wayuu 99.91

Check out this red complexioned lady’s indigenous Arawak Jamaican ancestry

The Scott family


Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali, Great Britain, Cameroon/Congo, Ireland

Trace Regions: Africa Southeastern Bantu, Nigeria,


Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Europe West, Mali

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Native American, Europe East, Scandinavia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa North


Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Mali, Benin/Togo

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Senegal, Asia Central, Africa North, Middle East, Native American, Finland/Northwest Russia, Ireland



Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Europe West, Mali

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Native American, Europe East, Scandinavia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa North


Regions: Nigeria, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Great Britain, Senegal, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers

Trace Regions: Ireland, Polynesia, Asia Central, Asia East, Finland/Northwest Russia, Europe West, Scandinavia, Native American, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu



Regions: Ireland, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Scandinavia, Great Britain, Europe West

Trace Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Iberian Peninsula, Europe East, Nigeria, Senegal, Italy/Greece, Asia South


I found this list of E1b1a Arabian By blood DNA that confirms my findings of my Scott ancestors.



Looking through my DNA matches I can see that the Asian connections relate to Asia South and Asia Central.

The Americas and Carribean became the mixing pot.

There is a record of Eliza Mary Scott Torode in Cape Town South Africa in 1907 born around 1864. There are further Scott’s Fullers Smiths and Anderson’s (who are related in my family line) shown to be living in Gaueteng South Africa. From the 19th century onwards there is a family living close to Freestate. I suspect they were deported back to Africa in the 18th Century.

Paper: “An Act of Deportation”: The Jamaican Maroons’ Journey from Freedom to Slavery and Back Again, 1796–1836 (124th Annual Meeting (January 7-10, 2010)) › webprogram

8 Jan 2010 · Nova Scotia became a crossroads in the late eighteenth-century Atlantic World and African Diaspora. A sojourn of sorts for thousands of free and enslaved blacks, with some on their way to Africa,

Gauteng and Surrounding area tribes below




                     The European Johnson DNA match I have


Regions: Great Britain, Scandinavia, Ireland, Europe West, Caucasus

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Asia Central, Europe East, Finland/Northwest Russia


The black Johnson ancestry matches below

The first 2 ethnicity results below are from matches who are Native to Africa, I note that they have no trace Regions. My cousins in America Canada and The Carribean Islands along with myself have Cameroon/Congo most have South Eastern Bantu and Mali


Regions: Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Ivory Coast/Ghana


Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana

Trace Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali


Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Benin/Togo

Trace Regions: Senegal, Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Scandinavia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Cameroon/Congo, Melanesia, Mali


Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu

Trace Regions: Senegal, Benin/Togo, Polynesia, Native American, Finland/Northwest Russia, Europe West, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Asia Central


Regions: Nigeria, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo, Senegal, Benin/Togo, Mali

Trace Regions: Ireland, Middle East, Polynesia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa North, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers


Regions: Nigeria, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Mali, Senegal

Trace Regions: Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Finland/Northwest Russia, Cameroon/Congo, Ireland, Europe West, Asia Central, Scandinavia, Iberian Peninsula, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Native American


Regions: Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Great Britain, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Cameroon/Congo

Trace Regions: Senegal, Asia Central, Mali, Caucasus


Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain

Trace Regions: Italy/Greece, Benin/Togo, Europe West, Europe East, Native American, Ireland, Polynesia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Scandinavia


In summary the Creole appears to refer to African Portuguese Spanish Native American Indian Taino mixed  with Russian Polish Irish/British blood. My cousins who have indigenous Native Indian DNA. I share ancestry with some Puerto Ricans, Spanish, Portuguese and Native American’s.

Below are some results of people with this type of admixture. Ancestry DNA goes back to 5th to 8th cousins (not more than 1000 years but other tests go further back. One of my cousin DNA matches has done some of the other advanced ancestry tests. The test proved that her ancestors were in Saudi Arabia 2000 years ago and are part of the Hausa tribe.



Obviously not my dad below




My cousin’s Davis ancestry Arawak/Taino Indian DNA below


Regions: Asia South, Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Great Britain, Senegal, Ivory Coast/Ghana

Trace Regions: Scandinavia, Asia Central, Iberian Peninsula, Melanesia, Mali, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Europe West, Europe East

Slave descendants called Davis


Lucinda Davis – Former Slave in Creek Nation Photo Courtesy Oklahoma Historical Society above




Sallie Johnson  born in 1856. Death 1900 ish

 Spouse: Alfred Reed  Birth: Sep 1853

Children 1 F: Caroline Reed Birth: Jun 1880

2 F: Rosa L. Reed Birth: Apr 1883

3 F: Viola Reed Birth: 8 Nov 1884 Spouse: Henry Davis

4 M: Frank Claude Reed Birth: 25 Dec 1888
Death: Mar 1969 Spouse: Minnie Jackson
Spouse: Willie May

5 M: Alfred Reed Birth: Nov 1888

6 F: Mattie Reed Birth: May 1891

7 F: India Lee Reed Birth: Mar 1893

8 M: Charles Walter Reed Birth: 11 Nov 1894
Death: Dec 1976 Spouse: Erma Lee Duncan

The Johnson’s slaveowner John Caldwell Johnson was deceased in January 1856.


The Davis & Foster ancestors from St Elizabeth Jamaica

Below Edward Davis and other YORUBA former slaves who returned to Sierra Leone Freetown from Jamaica.


[Name] Lancaster Estate
[Crop] sugar, rum, cattle, hire of enslaved people

Property of Charles Foster a minor under the care and direction of William Hay Davis Esq. Account filed by Samuel Barry as overseer for the period 01/01/1797 to 31/12/1797.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/24 34



Davis DNA


Regions: Asia South, Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Great Britain, Senegal, Ivory Coast/Ghana

Trace Regions: Scandinavia, Asia Central, Iberian Peninsula, Melanesia, Mali, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Europe West, Europe East


Regions: Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Nigeria, Ireland, Senegal

Trace Regions: Asia Central, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Europe West, Great Britain, Mali, Europe East, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Italy/Greece, Iberian Peninsula


Regions: Great Britain, Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Ireland, Europe East, Scandinavia

Trace Regions: Senegal, Nigeria, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Europe West, Iberian Peninsula, Asia South, Ivory Coast/Ghana, European Jewish, Africa Southeastern Bantu


Looking specifically at the Europe East line, my DNA which also shows as Russian Polish in some of my DNA matches. I traced ancestry to a Russian ancestor who built war ships that were used in Poland.

Ancestry DNA shows almost identical Regions for Europe East and Jewish. The Slave merchants in Benin, Dahomey were Portuguese and Spanish. During key periods the Jewish were persecuted in Spain and Portugal and many left. The king of Spain also sent Jewish people to Sao Tome Island.

The below are not my results but are to dig deeper into this European ancestry.



It is clear that my Europe East comes from a Jewish Slave merchant due to the history of Spain during the 14th and 17th century and my DNA. 


Possible African Tribe connections


Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.

They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.

Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Jonkonnu, a parade held in Jamaica, is attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. The Igbo also influenced language with actions such as “sucking-teeth” coming from the Igbo “ima osu” and “cutting-eye” from Igbo “iro anya”.

Words were added to Jamaican Patois when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,”di” to be (in state of)”, which became “de”.

(Photo shows:an Igbo bride in Nigeria, with “red colouring similar to some Jamaicans).

Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.

They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.

Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Jonkonnu, a parade held in Jamaica, is attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. The Igbo also influenced language with actions such as “sucking-teeth” coming from the Igbo “ima osu” and “cutting-eye” from Igbo “iro anya”.

Words were added to Jamaican Patois when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,”di” to be (in state of)”, which became “de”.

(Photo shows:an Igbo bride in Nigeria, with “red colouring similar to some Jamaicans). Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.

They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.

Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Jonkonnu, a parade held in Jamaica, is attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. The Igbo also influenced language with actions such as “sucking-teeth” coming from the Igbo “ima osu” and “cutting-eye” from Igbo “iro anya”.

Words were added to Jamaican Patois when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,”di” to be (in state of)”, which became “de”.

(Photo shows:an Igbo bride in Nigeria, with “red colouring similar to some Jamaicans)



Native to African




They are particularly found in southern Togo (formerly French Togoland), Volta Region in southeastern Ghana (formerly British Togoland), and in southwestern parts of Benin. The Ewe region is sometimes referred to as the Ewe nation or Eʋedukɔ́ region (Togoland in colonial literature). Wikipedia





The will of John Scott Owner of Clarendon Park in Clarendon, Tower Hill in St Mary, and The Retreat St Thomas-in-the-East, Jamaica.

Scott, Honorable John heirs of, Retreat 234/ 30


1807 [EA] – 1811 [LA] → OWNER
1817 [EA] – 1823 [LA] → PREVIOUS OWNER
1809 [EA] – 1811 [LA] → OWNER
1800 [EA] – 1801 [LA] → OWNER


Addresses (1)

Garboldisham Hall, Garboldisham, Norfolk, East Anglia, England

Plotted in St Thomas-in-the-East as a sugar estate with a cattle mill and a windmill in James Robertson’s 1804 map of Jamaica.

To the King’s most excellent Majesty, this map of the island of Jamaica, constructed from actual surveys. . . (London, J. Robertson, 1804), based on Robertson’s survey of the county of Surrey which he compeleted in 1798.
[Number of enslaved people] 261(Tot)
[Name] Retreat
[Stock] 157

Registered to Hon. John Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1811) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in for 1810.

See below link



The below shows the Lennox plantation and the dates it was owned by Scotts.

Estate Information (29)

What is this?

[Name] Lennox
[Crop] Sugar

Plotted in Westmoreland in Thomas Craskell’s 1763 map of Jamaica as a sugar estate with a cattle mill.

Thomas Craskell’s Map of the County of Surry in the Island of Jamaica (1763)
[Name] Lennox Plantation
[Crop] sugar, rum

Belonging to the heirs of George Scott, Esq, dec. Account given by Samuel Jeffries and James Mures, executors. Account filed by Samuel and James Bell, overseers.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/22 157
[Name] Lenox Estate
[Crop] sugar, rum

Belonging to the heirs of George Scott Esq deceased under the care and direction of Samuel Jeffries acting executor for his estate in Jamaica. Account filed by David Bell as overseer for the year ending 31/12/1798.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/24 208
[Number of enslaved people] 301(Tot)
[Name] Lenox and Hopetown

Registered in Westmoreland in Balcarres’ letter to the Duke of Portland, dated 22/03/1800, taken at a vestry convened for that purpose 15/11/1799 and subsequent days. No ownership details given.

Papers Presented to the House of Commons of the 7th May 1804, Respecting the Slave Trade (Houses of Parliament, 1804) section G p. 38.
[Name] Lennox
[Crop] Sugar

Plotted In Westmoreland as a sugar estate with a cattle mill in James Robertson’s 1804 map of Jamaica.

To the King’s most excellent Majesty, this map of the island of Jamaica, constructed from actual surveys. . . (London, J. Robertson, 1804), based on Robertson’s survey of the county of Cornwall which he compeleted in 1799.
[Name] Lenox Estate
[Crop] sugar, rum

Property of George Scott Esq deceased under the care and direction of Samuel Jeffries attorney. Account filed by David Bell as overseer for the year ending 31/12/1799.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/26 93
[Name] Lenox Estate
[Crop] sugar, rum, some cattle

Property of George Scott Esq deceased under the care and direction of Samuel Jeffries attorney for the estate. Account filed by Peter McAdam as overseer for the year ending 31/12/1800.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/27 102
[Name] Lenox Estate
[Crop] sugar and rum

Belonging to Hutchinson Scott Esq, under the care and direction of Samuel Jeffries Exor to the Estate of George Scott Esq deceased. Account filed by John Wylie as overseer.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/29 71
[Number of enslaved people] 297(Tot)
[Name] Lennox and Hopeton
[Stock] 445

Registered to Hutchieson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1811) transcribed at The 1811 almanac was based on the givings-in of the March Quarter for 1810, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 316(Tot)
[Name] Lenox and Hopeton
[Stock] 307

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1812) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 219(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 185

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1816) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 291(Tot) 146(F) 145(M)
[Name] Lenox Sugar Estate and Hopeton Penn

In the possession of Hutchison Scott as owner.

