Category Archives: Horn of Africa

The Living descendants of the Egyptians: article by All

One fact that was meant to be hidden is that the M2 lineage carrying, Niger-Congo/Kordofanian speaking, broad featured (“true Negro”) populations of Equatorial Africa and their New World extensions are the living descendants of the ancient Egyptians (and Hebrews). They do not want us to know that we were at the basis of all of these ancient civilizations and not as slaves but masters (Sidi Badr). WE DID NOT ORIGINATE IN WEST AFRICA, BUT AS ATTESTED TO BY EVERY TRIBAL ELDER WE ORIGINATED IN NUBIA-EGYPT (see the black and white map below) IN EASTERN AFRICA. These two civilizations were the oldest (Nubia), longest lasting and greatest (most contributing) civilizations in World History. The ancient Egyptian civilization is much older than the 5,000 year date given by “traditional”(liars) Egyptologist but instead it’s over 12,000 years old. Older black and or African scholars still alive today like Theophile Obenga and Dr. Yosef Ben Jochannan  for decades have debunked the Western lead lies in regards ancient Egypt and to the “Bantu Migration” from Cameroon and the ridiculous lie that the ancient Egyptian language is not related to Niger-Congo. African scholars (who actually speak African languages) have long criticized the entire “Afro-Asiatic” category of African languages. This video explains the basics behind the dilemma.

Above is a quote from the article click the below link for the full post which I recommend. I will be compiling my own research on the above matter and my previous post Reclaiming the African in My African American Ethnicity — Ariana Fiorello-Omotosho The previous post is of a African descendant brought to the New world in slavery from Nigeria and Cameroon. The analysis of her DNA by a professional company traces her genealogy to one of 2 places (I would personally say both places) Egypt or Palestine. If you have read my post on my Akan and Igbo ancestors you will be aware that I also have a DNA match cousin who’s ancestry was tracing back to Egypt and Saudi Arabia rather than palestine 1000-2000 years ago.

Click below for the full post (The article is mind blowing and needs to be read more than once to be truly absorbed in my opinion)

The Afro Asiatic Biblical Hebrew Language & History



Spell Syllables


a member of the Semitic peoples inhabiting ancient Palestine and claiming descent from   Abraham, Isaac,and Jacob; an Israelite.


a Semitic language of the Afroasiatic family, the language of the ancient Hebrews, which, although not in a vernacular use from   100 b.c. to the 20th century,was retained as the scholarly and    liturgical language of Jews and is now the national language of  Israel.

Abbreviation: Heb.



noting or pertaining to the script developed from theAramaic and early Hebraic alphabets, used sinceabout the 3rd century b.c. for  the writing of Hebrew,and later for Yiddish, Ladino, and other    languages.



Hebrew (/ˈhbr/עִבְרִית‬, Ivrit [ʔivˈʁit] (About this sound listenor

[ʕivˈɾit] (About this sound listen) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[7][4] Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 2] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[8] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.[9][10]


The modern word “Hebrew” is derived from the word “Ivri” (plural “Ivrim”; English: Hebrews), one of several names for the Israelite (Jewish and Samaritan) people. It is traditionally understood to be an adjective based on the name of Abraham’s ancestor, Eber (“Ever” עבר in Hebrew), mentioned in Genesis 10:21. This name is possibly based upon the root “ʕ-b-r” (עבר) meaning “to cross over”. Interpretations of the term “ʕibrim” link it to this verb; cross over or the people who crossed over the river Euphrates.[15]

In the Bible, the Hebrew language is called Yәhudit (יהודית) because Judah (Yәhuda) was the surviving kingdom at the time of the quotation (late 8th century BCE (Is 36, 2 Kings 18). In Isaiah 19:18 it is called the “Language of Canaan” (שפת כנען).



Below is my list of things that didn’t sit well with me regarding church. This is not to say I won’t go to church but on a rare occasion now, and can’t help looking at the pastor with a side eye. Most pastors avoid some truths. However I still believe that the New Testament can be used alongside the Old Testament. I decided to spend a period of time studying the Old Testament. After a period of about a year I realised that for me the old and new Testament work hand in hand. The video below stood out for me. It is an example of how the New Testament can be used to help us get closer to The Almighty YAHUAH and the WORD.

I decided a long time ago that one day I would learn Hebrew Aramaic and Arabic to get a better understanding of the Holy word. It is still a dream but I have been learning the basics of Hebrew and Arabic for a short while. The English King James Version of the Bible is a translation. You cannot get the true meaning of the names or messages behind the words in a translation. The true words cannot be properly expressed in English, the names have no meaning. Yahusha said “I come in my father’s name and you do not accept me but if I come in someone else’s name you will accept me.” YAHUAH states “if my people who are know by my name will humble themselves and call on me…” he will fulfill his promise and never forsake us. We must go back the covenant.

Nowhere is the Name God in Jesus or the word Jew or Judah in God. Also it was the Jews who according to the bible killed Jesus. This is only my belief and I admit that I am still learning.

The root word remains the same with YAHU or YAH


It fulfills the promise.

Let’s take Jehovah there was no “J” using the “Yod” you get “Y” in ancient Hebrew instead of “Ye” it was “Yah” YA instead of “El” it was “Al” we now have Yahovah or Yahweh. Yahweh adds vowels A And E to create  sound but there were no vowels.

A “W” is a Double U ( 2 U’s = a W Equivalent or the same as UU) which creates the sound EWE, YAHOO-A, YAH-WHO-AH in English.

The above documentary states it should be YAHAWAH. Some say YA-HOW-A some say YA-WHO-A

Some pronounce the tettergrames  YHWH as YAHWEH or YAHVEH. This became JEHOVAH or JAH when the “J” was developed in Europe around 500 years ago.

Strong’s Concordance
Yhvh: the proper name of the God of Israel

Original Word: יְהֹוָה
Part of Speech: Proper Name
Transliteration: Yhvh
Phonetic Spelling: (yeh-ho-vaw’)
Short Definition: LORD

NAS Exhaustive Concordance

Word Origin
from havah
the proper name of the God of Israel
NASB Translation

Things to bear in mind with the above is that Paleo-Hebrew was not pronounced in that way. The V is a new consonant. There was a U in ancient times. (HAUAH)  YAH UAH


Strong’s Concordance
Yah: the name of the God of Israel

Original Word: יָהּ
Part of Speech: Proper Name
Transliteration: Yah
Phonetic Spelling: (yaw)
Short Definition: LORD


Strong’s Hebrew

Strong’s Hebrew: 3050. יָהּ (Yah) — the name of the God of 

◄ 3050. Yah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Yah: the name of the God of Israel. Original
Word: יָהּ Part of Speech: Proper Name Transliteration 
// – 30k


Strong’s Hebrew: 3470. יְשַׁעְיָה (Ysha’yah) — Isaiah

◄ 3470. Ysha’yah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Ysha’yah: Isaiah. Original Word:
יְשַׁעְיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine 
// – 30k


Strong’s Hebrew: 2970. יַאֲזַנְיָה (Yaazanyahu or 

◄ 2970. Yaazanyahu or Yaazanyah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Yaazanyahu or
Yaazanyah: “Yah hears,” the name of several Israelites. 
// – 14k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3000. יְבֶרֶכְיָ֫הוּ (Yeberekyahu) 

 Strong’s Concordance. Yeberekyahu: “Yah blesses,” the name of several Israelites.
Original Word: יְבֶרֶכְיָ֫הוּ Part of Speech: Proper Name 
// – 12k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2293. חַגִּיָּה (Chaggiyyah) — “feast 

 Strong’s Concordance. Chaggiyyah: “feast of Yah,” a Levite. Original Word:
חַגִּיָּה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration: Chaggiyyah 
// – 10k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1806. דְּלָיָה (Delayah or Delayahu) 

 Strong’s Concordance. Delayah or Delayahu: “Yah has drawn,” five Israelites. Original
Word: דְּלָיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration
// – 16k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2811. חֲשַׁבְיָה (Chashabyahu or 

◄ 2811. Chashabyahu or Chashabyah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Chashabyahu or
Chashabyah: “Yah has taken account,” the name of a number of Isr.
// – 25k


Strong’s Hebrew: 2900. טוֹבִיָּה (Tobiyyahu or Tobiyyah) 

◄ 2900. Tobiyyahu or Tobiyyah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Tobiyyahu or Tobiyyah:
Yah is my good,” three Israelites, also an Ammonite. 
// – 25k


Strong’s Hebrew: 452. אֵלִיָּה (Eliyyah) — “Yah is God 

◄ 452. Eliyyah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Eliyyah: “Yah is God,” a
well-known prophet of Isr., also three other Isr. Original Word 
// – 29k


Strong’s Hebrew: 273. אַחְזַי (Achzay) — “Yah has grasped 

 Strong’s Concordance. Achzay: “Yah has grasped,” an Israelite name. Original Word:
אַחְזַי Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration: Achzay 
// – 12k


Strong’s Hebrew: 3167. יַחְזְיָה (Yachzeyah) — “Yah sees 

 Strong’s Concordance. Yachzeyah: “Yah sees,” an Israelite. Original Word: יַחְזְיָה
Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration: Yachzeyah
// – 10k


Strong’s Hebrew: 2382. חֲזָיָה (Chazayah) — “Yah has seen 

 Strong’s Concordance. Chazayah: “Yah has seen,” a descendant of Judah. Original
Word: חֲזָיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration
// – 10k


Strong’s Hebrew: 568. אֲמַרְיָה (Amaryahu or Amaryah) 

◄ 568. Amaryahu or Amaryah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Amaryahu or Amaryah:
Yah has promised,” the name of several Israelites. Original 
// – 23k


Strong’s Hebrew: 5129. נוֹעַדְיָה (Noadyah) — “meeting 

 Strong’s Concordance. Noadyah: “meeting with Yah,” a Levite, also a prophetess.
Original Word: נוֹעַדְיָה Part of Speech: proper name; masculine 
// – 11k


Strong’s Hebrew: 2619. חֲסַדְיָה (Chasadyah) — “Yah is 

 Strong’s Concordance. Chasadyah: “Yah is kind,” a son of Zerubbabel. Original Word:
חֲסַדְיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration 
// – 10k


Strong’s Hebrew: 1955. הוֹשַׁעֲיָה (Hoshayah) — “Yah 

 Strong’s Concordance. Hoshayah: “Yah has saved,” two Israelites. Original Word:
הוֹשַׁעֲיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration 
// – 12k


Strong’s Hebrew: 2997. יִבְנְיָה (Yibneyah) — “Yah 

 Strong’s Concordance. Yibneyah: “Yah builds up,” a Benjamite. Original Word:
יִבְנְיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration: Yibneyah 
// – 10k


Strong’s Hebrew: 1183. בְּעַלְיָה (Baalyah) — “Yah is 

 Strong’s Concordance. Baalyah: “Yah is lord,” one of David’s heroes. Original Word:
בְּעַלְיָה Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration 
// – 10k


Strong’s Hebrew: 4322. מִיכָיָ֫הוּ (Mikayahu) — “Who 

◄ 4322. Mikayahu ►. Strong’s Concordance. Mikayahu: “Who is likeYah?” an Israelite,
also an Israelite woman. Original Word: מִיכָיָ֫הוּ 
// – 11k


Strong’s Hebrew: 1141. בְּנָיָה (Benayahu or Benayah) 

◄ 1141. Benayahu or Benayah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Benayahu or Benayah:
Yah has built up,” the name of several Israelites. Original 
// – 31k



Bible Search

Isaiah 26:4 Trust in the LORD forever, for the LORD, the LORD 

 Trust in the LORD forever, because in Yah, the LORD, is an everlasting rock!  Trust
in Yahweh forever; for in Yah, Yahweh, is an everlasting Rock. 
// – 17k


Psalm 150:6 Let everything that has breath praise the LORD. Praise

 Let everything that has breath praise Yah! Praise Yah
// – 16k




The ‘Personal’ Name of the ‘God of Israel’ by which He anciently revealed Himself to Moses ( 6:2).  ‘YAH’ is spelt in original Hebrew, with the 10th letter of the Hebrew alphabet – the ‘yood’, smallest letter in the alphabet, represented by the inverted comma ( ‘ ). YAHU also has the meaning of  ‘He is YAH’

Obscure Preservation of the Sacred Name ‘YAHU’

Hebrew personal names have meanings, and many such personal names have throughout time, been linked to the Sacred Name YAHU.  In this obscure way, the Sacred Name YAHU has been preserved for modern times, notwithstanding the fact that it has been almost totally removed from most Bible Translations.

