One fact that was meant to be hidden is that the M2 lineage carrying, Niger-Congo/Kordofanian speaking, broad featured (“true Negro”) populations of Equatorial Africa and their New World extensions are the living descendants of the ancient Egyptians (and Hebrews). They do not want us to know that we were at the basis of all of these ancient civilizations and not as slaves but masters (Sidi Badr). WE DID NOT ORIGINATE IN WEST AFRICA, BUT AS ATTESTED TO BY EVERY TRIBAL ELDER WE ORIGINATED IN NUBIA-EGYPT(see the black and white map below) IN EASTERN AFRICA. These two civilizations were the oldest (Nubia), longest lasting and greatest (most contributing) civilizations in World History. The ancient Egyptian civilization is much older than the 5,000 year date given by “traditional”(liars) Egyptologist but instead it’s over 12,000 years old. Older black and or African scholars still alive today like Theophile Obenga and Dr. Yosef Ben Jochannan for decades have debunked the Western lead lies in regards ancient Egypt and to the “Bantu Migration” from Cameroon and the ridiculous lie that the ancient Egyptian language is not related to Niger-Congo. African scholars (who actually speak African languages) have long criticized the entire “Afro-Asiatic” category of African languages. This video explains the basics behind the dilemma.
Above is a quote from the article click the below link for the full post which I recommend. I will be compiling my own research on the above matter and my previous post Reclaiming the African in My African American Ethnicity — Ariana Fiorello-Omotosho The previous post is of a African descendant brought to the New world in slavery from Nigeria and Cameroon. The analysis of her DNA by a professional company traces her genealogy to one of 2 places (I would personally say both places) Egypt or Palestine. If you have read my post on my Akan and Igbo ancestors you will be aware that I also have a DNA match cousin who’s ancestry was tracing back to Egypt and Saudi Arabia rather than palestine 1000-2000 years ago.
Click below for the full post (The article is mind blowing and needs to be read more than once to be truly absorbed in my opinion)
Do you know that the Akans knew Yahwe before the “so-called” introduction of Christianity in Ghana? In fact the Akans called Saturday by the very name of Jehovah? Akans called Saturday Memeneda. Me means “I”, Ne means “Am”, Da means “Day”. Thus Memeneda wits “I, I am day”. Isaiah 43:25 and countless quotations in the Bible refer to God as “I, I am” which is Yahwe in Hebrew or Jehovah in English. Infact Akans called God “Kwame”. Kwame is the name of a saturday male born among Akans. the name Kwame is Kwadaa Nyame (shortened Kwame) thus Child of Almighty God. Akans know Saturday to be the day of the Almighty God.
Thursday in Akan is Yawooda. The first two letters is Ya (h) which is the name of God (Yahwe or Jehovah). In akan “H” is sometimes remove if it comes after “A”. for example my name is Yeboah with H, it can also be spelt as Yeboa without the H. Thus Yah is sometimes written as Ya. thus Yawooda is sometimes written as Yahwooda. In fact many people use the second spelling in akan more than the first. the Second three letters WOO means born, or birth. the DA means day. Thus the name Yahwooda is translated into English as “Birth day of Yah” or “the day that Yah was born”. Does this ring the bell that Jesus Christ (who is Yah in Human form” might have been born on Thursday?
Akans named the days of the week after events. for example, “Tuesday” in Akan is “Ebenada”. Ebena in Ashanti/akan means “Lamentation, lament, crying, or cry”. I have already explain that da in english is day. Thus Ebenada means day of lamentation. Compare the state of Ashanti today and lamentation 1.
The first audio covers the background information however after an hour and 40 minutes ish it goes back to the beginning. Once it starts repeating you can go to part 2 audio clip. These audios are not the best quality however the information is detailed and useful.
If you have seen my first post you know that I dealt with a lot of information both historical and oral traditions and biblical definitions of the Jamaican slaves. I also covered the oral stories of Hebrews in Africa.
For those who want to read the story of what I found when I took the steps back to retrieve my ancestors past. See the link below.
In this post I am going to look at who my African relatives were in Africa. I am going to look at the family names and places of residence. I am also going to explore West African history. This post will focus on Africa which has to include the middle east which really is North East Africa. We will look at the migration from Israel towards the end of this post. Ancestry DNA have also updated their information and I will be using my updated analysis to find out which tribes I am connected to.
Below is a list of surnames of DNA matched distant cousins
Nwokocha a Nigerian Igbo Surname. The surname is from The Bight of Biafra. Bordering Nigeria Cameroon Guinea area.
Nwagou which is from The Bight of Biafra Port Harcourt region with people sharing the name as far as Abuja Igbo
Onu which is also Nigerian.
Olugbala which is a Nigerian Yoruba surname.
Akinwummiwhich is a Nigerian Yoruba surname. Found in the Lagos region.
Ageypong which is a Ghanaian Ashanti surname.
Lartey a Ghanian Ga surname.
From the above DNA matches my genetic ties are with the Igbo, Yoruba, Ashanti and Ga.
Below West African tribes and some connections
The below is a map of the different tribes in Nigeria.
The Yoruba are right next to Benin as are the Hausa Fulani.
This could explain why one of my cousins is matching
the Hausa tribe in the North and Saudi Arabia despite
Here is my breakdown below which points at Akan Esan and Yoruba Hausa and Igbo tribal ancestry for me
This information above is significant because with my research and my ancestry matches DNA I am able to chart which groups of people we are connected to. The sophisticated DNA tests such as DNA tribes and others are picking up the West African connection to the middle east. The areas that my family are connected to mirror what the bible says. 2000 years ago some of my direct ancestors were in Saudi Arabia.
My raw DNA points to ancient Palestine Jordan and Libya.
The test states this about the analysis,
EthioHelix Africa K10 + Palestinian – Palestinian acts as a proxy for Middle Eastern ancestry in this case. Results are currently most meaningful for persons who are a mix of African and Middle Eastern
The below shows an African Ancestry DNA certificate which confirms the below person’s Ancestry is from the Hausa Fulani tribe in Cameroon.