T71/178 252-255
[Number of enslaved people] 313(Tot)
[Name] Lenox and Hopeton
[Stock] 393

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1818) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 270(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 235

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1820) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 290(Tot) 142(F) 148(M)
[Name] Hopeton Pen and Lenox Estate

In the possession of Robert K. Senior and Joseph Stone Williams as agents to Hutchison Scott.

T71/179 Book 26 4
[Number of enslaved people] 249(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 225

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1821) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 249(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 29

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1822) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 291(Tot)
[Name] Lenox Estate and Hopeton Pen

In the possession of Hutchison Scott as proprietor of Lenox Estate and Hopeton Pen.

T71/180 Book 9 21-22
[Number of enslaved people] 253(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 223

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1824) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 279(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 202

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1826) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 279(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 7

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1827) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 299(Tot) 146(F) 153(M)
[Name] Lenox and Hopeton Estates

In the possession of Hutchison Scott as proprietor.

T71/181 95-96
[Number of enslaved people] 323(Tot)
[Name] Lenox and Hopeton
[Stock] 269

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1828) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 317(Tot)
[Name] Lenox and Hopeton
[Stock] 262

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1829) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 308(Tot) 152(F) 156(M)
[Name] [no name given]

In the possession of Hutchison M. Scott as proprietor or owner. Assumed to be Lennox and Hopeton.

T71/186 [unpaginated]
[Number of enslaved people] 333(Tot)
[Name] Lenox and Hopeton
[Stock] 207

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1831) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 328(Tot)
[Name] Lennox and Hopeton
[Stock] 235

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1832) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 320(Tot)
[Name] Lennox and Hopeton
[Stock] 203

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1833) transcribed at The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
[Number of enslaved people] 308(Tot) 154(F) 154(M)
[Name] [no name given]

In the possession of Hutchison Scott as owner. Appears to be an amalgamation of Hopeton and Lennox.

T71/188 214

Golden Grove, Jamaica

St Thomas

List of Original Negroes on Golden Grove Estate, Living this 30th June 1790.

In census records slaves are listed as being mainly either coromantee or Eboe on the Golden Grove Plantation. The Scott’s Hall Maroons are recorded as handing over Maroons that they captured. When my Maroon ancestor was handed in it was by Maroons which I didn’t understand for a while.

The History of Jamaica(1774), to have been the site of “the first rebellion of importance, on record, [which] happened in the year 1690, when between three and four hundred slaves, belonging to…  Sutton’s plantation in Clarendon… killed the white man entrusted with the care of it and seized upon a large store of fire arms… [after which they] proceeded to the next plantation, and murdered the overseer…”[3]

I read some of the records of what they did to Maroons if they were captured. Maroons would be killed in painful slow ways such as having their hands cut off and bleeding death. Death by castration to name a few. Oral accounts state that when the treaty was signed by only one group of the Maroons The Ashanti, the Koromantee Maroons were not happy about it. The Maroons who received their own land were bound by the treaty to keep the peace between the Maroons and plantation owners and police.

Golden Grove Sugar Factory. St. Thomas, Jamaica

by Julaine Schexnayder
(New Iberia, LA USA)

Golden Grove Sugar Factory. St. Thomas, Jamaica

For tourists and natives alike here is a photo of a beautiful place, off the beaten path. 

We have visited this area, in St. Thomas Parish in the southeast near the coast, several times in recent years. If it is unique and unusual places you are looking for, this is one of them.

Golden Grove, which now consists of a sugar plantation and factory, was established in 1734. The company employs a large number of workers seasonally and year round.

A 2 hour audio Jamaican man explains African history before slavery below

See these records of St Elizabeth Plantation owners link below

Bennett, Frances Ann, Montrose 46/ 48

Bennett, Joseph, Spring Garden 30/ 16

Bennett, Montague deceased, Spice Grove 21/ 1

Bennett, Thomas, Spring Garden 21/ 2

Bent, Ann R., 7

Bent, Henry, Cherry Moia 6/ 5

Bent, John B., Cotton Tree Hill 8/ 20

Bent, Margaret Powell, 4

Bent, Nicholas, Tryall 13

Bent, Stephen, Mango Hill 3/ 6

Bent, Susanna E., 17

Brown, Charlotte, 5

Brown, Eleanor, 7

Bruce, John and Alexander, 14/ 3

Burt, Mary, 10

Burton, Catherine, 3/ 10

Burton, Frances T., 16

Burton, George William deceased, 5/ 40

Burton, John, Mount Providence 1/ 8

Burton, John, 7/ 14

Burton, Judith Ann, 7/ 20

Burton, Nicholas, 3

Burton, Nicholas, 9

Ebank, Caleb, 15/ 109

Ebanks, A. J. B. and M., 16/ 30

Ebanks, Ann M., 4/ 4

Ebanks, Anthony, 22/ 10

Ebanks, Augustus senior, 3/ 2

Ebanks, Benjamin, Castle Cary 2

Ebanks, Eliza G., 3/ 10

Ebanks, John, 9/ 27

Ebanks, John, 15/ 5

Ebanks, Margaret P., 4/ 1

Ebanks, Mary, 8

Ebanks, Richard, 7/ 28

Edwardes, John, 12/ 2

Edwardes, Margaret, Cool Retreat 5

Edwardes, Margaret, 13

Elliott, David, 2/ 5

Ellison, Henry, 3/ 2

Esson, Andrew, Pond Side 12/ 165

Exton, Margaret, 15/ 20

Facey, Thomas, 6/ 20

Facey, William, 5/ 10

Farquharson, Charles, Spring Vale 132/ 330

Fergusson, Robert, 10/ 20

Johnson, John, 8/ 2

Johnson, John, 1/ 1

Johnson, Samuel, 6/ 40

Johnson, William, 10

Scott, F. Hutchinson, 3/ 16



Custos Rotulorum, and Chief Judge, Hon. Simon Taylor, Esq.

Assistant judges and of the Quorum[Esquires]

*Hon. John Scott

*Hon. Henry Shirley

*K. Osborn

+Hon. C. Bryan

*Samuel Delpratt

Peter Robertson

Robert Logan

William Vick

*William Bryan

Robert Telfer

Thomas Leigh

John Kelly

+William Holgate

N. A. Grant

William Ker

Robert Ferguson

*William Milner

James Codrington

John Stewart

Thomas McKenzie

*John Carlyle

James Ouchterlony

Thomas Thomson

Samuel Thomson

Commissioners of the Supreme Court, James Ouchterlony, William Kerr, John Myrie, Esqs.

Clerk of the Peace and Court, Isaac Panton, Esq.

Clerk of the Vestry, F. F. Hill, Esq.

Coroner, William Vick, Esq.

Poundkeeper Morant-Bay, T. O’Brien Warren

Poundkeeper St. Davids, James Henderson

Collecting Constable St. Thomas in the East, John Noble

Collecting Constable St. David’s, J. Ouchterlony


Allen, Agnes, 8

Beckford, Honorable Nathaniel deceased, Spring Garden 184/ 37

Berwick, Newell, 14/ 2

Buchan, William, Church Hill 32

Champneys, Sir Thomas, Nutt’s River 264/ 27

Chapman, Jane, 6

Collard, J. M. deceased, Stoney Gut 85/ 42

Cope, John Freeman, Belvidere 351/ 113

Crean, Eleanor estate of, 6

Downie, Margaret, 10

Dunkerly, James, Greenwood Castle 4

Durham, Sarah, 4

Edwards, Ann, 12

Ellis, Richard, 10/ 4y

Fergusson and Blair, Roselle 158/ 100

Fitch, Joseph estate of, York and Mount Prosperous 141/ 33

Fitzgerald, George, 15/ 1

Fleck, Henry, 18/ 2

Forbes, William, 8

Foulis, John, Arshdeal 34/ 18

Galloway, Rachel Reid, 18

Gildea, Margaret, 3

Gwynn, A. deceased, Middleton 169/ 11

Hamilton, Charlotte, 8

Hardie, Mary, 7/ 5

Hicks, John W., Pembroke Hall and Hicks’ Hall 193/ 13

Homan, Mary, 5

Hurst, Harriet, 4

Jackson, Joseph, 10

Jordan, Margaret, 9

Kennedy, Margaret, 24/ 4

Laurie, William Kennedy, Woodhall 149/ 2

Logan, Thomas, 28/ 4

Mallet, Mary Ann, 8

Marks, Elizabeth, 4

McCourtie, Thomas, 4/ 10

McGibbon, John deceased, Wilmington 33

McGregor, Alexander, 4

McGregor, Patrick, 3/ 1

Miles, Philip John, Golden Valley 185/ 23

Milne, Alexander, 5/ 2

McKay, Philip, 4/ 2

McKenzie, Cecilia, 6

McQueen, Neil, 4

Munro, Catherine, 6

O’Hagan, Michael, 6

Osborn, Kean, Montpelier 174

Paterson, Duncan D., Bannockburn 58/ 2

Pedley, John, Stanton 201/ 36

Poole, Nicholas W., 1/ 4

Porteous, James, Bonhill and Lochaber 55/ 22

Reallo, John N., 6

Reid, Rachael, 18

Riley, Ann, 6

Robertson, Margaret, 6

Scholar, Charles, 10/ 4

Scott, Charles, Hermitage 62/ 22

Scott, Honorable John heirs of, Retreat 234/ 30

Snodgrass, Hew deceased, 4/ 4

Spence, Hugh, 10/ 3

Stewart, John, 7

Stoddart, Ann, 18

Strathie, Mary, 10

Taylor, Ebenezer 134/ 8

Taylor, George Watson, Burrowfield 84/ 145

Taylor, Honorable Simon and Sir John heirs of, Lyssons 515/ 66




Link to site for Jamaican family search 

Stephen Fuller Esq., Agent for the Island in Great Britain

William Duncan Esq., Agent General

Colonel E. M. Despard, Superintendent at the Bay of Honduras

John James, Esq., Commander of all the Maroons

James Mont. James, Esq., Superintendent of Trelawny Town

Peter Ingram Esq., Superintendent of Charles Town

Alexander Forbes, Esq., Superintendent of Accompong Town

Charles Douglas Esq., Superintendent of Moore Town

John Sp. Brodbelt, junior, Esq., Superintendent of Scott’s Hall Town

William Dunlop Esq., Notary Public

William Holgate Esq., Auditor General of the Revenue

William Smith Esq., Master of the Revels

John Clement Esq., Public Messenger

G. S. Sutherland Esq., Clerk of the Markets

John Edward Shackleford, Esq., Island Store Keeper

James Murry Esq., Acting ditto

Thomas Dancer, M.D., Botanist, and Physician to the Bath

Dr. Francis Rigby Brodbelt, Surgeon to the Spanish Town Gaol

Mr. Lawrence Hunter, Surgeon to the Kingston Gaol

Mr. Alexander Aikman, King’s Printer


William Dunlop Esq.,Secretary of the Island


Kingston, Robert Boog Esq.

Savanna-la-Mar, George Murray Esq.

Port Antonio, James Charlton

Montego Bay, Donald Campbell

Lucea, Nathaniel Gray


Eliphalet Fitch Esq.Receiver General


Spanish Town, James Jones Esq.

Port Antonio, Mr. John Harris

Montego Bay, McLaurin Gillies

Lucea, Mr. William Brown

Savanna-la-Mar, George Murray Esq.


Alexander Robertson Esq.,Naval Officer


Lucea, Donald Malcolm Esq.

Port Antonio, Mr. George Minot

Sav. la Mar, George Murray Esq.

Montego Bay, E. Montague Esq.


[Surname/Given Name]

Brown Alexander

Burt Alexander

Burton Edward

Brydone ___

Clarke Robert

Campbell William

Cawley Stephen

Dalton Peter

Edgar Archibald

Ferguson James

Forbes Al.

Foss Matthew

Fraser William

Grant Patrick

Graham Robert

Gordon Robert

Gibson Robert

Kirkwood Robert

Leslie Robert

McDowal, J.