This Name, through recent archeological discoveries in Israel, has been found to be part of more Hebrew words and names than were formerly known. There is an untold number of usages in the Tanach (‘Old Testament’) where this form of the Sacred Name is used as a conjunction in Biblical names.  Some of the more common examples of these are:

  • EliYahu (‘Elijah’)
  • YeremiYahu (‘Jeremiah’)
  • YeshiYahu (‘Isaiah’)
  • YahuShafat (‘Josephat’)
  • NetanYahu (also the name of former Israeli Prime Minister)
  • YahuNatan (‘Jonethan’)
  • and of course, the Messianic Salvation Name YAHU’SHUAH (‘Yeshuah’)





The truth is we cannot say for certain exactly how it should be physically pronounced, we can only take an educated guess. Our languages have been confused. After the scattering of the people from the tower of Babel the language became mixed up see below:

Study Bible

The Tower of Babel
7“Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, so that they will not understand one another’s speech.” 8So the LORD scattered them abroad from there over the face of the whole earth; and they stopped building the city. 9Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the LORD confused the language of the whole earth; and from there the LORD scattered them abroad over the face of the whole earth.…

It was fore written. This is why although I search for the most ancient way to pronounce the name and pray, I know that it is our hearts sincerity which is more important. The languages of the WHOLE earth are confused according to the bible. Some say God some say Elohim some say ALAHEIM or Allah JAH Jehovah YAHUAH Lord ALMIGHY. The name has been hidden in plain sight. I cannot for certain say that I am right and they’re are much conflicting information out there. This is a documentation of one type of study only.

I recommend that you continue to research and I will also do the same. I like the saying “Study to show yourself approved” in the eyes of The Most High.


My list of unease about the church

Celebrating pagan holidays – Christmas & Christmas trees, Halloween by some,  Easter, New Years, Valentines day

Not keeping the Sabbath but instead keeping the suns day



Breaking commandments such as eating pork

Lies about the colour of the Ha Mashiach and people in the Bible.

Promotion of slavery

Pagan cross which is technically the weapon used to kill Yahusha promoted in the church. Using Pagan images.

Research Cesare Borgia and his life. Below is a little information on the image of Jesus. Cesare Borgia.

Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal, 

After initially entering the church and becoming a cardinal on his father’s election to the Papacy, he became the first person to resign a cardinalcy after the death of his brother in 1498. His father set him up as a prince with territory carved from the Papal States

The seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the 6th century. Beginning In 535, the Byzantine Empire, under emperor Justinian I, launched a reconquest of Italy that took decades and devastated Italy’s political and economic structures. Just as these wars wound down, the Lombards entered the peninsula from the north and conquered much of the countryside. By the 7th century, Byzantine authority was largely limited to a diagonal band running roughly from Ravenna, where the Emperor’s representative, or Exarch, was located, to Rome and south to Naples (the “Rome-Ravenna corridor”[4][5][6]), plus coastal enclaves.[7]

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (ItalianStato della ChiesaItalian pronunciation: [ˈstato ˈdella ˈkjɛza]LatinStatus Ecclesiae), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. 

The Papal Army was disbanded in 1870, leaving only the Palatine Guard, which was itself disbanded on 14 September 1970 by Pope Paul VI,[40] and the Swiss Guard, which continues to serve both as a ceremonial unit at the Vatican and as the pope’s protective force.

Other things that dont sit well for me personally are Idolatry of Preachers and Pope’s. Only The Almighty Creator of the universe through the son of man Yahusha can redeem us. Pope forgiving sins!! Confessing to the Pope instead of YHWH.

Peodophilia in the European church stretching back generations breaking the commandments.

Changes of the names of the Prophets. Janus and Zeus were Greco-Roman deities Ja-Zeus hmm sounds like something else and Kristos was also a pagan god.



When we get into Paganism most of the names we use were from the Canaanites. Yah, El, Allah. The real name has been replaced with Lord or God and has changed so many times. At the Kaba before Islam they worshipped 360 gods. This was done in Saudi Arabia. The middle east was the gateway to the East and West. These customs have penetrated the religions we have today. In the past the Hebrews fell away from the teachings of Moses and turned to Baal.



A 4th century BCE drachm (quartershekel) coin from the Persian province of Yehud Medinata, possibly representing Yahweh seated on a winged and wheeled sun-throne.[99]:766[100]:190

The ancient Canaanites were polytheists who believed in a pantheon of deities,[101][102][103] the chief of whom was the god El, who ruled alongside his consort Asherah and their seventy sons.[101]:22-24[102][103] Baal was the god of storm, rain, vegetation and fertility,[101]:68-127 while his consort Anat was the goddess of war[101]:131, 137-139 and Astarte, the West Semitic equivalent to Ishtar, was the goddess of love.[101]:146-149 The people of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah originally believed in these deities,[101][103][104] alongside their own national god Yahweh.[105][106] El later became syncretized with Yahweh, who took over El’s role as the head of the pantheon,[101]:13-17 with Asherah as his divine consort[100]:45[101]:146 and the “sons of El” as his offspring.[101]:22-24 During the later years of the Kingdom of Judah, a monolatristic faction rose to power insisting that only Yahweh was fit to be worshipped by the people of Judah.[101]:229-233 Monolatry became enforced during the reforms of King Josiah in 621 BCE.[101]:229 Finally, during the national crisis of the Babylonian captivity, some Judahites began to teach that deities aside from Yahweh were not just unfit to be worshipped, but did not exist.[107][39]:4 The “sons of El” were demoted from deities to angels.[101]:22


Akkadian cylinder seal impression showing Inanna, the Sumerian goddess of love, sex, and war[108]:92, 193
Wall relief of the Assyrian national godAššur in a “winged male” hybrid iconography.[109]:73

Ancient Mesopotamian culture in southern Iraq had numerous dingir (deities, gods and goddesses).[19]:69-74[110] Mesopotamian deities were almost exclusively anthropomorphic.[111]:93[19]:69-74[112] They were thought to possess extraordinary powers[111]:93and were often envisioned as being of tremendous physical size.[111]:93 They were generally immortal,[111]:93 but a few of them, particularly DumuzidGeshtinanna, and Gugalanna were said to have either died or visited the underworld.[111]:93 Both male and female deities were widely venerated.[111]:93

The most important deities in the Sumerian pantheon were known as the Anunnaki,[114] and included deities known as the “seven gods who decree”: AnEnlilEnkiNinhursagNannaUtu andInanna.[114] After the conquest of Sumer by Sargon of Akkad, many Sumerian deities weresyncretized with East Semitic ones.[113] The goddess Inanna, syncretized with the East Semitic Ishtar, became popular,[115][108]:xviii, xv[113]:182[111]:106-109 with temples across Mesopotamia.[116][111]:106-109

The Mesopotamian mythology of the first millennium BCE treated Anšar (later Aššur) and Kišaras primordial deities.[117] Marduk was a significant god among the Babylonians. He rose from an obscure deity of the third millennium BCE to become one of the most important deities in the Mesopotamian pantheon of the first millennium BCE. The Babylonians worshipped Marduk as creator of heaven, earth and humankind, and as their national god.[19]:62, 73[118] Marduk’s iconography is zoomorphic and is most often found in Middle Eastern archaeological remains depicted as a “snake-dragon” or a “human-animal hybrid”.[119][99][120]



Zeus, the king of the gods inancient Greek religion, shown on a gold stater from Lampsacus (c.360–340 BCE)
Corinthian black-figure plaque ofPoseidon, the Greek god of the seas (c. 550-525 BCE)
Attic white-ground red-figured kylixof Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, riding a swan (c. 46-470 BCE)
Bust of Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom, copy after a votive statue of Kresilas in Athens (c. 425BCE)

The ancient Greeks revered both gods and goddesses.[121] These continued to be revered through the early centuries of the common era, and many of the Greek deities inspired and were adopted as part of much larger pantheon of Roman deities.[122]:91-97 The Greek religion was polytheistic, but had no centralized church, nor any sacred texts.[122]:91-97 The deities were largely associated with myths and they represented natural phenomena or aspects of human behavior.[121][122]:91-97

Several Greek deities probably trace back to more ancient Indo-European traditions, since the gods and goddesses found in distant cultures are mythologically comparable and arecognates.[33]:230-231[123]:15-19 Eos, the Greek goddess of the dawn, for instance, is cognate to Indic Ushas, Roman Aurora and LatvianAuseklis.[33]:230-232 Zeus, the Greek king of gods, is cognate to Latin Iūpiter, Old German Ziu, and Indic Dyaus, with whom he shares similar mythologies.[33]:230-232[124] Other deities, such asAphrodite, originated from the Near East.[125][126][127][128]

Greek deities varied locally, but many shared panhellenic themes, celebrated similar festivals, rites, and ritual grammar.[129] The most important deities in the Greek pantheon were the Twelve Olympians: Zeus, HeraPoseidonAthenaApollo,Artemis, Aphrodite, HermesDemeterDionysus,Hephaestus, and Ares.[123]:125-170 Other important Greek deities included HestiaHades and Heracles.[122]:96-97 These deities later inspired the Dii Consentes galaxy of Roman deities.[122]:96-97

Leviticus 18:1-30

And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, “Speak to the people of Israel and say to them, I am the Lord your God. You shall not do as they do in the land of Egypt, where you lived, and you shall not do as they do in the land of Canaan, to which I am bringing you. You shall not walk in their statutes. You shall follow my rules and keep my statutes and walk in them. I am the Lord your God. You shall therefore keep my statutes and my rules; if a person does them, he shall live by them: I am the Lord. …








The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet was in common use in the ancient Israelite kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Following the exile of the Kingdom of Judah in the 6th century BCE, in the Babylonian exileJews began using a form of the Assyrian script, which was another offshoot of the same family of scripts. The Samaritans, who remained in the Land of Israel, continued to use the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet.