I decided to explore the possible Saudi Arabia and Yemen connections a little further.
Kuwaiti native population comprises three distinct genetic subgroups of Persian, “city-dwelling” Saudi Arabian tribe, and nomadic “tent-dwelling” Bedouin ancestry. Bedouin subgroup is characterized by presence of 17% African ancestry; it owes it origin to nomadic tribes of the deserts of Arabian Peninsula and North Africa.
Bedouins are “tent-dwelling” nomads who roamed the deserts of Middle East; they epitomize the best adaptation of human life to desert conditions . In much of the Middle East and North Africa, the term Bedouin is used to descriptively differentiate between those (bedu) whose livelihood is based on raising livestock by mainly natural graze and those (hadar) who have an agricultural or urban base . Bedouins are originally desert-dwelling tribes of the Arabian Peninsula and are particularly descendants of (i) those settled in the southwestern Arabia, in the mountains of Yemen; and (ii) those settled in North-Central Arabia. Bedouins started to spread out to surrounding deserts of Middle East (particularly Arabian and Syrian deserts) and North Africa (particularly Sinai Peninsula of Egypt and the Sahara Desert of North Africa)
The mitochondrial haplogroup (indication of maternal ancestry) of the Bedouin participant is determined as L3d1a1a [L3d], that is predominantly seen in West-Central Africa—among the Fulani, Chadians , Ethiopians , Akan people , Mozambique , and Yemen. Kivisild et al.
the above extract clearly states that this particular participant is Bedouin and related to the Akan and Fulani. Further research has shown that there are middle eastern people’s who share Ghanaian and Nigerian ancestry generations back. When the first African nomads migrated they went to the East.
Now let’s explore this high ancient asian connection
The region of Palestine is among the earliest sites of human habitation in the world. Archaeological evidence suggests a hunter-gatherer community living a nomadic existence in the region pre-10,000 BCE. In the Early Bronze Age, permanent settlements were founded and agricultural communities developed. Trade was initiated with other regions in the Near East and, because of its location between the cities of Mesopotamia and those of Arabia and Egypt, Palestine became an important trading hub and attracted the attention of Sargon the Great (2334-2279 BCE)
A study found that the Palestinians, like Jordanians, Syrians, Iraqis, Turks, and Kurds have what appears to be Female-Mediated gene flow in the form of Maternal DNAHaplogroups from Sub-Saharan Africa. Of the 117 Palestinian individuals tested, 15 carried maternal haplogroups that originated in Sub-Saharan Africa. These results are consistent with female migration from eastern Africa into Near Eastern communities within the last few thousand years. There have been many opportunities for such migrations during this period. However, the most likely explanation for the presence of predominantly female lineages of African origin in these areas is that they may trace back to women brought from Africa as part of the Arab slave trade, assimilated into the areas under Arab rule.
Geophysically, Yoruba land spreads north from the Gulf of Guinea and west from the Niger River into Benin and Togo; In the northern section, Yorubaland begins in the suburbs just west of Lokoja and continues unbroken up to the Ogou tributary of the Mono River in Togo, a distance of around 610 km. In the south, it begins in an area just west of the Benin river occupied by the Ilaje Yorubas and continues uninterrupted up to Porto Novo, a total distance of about 270 km as the crow flies. West of Porto Novo Gbe speakers begin to predominate.
See the below
Four of the major coastal tribes of Western Africa: the Yoruba, Igbo, Akan and the Gaa-Adangbe are dissimilar at a glance and evidently geographic neighbours, but very closely related, when examined at the genetic level.
According to this landmark study, there was a 99.9 percent within-population variance, the between-population variance was less than 0.1 percent. This means that Yorubas, Igbos, Gaa and Akan are 99.9 percent similar.
The Bight of Benin was the Slave Coast. You can see Dahomey and Benin in the map below with Cameroon as it’s neighbour.
The Ebo connection to Benin is further supported by Onyebuechi Amene who states the following;
“ Ebo is a Benin name. It was the Binis that went to Igala and
formed the Igala Royal families that took the name to Igala.”
“ The Ebo family of Isiskre still retain their ancestral Bini
Those captives who came to the Americas from Ghana and Benin (Dahomey) were those known as Ebo or the Mina tribes. In fact a Mina tribe remains in the Kwara State of Yorubaland and refer to themselves as Igbo-Mina using the original Igbo spelling of the name.
It was the Portuguese Jewish slave traders who began selling Ebo captives from Benin to Ghana where they were used to work the Gold Mines. These traders coined the Ebo as “ Mina tribes “ meaning those destined for El-Mina, a Portuguese word meaning “ The Mines “. El-Mina became central to the slave trade in Ghana.
The most powerful amongst the Ebo(Mina) to arrive in Ghana were those called Ewe.
Most of the slaves of Bight of Benin that hailed from Benin itself were imported to South Carolina (36%), Virginia (23%), Gulf Coast (28%) and Florida (9,8%). The top three picked up a few thousand slaves of this Straits (Florida only received 698 slaves from Bight of Benin). Many of those slaves were imported to Louisiana and Alabama (where was famous the case of Clotilde slave ship, that exported between 110 and 160 slaves from Dahomey to Mobile in 1859, between them to Cudjo Lewis (ca. 1840 – 1935), considered the last person born on African soil to have been enslaved in the United States when slavery was still lawful), both belonging to the Gulf Coast. It was in Louisiana where her presence was notable. Indeed, between 1719 and 1731, most of the slaves who came to that place came directly from Benin. They were especially Fon, but many slaves also were of ethnics such as Nago (Yoruba subgroup, although exported mainly by Spanish, when the Louisiana was Spanish) -, Ewe, and Gen. Many of the slaves imported to the modern United States since Benin were sold by the King of Dahomey, in Whydah.[note 1] However, not all the slaves sold in day-present Benin were of there: Many were of other places, but were captured by Dahomeyan warriors. The native slaves from current Benin came from places as Porto-Novo, from where were brought to the port of Ouidah, place in the that was realized the slave shopping. This place brought many slaves
This area is highlighted in my DNA. See my region results of that area below.
Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa personal account of a slave
That part of Africa known by the name of Guinea, to which the trade for slaves is carried on, extends along the coast above 3400 miles, from the Senegal to Angola, and includes a variety of kingdoms. Of these the most considerable is the kingdom of Benin, both as to extent and wealth, the richness and cultivation of the soil, the power of its king, and the number and warlike disposition of the inhabitants. It is situated nearly under the line, and extends along the coast about 170 miles, but runs back into the interior part of Africa to a distance hitherto I believe unexplored by any traveller; and seems only terminated at length by the empire of Abyssinia, near 1500 miles from its beginning.
This kingdom is divided into many provinces or districts: in one of the most remote and fertile of which, called Eboe, I was born in the year 1745 in a charming fruitful vale named Essaka. The distance of this province from the capital of Benin and the sea coast must be very considerable, for I had never heard of white men or Europeans, nor of the sea: and our subjection to the king of Benin was little more than nominal; for every transaction of the government, as far as my slender observation extended, was conducted by the chiefs or elders of the place.
The Kingdom of Whydah/ˈhwɪdə, ˈhwɪdˌɔː/ (Yoruba: Xwéda; French: Ouidah) was a kingdom on the coast of West Africa in the boundaries of the modern nation of Benin. Between 1677 and 1681 it was conquered by the Akwamu, one of the Akan people. It was a major slave trading post. In 1700, it had a coastline of around 16 kilometres (10 mi); under King Haffon, this was expanded to 64 km (40 mi), and stretching 40 km (25 mi) inland.
The name Whydah (also spelt Hueda, Whidah,Ouidah, Whidaw, and Juda) is an anglicised form of Xwéda (pronounced o-wi-dah), from the Yoruba language of Benin. Today the port city of Ouidah bears the kingdom’s name; it is in the far west of the former Popo Kingdom and is where most of the Europeanslave traders lived and worked.
Whidah is also spelt Juda (spoken as Jew-dah/ Yahudah) see the below for historical evidence.
(Scholars state whydah is a bird but I propose another meaning to the name)
Whydah (also spelt Hueda, Whidah,Ouidah, Whidaw, and Juda
‘ā·ḵān — 6 OccurrencesJoshua 7:1 HEB:בַּחֵ֑רֶם וַיִּקַּ֡ח עָכָ֣ן בֶּן־ כַּרְמִי֩ NAS: under the ban, for Achan, the son KJV: in the accursed thing: for Achan, the son INT: to the things took Achan the son of Carmi
Abyssinian people (Ge’ez: ሐበሻይት), also known as the Habesha or Abesha, are a population inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
Members’ cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the Kingdom of Dʿmt (usually vocalized Diʿamat) and the Kingdom of Aksum. Scholars have classified the Amhara and the Tigreans as Abyssinians proper. The Ge’ez speaking people, minimally affected by Sabaean influence, formed the ethnic and cultural stock for both the pre-Axumite and Axumite states. Ge’ez, which is closely related to Tigrinyaand Tigre, is also believed to be the ancestor of the diverse southern Ethiopian Semitic languages including Amharic. Together, the Amhara and Tigray constitute over 33% of Ethiopia‘s population (c. 27 million Amhara, 6.1 million Tigray).
FANTE people above
My paternal line shared African Ethnicity
Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo,
Trace Regions: Benin/Togo,
Immediately above in bold my Ghanian cousins DNA whose surname is an Ashanti Akan surname. From the 2 DNA matches above I can see that in my Father’s family line is Ivory Coast/Ghana & Benin/Togo.
GHANAIAN DNA sample below
In my DNA matches I have Quartey and Lartey Surnames which are Ghanian Akan Ga Dangme
See the below brief history
The GaDangmes of Ghana are believed to be related by blood to the Igbos of Nigeria. However, in his book, GA HOMOWO, Charles Nii Ammah (1982) stated that according to oral tradition, the Ga believe they migrated from Israel. Ammah suggested that the Ga people are descendants of Cush (Benjamin) from the twelfth tribe of Israel. He contends that the Ga people were really ‘JEWS’ who migrated from “Egypt” and settled on the land they now occupy.
King Ayi Kushi: the Revered Spiritual and Political Leader.
Ayi Kushi was a revered political and spiritual ruler who is credited with the formation of the Gá State. His son, Ayitey, is said to have marched with the Gá, Dangmes, Obutus, and Awutus to establish the inland kingdom of Ayawaso. The kingdom of Ayawaso’s capital was Okaikoi. Osudoku, at the time, was the epicentre of Dangme culture. Ayi Kushi is described as an illustrious and astute leader, and law-giver who united the Gá-Dangme into a powerful tribe; and set the precedent for the diplomatic and conquering activities of later Gá kings. To strengthen the Gá state, Ayi Kushi encouraged intermarriage between Gás, Dangmes, Akyems, Awutus, Akwapims and Obutus.
The Ga are descended from immigrants who came down the Niger River and across the Volta during the 17th century. The Ga-speaking peoples were organized into six independent towns (Accra, Osu, Labadi, Teshi, Nungua, and Tema). Each town had a stool, which served as the central object of Ga ritual and war magic. Accra became the most prominent Ga town and is now the capital of Ghana.
The following 17 principal towns form the Akuapem state,
The story of Larteh Akuapem cannot be told in isolation without a little about the Guans, Ga or Accra, Akyem and Akwamu history.
The indigenous inhabitants on the Akuapem Mountains are the Guans which consists of Larteh (comprising Larteh, Mamfe, Abotakyi, Mampong, Obosomase, and Tutu) and the OKERE or Kyerepong (Comprising Abiriw, Dawu, Awukugua, Adukrom, Apirede, Abonse-Asesieso).
Larteh lies on parallel ridge to the east on the Akonnobepow, while the rest of the towns lie in line along the crest of the main ridge on Bewasebepow.