Munro Thomas

Morris Samuel

Murdoch John

Pierce William

Rome John

Ranken Alexander

Rosindell Robert

Smellie William

Sherriff Alexander

Syms James

Sutherland John

Schaw Edward

Savory Samuel

Speering Charles

Trought, Nicholas

Turnbull Archibald

Voce William

Whitaker John

Wilson Hugh





Tracing my Benin/Togo ancestry





Benin (US: /bɪˈnn, –ˈnɪn/ bǝ-NEEN or –NINUK: /bɛˈnn/ beh-NEENFrenchBéninpronounced [benɛ̃]), officially the Republic of Benin (FrenchRépublique du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north. The majority of its population lives on the small southern coastline of the Bight of Benin, part of the Gulf of Guinea in the northernmost tropical portion of the Atlantic Ocean.[7] The capital of Benin is Porto-Novo, but the seat of government is in Cotonou, the country’s largest city and economic capital. 


The official language of Benin is French. However, indigenous languages such as Fonand Yoruba are commonly spoken. The largest religious group in Benin is Roman Catholicism, followed closely by IslamVodun andProtestantism. Benin is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation ZoneLa Francophonie, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Petroleum Producers Association and the Niger Basin Authority.[9]






The Oldest Surviving Kingdom in the World is Great Benin Kingdom and is 2054 years Old. The Ogiso dynasty lasted for about 854 years plus an interregnum of 285 years between the reign of Ogiso Orire and Ogiso Odia, there was an interregnum of 70 years between Ogiso Owodo and Oba Oranmiyan plus 845 years of Oba ruler-ship till date.
1. The First Storey Building in Nigeria was built at Ughoton by the Dutch in the year 1718, and it was called “The Factory”. The said building was destroyed by the British during the war against the Benins in 1897. The site of the building is still intact.
2. The Oldest Church in West-Africa was established in Great Benin Empire by the Earliest Portuguese missionaries in the 16th Century which is today known as the Holy Aruosa (Benin National Church). Pope Pius XII visited Benin and handed the church to the Oba of Benin, Oba Oreoghene in 1692AD.
3. The first Known Embassy Established in Nigeria was in Benin during the reign of Oba Esigie in the 16th century.
4. Elaba is the only Chieftaincy title in Benin Kingdom in whose presence the Oba’s Sword bearer (Omada) would ceremonially hold the Oba’s symbol of Authority(Ada) upside down
5. Oba Orhogbua is the first literate king ever recorded in the present day West-Africa.
6. Chief Ogiamien is one of the Uzama N’Ibie (Uzama Minor), the council was created by Oba Esigie.
7. The Oldest known letter written in Nigeria was by Duarte Pires instructed by Oba Esigie which was addressed to King John II, on the 20th October, 1516AD. The second oldest letter was written by Anthonio Domingo (Great-grand Son of Oba Olua) to the Pope to seek for missionary assistance in other to spread Christianity in Benin Empire in 1652AD.
8. Oba Orhogbua founded Lagos and planted a dukedom, the Obaship of Lagos (Eko).
9. Oba Orhogbua introduced the common salt from his numerous voyage to Benin Cuisine in replacement of our traditional organic salt (Obu).
10. The word Okoro means prince in Benin and Uvbi as princess.
11. Oba Orhogbua is the first Sailor king in the present day West-Africa.
12. They are five fighting Empire building Obas of Benin, Oba Ewuare I, Oba Ozolua, Oba Esigie, Oba Orhogbua and Oba Ehengbuda N’Obo.
13. Oba Ehengbuda was the last Oba of Benin to lead the Benin armies physically in battle.
14. Ogiso Odoligie and Oba Esigie were regarded as the redeemer kings because of their pre-ordination by God.
15. Ogiso Orriagba created the college (council) of the hereditary Uzama Chiefs.
16. The last Ogiso palace was located in the present day Ring-Road where the National museum is sited and it was called “Ogbe Ogiso”
17. Oldest ever recorded market in Africa is Ogiso (Agbado) Market dated 60BCE.
18. Ekpeye, Ogba and Iwurhuohna people of River State are children of Akalaka a Benin warrior that migrated from Benin to found their present location during Oba Ewuare I reign.
19. Onitcha town was founded by Benin royal house who migrated during Oba Esigie reign.
20. The shortest Oba that reigned in Great Benin kingdom was Oba Ezoti (14 days) 1473-1473AD.
For facts 21-80 click below link

List of Obas of the Benin Empire (1180-present)

Pre-Imperial Obas of Benin (1180-1440)

Obas of the Benin Empire (1440-1897)

–  Ewuare the Great (1440–1473)
 Ezoti (1473–1475)
 Olua (1475–1480)
 Ozolua (1480–1504)
 Esigie (1504–1547)
 Orhogbua (1547–1580)
 Ehengbuda (1580–1602)
 Ohuan (1602–1656)
 Ohenzae (1656–1661)
 Akenzae (1661–1669)
 Akengboi (1669–1675)
 Akenkpaye (1675–1684)
 Akengbedo (1684–1689)
 Ore-Oghene (1689–1701)
 Ewuakpe (1701–1712)
 Ozuere (1712–1713)
 Akenzua I (1713–1740)
 Eresoyen (1740–1750)
 Akengbuda (1750–1804)
 Obanosa (1804–1816)
 Ogbebo (1816)
 Osemwende (1816–1848)
 Adolo (1848–1888)
 Ovonramwen Nogbaisi (1888–1914) (exiled to Calabar by the British in 1897)

Post-Imperial Obas of Benin (1914-Present)

 Eweka II (1914–1933)
 Akenzua II (1933–1978)
 Erediauwa I (1979–present)

Erediauwa I (1979–present)

Some of the families of the Royal Benin Empire live elsewhere in the world through Europe, The United States, and Africa.



By Uwagboe Ogieva
“The Ancient Benin(Edo)s were one in origin, yet they are one in diversity”
Base on current trend of some Esan politician, scholars and Nigerian pseudo writers with the motive to separate and disorganise the Edo people of Nigeria with the continuation of weakening the ever respected Kingdom of Benin (Edo) (Nation), Southern Nigeria, it becomes imperative to educate the gullible and less informed researchers of the truth fact of history. Again, proper education of true facts of Edos common history, ancestry, language, culture and tradition will not only unite them but help build the mental preparedness for their future national growth and development. Reading through the author on Esan people of Nigeria on WIKIPEDIA, few points were highlighted, (1) that Esan is one of the major ethnic groups in Edo State, South-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria. (2) that they existed on there present location pre-Benin influence. (3) that Oba Ozolua was kill and buried in Esanland (4) that Esan people are the ancestral parents of the benins. While the author have some eloquent facts made of lazy research and incomplete oral history, it is good to note that all of above claims are false and should be written off or ameliorated, or be deleted from one of the most respect and acceptable internet dictionary:WIKIPEDIA. This paper have attempted to answer most pressing question on how the Esan people are not other ethnic group but Edo. What makes up a nation is a shared common values, culture, language, tradtion, religion and teritorial boundaries.
According to James B. Webster and Onaiwu.W.Ogbomo in Chronological Problem in C.G. Okojies Esan Narrative Traditions, Esan traditions, all the ancestors of the people, royal commoner alike came from Benin(Edo) and are basically Benin(Edo) people. Itua Egbor, S.J on African Proverb of the Month, stated that the Esan originated from the Benins (the Edo-speaking people of the ancient Benin Kingdom) and a schism in the distant past resulted in the migration and resettlement of the Esan people in their present geographical location. Dr.Jim Akhere on a keynote address at the ENA convention, head in Hilton Seatle Airport and Conference Center, Seatle. Washington. 2007, said, Esan people exodus was mainly jumping into forest and finding their way throuh the bush to where they are today. While some writers are relating to Egharevba and Okojies books, that Esan has always been where they are presently, or that Benin in fact migrated from Esan to their present abode is not only a distorted history but a deliberate attempt to create a separate kingdom and Nation out of the already shrink and encroached Edoland. Jethro Ibileke on his recent article raise a clarion also calling to the Benin(Edo)s who would want to usurp Esan position as the speaker of the Edo state house of Assembly, to remember that the history of Esan traditional relationship and the linage are deep rooted in Benin. He went further to explain that suppressing Esan people would be like a father fighting his son.
The Agbazilo group account of Esan ancestry, says the Esan came into being when one of the children of Benin’s Queen Oakha and Ojiso Owodo, Prince Uzia Asokpodudu (Ojiso Owodo’s crown prince and heir apparent) founded Uzea in about 1188 AD after they fled their father’s (the Ojiso’s) palace following the death sentence passed on their mother, Queen Oakha, who was alleged to have committed adultery with a Benin chief, Ovior. The duo of Ozogbo and Oigi, Asokpodudu’s younger brothers, escaped along with him and the mother. It is believed that not only did Prince Asokpodudu (the founder of Uzea clan) escape with the mother, Oakha, relations and some palace servants, he also left with his father’s (the king’s) royal trident, ‘Uziziẹnghain’, the Ojiso’s heir loom. Here, the Agbazilo group still comfirming that the Esan mother of creation is and was a Benin mother.
Oba Akenzuwa Nironorho 11 once said that Emotan is the mother of Esan people. In other words without Emotan who helped Prince Ogun to regain the Edo throne and was crowned Oba Ewuare N’Ogidigan there wouldn’t have been no Esan today. Notably, Oba Ewuare the great, during his time, enacted laws that was unbearable to some Edos which led to emigration in the core of the Empire. Most settlers, know as Esan today migrated to their present location during the time. The greetings of the Esan ancestors who left the benin couldn’t have been lagiesan-La Ogiesan before Oba Ewuare because there was no Esan before Ewuare as presented by Nosakhare Idubor. According to Ademola Iyi Eweka, the Ishans/Esans were the most avid defender of the Edo(Benin) monarchy and their women have produced most of Obas of Benin. Eheniuan, the first Ezomo of Benin, who later became the commander of the Benin/Edo Royal army is of Ishan descent.
Esan history is a branch or part of Benin(Edo) history, an integral fellowship of the Benin monarch. Her tale is like the story of an extended son from a very large family, who have travelled far from home married and had own family with a different name. This also brings to mind how it relate with the African Americans history and Africa. Though some dispute they are not Africans inspite of the obvious history of trans-atlantic slave trade, many still trace their ancestral lineage to West Africa including the Great Benin Empire. Larry Uklai Johnson-Redd in his book: Journey to Motherland, From Sant fransisco to Benin City, explained the experience of enslaved Africans to the America and how his ancestral parents hail from Benin.
Rulership, Tradition and Culture:
What is represented as the Esan monarch are not monarch or separate kingdom per ser, as the Benin(Edo) monarch but dukedoms. This also extends among many villages and towns across territories of the Great Benin(Edo) Empire, Geographically touching South-South, South-East, South – West and South – East. To this day the Esan chiefs and traditional rulers, the Enogies(Enogie is the Esan title for a king), sometimes called kings of the Esan people are crowned by the Oba, the supreme head or king of the Benin Empire. The Onojie of Uromi and the Onojie of Irrua are direct sons of the Oba of Benin.
Prof. Iyi Ademola Eweka on his Irrua and Evbohinmwin Relations to Benin-Edoland of Nigeria, explained that the people of Irrua are not only from benin but Benins. Irrua (Iruwa), he said, was named after the Benin princess who married the first Enogie of Irrua, with the people of Evbohimwin belonging to the Ishan/Esan clan, of the (Benin)Edo-speaking group. In the last hundred years, the Enogie of Irrua suddenly became the leader of Enigies in Ishan/Esan land. Whenever the Ishan/Esans are gathered, the Irrua man would normally demand the right to break the almighty kola nuts, but not without a fight from other Ishans/Esans and the reason for this phenomenon can be broken into these parts: a) Although the dukedom of Evbohimwin is probably the oldest, it has always been a haven for Edo princes fleeing from the oba of Benin after a protracted succession struggle. It was also a sort of military out post.
Everybody wanted the control of military outposts of Orhodua and Evbohimwin to be in their hands. Obanosa was the Oba of Benin, 1804-1816. When he died, his two eldest sons, Princes Ogbebor and Erediauwa slugged it out for the throne. Prince Ogbebor won and Prince Erediauwa ran to Evbohimwin for safety. His mother was an Ishan/Esan woman from Evbohimwin. Prince Ogbebor, now the Oba of Benin, tried desperately to dislodge Erediauwa from Evbohimwin. He sent messegers to Ishan/Esan, loaded with coral beads and money, to encourage the Enigies in Ishan/Esan to turn over Prince Erediuwa to him or have his head brought to him in a box. Unfortunately, the supporters of Prince Erediauwa waylaid the messegers to Ishan/Esan, killed many of them and carted way the loot to Prince Erediauwa. Prince Erediauwa now distributed the loot to the Enigies in Ishan/Esan begging for their support and protection. In the ensuing civil war, the army of Oba Ogbebor was defeated. He killed himself, after blowing the palace to pieces with gun powder. He reigned for only eight months. Prince Erediauwa marched into Benin City, ahead of an Ishan/Esan dominated military. He was crowned Oba Osemwende of Benin in 1816. It was Oba Osewende who granted to the Enogie of Uromi, the right to inherit the estate of any person who died childless within Uromi district.This was his reward for supplying men and material in the war to reconquer Akure in 1818-20 rebellion and the battle in defence of the Ekitis against the Ibadans. b) During his reign, he noticed there was an intrigue, to prevent his senior son nicknamed ” Ogbewekon,” from ascending the throne when he passes on. Prince Ogbewekon and Odin-ovba who later became known as Oba Adolor were born on the same day.
Prince Ogbewekon was born first but reported last to the palace. Oba Osemwende found out that Prince Ogbewekon´s mother had been misled by the Edo chiefs at Ogbe quarter in Benin City, tired of Ishan/Esan (Queens) mothers of Obas. Added to that, was the intrigue of Princess AGHAYUBINI, the most senior daughter of Oba Osemwende., the mother of the Osulas and Aiwerioghenes of Benin. She had become very wealthy by trading with the Itsekhiris. This is the popular Itsekhiri factor in the Benin Royal family. When Oba Osemwende passed on, Ogbewekon bypassed and Odin-ovba installed as Oba Adolor, there was another civil disturbance. Prince Ogbewekon ran first to Evbohimwin and finally settled at Igueben were he raised an army with which he wanted to invade Benin City. From his hide out at Igueben, he made life uncomfortable for Oba Adolor in Ishan/Esan land. The Enogie of Evbohimwin was also involved. The Amaho uprising of 1853/54 in Ishan/Esan land, had Prince Ogbewekon signature all over it. It was General Ebohon of Ova, the same general who stopped Ogedengbe of Ilesha at Irhuekpen, who put down the uprising with alot of bloodshed. c) When Oba Adolor passed on, Oba Ovonramwen was installed as the Oba of Benin in 1888, but not without a fight from his brother, Prince Orokhoro. Prince Orokhoro lost and ran first to Evbohimwin and then to Orhodua in Ishan/Esan land. His mother was also an Ishan/Esan. He was busy raising an army in Ishan/Esan when the British army struck in 1897. These were some of the factors responsible for the defeat of the Benin army by the British army in 1897 .
To punish Evbohimwin and the Enogie for supporting rebellious Edo Princes, Erhumwunse (Eromosele), the Enogie of Irrua, the son of Enogie Isidahome 1, the son of Enogie Ogbeide, who commited suicide for ordering the death of a pregnant woman between 1830 and 1847, was made Okaegiesan by Oba Ovonramwen in 1895.