During the 3rd century BCE, Jews began to use a stylized, “square” form of the Aramaic alphabet that was used by the Persian Empire (which in turn was adopted from the Assyrians),[8] while the Samaritans continued to use a form of the Paleo-Hebrew script, called the Samaritan script. After the fall of the Persian Empire, Jews used both scripts before settling on the Assyrian form. For a limited time thereafter, the use of the Paleo-Hebrew script among Jews was retained only to write the Tetragrammaton.[9]


The chart below compares the letters of the Phoenician script with

those of the Paleo-Hebrew and the present Hebrew alphabet, with

names traditionally used in English.

Phoenician Paleo-Hebrew Samaritan Square Hebrew English name
Aleph Aleph א Aleph
Beth Bet ב Bet
Gimel Gimel ג Gimel
Daleth Daled ד Dalet
He Heh ה He
Waw Vav ו Waw
Zayin Zayin ז Zayin
Heth chet ח Heth
Teth Tet ט Teth
Yodh Yud י Yodh
Kaph Khof כ/ך Kaph
Lamedh Lamed ל Lamedh
Mem Mem מ/ם Mem
Nun Nun נ/ן Nun
Samekh Samekh ס Samekh
Ayin Ayin ע Ayin
Pe Pey פ/ף Pe
Sadek Tzadi צ/ץ Tsade
Qoph Quf ק Qoph
Res Resh ר Resh
Sin Shin ש Shin
Taw Tof ת Taw

                                                                Ancient EgyptianEdit

in hieroglyphs


Pictograph: Ox Head
Meanings: Power, Authority, Strength
Sound: ah, eh


Pictograph: Floorplan of a Tent
Meanings: Family, House, In
Sound: B, Bh (v)


Variations on written form/pronunciationEdit

Name Symbol IPA Transliteration Example
Vet ב /v/ v vote
Bet בּ /b/ b boat

Other common letters in biblical text


Ancient Name: Shin
Pictograph: Two front teeth
Meanings: Sharp, Press, Eat, Two
Sound: Sh


Ancient Name: Yad
Pictograph: Arm and closed hand
Meanings: Work, Throw, Make, Praise
Sound: Y, iy

History & Reconstruction

The Early Semitic pictograph of this letter is , an arm and hand. The meaning of this letter is work, make and throw; the functions of the hand. The Modern Hebrew name yud is a derivative of the two letter word (yad), a Hebrew word meaning “hand,” the original name for the letter. Click for link

Ah Ba =Ahb = ABBA = Father

Aleif Ah Bet = Alphabet


Arabic alif

Written as ا, spelled as الِف and transliterated as alif, it is the first letter in Arabic. Together with Hebrew Aleph, Greek Alpha and Latin A, it is descended from Phoenician ʾāleph, from a reconstructed Proto-Canaanite ʾalp “ox”.

Alif is written in one of the following ways depending on its position in the word:

Arabic bāʾEdit

The Arabic letter ب is named باء bāʾ (bāʔ). It is written in several ways depending on its position in the word:




Syrian Alphabet



Visit this site below to hear the audio pronunciation of the Hebrew letters



Proper noun

  1. (religion) Name of the Abrahamic deity according to some interpretations of the Hebrew scriptures.


Vocalization of the Hebrew Tetragrammaton (יהוה) peculiar to some “Sacred Name” new religious movements found online, especially Seventh-Day Adventist. Attested since 1998.











Strong’s Concordance 2268
Esaias: Isaiah, an Israelite prophet

Original Word: Ἠσαΐας, ου, ὁ
Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine
Transliteration: Esaias
Phonetic Spelling: (hay-sah-ee’-as)
Short Definition: Isaiah
Definition: Isaiah, the prophet.

NAS Exhaustive Concordance

Word Origin
of Hebrew origin Yeshayahu



Jah or Yah (Hebrew: יהּ‬ Yah) is a short form of Yahweh (in consonantal spelling YHWH Hebrew: יהוה‬, called the Tetragrammaton), the proper name of God in the Hebrew Bible. … It is otherwise mostly limited to the phrase Hallelujah and theophoric names such as Elijah.


Check this out if you want more background info out

One theory is that YHWH had been inserted by Jewish scholars centuries ago. Some say that YHWH goes back to Ba’al. Look at the strong’s Concordance below Yah and Baal associated together. Ba’al is the Hebrew word for Lord. YHWH is considered the Most High and Sovereign Power of the Hebrews.

Strong’s Concordance
Bali: “my Baal,” a symbolic name for Yah

Original Word: בַּעְלִי
Part of Speech: Noun Masculine
Transliteration: Bali
Phonetic Spelling: (bah-al-ee’)
Short Definition: Baali

NAS Exhaustive Concordance

Word Origin
from baal with pronoun suff.
“my Baal,” a symbolic name for Yah
NASB Translation
Baali (1).

Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance


From ba’al with pron. Suff.; my master; Baali, a symbolical name for Jehovah — Baali.

see HEBREW ba’al

Strong’s Concordance
baal: owner, lord

Original Word: בַּ֫עַל
Part of Speech: Noun Masculine
Transliteration: baal
Phonetic Spelling: (bah’-al)
Short Definition: owner

NAS Exhaustive Concordance

Word Origin
from baal
owner, lord













 The first African slaves wrote in Hebrew.





Also, on the ends of each pew, all of which are original and date back hundreds of years, the wavy lines of cursive Hebrew have been scratched into the wood. Our guide wasn’t able to translate any of the words, but he did tell us that a few Ethiopian tourists had visited recently and instantly recognized it. Apparently, it’s still used by Jewish communities in Africa.

Kongo Cosmograms, Underground Railroad Patchwork, Cursive Hebrew… now this is the kind of unexpected history which totally interests me! If you’re the same, make sure to visit the First African Baptist Church, either for the tour or for the Sunday service.

First African Baptist Church – Website


Also see the below from



REMEMBER TO FORGET NO MORE, O; HOUSE OF THE HEBREWS–THE IGBOS, ALL OVER PLANET EARTH. UDO’NU!!! THE 12 TRIBES OF YAHSAR’AL WHO LIVE IN IGBOLAND OF BIAFRA IN WEST AFRICA; AND, WHO ARE SCATTERED ALL OVER THE WORLD ARE THE HEBREWS | HEEBOES | IGBOS=CHILDREN OF THE MOST HIGH YAH, CREATOR AND OWNER OF THE UNIVERSE. THEY ARE ALL CALLED IGBO AS A CORRUPTION OF HEBREW | HEEBOE | IGBO. THE 12 TRIBES OF THE HEBREWS ON EARTH STILL LIVE TOGETHER IN IGBOLAND TILL DATE–MANY HEBREWS ARE SCATTERED ALL OVER THE WORLD AS WE SPEAK. CHRISTIANS, “MANY” BLACK AND BROWN MUSLIMS AS WELL AS “MANY” BLACK AND BROWN PEOPLE OF PLANET EARTH ARE HEBREWS –IGBOS WHO WERE FORCED TO CONVERT TO BABYLON THE GREAT (WORLD EMPIRE OF RELIGIONS) OR DIE. THESE HEBREW BROTHERS AND SISTERS CHOSE TO LIVE IN SIN INSTEAD OF DYING FOR THE SPIRITS–A RESULT OF DEUTERONOMY 28:15-68 CURSES AGAINST THE HEBREWS–THE IGBOS. The 12 Sons/Tribes of Yah’Shara’Ala (Yahsar’al) are: Raawban (Changed to Reuben); ShaMiwan (Changed to Simon); LawYah (Changed to Levi); Yahawadah (changed to Judah), Dahhniyah (Changed to Dan) Napathalyah (Changed to Naphtali); Gad (Gad); Ahshar (Changed to Asher); YahsShaKar (Changed to Issachar); Zabalawan (Changed to Zebulon) BanYahyan (changed to Benjamin); PLUS The Sons of Yahsho’v (Changed to Joseph) Ahparayam (Changed to Ephraim) Manasha (Changed to Manasseh) NOTE: All Original Hebrew–Igbo name were changed by The Roman Empire, Zionist Fake Hebrews called JEWS in IsraEL, The Vatican and All Religions, England and All Monarchies, United Nations and All Politicians, The Elite/The Rich, All Secret Societies, IMF, World Bank, Money =NEW WORLD ORDER OF LUCIFER=the Synagogue of Satan spoken about in Revelation 2:9 and 3:9. “Find the Igbos ANYWHERE; then, you have found the Hebrews EVERYWHERE” Obioha Ehyinnayah Ezekwesiriyah 2015 (The Last Messenger of Yahusha Ha Mashiyahkh=ha’Mashiriyah–in Igbo, till date. NOW, KNOW THIS… Our Hebrew Land which was given to our ancestors by our Heavenly Father and creator-YAH was/is called YAH’SHARA’ALA in Igbo language (Yahsar’al)–now corrupted as Isra’EL. The ever hidden but now REVEALED truth is that; “EL” is a Demon a.k.a Fallen Angel a.k.a Alien or God, gods, Chi, Arusi etc=Lucifer, Satan, Devil(s)=partners to United Nations and All politicians, All Religions and Secret Societies. The Shadow Government of this World you dO not see and/or know. This REVEALED truth Cancels any usage of “EL” (as Suffix or Prefix) to define/describe the Most High YAH,–the Creator of the Universe and the maker/owner of Everything Everywhere. The Ala’yem (Alayim) of The Hebrews–The Igbos. Negative Vibrations: Example: 1. El’ohim means Demons/gods. 2. Isara’EL means land dedicated to Demons/gods _____________________________________ Positive and Fruitful Vibrations “AL” is for YAH “AL” was taken from “ALA”. “Ala” means “LAND” in Igbo Language till date. As you know, Yahsar’AL (corrupted as Isra’EL) is YAH’S own portion of LAND on Planet Earth which YAH gave to his Hebrew Bloodline–The Igbos, forever. Examples: 1. Ala’lue’YAH was corrupted as Hallelujah. (Jah is Jabulon=Demon). Ala’lue’YAH (pronounced as AlalueYAH) means in the Igbolanguage till date: “Let YAH have His own PORTION of Land”. This is what became Yah’Shara’Ala which is often pronounce as Yahsar’al and was later corrupted as Isra’EL by the Roman Empire a.k.a Zionist Fake Hebrews called Jews of Revelation 2:9 and 3:9=Synagogue of Satan–Satanic Europeans who claimed Yahsar’al, renamed and dedicated our Hebrew Land to their EL Demon. Tufiakwaa! Aru!!! Satan was allowed to do this because the Children of Yahsharala (Yahsar’al) were under the CURSES of Deuteronomy 28:15-68. Yah has forgiven his Children on the condition that they do not follow any one or thing called EL, god, Chi, Arusi, Satan, Lucifer, Alien, Demon, Fallen Angel anymore forever and ever. See the Ten Commandments and the Torah (Turah) of YAH. Example 2. Ala’ye’m (Alayem/Alayim): The Igbo words “Ala’ye’m” (Alayem/Alayim) was corrupted to EL’ohim (EL is a Demon). Ala’Ye’m (Alayem/Alayim) is Igbo language which means: “being dependent on the Land of Yahsar’al”–the Blessed Land of YAH. A direct English Translation of Ala’Ye’M (Alayem/Alayim) is “Land-Provide”. This was so because All the Hebrews Blessed the Most High YAH whenever they remember the promised land they received from the Most High YAH their Hebrew Heavenly Father. So Ala’Ye’M (Alayem/Alayim) was used as title for the Most High YAH who gave the Land (Ala) to the Hebrews–The Igbos. (Note: “NOTE: In the Igbo language, “to give” means “Ye’M” while LAND is still called “Ala” in Igbo language till date. Ala’ye’m (Alayem/Alayim)=Land-Provide | ye’m’Ala=Give-Me-Land. Till date In Igboland, “Ala” is used to bless or to Curse and “Ala” is everything to the Hebrews—The Igbos. Therefore, the Ancient Hebrew words/language is still the Igbo words/language till today (with some data corruption here and there.. Hence it is now easier for the Igbos–The True Hebrew Yahsar’alites to reconnect to their Ancient Past now that YAH is Here. it is a Miracle from YAH. All Praise YAH forever and ever. AlalueYAH!!! Example 3. In ◄ Exodus 3:14 ► You read: “The Most High said to (Moshe (changed to Moses), “I AM WHO I AM. This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’” This is highly misleading. Why? Because the Hebrew translation of “I AM” is “AHAYAH” which when spoken in Igbo language of today, you have Aha’Yah (meaning HIS NAME). The Vatican Roman Empire removed the SACRED name of the The Most High YAH and Lied to the World that ◄ Exodus 3:14 ►said “I AM”is the name of the Almighty YAH. However, Aha’Yah (Igbo) AHAYAH (Hebrew ) was also the topic of ◄ Exodus 3:13 ► because Moshe (Moses) said to the Most High, “Suppose I go to the Hebrews and say to them, ‘The Heavenly Father of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ Then what shall I tell them?”. You see how The Roman Empire and all the Religions use Language to deceive the Whole World? Revelation 12:9 and 13:14 completely fulfilled. Therefore, ◄ Exodus 3:14 ► should read as follows: “The Most High said to Moshe (changed to Moses), “I AM YAH… This is what you are to say to the Hebrews: ‘YAH… has sent me to you.’” In Igbo language, an Igbo would say: “YAH BU AHA’YAH (AHAYAH) YES!!!THE HEBREWS–THE IGBOS, ARE BACK. YAH’S SPIRITS NOW NOW RULE PLANET EARTH (MIDST ONGOING JUDGEMENT-DAY-DESTRUCTION), IN SEARCH OF HIS HEBREW BLOODLINES AS HE REUNITES HIS IGBO CHILDREN BY HIMSELF—ISAIAH 11:11-12. HAPPENING RIGHT NOW! All Praise YAH forever and ever. Ala’lue’YAH aka!!! Shaluwm! Shalayim!!! Udo na Ngozi diri Umu Igbo/Hebrew nile. This Revelation from The Most High YAH; via Yahusha HaMashiyahkh (ha’mashiriyah), is delivered this 25815 by: Angelippo#7777777_HEBREW_IGBO Angel of the Most High Creator of the Universe, maker and owner of everything everywhere assigned to the Hebrews__The Igbos on Planet Earth. Igbo=12 tribes of Yah’Shara’Ala (Yahsar’al) Warning: Never call our Hebrew Inheritance from YAH “IsraEL”anymore. Our Land and inheritance from YAH is called Yah’Shara’Ala. This is the name of the Land of the Hebrews—The Igbos Forever and ever Praising YAH. Shaluwm! Shalayim!!! Udo na Ngozi diri Umu Igbo nile.