Legend has it that the founding fathers of Larteh carried with them flint stone to ignite fire, and for this reason the La who traveled from Boni on the Niger Delta fraternized with the Larteh during their journey along the beach.
The people of Larteh, Kpeshie and La originated from the Les who originally occupied the coast before the arrival of the Gá; The La are closely related to the Larteh, the people of Gbese, the Agotimes and the original inhabitants of Osu. However, the oral traditions of the La suggest that their people were part of the original Gá, and that the town was in fact founded by descendants of a brother of Ayi Kushi; hence in constitutional matters the La Mantse deputises for the Gá Mantse in all issues affecting the Gá polity.
After briefly settling at Ayawaso the La seems to have re-located to Ladoku and from thence to Podoku. The Las, under Adjei Onano and Numo Ngmashie his great chief, appear to have been granted land by the king of Nungua who owned all the land between Nungua and Osu; the grant was against the expressed wishes of Borketey Larweh, the priest of Nungua. After a dispute over water rights and alleged murder of a La princess, the Labadis proposed to have a hand each cut off from Sowa, the high priest and Borketey Larweh. After Borketey Larweh’s hand had been cut off the La reneged on their part of the bargain; as a result, Borketey Larweh is said to have vanished into the sea.
Various traditions indicate that Teshie was founded by Nii Mgmashie, a nephew of the mankralo of Labadi. The town soon attracted other Gá-Dangme peoples, including Aseres, Nunguas, Krobos, Obutus, Pramprams. It therefore grew to become one of the principal Gá-Dangme towns.
Due to their location Tema and Kpone tended to feature less prominently in Gá-Dangme history and politics than their present importance suggests. A considerable early presence of Les in the vicinity of Tema was overlain by immigrant Gá and Dangme peoples. Although Kpone is a Dangme town it appears to be more influenced than other Dangme towns by Gá language and culture. With the re-location of people of Tema New Town on Kpone traditional lands it appears that the future of Tema and Kpone is intertwined.
The main Ga goup known as the Tumgwa We led by Ayi Kushie arrived by sea. When the Guans (Lartehs) on the coast saw them on their canoes on sea they looked like ants. Hence the Lartehs refer to them as Nkran (ants). Nkran was later corrupted by the Danes to Akra then to present day Accra. Nkran in the Ga language is Gaga, thus they also started calling themselves Ga. Due to their sheer numbers, the Lartehs thus relocated to the Hills. The Ga are also part of the main Guan group that started the initial migration from the Nubia Empire.
The Guan speaking people live mostly in Ghana though there are some pockets in Togo, Benin and Cote D’Ivoire. Modern historians more or less agree that since time immemorial the Guans have been the original inhabitants of Ghana, because unlike the Akan who arrived from Bouna in the north west, the Ewe from Notsie in Togo in about 1720, the Ga-Adangbe from certain parts in Nigeria and the Mossie-Dagomba group of state who emigrated from the north-east ,the Guans, on the other hand, migrated from nowhere thus Ghana is the ancestral homeland of the Guans. Another school of thought is that the Guans migrated from Israel through Nubia in East Africa to the west of Africa with their capital at Timbuktu.
Even the pockets of the Guans in Togo (The Anyanga), those In Benin (The Gbede, Wese, Okomfo) and the Baule In Cote D’Ivoire claim migrant origin from Ghana. There are numerous studies, which support Guans claim to their autochonous (i.e. aboriginal) status. There is a factual information provided by Professor Adu Boahene who says; neither the Akan nor the Ga-Adangbe found the coastal district of Ghana unoccupied.
Above the Gbawe Kwatei Head of family, Nii Adam Kwatei Quartey
Quarteys’ all over the world are descendants of the Royal Family of Kpakpatse We clan of the Asεrε group of the Ga speaking people, which is one of the seven quarters (Akutséii) that constituted the Ashiedu Kεtεkε District within the Odododiodioo Constituency of the Ga Mashie Community in Accra. The Asεrε group of people comprises of five different clans which relocated to the coastal settlements of Little Akra (Ga Mashie) after the destruction of Great Akra (Ayawaso) by the Akwamus in the early Sixteen Century.
Nanny was born into the Ashanti tribe about 1686 in what is now Ghana, West Africa. It is believed that some of her family members were involved in intertribal conflict and her village was captured. Nanny and several relatives were sold as slaves and transported to Jamaica. There she was likely sold to a plantation in Saint Thomas Parish, just outside the Port Royal area. The commodity crop was sugarcane, and the slaves toiled under extremely harsh conditions to cultivate, harvest and process it. Another version of her life tells that she was of royal African blood and came to Jamaica as a free woman. She may have been married to a man named Adou, but had no known children who survived.
As a child, Nanny was influenced by other slave leaders and maroons. She and her “brothers”, Accompong, Cudjoe and Quao, ran away from their plantation and hid in the Blue Mountains area of northern Saint Thomas Parish. While in hiding, they split up to organize more Maroon communities across Jamaica: Cudjoe went to Saint James Parish and organized a village, which was later named Cudjoe Town; Accompong settled in Saint Elizabeth Parish, in a community that came to be known as Accompong Town; and Nanny and Quao founded communities in Portland Parish.
I did not realise that my maroon ancestor was from the same parish in Jamaica as Nanny of the maroons, St Thomas in the East until I re read the information. My maroon ancestor would have surely heard the legacy of Nanny of the Maroons as there were 70 years maximum between them. The stories of some of the Ashanti being in the mountains would have been alive at the time of my ancestor. It is quite possible the Maroons came and released my ancestor and others as this is what they did on many occasions. They released the slaves took them with them, took food and guns and sometimes killed the slave masters and burnt down their buildings before leaving. Nanny’s oral history is that her village was captured during war. Below we will explore accounts of the Ashanti wars.
Below before we look at the Ashanti I have posted a short clip on the African female warriors.