History of The Royal palace of the Oba of Benin

This was built in 1255AD – 1280AD. It is notable as the home of the Oba of Benin and other royal leaders.

  • it was destroyed in 1897 during the British expedition

  • It was made a UNESCO heritage site in 1999



The Oba Royal Palace with its unique traditional architecture and works of the arts was first built about 1255 AD by Oba Ewedo. This ancient royal palace is centrally located near the king’s square in Benin City. It was rebuilt By Oba Eweka II {1914AD-1932AD} after the 1897 infamous British punitive expedition destroyed the former palace.It attracts a lot of visitors from far and near all year round.

Emotan Status

The statue of the stately woman, clad in the traditional wrapper and a headgear associated with the Benin royalty, stands opposite the Oba market in Benin City. The statue was erected in honor of Emotan, a patriotic woman who traded in foodstuff at the very spot where the statue stands, in the 15th century.

Benin Moat

The Benin moat, also known traditionally as Iya, is the largest man-made earthworks in the world. It is one of the wonders of the world. It predates the use of modern earth-moving equipment or technology in these parts. The moat encircles the old perimeter precincts of the City and was constructed as a defensive barrier in times of war.











 Below Holy Aruosa Cathedral in Benin

Image may contain: one or more people, people standing and outdoor

This is the oldest church in Nigeria .It was built in the 15th century. It was situated in Akpakpava Street in the ancient city of Benin. Aruosa {Church of Benin} is the Benin’s version of Church of England or the Dutch reformed church. The Portuguese brought Christianity to the imperial Benin kingdom in the 15th century during the reign of Oba Esigie {about 1504-1550} and during this period, missionaries were sent from Portugal to establish churches in the kingdom.

The Royal Palaces of Abomey are 12 palaces spread over an area of 40 hectares (100 acres) at the heart of the Abomey town in Benin, formerly the capital of the West African Kingdom of Dahomey.[1][2][3] The Kingdom was founded in 1625 by the Fon people who developed it into a powerful military and commercial empire, which dominated trade with European slave traders on the Slave Coast until the late 19th century, to whom they sold their prisoners of war.[4] At its peak the palaces could accommodate for up to 8000 people.[5] The King’s palace included a two-story building known as the “cowrie house” or akuehue.[6] Under the twelve kings who succeeded from 1625 to 1900, the kingdom established itself as one of the most powerful of the western coast of Africa.

UNESCO had inscribed the palaces on the List of World Heritage Sites in Africa. Following this, the site had to be included under the List of World Heritage in Danger since Abomey was hit by a tornado on 15 March 1984, when the royal enclosure and museums, particularly the King Guezo Portico, the Assins Room, King’s tomband Jewel Room were damaged. However, with assistance from several international agencies the restoration and renovation work was completed. Based on the corrective works carried out and reports received on these renovations at Abomey, UNESCO decided to remove the Royal Palaces of Abomey, Benin from the List of World Heritage in Danger, in July 2007.[7]

Today, the palaces are no longer inhabited, but those of King Ghézo and King Glélé house the Historical Museum of Abomey, which illustrates the history of the kingdom and its symbolism through a desire for independence, resistance and fight against colonial occupation.


church oba


Holy Arousa is a unique church in Benin city, Edo state where Christians, Muslims and traditionalists worship together under the spiritual leadership of the Oba of Benin

Along the ever busy Akpakpava Street,in the ancient city of Benin, the Edo State capital, stands a concrete building housing the Holy Aruosa Church where Omo N’ Oba Ne Edo Uku Akpolokpolo, Oba of Benin, worships. The Holy Aruosa is a combination of English and Bini word. Holy as it implies means to be pure while Aruosa is a place or site of worshipping God. According to sources close to the church, the Holy Aruosa was founded in 1506 during the reign of Oba Esigie.

The Church, said to be the oldest church in Africa, was established by the Portuguese before they started the Roman Catholic and other churches. Today, it is common to see tourists from America and Europe visiting the church. The purpose of their visit is to come and see the first church in Nigeria because according to them, they have seen that the establishment of churches in Nigeria have been expanding.

According to Harrison Okao, the Ohen- Osa, or Chief Priest of the Church, it was founded as a place of worshipping God directly without passing through any intermediary. “We don’t pray through Jesus not because we are against Jesus, we don’t pray through Mohammed not because we are against Mohammed, we don’t pray through the deities like Olokun, Ogun, Sango and all others, not because we are against them but because we believe that God existed before their existence. Therefore, if you want anything from your father, you ask him directly rather than going through an intermediary.”
He explained that Holy Aruosa is a place where anybody can come to worship irrespective of tribe or religion. If you are a Christian, you can come here and worship, if you are a Muslim, you can come here to worship, if you are an idol worshipper, you can also worship at the church.

The only difference is that most of the religions pray through an intermediary but in Holy Aruosa they pray directly to God.”
The priest went further, “we start the day’s service with an opening song otherwise known as “Ohenosa muegbugie. After that, we say the opening prayers before we pray for the Oba of Benin, we pray for the heir apparent to the throne, which is the Omo N’ Oba’s first son, we pray for the other Oba’s children both at home and abroad, we pray for the palace, the chiefs, the government of the day, starting from the president, the governors, local government chairmen, councillors and others in the position of authority.”
Okao added that they also pray for good things to happen in the Benin Kingdom and the state while concentrating on members present while we individually ask God for whatever we want from him.

Another wonderful feature about the Holy Aruosa is the choir which is made of elderly people otherwise known as the Edion Ni kao nomadode meaning the elders that will never go astray.
There is also the Chiefs Group, the Wardens’ Group, Youth and Children’s group. And Aruosa N okao, Osagbemwenorue, Ikiede and Ohen Nogu Osawe group as members of the church. These groups are for effective coordination of the church’s activities.
The difference between Holy Aruosa and the orthodox church is the mode of worship and belief. Okao explained that: “If you are talking about the fear of God, the Holy Aruosa members have the fear of God and we have it in our creed that if you sin against mankind, you must go and beg that man and if you don’t go and beg that person, you will receive punishment on earth and after death, you will receive the punishment. That is why we don’t commit sin.
“For instance, if you leave anything here and you come back in three days, nobody will take it because we believe that if you take what does not belong to you, it means you have sin already and you will not enter the kingdom of God. Sinners will not enter the kingdom of God, whoever fornicates will not enter the kingdom of God, whoever covets another person’s wife or property will not enter the kingdom of God and whoever kills cannot enter the kingdom of God.”

He disclosed that the church doctrine is against adultery because it is wrong for a man to sleep with another person’s wife and it is equally wrong for a woman to leave her husband’s house to go and sleep with another woman’s husband. It is wrong and so anybody that does this will not see the kingdom of God. But as a member of the Holy Aruosa church, if you want to marry more than 20 wives, the church cannot say no but would advise that you give them equal love but if you cannot share equal love with all of them, you have to hands off. So the idea of having a wife at home and maybe two or three concubines outside is a sin.”

Another feature is that the church has its own book of worship like the Bible. The difference is that it is known as the Book of Holy Aruosa and was written by the “wise men with the dictate, teachings and sayings of the ancient Benin kingdom.” It is made up of the dos and don’ts that fore fathers bequeathed to the present generation. Okao explained further that the book is just like “the Old Testament in the Bible and if we have anything or any area that we want to refer to in the Bible, we do so, we also refer to the Koran for things to move on properly”.
The mode of worship in Aruosa follows the pattern of the Catholic.

Though in those days, there was no drumming in any church but drumming started in Holy Aruosa and a white Bishop in Lagos then, criticized Aruosa saying that is not the way to serve God. The case even went to court but today, every church drums and sings

The Oba of Benin is the spiritual head of the Church, while the heir apparent to the throne, that is the Omo N’Oba’s first son is number two and the Chief Priest of the Holy Aruosa is number three. All others work with the priest.
The ordination of the Chief Priest is done in the church after the confirmation from the Omo N’ Oba being the head and the selection. It mostly a spiritual exercise.

History of Christianity In Nigeria 

By Samuel U. Erivwo, Ph.D.

It is proper that a history of Christianity in Nigeria should begin with the Itsekiri and their  neighbours. Because of their geographical location the Itsekiri came into contact with Portuguese priest who accompanied Portuguese explorers in their bid to find a sea route to India in the fifteenth century. By about 1477 the first European contacts were made with Benin, and by 1555 Augustinian monks visited Warri. They were sent by Gasper, who was the bishop of the diocese of Sao Tome. One of the monks, Father Franscisco a Mater Dei, baptized the son of the Olu  of  Warri  under the name of Sebastian.[1]

When Sebastian later succeeded his father he encouraged the work of the Portuguese missionaries, and indeed allowed his son, Domingos, to be sent to Portugal and trained for the priesthood.It was hoped that if this happened the spread of Christianity to the hinterland would be expedited since indigenous priests would not suffer from the ill effect of the equatorial climate which imposed a serious limitation on the work of the European missionaries. However, Domingos  was not able to qualify for the priesthood since he ended his ten years stay in Portugal by marrying, contrary to the stipulation of the Roman Catholic Church in respect of those who wish to enter the priesthood. (His wife was a Portuguese woman.) Some other attempts made later to train indigenous priest also failed, with the result that the  Itsekiri  came to the conclusion that the Almighty did not intend Africans to become  celebate  priests![2]

 The difficulty of providing trained indigenous priests constituted a set back to the propagation of Christianity among the  Itsekiri . As already indicated, the climate of the area was  unfavourable  to European missionaries; the place was not only too humid, it was also infested by mosquitoes, the carriers of malaria which was to be a formidable menace to missionary work in this area until after 1854.  Furthermore, the Portuguese kingdom, experiencing a period of decline as a result, among other things, of her loss of naval power, was incapable of supporting Portuguese priests who worked among the  Itsekiri  for a long time.