Names of God

A number of traditions have lists of many names of God, many of which enumerate the various qualities of a Supreme Being. The English word “God” (and its equivalent in other languages) is used by multiple religions as a noun or name to refer to different deities, or specifically to the Supreme Being, as denoted in English by the capitalized and uncapitalized terms “god” and “God”.[1] Ancient cognate equivalents for the word “God” include proto-Semitic Elbiblical Hebrew ElohimArabic ‘ilah, and biblical Aramaic Elah. The personal or proper name for God in many of these languages may either be distinguished from such attributes, or homonymic. For example, in Judaism the tetragrammaton is sometimes related to the ancient Hebrew ehyeh (I will be). In the Hebrew bible, the excellent name of The God (SWT) is revealed directly to the beloved prophet Musa (SAWS), in Chapter 3, verse 14 of the book of Exodus, namely: “I Am”.

Correlation between various theories and interpretation of the name of “the one God”, used to signify a monotheistic or ultimate Supreme Being from which all other divine attributes derive, has been a subject of ecumenical discourse between Eastern and Western scholars for over two centuries.[2] In Christian theology the word must be a personal and a proper name of God; hence it cannot be dismissed as mere metaphor.[3] On the other hand, the names of God in a different tradition are sometimes referred to by symbols.[4] The question whether divine names used by different religions are equivalent has been raised and analyzed.[5]

Exchange of names held sacred between different religious traditions is typically limited. Other elements of religious practice may be shared, especially when communities of different faiths are living in close proximity (for example, the use of Om and Gayatri within the Indian Christiancommunity) but usage of the names themselves mostly remains within the domain of a particular religion, or even may help define one’s religious belief according to practice, as in the case of the recitation of names of God (such as the japa).[6] Guru Gobind Singh‘s Jaap Sahib, which contains 950 names of God.[7] The Divine Names, the classic treatise by Pseudo-Dionysius, defines the scope of traditional understandings in Western traditions such as Hellenic, Christian, Jewish and Islamic theology on the nature and significance of the names of God.[8] Further historical lists such as The 72 Names of the Lord show parallels in the history and interpretation of the name of God amongst Kabbalah, Christianity, and Hebrew scholarship in various parts of the Mediterranean world.[9]

The attitude as to the transmission of the name in many cultures was surrounded by secrecy. In Judaism, the pronunciation of the name of God has always been guarded with great care. It is believed that, in ancient times, the sages communicated the pronunciation only once every seven years;[10] this system was challenged by more recent movements.

The nature of a holy name can be described as either personal or attributive. In many cultures it is often difficult to distinguish between the personal and the attributive names of God, the two divisions necessarily shading into each other.[11]


Abrahamic religionsEdit


El comes from a root word meaning might, strength, power. Sometimes referring to God and sometimes the mighty when used to refer to the God of Israel, El is almost always qualified by additional words that further define the meaning that distinguishes him from false gods. A common title of God in the Hebrew Bible is Elohim (Hebrew: אלהים). The root Eloah (אלה) is used in poetry and late prose (e.g., the Book of Job) and ending with the masculine plural suffix “-im” ים creating a word like ba`alim (“owner(s)” and adonim (“lord(s), master(s)”) that may also indicate a singular identity.

In the Book of Exodus, God commands Moses to tell the people that ‘I AM’ sent him, and this is revered as one of the most important names of God according to Mosaic tradition.

Moses said to God, “Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ Then what shall I tell them?” God said to Moses, “I am who I am.This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I am has sent me to you.” God also said to Moses, “Say to the Israelites, ‘The Lord, the God of your fathers—the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob—has sent me to you.’ This is my name forever, the name you shall call me from generation to generation”.


When Moses first spoke with God, God said, “I used to appear to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as El Shaddai, but I did not make myself known to them by my name YHWH.”

YHWH (יהוה‬) is the proper name of God in Judaism.[citation needed] Neither vowels nor vowel points were used in ancient Hebrew writings and the original vocalisation of YHWH has been lost.[12]

Later commentaries additionally suggested that the true pronunciation of this name is composed entirely of vowels, such as the Greek Ιαουε.[13] However, this is put into question by the fact that vowels were only distinguished in the time-period by their very absence due to the lack of explicit vowels in the Hebrew script. The resulting substitute made from semivowels and glottals, known as the tetragrammaton, is not ordinarily permitted to be pronounced aloud, even in prayer. The prohibition on misuse (not use) of this name is the primary subject of the command not to take the name of the Lord in vain.

Instead of pronouncing YHWH during prayer, Jews say “Adonai” (“Lord”). Halakha requires that secondary rules be placed around the primary law, to reduce the chance that the main law will be broken. As such, it is common religious practice to restrict the use of the word “Adonai” to prayer only. In conversation, many Jewish people, even when not speaking Hebrew, will call God HaShem(השם), which is Hebrew for “the Name”

Almost all Orthodox Jews avoid using either Yahweh or Jehovah altogether on the basis that the actual pronunciation of the tetragrammaton has been lost in antiquity. Many use the termHaShem as an indirect reference, or they use “God” or “The Lord” instead.


Some biblical scholars say YHWH was most likely pronounced Yahweh.[12] References, such asThe New Encyclopædia Britannica, validate the above by offering additional specifics to its (Christian) reconstruction out of Greek sources:

Early Christian writers, such as Clement of Alexandria in the 2nd century, had used a form like Yahweh, and claim that this pronunciation of the tetragrammaton was never really lost. Other Greek transcriptions also indicated that YHWH should be pronounced Yahweh.[13]

Christianity is based on the revelation of God. God Himself became a human. Therefore the name Jesus, Yeshua, Iesous, is the name of God.

The Hebrew theonyms Elohim and YHWH are mostly rendered as “God” and “the LORD” respectively, although in the Protestant tradition the personal names Yahweh and Jehovah[14] are also used. “Jehovah”[14] appears in the Tyndale Bible, the King James Version, and other translations from that time period and later. Many English translations of the Bible translate the tetragrammaton as LORD, thus removing any form of YHWH from the written text and going well beyond the Jewish oral practice of substituting Adonai for YHWH when reading aloud.[15]

English Bible translations of the Greek New Testament render ho theos (Greek: Ο Θεός) as Godand ho kurios (Greek: Ο Κύριος) as “the Lord”.

Jesus (Iesus, Yeshua[16] was a common alternative form of the name יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (“Yehoshua” – Joshua) in later books of the Hebrew Bible and among Jews of the Second Temple period. The name corresponds to the Greek spelling Iesous, from which comes the English spelling Jesus.[17][18]Christ” means “the anointed” in Greek (Χριστός). Khristos is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word Messiah; while in English the old Anglo-Saxon Messiah-rendering hæland (healer) was practically annihilated by the Latin “Christ”, some cognates such as heiland in Dutch and Afrikaans survive—also, in German, the word Heiland is sometimes used as reference to Jesus, e.g., in church chorals).

In the Book of Revelation in the Christian New Testament, God is quoted as saying “I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End”. 2

In Messianic Judaism YHWH (pre-incarnate) and Yeshua (incarnate) are one and the same, the second Person, with the Father and ruach hakodesh (Holy Spirit) being the first and third Persons, respectively, of ha’Elohiym (the Godhead). YHWH is called haShem.

Some Quakers refer to God as The Light. Another term used is King of Kings or Lord of Lords andLord of the Hosts. Other names used by Christians include Ancient of DaysFather/Abba, “Most High” and the Hebrew names Elohim, El-Shaddai, Yahweh, Jehovah and Adonai. Abba (Father) is a common term used for the creator within Christianity because it was a title Jesus used to refer toGod the Father.