Below from https://amazingbibletimeline.com/blog/ashanti-empire-trade-slaves-guns/
The Rise of the Ashanti Empire
During the 1670s, groups of Akan people from northern Ghana escaped strife in their homeland and flocked to the fertile region around Kumasi. Two of the most powerful clans that migrated to Kumasi were the Bretuo and the Oyoko. At that time, however, the refugees were forced to submit to the powerful Denkyira nation.To assure the Denkyira of his people’s submission, the Oyoko chief Obiri Yeboa sent his nephew Osei Tutu to live with and serve them.
Osei Tutu served as a shield bearer to Boa Amponsem, the chief of the Denkyira. He later fled to the territory of the Akwamu because of the cruelty of the people he served. He worked for the Akwamu chief and quickly rose to prominence there. He also befriended the priest Okomfo Anokye who soon became his firm ally. His uncle, chief Obiri Yeboa, later died in battle, so Osei Tutu was summoned back to his homeland to rule. He continued the conquests made by his uncle and even subdued other groups of Akan people in the area.
Osei Tutu, with the help of Okomfo Anokye and his Akwamu allies, slowly built the Ashanti kingdom. During the 1690s, Osei Tutu and his people declared their independence from the Denkyira. Full-scale war flared out between the Denkyira and the Ashanti in 1699, but the Ashanti emerged victorious in 1701 in the Battle of Feyiase.
In their struggle against the suzerain state of Denkyera and lesser neighbouring states, the Asante people made little headway until the accession, probably in the 1670s, of Osei Tutu. After a series of campaigns that crushed all opposition, he was installed as Asantehene, or king of the new Asante state, whose capital was named Kumasi. His authority was symbolized by the Golden Stool, on which all subsequent kings were enthroned.
From the beginning of the 18th century, the Asante supplied slaves to British and Dutch traders on the coast; in return they received firearms with which to enforce their territorial expansion. After the death of Osei Tutu in either 1712 or 1717, a period of internal chaos and factional strife was ended with the accession of Opoku Ware (ruled c. 1720–50), under whom Asante reached its fullest extent in the interior of the country. Kings Osei Kwadwo (ruled c. 1764–77), Osei Kwame (1777–1801), and Osei Bonsu (c. 1801–24) established a strong centralized state, with an efficient, merit-based bureaucracy and a fine system of communications.
In 1807 Osei Bonsu occupied southern Fante territory—an enclave around British headquarters at Cape Coast; in the same year, Great Britain outlawed the slave trade. Declining trade relations and disputes over the Fante region caused friction over the following decade and led to warfare in the 1820s. The Asante defeated a British force in 1824 but made peace in 1831 and avoided conflict for the next 30 years.
In 1863, under Kwaku Dua (ruled 1834–67), the Asante again challenged the British by sending forces to occupy the coastal provinces. In 1869 the British took possession of Elmina (over which Asante claimed jurisdiction), and in 1874 an expeditionary force under Sir Garnet Wolseley marched on Kumasi. Though Wolseley managed to occupy the Asante capital for only one day, the Asante were shocked to realize the inferiority of their military and communications systems. The invasion, moreover, sparked numerous secessionary revolts in the northern provinces. The old southern provinces were formally constituted the Gold Coast colony by the British later in 1874. Asante’s king Kofi Karikari was then deposed, and Mensa Bonsu (ruled 1874–83) assumed power. He attempted to adapt the agencies of Asante government to the changed situation. Although he reorganized the army, appointed some Europeans to senior posts, and increased Asante resources, he was prevented from restoring Asante imperial power by the British political agents, who supported the northern secessionist chiefs and the opponents of central government in Kumasi. The empire continued to decline under his successor, Prempeh I (acceded 1888), during whose reign, on January 1, 1902, Asante was formally declared a British crown colony, the former northern provinces being on the same day separately constituted the Protectorate of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast.
Kumasi (historically spelled Comassie or Coomassie and usually spelled Kumase in Twi) is a city in Ashanti Region, and is among the largest metropolitan areas in Ghana. Kumasi is near Lake Bosomtwe, in a rain forest region, and is the commercial, industrial and cultural capital ofAsanteman. Kumasi is approximately 500 kilometres (300 mi) north of the Equator and 200 kilometres (100 mi) north of the Gulf of Guinea. Kumasi is alternatively known as “The Garden City” because of its many beautiful species of flowers and plants. It is also called Oseikrom (Osei Tutu’s town). Kumasi is described as Ghana’s second city.
The city rose to prominence in 1695 when it became capital of the Ashanti Confederacy due to the activities of its ruler Osei Tutu. The ruler of Kumasi, known as the Asantehene, also served as ruler of the Confederacy. With their 1701 victory over Denkyira the Asante confederacy became the primary state among the Ashantis.Parts of the city, including the then royal residence, were destroyed by British troops in the Third Anglo-Ashanti War of 1874.
The Kwa people of Africa include the Ga-Dangbe, Ewe, Akwapim, Fanti, Kwahu, and Akim and Ashanti.
This totally matches what I have found through my DNA analysis. This is is why in my posts you see me looking at Ga Ewe Akan Fanti and Ashanti and Ibo DNA and seeing that I match them. We are the KWA Niger Congo Bantu Afro Asiatic family. It is known but not publicised that the Bantu expanded from Cameroon/Congo to populate the South and North of Africa.
Between the 10th and 12th centuries AD the ethnic Akan people migrated into the forest belt of Southern Ghana and established several Akan states:
Before the Ashanti Kingdom had contact with Europeans, it had a flourishing trade with other African states due to the Ashanti gold wealth. Trade with European states began after contact with the Portuguese in the 15th century AD. When the gold mines in the Sahel started to play out, the Ashanti Kingdom rose to prominence as the major player in the gold trade. At the height of the Ashanti Kingdom, the Ashanti people became wealthy through the trading of gold mined from their territory.
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Ewe People also known as Evê can be found in Ghana, Togo, Benin, some parts of Nigeria and Ivory Coast, they are part of the Gbe Speaking People and related to the Fon, Mina and Aja people. According to Professor Amenumey he claimed they originally came from Ketu in DahomeySee this link for the original post Ewe People of Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Benin and Ivory Coast
The Ewes moved into the area which is now Togo from the Niger river valley between the 12th and 14th centuries. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portuguese explorers and traders visited the coast. For the next 200 years, the coastal region was a major raiding center for Europeans in search of slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name “The Slave Coast.”