All this apart, had the  Itsekiri  themselves responded  favourably  to the appeal of the Portuguese missionaries, Christianity might have taken deep root, and possibly spread to the hinterland. But they did not. So superstitious were they of the implication of baptism that they were most reluctant to release their children for baptism, fearing, as they did, that the children would die shortly after baptism.  Thus, the adverse climate, the decline of Portuguese empire consequent upon the poverty of that kingdom and her loss of naval power, the unsuccessful attempts to train indigenous priests, and the superstition of the  Itsekiri , all militated against the work of the Portuguese missionaries in Ode  Itsekiri, the capital of the  Itsekiri  kingdom.

But these were not the only adverse factors.  Perhaps even more important was the slave trade.  The Portuguese priests who came to the area from the sixteenth century onwards did so in the gunboats of slave traders.  It is even reported that some of them, in a desperate effort to maintain themselves in the area, participated in the inhuman trade.  Even if it be admitted that on the whole the Roman Catholic Church at the time did not approve of the slave trade, yet she took no positive steps to discourage the inhuman traffic in living tools.  Instead, there was an attempt to see the good side of the inhuman trade: the possibility of converting the negro slaves once they were transported from the darkness of  Africa to the marvelous light of Christianity which the Church in Europe believed to be in her possession to radiate. As a matter of fact, most of the slaves carried from the West Coast did not land in Europe; they were carried to sugar plantations in Americ where they were treated as beasts of burden.

No matter in what bright  colours  the slave trade may be painted, viewed in retrospect and from the West African stand point, on no ground can it be justified.  Any Christianity, therefore, which allied itself to such a diabolic force s the Portuguese slave trade was doomed to fail.  Thus the failure of the first attempt to plant Christianity among the  Itsekiri , and in part of what was later to be known as Nigeria, was, more than any other factor, due to the slave trade.  Before the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, Roman Catholicism had practically disappeared from Ode  Isekiri.

 However, as stated elsewhere[3], in spite of the difficulties which rendered missionary work in the area of little consequence some impression was made as is evidenced from the court of the Olu of Warri  even today.Even among the Urhobo in the hinterland some impression was made, especially by Father Monteleone, a prefect from Sao Tome, who, according to Professor Ryder[4], came in contact with the Urhobo in 1689 in his unsuccessful attempt to visit Benin from  Warri.

Some Pagan Egyptian Babylonian connections below. I will cover more on this subject in a different post later.







From the 17th to the 19th century, the main political entities in the area were the Kingdom of Dahomey along with the city-state of Porto-Novo and a large area with many different tribes to the north. This region was referred to as the Slave Coast from as early as the 17th century due to the large number of slaves shipped to the New World during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. After slavery was abolished, France took over the country and renamed it French Dahomey. In 1960, Dahomey gained full independence from France, and had a tumultuous period with many different democratic governments, military coups and military governments.

Precolonial historyEdit

The current country of Benin combines three areas which had different political and ethnic systems prior to French colonial control. Before 1700, there were a few important city states along the coast (primarily of the Aja ethnic group, but also including Yoruba and Gbe peoples) and a mass of tribal regions inland (composed of Bariba, Mahi, Gedevi, and Kabye peoples). The Oyo Empire, located primarily to the east of modern Benin, was the most significant large-scale military force in the region and it would regularly conduct raids and exact tribute from the coastal kingdoms and the tribal regions.[13] The situation changed in the 1600s and early 1700s as the Kingdom of Dahomey, which was of Fon ethnicity, was founded on the Abomey plateau and began taking over areas along the coast.[14] By 1727, king Agaja of the Kingdom of Dahomey had conquered the coastal cities of Allada and Whydah, but it had become a tributary of the Oyo empire and did not directly attack the Oyo allied city-state of Porto-Novo.[15] The rise of the kingdom of Dahomey, the rivalry between the kingdom and the city of Porto-Novo, and the continued tribal politics of the northern region, persisted into the colonial and post-colonial periods.[16]

The Dahomey Kingdom was known for its culture and traditions. Young boys were often apprenticed to older soldiers, and taught the kingdom’s military customs until they were old enough to join the army.[17] Dahomey was also famous for instituting an elite female soldier corps, called Ahosi, i.e. the king’s wives, or Mino, “our mothers” in the Fon language Fongbe, and known by many Europeans as the Dahomean Amazons. This emphasis on military preparation and achievement earned Dahomey the nickname of “black Sparta” from European observers and 19th century explorers like Sir Richard Burton.[18]

Portuguese EmpireEdit

Map of the Kingdom of Dahomey, 1793

The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery;[19] otherwise the captives would have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. By about 1750, the King of Dahomey was earning an estimated £250,000 per year by selling Africans to the European slave-traders.[20] Though the leaders of Dahomey appeared initially to resist the slave trade, it flourished in the region of Dahomey for almost three hundred years, beginning in 1472 with a trade agreement with Portuguese merchants, leading to the area’s being named “the Slave Coast”. Court protocols, which demanded that a portion of war captives from the kingdom’s many battles be decapitated, decreased the number of enslaved people exported from the area. The number went from 102,000 people per decade in the 1780s to 24,000 per decade by the 1860s.[21]

Dahomey Amazons with the King at their head, going to war, 1793

The decline was partly due to the banning of the trans-Atlantic slave trade by Britain and other countries.[20] This decline continued until 1885, when the last slave ship departed from the coast of the present-day Benin Republic bound for Brazil, a former Portuguese colony, that had yet to abolish slavery.

The capital’s name Porto-Novo is of Portuguese origin, meaning “New Port”. It was originally developed as a port for the slave trade.


The Kingdom of Dahomey was established around 1600 by the Fon people who had recently settled in the area (or were possibly a result of intermarriage between the Aja people and the local Gedevi). The foundational king for Dahomey is often considered to be Houegbadja (c. 1645–1685), who built the Royal Palaces of Abomey and began raiding and taking over towns outside of the Abomey plateau.[2]

Victims for sacrifice – from The history of Dahomy, an inland Kingdom of Africa, 1793.

Rule of Agaja (1708–1740)Edit

King Agaja, Houegbadja’s grandson, came to the throne in 1708 and began significant expansion of the Kingdom of Dahomey. This expansion was made possible by the superior military force of King Agaja’s Dahomey. In contrast to surrounding regions, Dahomey employed a professional standing army numbering around ten thousand.[4] What the Dahomey lacked in numbers, they made up for in discipline and superior arms. In 1724, Agaja conquered Allada, the origin for the royal family according to oral tradition, and in 1727 he conquered Whydah. This increased size of the kingdom, particularly along the Atlantic coast, and increased power made Dahomey into a regional power. The result was near constant warfare with the main regional state, the Oyo Empire, from 1728 until 1740.[5]The warfare with the Oyo empire resulted in Dahomey assuming a tributary status to the Oyo empire.[6]

End of the kingdomEdit

The kingdom fought the First Franco-Dahomean War and Second Franco-Dahomean War with France. The kingdom was reduced and made a French protectorate in 1894.[7]

In 1904 the area became part of a French colony, French Dahomey.

In 1958 French Dahomey became the self-governing colony called the Republic of Dahomey and gained full independence in 1960. It was renamed in 1975 the People’s Republic of Benin, and in 1991 the Republic of Benin. The Dahomey kingship exists as a ceremonial role to this day.


Early writings, predominantly written by European slave traders, often presented the kingdom as an absolute monarchy led by a despotic king. However, these depictions were often deployed as arguments by different sides in the slave trade debates, mainly in the United Kingdom, and as such were probably exaggerations.[2][6] Recent historical work has emphasized the limits of monarchical power in the Kingdom of Dahomey.[3] Historian John Yoder, with attention to the Great Council in the kingdom, argued that its activities do not “imply that Dahomey’s government was democratic or even that her politics approximated those of nineteenth-century European monarchies. However, such evidence does support the thesis that governmental decisions were molded by conscious responses to internal political pressures as well as by executive fiat.”[8] The primary political divisions revolved around villages with chiefs and administrative posts appointed by the king and acting as his representatives to adjudicate disputes in the village.[9]

The kingEdit

King Ghezo displayed with a royal umbrella

The King of Dahomey (Ahosu in the Fon language) was the sovereign power of the kingdom. All of the kings were claimed to be part of the Alladaxonou dynasty, claiming descent from the royal family in Allada. Much of the succession rules and administrative structures were created early by HouegbadjaAkaba, andAgaja. Succession through the male members of the line was the norm typically going to the oldest son, but not always.[10] The king was selected largely through discussion and decision in the meetings of the Great Council, although how this operated was not always clear.[2][8] The Great Council brought together a host of different dignitaries from throughout the kingdom yearly to meet at the Annual Customs of Dahomey. Discussions would be lengthy and included members, both men and women, from throughout the kingdom. At the end of the discussions, the king would declare the consensus for the group.[8]

The royal courtEdit

Key positions in the King’s court included the migan, the mehu, the yovogan, the kpojito (or queen-mother), and later the chacha (or viceroy) of Whydah. The migan (combination of mi-our and gan-chief) was a primary consul for the king, a key judicial figure, and served as the head executioner. The mehu was similarly a key administrative officer who managed the palaces and the affairs of the royal family, economic matters, and the areas to the south of Allada (making the position key to contact with Europeans).

Relations with other statesEdit

The relations between Dahomey and other countries were complex and heavily impacted by the Gold trade. The Oyo empire engaged in regular warfare with the kingdom of Dahomey and Dahomey was a tributary to Oyo from 1732 until 1823. The city-state of Porto-Novo, under the protection of Oyo, and Dahomey had a long-standing rivalry largely over control of the Gold trade along the coast. The rise of Abeokuta in the 1840s created another power rivaling Dahomey, largely by creating a safe haven for people from the slave trade.


The military of the Kingdom of Dahomey was divided into two units: the right and the left. The right was controlled by the migan and the left was controlled by the mehu. At least by the time ofAgaja, the kingdom had developed a standing army that remained encamped wherever the king was. Soldiers in the army were recruited as young as seven or eight years old, initially serving as shield carriers for regular soldiers. After years of apprenticeship and military experience, they were allowed to join the army as regular soldiers. To further incentivize the soldiers, each soldier received bonuses paid in cowry shells for each enemy they killed or captured in battle. This combination of lifelong military experience and monetary incentives resulted in a cohesive, well-disciplined military.[11] One European said Agaja’s standing army consisted of, “elite troops, brave and well-disciplined, led by a prince full of valor and prudence, supported by a staff of experienced officers.”[12]

In addition to being well-trained, the Dahomey army under Agaja was also very well armed. The Dahomey army favored imported European weapons as opposed to traditional weapons. For example, they used European flintlock muskets in long range combat and imported steel swords and cutlasses in close combat. The Dahomey army also possessed twenty-five cannons.

When going into battle, the king would take a secondary position to the field commander with the reason given that if any spirit were to punish the commander for decisions it should not be the king.[9] Unlike other regional powers, the military of Dahomey did not have a significant cavalry (like the Oyo empire) or naval power (which prevented expansion along the coast). The Dahomey Amazons, a unit of all-female soldiers, is one of the most unusual aspects of the military of the kingdom.

Dahomey AmazonsEdit

Dahomey female soldiers

The Dahomean state became widely known for its corps of female soldiers. Their origins are debated; they may have formed from a palace guard or from gbetos (female hunting teams).[13]

They were organized around the year 1729 to fill out the army and make it look larger in battle, armed only with banners. The women reportedly behaved so courageously they became a permanent corps. In the beginning the soldiers were criminals pressed into service rather than being executed. Eventually, however, the corps became respected enough that King Ghezoordered every family to send him their daughters, with the most fit being chosen as soldiers.[dubious ]


The economic structure of the kingdom was highly intertwined with the political and religious systems and these developed together significantly.[9] The main currency was Cowry shells.