In Mormonism the name of God the Father is Elohim [19] and the name of Jesus in his pre-incarnate state was Jehovah.[20][21] Together, with the Holy Ghost they form the Godhead; God the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit.[22] Mormons typically refer to God as “Heavenly Father” or “Father in Heaven”.[23]

Although Mormonism views the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit as three distinct beings, they are one in purpose and God the Father (Elohim) is worshiped and given all glory through his Son, Jesus Christ (Jehovah). Despite the Godhead doctrine, which teaches that God the Father, Jesus Christ and the Holy Ghost are three separate, divine beings, many Mormons (mainstream Latter-day Saints and otherwise, such as the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) view their beliefs as monotheist since Christ is the conduit through which humanity comes to the God the Father. The Book of Mormon ends with “to meet you before the pleasing bar of the great Jehovah, the eternal Judge of both the quick and dead. Amen.”[24]

Jehovah’s WitnessesEdit

Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that God has only one distinctive name, represented in the Old Testament by the tetragrammaton. In English, they prefer to use the form Jehovah.[25] According to Jehovah’s Witnesses, the name Jehovah means “He causes to become”.[26]

Scriptures frequently cited in support of the name include Isaiah 42:8: “I am Jehovah. That is my name”, Psalms 83:18: “May people know that you, whose name is Jehovah, You alone are the Most High over all the earth”, and Exodus 6:3: “And I used to appear to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as God Almighty, but with regard to my name Jehovah I did not make myself known to them.”[27][28]

While opposers of the faith critique their use of the form “Jehovah”, Jehovah’s Witnesses still hold on to their belief that -despite having scholars prefer the “Yahweh” pronunciation- the name Jehovah adequately transmits the idea behind the meaning of God’s name in English. While they don’t discourage the use of the “Yahweh” pronunciation, they highly consider the long history of the name Jehovah in the English language and see that it sufficiently identifies God’s divine persona.[29][30]


Ephraim, Bene Ephraim & Banu Ifran, Kush & Kish & the Berbers.

Smith’s Bible Dictionary


(double fruitfulness), the second son of Joseph by his wife Asenath. (B.C. 1715-1708.) The first indication we have of that ascendancy over his elder brother Manasseh which at a later period the tribe of Ephraim so unmistakably possessed is in the blessing of the children by Jacob. (Genesis 48:1) …

ATS Bible Dictionary


The second son of Joseph, born in Egypt, Genesis 41:52. Although the youngest, he yet had the chief blessing of his grandfather Jacob, and the tribe was always more distinguished than that of Manasseh, Genesis 48:8-20 Numbers 2:18-21. The portion of Ephraim was large and central, and embraced some of the most fertile land in all Canaan. It extended from the Mediterranean across to the Jordan, north of the portions of Dan and Benjamin and included Shiloh, Shechem, etc. A range of mountainous country, which runs through it, is called “the mountains of Ephraim,” or “mount Ephraim.” This extends also farther south into the portion of Judah, and is there called “the mountains of Judah.” Samaria, the capital of the ten tribes, being in Ephraim, this latter name is often used for the kingdom of Israel, Isaiah 11:13 Jeremiah 31:6 50:19.

The FOREST of Ephraim, where Absalom lost his life, was on the east side of the Jordan, near Mahanaim, 2 Samuel 18:6-8.

The TOWN called Ephraim, to which the Savior withdrew from his enemies, John 11:54, was probably the same place mentioned in 2 Chronicles 13:19, and called Ophrah in Joshua 18:23 1 Samuel 13:17. See also 2 Samuel 13:23. It is supposed to be the present Taiyibeh, on a hill overlooking the Jordan valley, five miles northeast of Bethel.


Link to below post

Nimrod, Nibiru, Anunnaki

Study by: Rob Skiba

In the prior post, I laid the foundation for what was going on before and immediately after the Flood as it pertains to the ancient gods. I also showed you what they did that so provoked the God of Heaven to destroy a world that had already been thoroughly corrupted. The Pre-Flood world was an amazing and terrifying place full of hybrids. Our world is turning into the same thing today. But Yeshua warns us:

For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect’s sake those days shall be shortened.” – Matthew 24:21-22  

God HAD to step in during the days of Noah in order to preserve mankind, the animals, plants and even the planet itself from the corruption of the gods. Consider how bad it was during the time of the Flood, then consider carefully what Yeshua (Jesus) has to say about the days ahead.

And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; Men’s hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken. And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory.  – Luke 21:25-2

We next need to look at the Sumerian family of gods (which became that of the Assyrians and Babylonians) .


Wikipedia notes that the Sumerian religion refers to the mythology, pantheon, rites and cosmology of the Sumerian civilization, further stating:

The Sumerian religion influenced Mesopotamian mythology as a whole, surviving in the mythologies and religions of the Hurrians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and other culture groups.

Thus, the Sumerian/Assyrian/Babylonian beliefs are often lumped into the title, “Mesopotamian” as they all centered around that same region of the globe. Concerning the Mesopotamian religion Wikipedia goes on to say:

Some, such as the historian Jean Bottero, have made the claim that the Mesopotamian religion is the worlds oldest faith although there are several other claims to that title. Although as writing was invented in Mesopotamia, it is certainly the oldest faith in written history. What we know about Mesopotamian religion comes from archaeological evidence uncovered in the region, particularly literary sources, which are usually written in cuneiform on clay tablets and which describe both mythology and cultic practices. However, other artifacts can also be used as the Mesopotamians’ “entire existence was infused by their religiosity, just about everything they have passed on to us can be used as a source of knowledge about their religion.”

Although it mostly died out 1600 to 1700 years ago, Mesopotamian religion has still had an influence on the modern world, predominantly because much Biblical mythology that is today found in Judaism,Christianity, Islam and Mandeanism shares some overlapping consistency with much older ancient Mesopotamian myths, in particular the Creation Myth, the Garden of Eden, The Great Flood, Tower of Babel and mythical Biblical characters such as Nimrod and Lilith (the Assyrian Lilitu). In addition the story of Moses’ origins shares a striking similarity with that of Sargon of Akkad, and the Ten Commandments mirror older Assyrian-Babylonian legal codes to some degree. It has also inspired various contemporary Neopagan groups to begin worshipping the Mesopotamian deities once more, albeit in a way often different from that of the Mesopotamian peoples.


Note what Wikipedia has to say about Mesopotamia’s history

The peoples of Mesopotamia originally consisted of two peoples, the Semitic Akkadians (later to be known as Assyrians and Babylonians) and the Sumerians. These peoples were not originally one united nation, but members of various different city-states. In the fourth millennium BCE, when the first evidence for what is recognizably Mesopotamian religion can be seen with the invention in Mesopotamia of writing circa 3,500 BCE, the Sumerians appeared, although it is not known if they migrated into the area in pre historic times or whether they were some of the original inhabitants. They settled in southern Mesopotamia, which became known as Sumer, and had a great influence over the Semitic Akkadian peoples and their culture. The Sumerians were incredibly advanced, as well as inventing Writing, they also invented Mathematics, Wheeled Vehicles, Astronomy, Astrology, The Calendar and created the first City States/Nations such as Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Isin, Umma and Larsa. In the north, in an area known as Akkad, a civilisation known as the Akkadian arose, who spoke a semitic language that was distinct from that of the Sumerians who spoke a language isolate.

So, the earliest evidence of any civilization seems to point to the 3,500 BC timeframe. Wikipedia says that the Sumerians were “incredibly advanced” and that they invented writing, mathematics and all sorts of other sciences and innovations. Well, look at what happened in 3,500 BC (in the chart above). According to the Book of Enoch, that’s when the Watchers showed up! Enoch also records that the Fallen taught men those very things listed above (and more)!

Thus, I believe that the Anunnaki – a race so named because they were “Princess of the Royal (genetic) Seed” (or some translate it as, “Those who from heaven to earth came”) – were the “sons of God” or the Sumerian equivalent of the giant Greek Titans, the Hebrew Watchers and Pre-Flood Nephilim – the first super-advanced parents and hybrid offspring to walk the earth.



Notice how researchers like to say that many stories in the Old Testament represent “shorter versions of” or “copies of” ancient Sumerian writings. We read the same thing in the paragraph from Wikipedia above. Well, while doing my research, I found a Short Chronology Timeline of ancient cultures and in that timeline something immediately jumped out at me. The earliest records point to one of the first kings of the Mesopotamian region, a man known as Sargon

Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great “The Great King” (Akkadian Šarru-kīnu, meaning “the true king” or “the king is legitimate”),was an Akkadian emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 23rd and 22nd centuries BC.The founder of the Dynasty of Akkad, Sargon reigned from 2,270 to 2,215 BC (short chronology).He became a prominent member of the royal court of Kish, killing the king and usurping his throne before embarking on the quest to conquer Mesopotamia. He was originally referred to as Sargon I until records concerning an Assyrian king also named Sargon (now usually referred to as Sargon I) were unearthed.

Many have made the connection that “Kish” is the “Cush” of the Bible (Nimrod’s father according to Genesis). So, is this record saying that Nimrod killed his father? It would seem so. The above quoted Wikipedia source also makes the connection that Sargon may in fact be Nimrod:

Stories of Sargon’s power and that of his empire may have influenced the body of folklore that was later incorporated into the Bible. A number of scholars have speculated that Sargon may have been the inspiration for the biblical figure of Nimrod who figures in the Book of Genesis as well as in midrashi and Talmudic literature.  The Bible mentions Akkad as being one of the first city-states of Nimrod’s kingdom, but does not explicitly state that he built it.

That author suggests that this Sargon character was the “inspiration for the biblical figure of Nimrod” implying that the Bible merely borrowed its story from elsewhere. But I submit that the Bible is simply confirming the story – just from a Hebrew perspective (as dictated to Moses by God). Nimrod is not a name. It is a title that means, “the rebellious one.” That certainly seems to fit the above description of Sargon. Notice also the sculpture of this character to the right. It has one eye missing! Keep this in mind as we continue this study.

The date given for his reign is 2,270 – 2,215 BC. That believed date almost perfectly fits the timeframe depicted in my Biblical Timeline of Human History Chart as being just prior to the Tower of Babel (which of course was built by Nimrod)!




The Bene Ephraim (Hebrewבני אפריים‎) Bnei Ephraim (“Sons of Ephraim”), also called Telugu Jews because they speak Telugu, are a small community living primarily in Kotha Reddy palem, a village outside ChebroluGuntur District, and in Machilipatnam, Krishna DistrictAndhra PradeshIndia, near the delta of the River Krishna.[1] They claim to be descendants of the Tribe of Ephraim, of the Ten Lost Tribes, and since the 1980s have learned to practice modern Judaism.[2]

Bnei Ephraim
Total population
Regions with significant populations
Andhra PradeshIndia
Related ethnic groups
JewsIndian JewsEthnobiology



The Bene Ephraim claim descent from the Tribe of Ephraim, and say that they traveled from Israel through western Asia: Persia, Afghanistan, Tibet and into China for 1,600 years before arriving in southern India more than 1,000 years ago.[3] They hold a history which they say is similar to that of the shift of AfghanJews and PersianJewishBene IsraelBnei Menashe in the northeastern Indian states of Mizoram and Manipur, who received recognition in 2005 from the Chief Rabbinate of Israel. (The latter people must still go through a formal conversion process to become citizens of Israel.)

During the medieval period they have worked as farm laborers. While practising Judaism, they adopted some Christianity after the arrival of British Baptistmissionaries during the early 19th century.[3]

Their leader, Shmuel Yacobi, went to Jerusalem in the 1980s and became convinced they were of Jewish descent.[3] Because of the long period in which the people were not practising Judaism, they did not develop any distinctly identifiable Judæo-Telugu language or dialect. (See Jewish languages.)

Since the 1980s, about fifty families in Kotha Reddy Palem have studied Judaism, learnedHebrew, and built an operating synagogue. They celebrate all Jewish holidays and often use theirTorah scroll and read Hebrew.