The Gbe languages (pronounced [ɡbè]) form a cluster of about twenty related languages stretching across the area between eastern Ghana and western Nigeria. The total number of speakers of Gbe languages is between four and eight million. The most widely spoken Gbe language is Ewe (3 million speakers in Ghana and Togo), followed by Fon (1.7 million, mainly in Benin). The Gbe languages were traditionally placed in the Kwa branch of the Niger–Congo languages, but more recently have been classified as Volta–Niger languages. They include five major dialect clusters: Ewe, Fon, Aja, Gen (Mina), and Phla–Pherá.
The Ghanaian diet and staple foods below
I see where Jamaicans get their style of cooking. The above collage could be Jamaican or West Indian.
Coromantee (derived from the name of the Ghanaian coastal town “Kormantse”), also called Coromantins, Coromanti or Kormantine was the English name given to Akan slaves from the Gold Coast or modern-day Ghana. The term Coromantee is now considered archaic as it simply refers to Akan people, and was primarily used in the Caribbean. Coromantins actually came from several Akan ethnic groups – Ashanti, Fanti, Akyem, etc. – presumably taken as war captives. Owing to their militaristic background and common Akan language, Coromantins organized dozens of slave rebellions in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. Their fierce, rebellious nature became so notorious among white plantation owners in the 18th century that an Act was proposed to ban the importation of people from the Gold Coast despite their reputation as strong workers. The Akans had the single largest African cultural influence on Jamaica, including Jamaican Maroons whose culture and language was seen as a derivation of Akan.Names of some notable Coromantee leaders such as Cudjoe, Quamin, Cuffy, and Quamina correspond to Akan day names Kojo, Kwame, Kofi, and Kwabena, respectively.
Now that I have gained a general understanding of the back ground of these ancestors, I will begin to dig deeper into their tribes. Since doing my DNA test ancestry DNA have further developed their DNA technology. The updates point to me being completely of Akan descent.
As we have established the Ewe and Ga tribes are part of the Niger Congo Kwa Akan language group.
On the below map the Akan are again shown to be part of the Niger Congo people’s, Kwa and Volta Congo.
The above puts the Ga subgroup right in the heart of Accra. This map reflects my findings on my Akan ancestors who were almost certainely from western Ghana. Research suggests my DNA is reflective of the Ga Ewe and Ashanti living in and near Accra.
Below is the Ghanaian region identified in my DNA.
Records and DNA analysis indicate that some of my ancestors were from Accra.
See my below results. My ancestors seem to be from this South west region and also further to the East.
Earlier I mentioned having a DNA match with the surname Ageypong which is a Ashanti surname. Some of my ancestors were from the area above, especially Akropong and Larteh.
Now let’s briefly explore the ancient history of the Akans
ancient egyptians and the akana people – ResearchGate
The descendants of Ancient Egyptians (Akans) and the Assyrians (Assin) are currently living in the African continent. … Those Akan groups and some of the present day smaller tribes, who form minorities in West Africa as a whole, all wandered from the Ancient civilisations in the Mesopotamia and the Ancient world.
The Akan are a meta-ethnicity predominantly speaking Central Tano languages and residing in the southern regions of the former ... They migrated from the north, they went through Egypt and settled in Nubia (Sudan).
Ghana: 12 million
Ivory Coast: 9 million
Now we will look at where North Mesopatamia and the ancient world was.
The above shows according to Akan history they were from the dark area above.
DNA tribe analysis and oral tradition suggest the migration patterns below 1000-2000 years ago.
The below is a migration pattern for Nigeria and Cameroon descendant using DNA. Accra is right next to the blue marker Lagos. The continent had not yet been divided as it is today.
Other tribes like the Ga took the below pattern
Below is a picture of the area in South Sudan that is identified in my DNA from my actual results.
In the South of Sudan in the same region live a tribe called the Azande tribe.
The Azande people and Congo people are neighbours and probably have the same ancestors .
DNA analysis of West Africans
For the next part we will look briefly at historical and biblical factors.
“The whole region that includes what the Bible calls the Land of Canaan, Palestine and Israel was an extension of the African mainland before it was artificially divided from the main African continent by the manmade Suez Canal.
Second World War correspondents introduced the new name Middle-East for the portion of the land separated from the African mainland. Before the Second World War the whole region now called Middle-East was known as North-Eastern Africa.
Ancient wagons in the Bible journeyed from these regions to the mainland of Africa on foot (Gen 46:5-7).
Historians Flavius Josephus, Celus, Plutarch, Tacitus, Eusebius, and Diodorus confirm that the original Hebrew were a group of Ethiopians and Egyptians who were forced to leave Egypt and migrate with their caravans on foot to this Land which Canaan ruled, a Land of Africans in North-Eastern Africa.
This is the Land of Africa where Abraham lived for 10 years and married Hagar the Egyptian (Gen 15: 3).
The borders of this land that Canaan and his African descendants lived in and ruled, according to the Bible (Gen 10: 19), extended “from Sidon as thou comest to Gerar unto Gaza and goest unto Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zoboim, even unto Lasha.”
This is the land that was known as North-Eastern Africa.”
Sixteen Views of Places in the Persian Gulph… Forces… Against the Arabian Pirates No 3. Muskat from the Harbour – Apr 1813 Temple, R Clark, I William Haines, William
Click this link below to watch an afro palestinian confirm the above information. West African “Negros” blacks were in Palestine for thousands of years. Some of those that moved to West Africa were sold into slavery.
a’-shan (`ashan): An unknown site in the domain of Judah (Joshua 15:42), possessed by Simeon (Joshua 19:7), and mentioned among the priests’ cities in 1 Chronicles 6:59. (44) = Joshua 21:16(`ayin is a corruption of `ashan). Chorashan (or Borashan), which was probably the site of some reservoir in the Southwest part of Judah (1 Samuel 30:30), is the same as Ashan.