Domestic economyEdit

The domestic economy largely focused on agriculture and crafts for local consumption. Until the development of palm oil, very little agricultural or craft goods were traded outside of the kingdom. Markets served a key role in the kingdom and were organized around a rotating cycle of four days with a different market each day (the market type for the day was religiously sanctioned).[9]Agriculture work was largely decentralized and done by most families. However, with the expansion of the kingdom agricultural plantations began to be a common agricultural method in the kingdom. Craft work was largely dominated by a formal guild system.[14]

Herskovits recounts a complex tax system in the kingdom, in which officials who represented the king, the tokpe, gathered data from each village regarding their harvest. Then the king set a tax based upon the level of production and village population. In addition, the king’s own land and production were taxed.[9] After significant road construction undertaken by the kingdom, toll booths were also established that collected yearly taxes based on the goods people carried and their occupation. Officials also sometimes imposed fines for public nuisance before allowing people to pass.[9]


Left: Dance of the Fon chiefs during celebrations. Right: The celebration at Abomey (1908). Veteran warriors of the Fon king Béhanzin, son of king Glele.

The Kingdom of Dahomey shared many religious rituals with surrounding populations; however, it also developed unique ceremonies, beliefs, and religious stories for the kingdom. These included royal ancestor worship and the specific vodunpractices of the kingdom.

Royal ancestor worshipEdit

Early kings established clear worship of royal ancestors and centralized their ceremonies in theAnnual Customs of Dahomey. The spirits of the kings had an exalted position in the land of the dead and it was necessary to get their permission for many activities on earth.[9] Ancestor worship pre-existed the kingdom of Dahomey; however, under King Agaja, a cycle of ritual was created centered on first celebrating the ancestors of the king and then celebrating a family lineage.[3]

The Annual Customs of Dahomey (xwetanu or huetanu in Fon) involved multiple elaborate components and some aspects may have been added in the 19th century. In general, the celebration involved distribution of gifts, human sacrifice, military parades, and political councils. Its main religious aspect was to offer thanks and gain the approval for ancestors of the royal lineage.[3] However, the custom also included military parades, public discussions, gift giving (the distribution of money to and from the king), and human sacrifice and the spilling of blood.[3]

Dahomey cosmologyEdit

Dahomey had a unique form of West African Vodun that linked together preexisting animist traditions with vodun practices. Oral history recounted that Hwanjile, a wife of Agaja and mother of Tegbessou brought Vodun to the kingdom and ensured its spread. The primary deity is the combined Mawu-Lisa (Mawu having female characteristics and Lisa having male characteristics) and it is claimed that this god took over the world that was created by their mother Nana-Buluku.[9] Mawu-Lisa governs the sky and is the highest pantheon of gods, but other gods exist in the earth and in thunder. Religious practice organized different priesthoods and shrines for each different god and each different pantheon (sky, earth or thunder). Women made up a significant amount of the priest class and the chief priest was always a descendent of Dakodonou.[2]


The Fon people, also called Fon nuAgadja or Dahomey, are a major African ethnic and linguistic group.[1][2] They are the largest ethnic group in Benin found particularly in its south region; they are also found in southwest Nigeria and Togo. Their total population is estimated to be about 3,500,000 people, and they speak the Fon language, a member of the Niger-Congo languagegroup.[1]

Fon people
D263- amazone dahoméenne. - L1-Ch5.png

A female warrior of the Fon people
Total population
4.1 Million
Regions with significant populations
Benin (39% of its population) and Nigeria (less than 1% of its population)
Related ethnic groups

The history of the Fon people is linked to theDahomey kingdom, a well organized kingdom by the 17th-century but one that shared more ancient roots with the Aja people.[2]The Fon people traditionally were a culture of an oral tradition and had a well developed polytheistic religious system.[3]They were noted by early 19th-century European traders for their N’Nonmitonvpractice or Dahomey Amazons– which empowered their women to serve in the military, who decades later fought the French colonial forces in 1890.[4][5]

Most Fon today live in villages and small towns in mud houses with corrugated iron gable roofs. Cities built by the Fon includeAbomey, the historical capital city of Dahomey, and Ouidah on what was historically referred to by Europeans as theSlave Coast. These cities became major commercial centres for theslave trade. A significant portion of the sugar plantations in the French West Indies, particularlyHaitiandTrinidad, were populated with slaves that came from the Slave Coast, through the lands of Ewe and Fon people.[6]



The Gbe language area. Map of the Fon (purple) and other ethnic groups, according to Capo (1988). Since the seventeenth century, the Fon have been concentrated in the Benin region and the southwestern part of Nigeria.

The Fon people, like other neighboring ethnic groups in West Africa, remained an oral traditionsociety through late medieval era, without ancient historical records. According to these oral histories and legends, the Fon people originated in present day Tado, a small Aja town now situated near the Togo-Benin border. Their earliest rulers were originally a part of the ruling class in the Aja kingdom of Allada (also called Ardra kingdom).[2][6]

The Aja people had a major dispute, one group broke up and these people came to be the Fon people who migrated to Allada with king Agasu. The sons of king Agasu disputed who should succeed him after his death, and the group split again, this time the Fon people migrated with Agasu’s son Dogbari northwards to Abomey where they founded the kingdom of Dahomey sometime about 1620 CE. The Fon people have been settled there since, while the kingdom of Dahomey expanded in southeast Benin by conquering neighboring kingdoms.[2]

The Oral history of the Fon further attributes the origins of the Fon people to the intermarrying between this migrating Allada-nu Aja group from the south with the Oyo-nu inhabitants in the (Yoruba) Kingdoms of the plateau. These Yorubas were known as the Igede, which the Ajas called the Gedevi.[7][8] The fusion of the immigrant Aja conquerors and the original Indigenous Yorubas of the Abomey plateau thus created a new culture, that of the Fon.

…..  also

Slavery, Bight of BeninEdit

The Fon people did not invent slavery in Africa, nor did they have a monopoly on slavery nor exclusive slave trading activity. The institution of slavery long pre-dates the origins of the Fon people in Aja kingdom and the formation of kingdom of Dahomey. The sub-Saharan and the Red Sea region, states Herbert Klein – a professor of History, was already trading between 5,000 to 10,000 African slaves per year between 800 and 1600 CE, with a majority of these slaves being women and children.[15] According to John Donnelly Fage – a professor of History specializing in Africa, a “slave economy was generally established in the Western and Central Sudan by about the fourteenth century at least, and had certainly spread to the coasts around the Senegal and in Lower Guinea by the fifteenth century”.[16]

Slave shipment between 1501-1867, by region[17][note 1]
Region Total embarked Total disembarked
Kongo people region 5.69 million
Bight of Benin 2.00 million
Bight of Biafra 1.6 million
Gold Coast 1.21 million
Windward Coast 0.34 million
Sierra Leone 0.39 million
Senegambia 0.76 million
Mozambique 0.54 million
Brazil (South America) 4.7 million
Rest of South America 0.9 million
Caribbean 4.1 million
North America 0.4 million
Europe 0.01 million

By the 15th-century, Songhay Empire rulers to the immediate north of Fon people, in the Niger River valley, were already using thousands of captured slaves for agriculture.[15] The demand for slave labor to produce sugarcane, cotton, palm oil, tobacco and other goods in the plantations of European colonies around the globe had sharply grown between 1650 to 1850. The Bight of Benin was already shipping slaves in late 17th-century, before the Fon people expanded their kingdom to gain control of the coast line.[18] The Fon rulers and merchants whose powers were established on the Atlantic coast between 1700 to 1740, entered this market.[16] The Fon people were divided on how to respond to the slave demand. Some scholars suggest that Fon people and Dahomey rulers expressed intentions to curtail or end slave trading, states Elizabeth Heath, but historical evidence affirms that the Benin coastline including the ports of the Dahomey rulers and the Fon people became one of the largest exporter of slaves.[2]

The kingdom of Dahomey, along with its neighbors kingdom of Benin and Oyo Empire, raided for slaves and sold their captives into transatlantic slavery. The competition for captives, slaves and government revenues, amongst the African kingdoms, escalated the mutual justification and pressure. The captives were sold as slaves to the Europeans from the Bight of Benin (also called the Slave Coast), from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century.[19] The Fon people were both victims and also ones who victimized other ethnic groups. Some captives came from wars, but others came from systematic kidnapping within the kingdom or at the frontiers as well as the caravans of slaves brought in by merchants from the West African interior. The kingdom of Dahomey of Fon people controlled the Ouidah port, from where numerous European slave ships disembarked. However, this was not the only port of the region, and it competed with the ports controlled by other nearby kingdoms on the Bight of Benin and the Bight of Biafra.[19]

The Fon people, along with the neighboring ethnic groups such as the Ewe people, disembarked in French colonies to work as slaves in the plantations of the Caribbean and coasts of South America. They were initially called Whydah, which probably meant “people sold by Alladah”. The word Whydah phonetically evolved into Rada, the name of West African community that embarked in slave ships from the Bight of Benin, and is now found in HaitiTrinidadFrench Antilles and other nearby islands with French influence.[6] In some Caribbean colonial documents, alternate spellings such as Rara are also found.[20]

The slave traders and ship owners of European colonial system encouraged competition, equipped the various kingdoms with weapons which they paid for with slaves, as well as built infrastructure such as ports and forts to strengthen the small kingdoms.[21] In 1804, slave trading from the Bight of Benin was banned by the Great Britain, in 1826 France ban on slave purchase or trading came into effect, while Brazil banned slave imports and trading in 1851.[2][22] When slave exports ceased, the king of Fon people shifted to agricultural exports to France, particularly palm oil, but used slaves to operate the plantations. The agricultural exports were not as lucrative as slave exports had been in past. To recover the state revenues, he leased the ports in his kingdom to the French through a signed agreement in late 19th century. The French interpreted the agreement as ceding the land and ports, while the Dahomey kingdom disagreed.[2] The dispute led to a French attack in 1890, and annexation of the kingdom as a French colony in 1892.[23] This started the colonial rule experience of the Fon people.[2]


The Fon culture has a mixture of Ewe and Yoruba presence in it. In the city of Abomey, as a result of Yoruba presence, the Fon people there have their original culture, mixed with Yoruba whom defeated their Oyo kingdom whiles in the city of Ouidah, its more like that of their Ewe brothers and sisters with whom they all migrated from Tado.
Whether by part of empire of Dahomey by itself or their enemy states, many Fon slaves were sold to European traders, who exported to Americas. So, many descendants of the Fon now live in the Americas as a result of the Atlantic slave trade. In United States they were mostly in Louisiana,New Orleans. Together with other cultural groups from the Fon homeland region such as the Yoruba and Bantu, Fon culture merged with French, Portuguese or Spanish to produce distinct religions (Voodoo, Mami Wata, CandomblÉ and SanterÍa), dance and musical styles (ArarÁ, Yan Valu). As a result of what the Fons did to their fellow brethrens through their slave trading activities,the Fons and other voodoo practicing tribes in Benin has instituted annual Voodoo festival for to invite all Africans in diaspora to visit their homeland. The festival falls on the second week of January every year at the Benin city of Ouidah.



The Aja are a group of people native to south-western Benin and south-eastern Togo.[1] According to oral tradition, the Aja migrated to southern Benin in the 12th or 13th centuries from Tado on theMono River, and c. 1600, three brothers, Kokpon, Do-Aklin, and Te-Agdanlin, split the ruling of the region then occupied by the Aja amongst themselves: Kokpon took the capital city of Great Ardra, reigning over the Allada kingdom; Do-Aklin founded Abomey, which would become capital of the Kingdom of Dahomey; and Te-Agdanlin founded Little Ardra, also known as Ajatche, later called Porto Novo (literally, “New Port”) by Portuguese traders and the current capital city of Benin.