Today Hebrew is being used as a living language rather than limited to liturgy. The community has been visited over the years by rabbis from the chief rabbinate in Israel to study their Jewish tradition and practices. The Chief Rabbi has to recognise the community as being of Jewish descent. The rabbis have taught today’s Judaism and converted many Indian Jews, while some women eventually married to a rabbi family, many married in the past to Jewish people, but not attached to homeland Israel they still must relocate. They have sought recognition from many rabbis around the world.[1] They always practiced their own Caviloth [Oral Traditions and customs] such as: burying the dead, eating cow and beef meat, marriage under Chuppah, observing Shabbat and other Hebrew, Israel and Jewish Festival and maintaining Elders Court System etc.[10].

According to the Washington Times in 2006

Many think the Bnei Ephraim Jews are trying to escape poverty and that they want to leave this region of Andhra Pradesh where six successive years of drought and crop failure have driven more than 3,000 peasants into debt and to suicide.[3]

Chandra Sekhar Angadi, a social scientist in neighboring Karnataka, said of the Telugu Jews:

They are among the poorest of Jews in the world. They are desperate for the recognition by Israel’s chief rabbinate simply to be guaranteed a passport from that country where they can lead a much better life—away from this life of poverty and hunger[3]

There are certain Oral Traditions among Bene Ephraim: traditions known as Cavilah Traditions. There are about 450 ancient halakhic customs, habits and Hebrew Cultural Elements among them that continued since prehistoric times and Exodus. They shared some of those elements with the Ereb Rab Telugu people. Burying the dead, eating kosher animal meat, marriage under chuppah, burial customs, 7 day purification, bar/bath mitzvah, Hebrew words, sayings and many other usages. The Ereb Rab Telugu people re-made Amaravati as their capital today and the Bene Ephraim are hopeful to find their hidden Torah Scrolls, Hebrew literature and ancient valuables when the Government digs out during constructing the new capital for Andhra Pradesh State[10].

Banu Ifran

Page issues

The Ifranids, also called Banu IfranIfran, or the children of the Ifran (Arabicبنو يفرن‎, Banu Yifran), were a Zenata Berber tribe prominent in the history of pre-Islamic and early Islamic North Africa.In the 8th century, they established a kingdom in Central Maghreb, Algeria with Tlemcen as its capital.

The Banu Ifran resisted or revolted against foreign occupiers—RomansVandals, and Byzantines—of their territory in Africa. In the seventh century, they sided with Kahina in her resistance against the Muslim Umayyad invaders. In the eighth century they mobilized around the dogma of sufri, revolting against the Arab Umayyads and Abbasids.

In the 10th century they founded a dynasty opposed to the Fatimids, the Zirids, the Umayyads, the Hammadids and the Maghraoua. The Banu Ifran were defeated by the Almoravids and the invading Arabs (the Banu Hilal and the Banu Sulaym)[1] to the end of the 11th century. The Ifranid dynasty [2] was recognized as the only dynasty that has defended the indigenous people of the Maghreb, by the Romans referred to as the Africani.[3] In 11th century Iberia, the Ifrenid founded aTaifa of Ronda since 1039[4] at Ronda in Andalusia and governed from Cordoba for several centuries.[5]



Tlemcen, a capital of Banu Ifran

The Banu Ifran were one of the four major tribes of the Zenata or Gaetulia[6] confederation, and were known as expert cavalrymen. According to Ibn Khaldoun, “Ifrinides” or “Ait Ifren” were successfully resisting Romans, Vandals and Byzantines who sought to occupy North Africa before the arrival of the Muslim armies. According to Corippus in his Iohannis,[7] during the reign of Justinian I between 547 and 550, the Banu Ifran challenged the Byzantine armies under John Troglita to war.[8][9][10][11] Their chief Abu Qurra rebuilt the city of Tlemcen in Algeria in 765 (formerly, it was a Roman city named Pomaria). They opposed the Egyptian Fatimid Caliphate, aligning themselves with the Maghrawa tribe and the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba, although they themselves became Kharijites. Led by Abu Yazid, they surged east and attackedKairouan in 945. Another leader, Ya’la ibn Muhammad captured Oran and constructed a new capital, Ifgan, near Mascara. Under the leadership of their able general Jawhar, who killed Ya’la in battle in 954,[12] the Fatimids struck back and destroyed Ifgan, and for some time afterward the Banu Ifran reverted to being scattered nomads in perpetual competition with their Sanhajaneighbours. Some settled in regions of Spain, such as Málaga. Others, led by Hammama, managed to gain control of the Moroccan province of Tadla. Later, led by Abu al-Kamāl, they established a new capital at Salé on the Atlantic coast, though this brought them into conflict with the Barghawata tribes on the seaboard.

The dynasty of the Ifrinids, Ibn Khadloun, Histoire des Berbères, section Banou Ifran

During the 11th century, the Banu Ifran contested with the Maghrawa tribe for the control of Morocco after the fall of the Idrisid dynasty. Ya’la’s son Yaddū took Fes by surprise in January 993 and held it for some months until theMaghrawa ruler Ziri ibn Atiyya returned from Spain and reconquered the region.

In May or June 1033, Fes was recaptured by Ya’la’s grandson Tamīm. Fanatically devoted to religion, he began a persecution of the Jews,[13]and is said to have killed 6000 of their men while confiscating their wealth and women, but Ibn Khaldoun says only persecution without killing.[14] Sometime in the period 1038-1040 theMaghrawa tribe retook Fes, forcing Tamīm to flee to Salé.

Soon after that time, the Almoravids began their rise to power and effectively conquered both the Banu Ifran and their brother-rivals the Maghrawa.


Ifran is a plural for Afar, Efri or Ifri; it is probably derived from the last of these, which means “cave” in Berber. Other possibilities are that their name is derived from one of the major gods of the pagan Berbers, Ifrou, or that the name is derived from the region of Yifran in present-day north-west Libya[15] where they may have originated.

The name of the Ifran tribe has many alternative spellings, such as Ifuraces or Afar in Latin, or Ifrinidi, Iforen, Fren, Wafren, Yefren, Yafren, or Yafran, but all of the names mean simply “The Sons of Ifri”. The banu- was added by the Arab writers, who called them “ben ifren” or “Ifrinid”.


Before IslamEdit

As of Hadrian (136), representingAfrica

Among the Ifran, animism was the principal spiritual philosophy. Ifri was also the name of a Berber deity, and their name may have an origin in their beliefs.[16][16] Ifru rites symbolized in caves were held to gain favor or protection for merchants and traders. The myth of this protection is befittingly depicted on Roman coins.[17][18]

Ifru was regarded as a sun goddess, cave goddess and protector of the home.[19][20] Ifru or Ifran was regarded as a Berber version of Vesta.

Dehia, usually referred to as The Kahina was the Dejrawa Berber queen, prophetess, and leader of the non-Muslim response to the advancing Arab armies. Some historians claim Kahina was Christian,[21] or a follower of the Judaic faith,[13][22][23] though few of the Ifran were Christians, even after more than half a millennium of Christianity among the urban populations and the more sedentary tribes. Ibn Khaldun simply states that Ifran were Berbers, and says nothing of their religion before the advent of Islam.

During IslamEdit

The Banu Ifran were opposed to the Sunnis of the Arab armies. They eventually converted, but summoned under the Kharidjite movement within Islam. Ibn Khaldun claimed that the “Zenata people say they are Muslims but they still oppose the Arab army.”.[24][25] After 711, the Berbers were systematically converted to Islam and many became devout members of the faith.


Preceded by
Rustamid and Umayyad Dynasty
Ifrinid Dynasty
950- 1066
Succeeded by
Almoravid dynasty

Ifran in SpainEdit

Ronda was built by Abu Nour in 1014

The Banu Ifran were influential in Spain in the 11th century AD. The Ifran house of Corra ruled the Andalusian city Ronda in SpainYeddas was the military leader of the Berber troops who were at war against the Christian king and El Mehdi.Abu Nour or Nour of the house of Corra became lord of Ronda and then Seville in Andalusia from 1023 to 1039 and from 1039 to 1054. The son of Nour bin Badis Hallal ruled Ronda from 1054 to 1057, and Abu Nacer from 1057 to 1065.[26]

Yorubas – Sons of Ephraim



Yorubas – Sons of Ephraim

As stated in my books regarding the Igbos, the father of the Yoruba people, Oduduwa traveled with Gad’s sons, Eri, Areli and Arodi from North Africa, likely Egypt and settled in what today is known as Nigeria. This would coincide with Yoruba oral history that they believe to come from outside of West Africa and thus it would be no surprise that we might find Israelites, Hebrews and Jews among the Yoruba.

Oduduwa was said to be a descendant of Hamm, through Nimrod also called Lamurudu, this according to Yoruba Christian Samuel Johnson in 1880. Sultan Bello, Caliph of Sokoto was quoted in 1820 by Hugh Clapperton to have said that the Yoruba people were descendants of a Canaanite tribe.  And S.O. Obiaku a Nigerian Historian claimed the Yoruba’s to originate from the Sudan or what was known as Cush/Kush (Ethiopia).

However, some say “Yoruba” is a corruption of the name “Jacob” or in Hebrew, “Yacob.” Others assert that Yoruba is from “Yerubbaal,” the “People of against Baal.”

But the current Yoruba Jewish population who claim to come from the Israeli tribe of Ephraim was said to have been driven to Yorubaland from Morocco by Muslims and eventually mingled with Yoruba people. These black Jews in southern Nigeria are called the “Emo Yo Quaim”, or “Strange People”, by the native Africans, but these black Jews call themselves, “B’nai Ephraim” or “Sons of Ephraim”. These Jews who claim that their ancestors came from Morocco is supported by their language which appears to be a mixture of Maghrebi Arabic and local Negro speech. Thus abu (“father”) has become Yaaba, from the Hebrew word “Abba” and “Umm” (“mother”) is “Em” from the Hebrew, “Ima”. Nevertheless, most of their language is similar to the Yoruba’s around them.

These Yoruba, “Sons of Ephraim” observe certain Jewish customs, among which are the great holy days, naming of children on the 8th day, etc. In almost every way, these black Jews are like the Yorubas, and are hardly distinguishable from them, except for some outstanding Hebrew observances.

But there is doubt whether any from this group exists today among the Yoruba.

There is a clan among the Yoruba People called the “Ijeeu,” which is believed to be a corruption of the word “Hebrew” or “Jew.” They are looked down upon by the rest of the Yoruba for displaying Igbo-like character and traits, one of which is business prowess. There is even a town in Yorubaland called, “Ijuee-Igbo.” Much if the Ijeeu people resent and deny this connection with them and Ndi Igbo.—sons-of-ephriam.html

The evidence of the Hebrew culture and its language found only in Igboland (Hebrew land), Nigeria attest to the validity of the Holy Bible.

There are Udo Shrines all over Anambra State, Nigeria & there is one in Japan and in Honduras erected by early Igbo settlers of these lands.

The word for peace in original Hebrew (Igbo) is “udo”. The Hebrew deity of peace is also called “Udo,” when pronounced with a high pitch.


Extract below added and link to original post as my research is also leading to this conclusion.