Achan(troubler), an Israelite of the tribe of Judah, who, when Jericho and all that it contained were accursed and devoted to destruction, secreted a portion of the spoil in his tent. For this sin he was stoned to death with his whole family by the people, in a valley situated between Ai and Jericho, and their remains, together with his property, were burnt. (Joshua 7:19-26) From this event the valley received the name of Achor (i.e. trouble). [ACHOR, VALLEY OF] (B.C. 1450.)
ACHANa’-kan (`akhan (in 1 Chronicles 2:7 Achar, `akhar, “troubler”): The descendant of Zerah the son of Judah who was put to death, in Joshua’s time, for stealing some of the “devoted” spoil of the city of Jericho (Joshua 7). The stem `akhan is not used in Hebrew except in this name. The stem `akhar has sufficient use to define it. It denotes trouble of the most serious kind-Jacob’s trouble when his sons had brought him into blood feud with his Canaanite neighbors, or Jephthah’s trouble when his vow required him to sacrifice his daughter (Genesis 34:30Judges 11:35).
The researchers say that there was probably a pulse of sub-Saharan African DNA into Egypt roughly 700 years ago. The mixing of ancient Egyptians and Africans from further south means that modern Egyptians can trace 8% more of their ancestry to sub-Saharan Africans than can the mummies from Abusir el-Meleq.
A 2012 study done on the mummified remains of Ramesses III and his son determined that both y-chromosomes belonged to Haplogroup E1b1a (Y-DNA). The pharaoh’s y-chromosome belongs to the most frequent haplogroup among contemporary Sub-Saharan y-chromosomes. -Wikipedia
The pictures above are of the Pharoah skeleton and modern lookalikes.
Below is a collage of East Africans, descendants of the Pharoahs by blood look at the similarity and bone structure. The Afro Asiatic nation. In West Africa they are the Housa, Fula, Fulani to name a few. When they find the mummies of these ancestors some make claims that they are Caucasian no the Caucasians came from them. These East Africans like Ramses III are part of the Subsaharan Nilotic Afro Asiatic race.
Akadaney, Niger. Old Fulani Woman, with Earrings and Bead Necklaces..
Haile selassie descendant of King Solomon and Queen Sheba and Menelik ll
The above shows exactly what is proven by the bible and the people of Africa. The Afro Asiatic race is a mix of Ham and Shem. They are African and Asian and originated in Africa before Israel was cut off as the middle east. Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic), Israel was and is North Africa. The Suez Canal is man made to separate the land from Africa.
a member of any of the peoples who speak or spoke a Semitic language, including in particular the Jews and Arabs.
noun: Hebrew; plural noun: Hebrews
a member of an ancient people living in what is now Israel and Palestine and, according to biblical tradition, descended from the patriarch Jacob, grandson of Abraham. After the Exodus (c.1300 BC) they established the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and their scriptures and traditions form the basis of the Jewish religion.
the Semitic language spoken by the Hebrews, in its ancient or modern form.
of or in Hebrew.
of the Hebrews or the Jews.
from Old French Ebreu, via Latin from late Greek Hebraios, from Aramaic ‘iḇray, based on Hebrew ‘iḇrî understood to mean ‘one from the other side (of the river)’.
A Description of the Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) Language FamilyCory D. Crawford
Dr. HallenIn contrast to the Indo-European Language Family, about which much research has been done over the past two centuries, relatively little is known about the former Hamito-Semitic Language Family, now known as the Afro-Asiatic Family. (While much research has been accomplished with the Semitic Languages because of Arabic and Hebraic religious ties, little has been done with the Afro-Asiatic family as a whole.) This paper will describe this language family as is current with modern scholarly thought, and will also acknowledge current research having to do with the Afro-Asiatic Family.This family spreads itself over the northern third of Africa and into western Asia (also known as the Near East), and 175 million people speak languages that belong to this family (Ruhlen 1987:86). It is thought to be the parent of at least 250 languages (Bomhard and Kearns 1994:24). The name Hamito-Semitic was applied to describe the two main phyla (Hamitic and Semitic) that philologists of African languages connected in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Hamitic branch included Ancient Egyptian (an extinct language known as Coptic in its final stages), Berber, and Cushitic, while the Semitic branch included the well-documented Arabic, Hebrew, and Akkadian. (More will be said about these phyla shortly.) In 1949 American linguist Joseph H. Greenberg drew different lines in Afro-Asiatic classification. He showed that the Hamitic languages did not bear enough resemblance to be classified as one subgroup, but that each of the three (Egyptian, Berber, and Cushitic) constituted its own subgroup. Thus the name ‘Hamitic’ was no longer valid and possibly racist (Ruhlen 1987:82). He therefore coined “Afro-Asiatic” as the name for this family. It included the six groups Ancient Egyptian, Omotic, Cushitic, Semitic, Berber, and Chadic, found on the following map:
Fig. 1 Afro-Asiatic Language Family. Adapted from Ruhlen 1987.
Bomhard postulates that from Proto-Afroasiatic (henceforth PAA), Chadic was the first to break off. Omotic and Cushitic followed the example and split together, as did Egyptian, Berber, and Semitic in another group. Next, Egyptian followed by Berber split from the Semitic languages (Bomhard and Kearns 1994:24). Before we seek to describe each subgroup, we will describe their mother, PAA.
A. Albaret-Dakar Dakar (Sénégal) – Femmes Ouolofs, 1910s (postmarked October 16, 1916) Photomechanical print; 5 1/4 × 3 1/4 in. (13.3 × 8.3 cm) The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Visual Resource Archive, Department of the Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas (VRA.2014.8.024) http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/650363
Creating the different sects of the Afro Asiatic family
Some Africans such as the Bantu and Khoisan carry Asian genes developed in Africa. The people then migrated out of Africa to the East.