Aja are an ethnic group also found in the South Sudan state of Western Bahr el Ghazal. They mostly live along the upper reaches of the Sopo River.[1]

Ewe People of Ghana, Togo, Nigeria , Benin and Ivory Coast.
Ewe People also known as Evê can be found in Ghana, Togo, Benin, some parts of Nigeria and Ivory Coast, they are part of the Gbe Speaking People and related to the Fon, Mina and Aja people. According to Professor Amenumey he claimed they originally came from Ketu in Dahomey Present day Benin which is considered as a Yoruba area, they were eventually forced which led to migration from eastward as a result of the expansions others claimed the Eweland extended from the mono river on the western border of Dahomey Present day Benin across Present day Togo and into the present day southeastern Ghana which is believed to be formely British Togoland as far as the volta river, from the south to the north and extend from the coast into the heavily forest hills.


When the great Benin empire reached the zeniths of its power, it extended its boundaries and exercised power over all the west African lands bordering the entire stretch of the bight of Benin, from the mouth of the river Volta in the west and eastward to the present day Congo and to the delta of river Niger in the east e.g. Ghana, Republic of Benin, both across the borders of modern Nigeria. Onitsha on the Niger and many other cities such as Asaba, Agbor, Isele-Uku, Warri, Idah e.t.c. Many of these states and other cities owe their corporate existence to the ancient Benin Empire. The influence of the great Benin Empire was said to have even extended to the present day Sierra Leone in the west.

The legendary fame of the Great Benin empire was such that the name Benin had many meanings, e.g. there was Benin-city and Benin empire, Benin river close to the new Benin (Warri) and there is the bight of Benin and the Benin district comprising of Sapele and Warri. Beyond the Gulf of Benin, the great Benin Empire’s legendary fame was indeed wide spread. Several European states heard about the empires might and civilized attitudes, many sought for it.

That a vast stretch of the West African coastline bears the name ” BIGHT OF BENIN” is no accident of history. Even until these day, it quite evident and amazing how the cultural influence of the ancient Benin empire remains strong till today. An independent republic of former Dahomey in 1975 decided to change its name to the republic of Benin as a way of reconnecting its roots to Africa’s once glorious kingdom.

The republic of Togo on the other hand named some of her prestigious institutions after the great Benin empire e.g. Universite du Benin, Togo hotel du Benin e.t.c. President Gnassingbe Eyadema during his 1974 visit to Benin City openly stated that the Togolese people originated from the ancient Benin Empire. His open declaration was cardinal in the sense that it ended the historical dilemma that clouded the ancient Benin and present day Benin speaking Yoruba influence on many West African nations. The Political & Spiritual Purpose of the Holy Land nations.

Today, the people of Onitsha across the Niger, the Isekiris, Urobos, Isian and Ijaws just to mention but a few all proudly trace their venerated royal lineages to the ancient Benin empire.


My highest ancestry regions are Benin Togo 40% Cameroon Congo 22% Ivory Coast Ghana 12%

I also have 2% Iberian Peninsula Portuguese/Spanish which correlates with Benin history and the Portuguese slave history.

We were sold for guns and material things but I’m genetically more African than some Africans especially in the north and east.  We are called white or Europeans by some but the truth is in our DNA. If I’m claiming anything I’m claiming a legacy that was stolen and destroyed. I want it back and if you check out this blog I dig into everything. This is dear to my heart for my ancestors. The truth will set you free as they say. Africans and the Africans that went into captivity we hold a missing link we each have half of the history. We are one.

Benin’s largest ethnic group is the Fon (39%), followed by the Adja (15%), Yoruba (12%) and Bariba (9%). Togo’s largest ethnic groups are the Ewe (21%), Kabye (12%), Mina (3.2%) and Kotokoli (3.2%). Benin has more ethnic ties to its neighbor Nigeria; Togo has more links to Ghana. These ethnic ties are the result of long-standing kingdoms that flourished before European colonists created new borders.

Ewe people show high Togo and Ghana

Ga Dangme show high Togo and Ghana

Yoruba show high Benin and Togo and Ghana and Nigeria

Below results are similar to mine above and are African American


GHANA (Ewe from Peki/Volta region) 




They are particularly found in southern Togo (formerly French Togoland), Volta Region in southeastern Ghana (formerly British Togoland), and in southwestern parts of Benin. The Ewe region is sometimes referred to as the Ewe nation or Eʋedukɔ́ region (Togoland in colonial literature). Wikipedia

This is a very insightful even if perhaps counterintuitive breakdown for a Ghanaian person. The predominant score is afterall “Benin/Togo” combined with a smaller but still considerable proportion of “Ivory Coast/Ghana”. The socalled “Benin/Togo” region has been reported very frequently and also with high scores among African Americans and also West Indians. Often surprisingly so. I have no complete certainty about the ethnic background of the person whose DNA results are being shown above. However judging from his name and his family’s location in theVolta regionof Ghana, nearby the Togolese border. And more specifically their hometown being Peki, a traditional Ewe state, this person could very well be anEwe, an ethnic group living in eastern Ghana as well as southern Togo (see alsothis map).

 Ewe People of Ghana, Togo, Nigeria , Benin and Ivory Coast.

Ewe People also known as Evê can be found in Ghana, Togo, Benin, some parts of Nigeria and Ivory Coast, they are part of the Gbe Speaking People and related to the Fon, Mina and Aja people. According to Professor Amenumey he claimed they originally came from Ketu in Dahomey Present day Benin which is considered as a Yoruba area, they were eventually forced which led to migration from eastward as a result of the expansions others claimed the Eweland extended from the mono river on the western border of Dahomey Present day Benin across Present day Togo and into the present day southeastern Ghana which is believed to be formely British Togoland as far as the volta river, from the south to the north and extend from the coast into the heavily forest hills.

The DNA of my Ghanian cousin on Ancestry DNA below


Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo

Trace Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Nigeria






Ga Dangme

The Ga-AdangmeGã-AdaŋbɛGa-Dangme, or GaDangme are an ethnic group in Ghana andTogo. The Ga and Adangbe people are grouped respectively as part of the Ga–Dangmeethnolinguistic group.[2][3]



MarcelDesailly.JPG George Ayittey detail.jpg Obo Addy.jpg
Marcel Desailly George Ayittey Obo Addy
Harry Aikines-Aryeetey Kaunas 2009.jpg JAnkrahhead.jpg Eric Adjetey Anang.jpg
Harry Aikines-Aryeetey Joseph Ankrah Eric Anang
Paul Sackey Stade francais 2012-03-03.jpg Nii amugi.png Rear Admiral David Animle Hansen.jpg
Paul Sackey Nii Amugi II David Hansen


Total population
(Approximately 2.0 million[1])
Regions with significant populations
Ghana – Greater Accra Region & Eastern Region-, Togo, as well as the United KingdomGermany,Brazil the United States of America, and Canada
Ga and Adangme
Christianity • Traditional • Islam • Hinduism

The Ga-Adangmes are one ethnic group that lives primarily in the Greater AccraEastern Region and the Volta Region of Ghana. Others areas are Aného in Togo and Benin.

The Ga peoples were organized into six independent towns (Accra (Ga Mashie), Osu,LaTeshieNungua, and Tema). Each town had a stool, which served as the central object of Ga ritual and war magic. Accra became the most prominent Ga-Dangme towns and is now the heartbeat and capital of Ghana.[4] The Ga people were originally farmers, but today fishing and trading in imported goods are the principal occupations. Trading is generally in the hands of women, and a husband has no control over his wife’s money. Succession to most offices held by women and inheritance of women’s property are by matrilineal descent. Inheritance of other property and succession to male-held public offices are by patrilineal descent. Men of the lineage live together in a men’s compound, while women, even after marriage, live with their mothers and children in a women’s compound. Each Ga town has a number of different cults and many gods, and there are a number of annual town festivals.[4]

The Adangme people occupy the coastal area of Ghana from Kpone to Ada, on the Volta River and South Atlantic Ocean along the Gulf of Guinea and inland along the Volta River. The Adangme People include the Ada, Kpong,Krobo, Ningo, Osuduku, Prampram, and Shai, all speaking Adangbe of the Kwa branch of the Niger-Congo family of languages. [5] The Adangme People have the largest Population among the two related Ga-Adangme People. About 70% of the Greater Accra Regional Land is owned by the Adangmes located in Dangme East and Dangme West Districts of Ghana. Also, in the Eastern Region and Volta Region of Ghana, about 15% of lands belong to the Adangme People. These are mainly in the Manya Krobo and Yilo Krobo Districts of the Eastern Region. In the Agotime Area of Volta Region and the Adangbe Area in the Southern part of Togo.

Black History Pt 1: The True Identity of the West African Slaves PT 1


In this and the next series of articles on black history, I will show without any shadow of doubt; the true identity of African-Americans and black people from the Caribbean by revealing the identity  of their  ancestors who originated from West Africa.

About three hundred years ago during the Trans Atlantic Trade many black people were uprooted from West Africa and taken as slaves to the Americas. Since then, their descendants in the Caribbean and in both North and South America, have not stopped searching for their roots. These black people have wondered about the slave trade, why it happened and which people they belong to in Africa. Because of this gap in their black history, descendants of the slaves who are conscious of their identity have worried about their true identity for the longest time.
To find answers, many have turned to DNA profiling to…

View original post 1,747 more words

My Igbo & Akan slave ancestors from Jamaica & The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade connection. The Hebrews ie Heeboes

This post is full of information and documentaries. You may want to bookmark or save the page and read it over a period of time.

When I started this post and this journey I had no idea what I would find. I will be updating this post until it is full (like my Hebrew Israelites and the trans Atlantic slave trade post which is full and can’t be added to) I pray for guidance and for truth in my study and retrieval of the history of my ancestors.

This is our story.


The ancestors found were Igbo & Akan described in Jamaica as Eboe & Coromantee


Before I get into the exploration of who these ancestors were, I’m going to drop this Jamaican poem here

According to records my first ancestors into the new world were Charlotte (birth 1765ish) and William senior (birth 1767) and their descendants they started the lineage that I stem from in Jamaica.  Charlotte was born in Africa. Charlottes son Quamin formerly known as William had Billy also known as William after his father. Charlotte was described as Igbo in the census listing on the plantation. Billy was described as a Creole Negroe.  Creole was sometimes used to describe people born on a different island such as America or a different Carribean Island. Creole could also refer to a mixed race person. I have already discovered a line of family born in America from this side of the family and every record points to them stemming from this William or his relatives. I researched the name Quamin and it relates to West Africa and the Akan and Ga tribe.  Although the jamaican records describe my ancestors as Igbo it is quite possible that they used one umbrella term “Igbo” to describe slaves who may have called themselves something else.


By about 1810 my ancestors have gone from being called Igbo to Maroons.

Afro-Jamaicans are Jamaicans of entirely or predominantly African descent. The first Africans to arrive came in 1513 from the Iberian Peninsula. They were servantscowboys, herders of cattle, pigs and horses, as well as hunters. When the English captured Jamaica in 1655, many of them fought with the Spanish who gave them their freedom and then fled to the mountains resisting the British for many years to maintain their freedom, becoming known as Maroons. The British in this point in time, brought with them mostly Akan slaves, some of which ran away and joined with Maroons and even took over as leaders.

Documentation later lists my relatives as escapees known as Maroons in the late 1700 and they are advertised as missing.

The Maroons are descendants of West Africans, mainly people from the Ashanti region of what is today Ghana. After being brought to Jamaica in the course of the Transatlantic slave trade, many slaves fled from the oppressive conditions of plantations and formed their own communities in the rugged, hilly interior of the island. A minority of slaves originated from other regions of Africa, including the Congo and Madagascar; they were known as Coromantie or Koromantee, and were considered ferocious fighters.[3] People who escaped from slavery joined the other Maroons.[3]

These ancestors and many in the Diaspora would have past through the many ports that lined the coast of West Africa.

The Ports

Fort Kormantin

Fort Kormantin was built by the English between 1638 and 1645 and sits on a hill in Kormantin-Abandze in the Central Region of Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast). In 1661, the Royal African Company obtained ownership of the fort, and it became the headquarters of English Gold Coast activities until 1665 when Dutch Admiral Michiel Adriaensz De Ruyter captured the fort after a bloody battle.3 

Fort Kormantin Ghana West Africa 1661

Renamed Fort Amsterdam by the Dutch, the fort is believed to have housed the first slave prison on the Gold Coast, and the name Kormantin became synonymous for the toughest men who had resisted capture. The Kormantin from the Gold Coast, were sold from the Slave Coast (Kingdom of Juda) and passed through the Door of No Return at Ouidah before being transported to the Caribbean Islands.4  By far the largest number of Jamaicans and Haitians are Korantin.