        “All the words that researchers Edo Nyland and Dr. Barry Fell transcribed were Igbo words, which I could easily read and translate. When I told Nyland that I had translated the words he transcribed from Ogam stones he did not believe me at first. When Hugo Kennes found my work on the Internet and started informing all the Ogam researchers he knew including Nyland, Nyland asked him to get an Igbo dictionary from me.  After a meeting with Pellech in Belgium, she convinced me to write further details for her site, and that led to my doing the Igbo Ogam VCV Dictionary.”  [Please also see New York Times article].

“Nyland’s use of the word 
Saharan might not be too far off the mark. However, he did not check West Africa, which has language links with North Africa because the direction of migrations from the Niger has been both northward and southward through the Ages. For example the Berber etymology of Barbarian is related to Igbo in the sense that (according to Herodotus) the word means ‘stranger’. Igbo

word for “Stranger” is “Obiarabia.”


          “My thesis is that Egypt was the main outpost from where West African Kwa (Kwush/Kush) culture was exported to the rest of the world. Igbo is the Mega-Kwa language – the Kushite mother-language. Kush is the major bearer of this civilization. Ethiopia was not just an East Africa location, but lay West too. According to Homer, it was in Sunset Ethiopia that the Gods congregated, and the people were called “the Blameless Ethiopians in whose land the gods held banquets”. We have discovered the lost city of this Pre-historic Civilization, with its array of beautiful bronze and pottery works lost to living memory and posing an Enigma to African and World History.”


          “My analyses of the early archaeology of Sumer and of the Akkadian/Sumerian/Canaanite (Semitic) languages shows that all of them without exception were children of the Igbo language and that the earliest inhabitants of Sumer had Igbo lifestyles in religion, architecture, clothing, etc., even in the recipe for soap-making (wood-ash/potash boiled in oil).”


          “Igbo is in the family of Niger-Congo languages called Kwa by European linguists, which includes many Nigerian and West African languages like Ashanti, Akan, Yoruba and Benin (Edo). Igbo, I find to be closest to the original mother of that language family. In fact my finding is that in order to not let the Igbo know that it was their language that birthed the others, the linguists invented the word Kwa, which was originated from Akwa Nshi (Igbo for ‘First People’, also the local name of the Nigerian monoliths that represent First People on the planet). This word was used also by the ancient Egyptians to describe the West African, in fact Igbo-speaking, Sea People (Kwush, see Martin Bernal – Black Athena ) who brought civilization to the Aegean and the Levant during the Hyksos (which means ‘Kwush’) Exodus. Kwush, also pronounced Kush means in Semitic and in Igbo ‘People of the Esh/Eshi’. Eshi are the so-called ‘Blameless Ethiopians’ of Homer. In Sumer and in Igbo, the word meant ‘Righteous/Sons of God/Descendants of the Adama (see The Nag Hammadi Scriptures and the Torah). Adam was Adama before the Fall. After he fell he became Adam, a word, which in Igbo means ‘I have Fallen’. Today in Igbo land we still have the descendants of the Immortal First People. They have never ceased to go by Adam’s original name – ‘Adama’. They are the Land Chiefs in Igbo land.”


          “Biblical Kush was named after the Ikwu Eshi/KwushIkwu Eshi literally means in Igbo – ‘Descendant/Lineage of the Eshi’.”

Sea People were related to the Hebrews. They all spoke Semitic languages. They were the founders of Greece, Crete, Troy, and Rome. They were the CariansDanaansAcheans, and Myceneans, not excluding the Hittites. The writing systems they gave to Crete and early Middle East have been mostly found on the Igbo Ukwu excavated artifacts (see The Lost Testament), while the surviving words from their period had many Igbo cognates. Their exodus began in Egypt, remember? And Egypt, according to our findings was an outpost of an originally West African civilization in the time of Osiris (10,000 B.C.), whose Nigerian equivalent bore the Ogam scarifications on his face as his personal signature. We have found many hieroglyphs and pyramid symbols of Egypt on body adornments of ancient Nigerian gods and monuments.”

“Ogam was a writing system, not a language. Ancient Africans had other writing forms, too. Egyptian hieroglyphics was not a language; it was a writing system that could only be read correctly and meaningfully if you know the language. In this case, Igbo, the original Kwa.”




Berbers or Amazighs (Berber languagesⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ Imaziɣen; singular: ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ Amaziɣ / Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting the Maghreb. They are distributed in an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Niger River in West Africa. Historically, they spoke Berber languages, which together form the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. Since the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the seventh century, a large number of Berbers inhabiting the Maghreb (Tamazgha) have in varying degrees used as lingua franca the other languages spoken in North Africa. After the colonization of North Africa by France, “the French government succeeded in integrating the French language in Algeria by making French the official national language and requiring all education to take place in French.”[31] Foreign languages, mainly French and to some degree Spanish, inherited from former European colonial powers, are used by most educated Berbers in Algeria and Morocco in some formal contexts, such as higher education or business.


Most Berber people live in North Africa, mainly in Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco.[2] Small Berber populations are also found in NigerMaliMauritaniaBurkina Faso and Egypt, as well as large immigrant communities living inFranceCanadaBelgium, the Netherlands,Germany, and other countries of Europe.[32][33]

The majority of Berbers are Sunni Muslim.[34]The Berber identity is usually wider than language and ethnicity, and encompasses the entire history and geography of North Africa. Berbers are not an entirely homogeneous ethnicity and they encompass a range of societies and ancestries. The unifying forces for the Berber people may be their shared language, or a collective identification with Berber heritage and history.


The name Berber derives from an ancient Egyptian language term meaning “outlander” or variations thereof. The exonym was later adopted by the Greeks, with a similar connotation. Among its oldest written attestations, Berber appears as an ethnonym in the 1st century AD Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.[38]

Despite these early manuscripts, certain modern scholars have argued that the term only emerged around 900 AD in the writings of Arab genealogists,[39] with Maurice Lenoir positing an 8th or 9th century date of appearance.[40] The English term was introduced in the 19th century, replacing the earlier Barbary.

The Berbers are the Mauri cited by the Chronicle of 754 during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, to become since the 11th century the catch-all term Moros (in Spanish; Moors in English) on the charters and chronicles of the expanding Christian Iberian kingdoms to refer to the Andalusi, the north Africans, and the Muslims overall.

For the historian Abraham Isaac Laredo[41] the name Amazigh could be derived from the name of the ancestor Mezeg which is the translation of biblical ancestor Dedan son of Sheba in theTargum. According to Leo AfricanusAmazigh meant “free man”, though this has been disputed, because there is no root of M-Z-Gh meaning “free” in modern Berber languages. This dispute, however, is based on a lack of understanding of the Berber language[neutrality is disputed] as “Am-” is a prefix meaning “a man, one who is […]” Therefore, the root required to verify this endonym would be (a)zigh, “free”, which however is also missing from Tamazight‘s lexicon, but may be related to the well attested aze “strong”, Tizzit “bravery”, or jeghegh “to be brave, to be courageous”.[42][original research?]

Further, it also has a cognate in the Tuareg word Amajegh, meaning “noble”.[43][44] This term is common in Morocco, especially among Central Atlas, Rifian and Shilah speakers in 1980,[45] but elsewhere within the Berber homeland sometimes a local, more particular term, such as Kabyle orChaoui, is more often used instead in Algeria.[46]

The Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines mentioned various tribes with similar names living in Greater “Libya” (North Africa) in the areas where Berbers were later found. Later tribal names differ from the classical sources, but are probably still related to the modern Amazigh. TheMeshwesh tribe among them represents the first thus identified from the field. Scholars believe it would be the same tribe called a few centuries afterwards in Greek as Mazyes by Hektaios and as Maxyes by Herodotus, while it was called after that Mazaces and Mazax in Latin sources, and related to the later Massylii and Masaesyli. All those names are similar and perhaps foreign renditions of the name used by the Berbers in general for themselves, Imazighen.

Hoggar painting


The Maghreb region in northwestern Africa is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers from at least 10,000 BC.[47] Local cave paintings, which have been dated to twelve millennia before present, have been found in the Tassili n’Ajjer region of southern Algeria. Other rock art has been observed in Tadrart Acacus in the Libyan desert. A Neolithic society, marked by domestication and subsistence agriculture, developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean region (the Maghreb) of northern Africa between 6000 and 2000 BC. This type of life, richly depicted in the Tassili n’Ajjer cave paintings of southeastern Algeria, predominated in the Maghreb until the classical period. Prehistorical Tifinagh scripts were also found in the Oran region.[48] During the pre-Roman era, several successive independent states (Massylii) existed before the king Masinissa unified the people of Numidia.[49][50][51]


In historical times, the Berbers expanded south into the Sahara (displacing earlier populations such as the Azer and Bafour). Much of Berber culture is still celebrated among the cultural elite in Morocco and Algeria.

The areas of North Africa that have retained the Berber language and traditions best have been, in general, Morocco and the Hautes Plaines of Algeria (KabylieAurès etc.), most of which in Roman and Ottoman times had remained largely independent. The Ottomans did penetrate the Kabylie area, and to places the Phoenicians never penetrated, far beyond the coast, where Turkish influence can be seen in food, clothes and music. These areas have been affected by some of the many invasions of North Africa, most recently that of the French.[citation needed]


faience tile from the throne of Pharaoh Ramesses III depicting a tattooed ancient Libyan chief (ca. 1184 to 1153 BC).

Around 5000 BC, the populations of North Africa were primarily descended from the makers of the Iberomaurusian and Capsian cultures, with a more recent intrusion associated with the Neolithic Revolution.[52] The proto-Berber tribes evolved from these prehistoric communities during the Late Bronze to Early Iron Age.[53]

Uniparental DNA analysis has established ties between Berbers and other Afroasiatic speakers in Africa. Most of these populations belong to the E1b1b paternal haplogroup, with Berber speakers having among the highest frequencies of this lineage.[54] Additionally, genomic analysis has found that Berber and other Maghreb communities are defined by a shared ancestral component. This Maghrebi element peaks among Tunisian Berbers.[55] It is related to the Coptic/Ethio-Somali, having diverged from these and other West Eurasian-affiliated components prior to the Holocene.[56]

In 2013, Iberomaurusian skeletons from the prehistoric sites of Taforalt and Afalou in the Maghreb were also analyzed for ancient DNA. All of the specimens belonged to maternal clades associated with either North Africa or the northern and southern Mediterranean littoral, indicating gene flow between these areas since the Epipaleolithic.[57] The ancient Taforalt individuals carried the mtDNA haplogroups U6HJT and V, which points to population continuity in the region dating from the Iberomaurusian period.[58]

Ancient Libyan delegation atPersepolis.