Somalian results below North African Bantu and Middle Eastern mix
Around 3,000 years ago, speakers of the Proto-Bantu language group began a millennia-long series of migrations eastward from their homeland between West Africa and Central Africa, at the border of eastern Nigeria and Cameroon. This Bantu expansion first introduced Bantu peoples to central, southern and southeastern Africa, regions they had previously been absent from. The proto-Bantu migrants in the process assimilated and/or displaced a number of earlier inhabitants that they came across, such as Pygmy and Khoisan populations in the centre and south, respectively. They also encountered some Afro-Asiatic outlier groups in the southeast who had been there for centuries, having migrated from Northeast Africa.Around 3,000 years ago, speakers of the Proto-Bantu language group began a millennia-long series of migrations eastward from their homeland between West Africa and Central Africa, at the border of eastern Nigeria and Cameroon. This Bantu expansion first introduced Bantu peoples to central, southern and southeastern Africa, regions they had previously been absent from. The proto-Bantu migrants in the process assimilated and/or displaced a number of earlier inhabitants that they came across, such as Pygmy and Khoisan populations in the centre and south, respectively. They also encountered some Afro-Asiatic outlier groups in the southeast who had been there for centuries, having migrated fromNortheast Africa.
In the above picture lines 1 & 2 are clearly East Africans Semetic. Pictures 7 8 9 are West African and would have been classed as non Semetic as their religions were possibly ancestor worship or other polytheistic religions. 3 & 7 are possible Semetic West Africans from Ghanian and Congo region. 9 possibly a Bantu descendant. My opinion based on various categorisations of 17th-19th Century literature. The above picture states that the non Semetic African Negroes are improperly called Bantu. Bantu migrated from West Africa and this could be the reason why they had been in incorrectly all named Bantu from the West African region. There are some descendants of Bantu in West Africa. The Bantu are clear about their migrations through West African and modern Sudan to South Africa.
Above East Africans & West Africans.
Human origins & migrations
You’ve probably heard the claim that Africa is ‘the birthplace of humanity’. But before there were humans, or even apes, or even ape ancestors, there was…rock. Africa is the oldest and most enduring landmass in the world. When you stand on African soil, 97% of what’s under your feet has been in place for more than 300 million years. During that time, Africa has seen pretty much everything – from proto-bacteria to dinosaurs and finally, around five to 10 million years ago, a special kind of ape called Australopithecines, that branched off (or rather let go of the branch), and walked on two legs down a separate evolutionary track.
This radical move led to the development of various hairy, dim-witted hominids (early men) – Homo habilis around 2.4 million years ago, Homo erectus some 1.8 million years ago and finally Homo sapiens (modern humans) around 200,000 years ago. Around 50,000 years later, somewhere in Tanzania or Ethiopia, a woman was born who has become known as ‘mitochondrial Eve’. We don’t know what she looked like, or how she lived her life, but we do know that every single human being alive today (yup, that’s EVERYONE) is descended from her. So at a deep genetic level, we’re all still Africans.
The break from Africa into the wider world occurred around 100,000 years ago, when a group numbering perhaps as few as 50 people migrated out of North Africa, along the shores of the Mediterranean and into the Middle East. From this inauspicious start came a population that would one day cover almost every landmass on the globe.
Around the time that people were first venturing outside the continent, hunting and gathering was still the lifestyle of choice; humans lived in communities that rarely exceeded a couple of hundred individuals, and social bonds were formed to enable these small bands of people to share food resources and hunt co-operatively. With the evolution of language, these bonds blossomed into the beginnings of society and culture as we know it today.
The first moves away from the nomadic hunter–gatherer way of life came between 14,000 BC and 9500 BC, a time when rainfall was high and the Sahara and North Africa became verdant. It was in these green and pleasant lands that the first farmers were born, and mankind learned to cultivate crops rather than following prey animals from place to place.
By 2500 BC the rains began to fail and the sandy barrier between North and West Africa became the Sahara we know today. People began to move southwest into the rainforests of Central Africa. By this time a group of people speaking the same kind of languages had come to dominate the landscape in Africa south of the Sahara. Known as the Bantu, their populations grew as they discovered iron-smelting technology and developed new agricultural techniques. By 100 BC, Bantu peoples had reached East Africa; by AD 300 they were living in southern Africa, and the age of the African empires had begun.
Recent research published in the October 2017 issue of American Journal of Human Genetics found that genomes of modern human groups originating outside Africa contain between 1.8 and 2.6 percent Neanderthal DNA. “Neandertal DNA is one source of variation for many traits in modern humans,” study lead author Michael Dannemann, a computational biologist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, told Live Science. [Your Hair Color and Sleep Habits May Come from Neanderthals]
Another 2017 study by author Kay Prüfer, a paleogeneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, found that modern-human DNA entered the Neanderthal gene pool between 130,000 and 145,000 years ago. [You May Be More ‘Neanderthal’ Than You Thought]
The original cave men
Neanderthals lived during the Ice Age. They often took shelter from the ice, snow and otherwise unpleasant weather in Eurasia’s plentiful limestone caves. Many of their fossils have been found in caves, leading to the popular idea of them as “cave men.”
Like other humans, Neanderthals originated in Africa but migrated to Eurasia long before other humans did. Neanderthals lived across Eurasia, as far north and west as the Britain, through part of the Middle East, to Uzbekistan. Popular estimates put the peak Neanderthal population around 70,000, though some scientists put the number drastically lower, at around 3,500 females.
Now some try to claim North and East African and Middle Eastern people are a Caucasian race and the Egyptians were white. No! The first humans were black. The European looking Egyptians arrived later. Those ancient white Egyptian bodies that have been found are from the descendants of African’s who left black and populated the world some mixing with neanderthals and moving to cold countries. When the Asyrians Turks, Romans entered or re entered Egypt they returned caucasian and are not the original inhabitants of the land. The first people to populate the Mediteranian and America’s were black. Civilisation started in Africa and Egypt was part of Afri Ka. Africa is the Spirit of the blacks. The black land has been targeted due to the wisdom and knowledge within it. The world refuses to admit that black people, the first on earth, could possibly create all that they did. Some would prefer to think Caucasians or Aliens made the Pyramids than to admit that it was Africans in their own land.