Door of no return Benin




The below is the return of the runaway slaves list  where I found my ancestors

1806 SR1817 p1 They worked on Golden Grove Estate in St Thomas-in-the-East in Jamaica.



This West African map shows there was a St Thomas in the bottom right corner a tiny Island. I wonder if there was a connection. It is quite possible that my Spanish ancestor came from this Island. This line of family were Catholic and possibly Jewish in the past. I have always wondered why a particular line of my family took part in the Catholic traditions. The connection could be from Sao Tome St Thomas or from Portugal or Spain.


São Tomé and Principe islands lie off the coast of Western Africa, in the Atlantic Ocean.  St Thomas and Prince Islands translation, English … São Tomé and Príncipe An island country in the Gulf of Guinea 



São Tomé e PríncipeEdit

King Manuel I of Portugal exiled about 2,000 Jewish children under the age of ten, to São Tomé and Príncipe around 1500. Most died, but in the early 17th century “the local bishop noted with disgust that there were still Jewish observances on the island and returned to Portugal because of his frustration with them.”[10][Although Jewish practices faded over subsequent centuries, there are people in São Tomé and Príncipe who are aware of partial descent from this population. Similarly, a number of Portuguese ethnic Jews were exiled to Sao Tome after forced conversions to Roman Catholicism.

These islands were uninhabited until their discovery by Portuguese explorers in the 15th century. Gradually colonized and settled by the Portuguese throughout the 16th century, they collectively served as a vital commercial and trade center for the Atlantic slave trade. The rich volcanic soil and close proximity to the Equator made São Tomé and Príncipe ideal for sugar cultivation, followed later by cash crops such as coffee and cocoa; the lucrative plantation economy was heavily dependent upon imported African slaves. 

The first successful settlement of São Tomé was established in 1493 by Álvaro Caminha, who received the land as a grant from the crown. Príncipe was settled in 1500 under a similar arrangement. Attracting settlers proved difficult, however, and most of the earliest inhabitants were “undesirables” sent from Portugal, mostly Jews.[9] In time these settlers found the volcanic soil of the region suitable for agriculture, especially the growing of sugar.

By 1515, São Tomé and Príncipe had become slave depots for the coastal slave trade centered at Elmina.[10]


Below are some records of the Portuguese and Spanish Jews in Jamaica.









My ancestors were also enslaved in Jamaica St Mary.


I found a book online which describes the owners and the slaves at the plantation my family were enslaved on in St Mary. The slaves worked producing coffee and sugar. The book states that the first person listed there with the surname was Charlotte born in Africa in or around 1760. This I think is correct she was the first person there with the surname but only in that part of town. She had a life as a Maroon on a different plantation that she fled prior to the records at St Mary. As in most cases the records compiled by the British Scottish and Spanish only begin when they believe the natives got there. I calculated Charlotte would be my 6x great grandmother. The book I have regarding the family was written by the descendants of the slave owner so I doubt my x6 great grandmother would have told them the truth. Further research now points to her living as a maroon for sometime and being from St Thomas Parish prior to being a Maroon escaped slave. When the plantation owners thought she arrived may be incorrect as she could have been part of the maroon family and lied about how long she had been on the island as to not expose the truth of the Maroons who had been there as early as the mid to late 1500. There were Portuguese Arawak Taino and African  people on the island before Christopher Columbus got there. My first female Maroon ancestor would have likely escaped to West moreland. She would have possibly travelled to the Trelawny Maroon area across the island. I have family who have lived there for hundreds of years according to their birth records and family oral story. The dates on record don’t add up I estimate she was born around 1750 either in Africa as recorded or Maroon Town.


The book Saving Souls: The Struggle to End the Transatlantic Trade in Africans talks of  Quamin Tacky and Blackwall who were Maroons in 1790 who led a rebellion in St Mary. The book also states  “The Scott’s Hall Maroons were bound by a 1739 treaty to keep the peace and supress the war” and this explains why when my 6x great grandmother and her children were recaptured it said the maroons brought her in. The Maroons who signed a treaty had to abide by the rules of the officials who granted the land. They were expected to catch any new runaways and return them to the officials of the time.

Pictures of Jamaican Maroons below

Here is a link to 2 documentarys on Maroons in Jamaica.


I also saw the migration of one of my possible maroon ancestors Billy, to Haiti on record and note that many Haitians also share a high Benin Togo score as do I. Haiti was also known for its Maroons and I think that my Maroon ancestor it appears fled the island for a time to Haiti. This is my only slave ancestor to die rich according to records.

The distance from Kingston, Jamaica to Carrefour, Haiti is 261 miles and if there were a direct flight, it would only take 35 minutes on a plane. Boukman, the Jamaican, who was sold to a Frenchman and brought to Haiti from Jamaica because of his rebellious spirit, played an instrumental role in the revolution that lead to Haiti being the very first country in the new world, in 1803, to throw off the shackles of slavery, and gain its freedom.

My ancestor Billy who went to Haiti left with a lot of money. I have been intrigued about what he did there.


See the history of Creole people in Haiti a short clip

the clip leads me to believe he lived as a free man in Haiti (but was a runaway slave from Jamaica) he went to Haiti because Haiti had already abolished slavery on his arrival. The free mixed people had their own industries and he was able to slip in and go un noticed amongst them. Slavery continued for much longer in Jamaica.


This is how Creole descendants looked.


Exploring my Creole ancestors and possible connections

The Maroon who went to Haiti was married to a Mary Drew who was also Creole. My first thoughts were that she could have been a qudroon like the little girl in the above picture. It turns out that my ancestor married the daughter of the plantation owner she was born to a slave mother I believe. Billy brought his slave mother’s freedom on his death. Billy would have probably been able to earn his own money being married to the plantation owners mixed slave daughter. I do not descend from his wife and her children as I do not share the family name in my DNA . I am also surprised to find that I am only 5% European. I now know that the Maroons were away from the slave plantations and therefore the women removed the likelyhood of being raped. My Igbo and Akan ancestors from the Maroons were certainly full blooded African’s as there is only the one ancestor mentioned as Creole in this side of my lineage.

Amelia Briscoe Drew, 8, Creole
Mary Lavinia Drew, 18, Creole

James Briscoe a free Creole Negro man aged about 46 (formerly a slave belonging to Elizabeth Fielding a free mulatto woman) married at Bellemont Pen on June 30, 1819 to Helen Grier Drew a Creole aged about 27 belonging to S. Drew Esq. of Bellemont.

Stirling, Billy, apprentice labourer residence Ardock, and Mary Ann Stirling residence Spring Mount, married 5/27/1838, page 13

The above could be Billy and Mary, William’s son and his wife descendants of Charlotte if their names were changed when they were resold or relocated. I decided to look into this and found that there was a Stirling Castle in St Mary which increases the chances of the above being the same Billy and Mary as the family surname connections are recorded in that area tying the above ancestors together. Their surnames, birth dates and locations and the names of their owners place them exactly where they were at the time and line up with the rest of the family.


Black women slaves might marry a black man and have black children and be raped and have a mixed race or Creole child as they called it. The children might be sold off to different areas that became red skin people areas such as was Clarendon and Redhills as described by one of my grandmothers. Creole slaves came from Africans and either Scottish British French Portuguese Spanish invaders ie colony owners who raped them or sometimes they mixed with runaway slaves such as the Arawak Indians, and Spanish Taino the original inhabitants before Britain entered.  Those who had fled to the hills when Britain invaded Jamaica became what we know of the Maroons.





My ancestor almost 70 years prior to the picture below would have probably fit right in with the below Rebellion.


Tracing African roots website Haitian results


My DNA 95% African

2% Iberian Peninsula  which is not surprising considering the Spanish And Portuguese slave trade history.

The below is from an African American 


Tribe matches for the above were Bantu and Yoruba

Bantu Ke= 0.370 Mandenka= 0.444 
Maasai= 0.130 Yoruba= 0.685 
Maasai= 0.159 Yoruba= 0.662 
O-Ethiop= 0.110 Yoruba= 0.718 Irish= 0.172 or

I know that in the late 1800 to mid 1900 some of the family moved to America. The DNA below is from one of those descendants.


Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Benin/Togo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Mali

Trace Regions: Senegal, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Native American, Iberian Peninsula, Ireland


The Ethnicity and history of my ancestors

Corroborating Romer’s assertion, Henderson-Quartey (2001), citing from the work of Bruce-Myers (1927, pp.70-72) quoted him as saying, “the Gas came all the way from the central part of the Continent…and they are kinsmen to the Benins, who by their own choice, kept back in the course of the migration.” This gives credence to the assumption that the Ga ethnic groups were once part of the people of Benin from the mid-western part of Nigeria. See Sheikh Mustufas blog click

The coastal Egbo who were generally known to the slave traders as
Calabaris provided the majority of “ Igbo descended “ captives and were often referred to as KWA IBO. The general tendency to associate the Calabaris with “ Igbo “ is a result of the understanding that the Egbo tribes were related to the “ Greater Igbo Nation “ and therefore Herskovits refers to Calabari as a generic name for “ Ibos “ in the United States.

In Cuba it is understood that those known as Calabaris descend from the Egbo tribes such as the Efik and Ibibio. During the time of the slave trade the most powerful and numerous of the Egbo tribes were those known as THE KWA. In generalizing the Egbo Nation with the dominant Kwa tribe, all of the Egbo tribes were collectively known as Kwa Ibo.
Through the dominance of the Kwa tribe,the Egbo Society was also
known as the AbaKwa Society meaning of the Kwa people.To this day the Egbo Society continues to actively function in Cuba.

Link to full post click


The Maroons in Jamaica say they are made up of Koromantee Akan Ashanti and Igbo.

Some Maroons were recaptured and it appears my 6x great grandmother was one of them. There is a story of some of the churches and plantations being burnt down by Maroons when some of them were recaptured.

Guerrilla warfare in the 18th century states the below link

The Windward Maroons also subjected themselves to the severe discipline made necessary by the constant threat of battle. The head man at Nanny Town ordered the entire military operation, and anyone who committed a crime was shot to death. Here too, those men who were least noted for their courage worked with the women in raising provisions. The Nanny Town Maroons were well coordinated for fighting. A captured Maroon told of the way in which they prepared for the advance of troops toward their settlement: “… there were at Hobby’s [a plantation captured by the Maroons] 2 Gangs of Men 100 in each Gang & Several women which they had brought to help carry off the Spoil: . .. they left one Gang in the Negro Town to Guard the rest of the Women & Children; … they had determined on hearing the Partys coming to Ambush them in the River’s Course, that a Gang of 100 was to lay on Carrion Crow Hill & 100 more Hobby’s way, that a Drum was to be placed on the ridge over the Town to View the Partys and the Women in the town to burn the houses in case the Party should be too Strong, if not the three Gangs to Surround them on the beat of Drum, all under the Command of Scipio.”

In addition to their headmen, Maroons in both ends of the island relied on obeah men and women, that is, magical practitioners, for help in their battle for survival. One of them, Nanny, after whom Nanny Town was named, is still revered and remembered as a heroine for turning back the British fire by magic. Such supernatural aids may have given the Maroons a boost in confidence, but the bulk of their defense was provided by careful planning and ingenuity and a great deal of courage and resourcefulness.

 see this article Maroons settlements in Jamaica

Accompong (from the Akan name Acheampong) is a historical Maroon village located in the hills of St. Elizabeth Parish on the island of Jamaica. It is located in Cockpit Country, where the local terrain enabled Maroons and indigenous Taíno to establish a fortified stronghold in the 17th century. They defended it to maintain independence from the Spanish and then later against British forces, after the colony changed hands.

Jamaican woman 1920



Benin woman


Here is some real records of that time I note Quamin in there and Cudjoe and Cuffee Quashiba and Quamina being there also. Quamin is my relative Billy is there and I suspect some of those mentioned could also be relatives from the record below.


The Schedule to which the annexed Indenture refers-








M.B. Quashie




Rob) Roy













E. Adam

H. George


M. B. Rodney








Eboe Sylvan



M. B. Ned


M.B. Boatswain




M.B. Billy