Human fossils excavated at the Ifri n’Amr or Moussa site in Morocco have been radiocarbon-dated to the Early Neolithic period, ca. 5,000 BC. Ancient DNA analysis of these specimens indicates that they carried paternal haplotypes related to the E1b1b1b1a (E-M81) subclade and the maternal haplogroups U6a and M1, all of which are frequent among present-day communities in the Maghreb. These ancient individuals also bore an autochthonous Maghrebi genomic component that peaks among modern Berbers, indicating that they were ancestral to populations in the area. Additionally, fossils excavated at the Kelif el Boroud site near Rabat were found to carry the broadly-distributed paternal haplogroup T-M184 as well as the maternal haplogroups K1T2 and X2, the latter of which were common mtDNA lineages in Neolithic Europeand Anatolia. These ancient individuals likewise bore the Berber-associated Maghrebi genomic component. This altogether indicates that the Late Neolithic Kelif el Boroud inhabitants were ancestral to contemporary populations in the area, but also likely experienced gene flow from Europe.[59]


Heracles wrestling with the Libyan giant Antaeus

The grand tribal identities of Berber antiquity (then often known as ancient Libyans)[60] were said to be three (roughly, from west to east): theMauri, the Numidians near Carthage, and theGaetulians. The Mauri inhabited the far west (ancient Mauretania, now Morocco and central Algeria). The Numidians were located in the regions between the Mauri and the city-state of Carthage. Both the Numidians and the Mauri had significant sedentary populations living in villages, and their peoples both tilled the land and tended herds. The Gaetulians were less settled, with predominantly pastoral elements, and lived in the near south on the margins of the Sahara.[61][62][63] For their part, the Phoenicians came from the perhaps most advanced multicultural sphere then existing, the Fertile Crescent. Accordingly, the material culture of Phoenicia was likely more functional and efficient, and their knowledge more explanatory, than that of the early Berbers. Hence, the interactions between Berbers and Phoenicians were often asymmetrical. The Phoenicians worked to keep their cultural cohesion and ethnic solidarity, and continuously refreshed their close connection with Tyre, the mother city.[64]

The earliest Phoenician landing stations located on the coasts were probably meant merely to resupply and service ships bound for the lucrative metals trade with the Iberian peninsula.[65]Perhaps these newly arrived sea traders were not at first particularly interested in doing much business with the Berbers, for reason of the little profit regarding the goods the Berbers had to offer.[66] The Phoenicians established strategic colonial cities in many Berber areas, including sites outside of present-day Tunisia, e.g., the settlements at VolubilisChellah and Mogador (now in Morocco). As in Tunisia these centres were trading hubs, and later offered support for resource development such as olive oil at Volubilis and Tyrian purple dye at Mogador. For their part, most Berbers maintained their independence as farmers or semi-pastorals although, due to the exemplar of Carthage, their organized politics increased in scope and acquired sophistication.[67]

Berber Kingdoms in Numidia, c. 220 BC (green: Masaesyli under Syphax; gold: Massyli under Gala, father of Masinissa; further east: city-state of Carthage).

In fact for a time their numerical and military superiority (the best horse riders of that time) enabled some Berber kingdoms to impose a tribute payable by Carthage, a condition that continued into the 5th century BC.[68] Also, due to the Berbero-Libyan Meshwesh dynasty’s rule of Egypt (945-715 BC),[69] the Berbers near Carthage commanded significant respect (yet probably appearing more rustic than elegant Libyan pharaohs on the Nile). Correspondingly, in early Carthage careful attention was given to securing the most favorable treaties with the Berber chieftains, “which included intermarriage between them and the Punic aristocracy.”[70] In this regard, perhaps the legend about Dido, the foundress of Carthage (see above), as related byTrogus is apposite. Her refusal to wed the Mauritani chieftain Hiarbus might be indicative of the complexity of the politics involved.[71]

Eventually the Phoenician trading stations would evolve into permanent settlements, and later into small towns, which would presumably require a wide variety of goods as well as sources of food, which could be satisfied in trade with the Berbers. Yet here too, the Phoenicians probably would be drawn into organizing and directing such local trade, and also into managing agricultural production. In the 5th century BC, Carthage expanded its territory, acquiring Cape Bonand the fertile Wadi Majardah,[72] later establishing its control over productive farm lands within several hundred kilometers.[73] Appropriation of such wealth in land by the Phoenicians would surely inspire some resistance by the Berbers, although in warfare, too, the technical training, social organization, and weaponry of the Phoenicians would seem to work against the tribal Berbers.

As a legacy of the spread of Islam, the Berbers are now mostly Sunni Muslim. The MozabiteBerbers of the Saharan Mozabite Valley and Libyan berbers in Nafusis and Zuwara are primarily adherents of the Ibadi Muslim denomination.

In antiquity, the Berber people adhered to thetraditional Berber religion, prior to the arrival ofAbrahamic faiths into North Africa. This traditional religion heavily emphasized ancestor venerationpolytheism and animism. Many ancient Berber beliefs were developed locally, whereas others were influenced over time through contact with other traditional African religions (such as the Ancient Egyptian religion), or borrowed during antiquity from the Punic religionJudaismIberian mythology, and theHellenistic religion. The most recent influence came from Islam and pre-Islamic Arab religionduring the medieval period. Some of the ancient Berber beliefs still exist today subtly within the Berber popular culture and tradition.

Until the 1960s, there was also a significant Jewish Berber minority in Morocco,[252] but emigration (mostly to Israel and France) dramatically reduced their number to only a few hundred individuals.

Following Christian missions, the Kabyle community in Algeria has a decent-sized recently constituted Christian minority, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, and a 2015 study estimates 380,000 Muslim Algerian converted to Christianity in Algeria.[22] whereas among the 8,000[253]-40,000[254] Moroccans who have converted to Christianity in the last decades several Berbers are found; some of them explain their conversion as an attempt to go back to their “Christian sources”.[255]

Notable BerbersEdit

In Christian historyEdit

Before the arrival of Islam into the region, most Berber groups were either Christian, Jewish or Animist, and a number of Berber theologians were important figures in the development of western Christianity. In particular, the BerberDonatus Magnus was the founder of a Christian group known as the Donatists. The 4th-century Catholic Church viewed the donatists as heretics and the dispute led to a schism in the Church dividing North African Christians.[256] They are directly related to Circumcellions, a sect that worked on disseminating the doctrine in North Africa by the force of the sword.

Augustine of Hippo (Hippo being the modern Algerian city of Annaba), Scholars generally agree that Augustine and his family were Berbers, an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa,[257][258][259][260] but that they were heavily Romanized, speaking only Latin at home as a matter of pride and dignity. He is recognized as asaint and a Doctor of the Church by Roman Catholicism and the Anglican Communion and revered by the Reformed; he was an outspoken opponent of Donatism.[261]

Of all the fathers of the church, St. Augustine was the most admired and the most influential during the Middle Ages … Augustine was an outsider—a native North African whose family was not Roman but Berber … He was a genius—an intellectual giant.[262]

Many believe that Arius, another early Christian theologian who was deemed a heretic by the Christian Church, was of Libyan Berber descent. Another Berber cleric, Saint Adrian of Canterbury, traveled to England and played a significant role in its early medieval religious history.

Lusius Quietus, was the son of a Christian tribal lord from unconquered Mauretania (modern Morocco). Lusius’ father and his warriors had supported the Roman legions in their attempt to subdue Mauretania Tingitana (northern modern Morocco) during Aedemon’s revolt in 40.

Masuna (fl. 508) was a Romano-Moorish Christian king in Mauretania Caesariensis (western Algeria) who is said to have encouraged the Byzantine general Solomon, the Prefect of Africa, to launch an invasion of the Moorish kingdom of Numidia.[263]

Dihya (Berber: Daya Ult Yenfaq Tajrawt) was a Berber Byzantine Christian religious and military leader who led indigenous resistance to Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, the region then known as Numidia, known as the Algeria today. She was born in the early seventh century and died around the end of the seventh century in modern Algeria. According to al-Mālikī she was said to have been accompanied in her travels by what the Arabs called an “idol”, possibly an icon of theVirgin or one of the Christian saints.[264]

Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (c. 155 – c. 240 AD), known as Tertullian (/tərˈtʌliən/), was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa and was the first Christian author to produce an extensive corpus of Latin Christian literature. He also was a notable early Christian apologist and a polemicist against heresy, including contemporary Christian Gnosticism. Tertullian has been called “the father of Latin Christianity” and “the founder of Western theology.”

Sabellius, who was a third-century priest and theologian who most likely taught in Rome, may have been of African Berber descent. Basil and others call him a Libyan from Pentapolis, but this seems to rest on the fact that Pentapolis was a place where the teachings of Sabellius thrived, according to Dionysius of Alexandria, c. 260. What is known of Sabellius is drawn mostly from the polemical writings of his opponents.

Fadhma Aït Mansour, born in Tizi Hibel, Algeria, is the mother of writers Jean Amrouche and Taos Amrouche. Fadhma, the illegitimate daughter of a widow, was born in a Kabylie village. Later, when she was with the Sisters at Aït Manguellet hospital, she converted to Roman Catholicism. She met another Kabyle Catholic convert, Antoine-Belkacem Amrouche, whom she married in 1898.

Ahmed es-Sikeli, born in Djerba to a Berber family of the Sadwikish tribe was baptized a Christian under the name Peter, was a eunuch and kaid of the Diwan of the Kingdom of Sicily during the reign of William I. His story was recorded by his Christian contemporaries Romuald Guarna and Hugo Falcandus from Sicily and the Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun.[265]

Brother Rachid, a Moroccan Christian convert from Islam whose father is a well-known respected Imam. He is one of the most outspoken converts in the world, he hosts a weekly live call-in show on Al-Hayat channel where he compares Islam and Christianity as well as debating with Islamic scholars.

Malika Oufkir is a Moroccan writer and former “disappeared” person. She is the daughter of General Mohamed Oufkir and a cousin of fellow Moroccan writer and actress Leila Shenna. She and her siblings are converts from Islam to Catholicism, and she writes in her book, Stolen Lives: “we had rejected Islam, which had brought us nothing good, and opted for Catholicism instead.”[266]

In Islamic historyEdit

Tariq ibn Ziyad, Berber Muslim and Umayyad general who led the conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711

Tariq ibn Ziyad (died 720), known in Spanish history and legend as Taric el Tuerto (Taric the one-eyed), was a Berber Muslim and Umayyadgeneral who led the conquest of VisigothicHispania in 711. He is considered to be one of the most important military commanders in Spanish history. He was initially the deputy ofMusa ibn Nusair in North Africa, and was sent by his superior to launch the first thrust of an invasion of the Iberian peninsula. Some claim that he was invited to intervene by the heirs of the Visigothic King, Wittiza, in the Visigothic civil war.

On April 29, 711, the armies of Tariq landed at Gibraltar (the name Gibraltar is derived from the Arabic name Jabal Tariq, which means mountain of Tariq, or the more obvious Gibr Al-Tariq, meaning rock of Tariq). Upon landing, Tariq is said to have burned his ships then made the following speech, well known in the Muslim world, to his soldiers:

O People ! There is nowhere to run away! The sea is behind you, and the enemy in front of you: There is nothing for you, by God, except only sincerity and patience.

— as recounted by al-Maqqari

Ziri ibn Manad (died 971), founder of the Zirid dynasty in the Maghreb. Ziri ibn Manad was a clan leader of the Berber Sanhaja tribe who, as an ally of the Fatimids, defeated the rebellion of Abu Yazid (943-947). His reward was the governorship of the western provinces, an area that roughly corresponds with modern Algeria north of the Sahara.

Yusuf ibn Tashfin (c. 1061–1106) was the Berber Almoravid ruler in North Africa and Al-Andalus(Moorish Iberia). He took the title of amir al-muslimin (commander of the Muslims) after visiting the Caliph of Baghdad ‘amir al-Mu’minin” (“commander of the faithful”) and officially receiving his support. He was either a cousin or nephew of Abu Bakr ibn Umar, the founder of the Almoravid dynasty. He united all of the Muslim dominions in the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal and Spain) to the Maghreb (c. 1090), after being called to the Al-Andalus by the Emir of Sevil