Category Archives: Igbos in america

A message to the African American Hebrews

Hebrews and trans atlantic slave trade connection

From Hebrew to Negroe # Searching for the lost tribes of Israel

Black Hebrew Israelites some truths and Falsehoods ..my opinion

Ham & Shem Egyptians Hebrews & Arabs in The land of the blacks Bilad al Sudan

DNA of the Pharaoh Ramses III

Haplogroup L

 

Niger Congo & Subsaharan Bantu DNA

My DNA below

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The above area has a high concentration of E1b1a and is classed as sub saharan.

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What I have learnt is that the sub saharan DNA is reflective of the Bantus first migration from West Africa Nigeria and Cameroon. Ancestry DNA does not go back as far as some Ancestry DNA tests. Some people in Africa show no Bantu traces in their DNA. Although some West Africans have no traces of Bantus DNA they still have the same regions in different proportions.

 

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african-languages

Niger-Congo

 
1.
a subfamily of Niger-Kordofanian, that comprises large number of languages of   Africa, as Ewe, Ibo,Yoruba, and the Bantu languages, spoken in nearly allof the equatorial forest region and in much ofsouthern Africa.
adjective

2.

of, belonging to, or constituting Niger-Congo.
Benue language groups A-F speakers distribution-filteredBantu languages groups G-L speakers distribution-filteredBenue-Congo speakers distribution-filtered
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ancestry

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African-Ancestry

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Africans in diaspora

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Out of one came many people

“I wasn’t born in Africa Africa was born in me”

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Jamaican woman
Bahia-Mae Menininha and Candomble priestesses
Bahia people in Brazil

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African women

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Benin woman

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Africa South Eastern Bantu in North and East Africans

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Ham & Shem Egyptians Hebrews & Arabs in The land of the blacks Bilad al Sudan

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In this post I am going to examine the descendants of Shem and Ham according to the Bible. I will be exploring oral accounts and scientific and visual evidence of who they were and where they lived also. This post will also explore the modern descendants and what they might look like now and the theories surrounding them.

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Through researching where the ancestors of West African slaves come from I found that many of the tribes share an oral history passed down and even have copies of the Torah or Hebrew Bible that they state they brought from Israel. Some dispute this and it is quite possible that some Africans did move to Israel and then back to Africa. Other tribes as they are proclaiming could have always been in Africa from the beginning.

I don’t know about you, but when I think of black people and who they descend from I think of Ham.  This is an opinion that has been slowly fed to the population over years. We descend from Ham and Ham was cursed however there are some of the opinion that this was fabricated to justify slavery. The entire Nation of Ham was not cursed and only the biblical figure Canaan was technically cursed and if you actually check the bible you will see the error in this conception.


King James Bible
And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.

The curses that would befall Israel if they did not follow the most high on the other hand were

According to Jeremiah 17:4 the children of Israel would be discontinued from their heritage (language, culture, possessions etc…), which would leave room for the question, “Since the children of Israel were discontinued from their heritage, how would they know who they are; and how do we know they exist?”

According to the Hebrew Scriptures the children of Israel are cursed by the sins of their fathers (Matthew 27:24-25) and scattered among all nations until the fullness of the Gentiles (None Israelites) comes (see Romans 11:25, Luke 21:24).

Deuteronomy 28:46 – And they (the curses) shall be upon thee for a sign and a wonder and upon thy seed (children) forever.

This shows us that these curses written in the Scriptures would identify who the children of Israel are because there would be no other way to identify them. 

deut 28:16 Cursed shall you be in the city and cursed shall you be in the field. 

http://webdesign97.tripod.com/hebrewisraelafricanrootsinformationsite/id18.html

“And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.” – Luke 21:24

African history has been white washed and although in this society we state that colour doesn’t matter there continues to be a white washing of history. There has been an attempt to destroy and play down the significance of the African and Asian race in contributing to history. Examples slightly off point before we get into this post,  include the removal of the nose on African statues to try to make their race unidentifiable.

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There has been a visual misinterpretation of biblical figures such as promoting a white Jesus.

 

 

Yet the Pope and many parts of Europe pray to a black Madonna Mary and Jesus.

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Jesus black!! watch this short clip https://youtu.be/IwL4CGf7PDU

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Watch a reconstruction of Adam below

 https://youtu.be/qOgzEj6dR8c

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Artaxerxes III, predecessor of Darius III, from his Tomb at Persepolis

Detail from Darius III's palace

Detail from Darius III's palace

The Persians & Asyrians took the Hebrews into captivity and they went into exile.

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ELAM   עֵילָם   m   Biblical
Possibly means either “hidden” or “eternity” in Hebrew. This was the name of several characters in the Old Testament, including a son of Shem who was the ancestor of the Elamite peoples.

https://www.behindthename.com/names/usage/biblical

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People of The Arabian Peninsula below

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Xaaji

What would be a lookalike to this image below, now??

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How about these descendants?

 

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These tribes are found in Arabia and Asia

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Watch the link below of the Egyptian man forced to classify as white

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1MOYD0yb6P0

 

 

East African DNA

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Click link below to read full post and then press the back button. Or see the below list.

Ham: The Origin of Black Africans and Black Arabs In The Bible

 

From the above link blacks in the Bible

Ham’s Sons (Genesis 10:6)

  1. Cush (Sudan)
  2. Mizraim (Egypt)
  3. Phut (Libya)
  4. Canaan (Israel)

Ham’s Grandsons Through Cush

  1. Seba
  2. Havilah
  3. Sabtah
  4. Raamah
  5. Sabtecha
  6. Nimrod

Ham’s Grandsons Through Mizraim

  1. Ludim
  2. Anamim
  3. Lehabim
  4. Naphtuhim
  5. Pathrusim
  6. Casluhim
  7. Caphtorim

Ham’s Grandsons Through Canaan

  1. Sidon
  2. Heth
  3. Jebusite
  4. Amorite
  5. Girgasite
  6. Hivite
  7. Arkite
  8. Sinite
  9. Arvadite
  10. Zemarite
  11. Hamathite

Interestingly, the sons of Phut are not mentioned, but we know that they existed because Phut’s lineage is mentioned in general several times in scripture.

http://www.blackhistoryinthebible.com/the-hamites/ham-the-father-of-africans/

this post will be exploring the descendants of Ham and Shem highlighting how they mixed to create the Afro Asiatic Africa and Middle East that we know of today.

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Firstly we know that Ham Shem and Japheth were brothers and Noah was their father and everyone in the world descends from this family according to the Bible. Therefore as scientists have proven we descend from a common ancestor.

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Multiple Trajectories of Islam in Africa Islam had already spread into northern Africa by the mid-seventh century A.D., only a few decades after the prophet Muhammad moved with his followers from Mecca to Medina on the neighboring Arabian Peninsula (622 A.D./1 A.H.). Arab conquest of Spain and the push of Arab armies as far as the Indus River culminated in an empire that stretched over three continents, a mere hundred years after the Prophet’s death. Between the eighth and ninth centuries, Arab traders and travelers, then African clerics, began to spread the religion along the eastern coast of Africa and to the western and central Sudan (literally, “Land of Black people”), stimulating the development of urban communities. Given its negotiated, practical approach to different cultural situations, it is perhaps more appropriate to consider Islam in Africa in terms of its multiple histories rather then as a unified movement.The first converts were the Sudanese merchants, followed by a few rulers and courtiers (Ghana in the eleventh century and Mali in the thirteenth century). The masses of rural peasants, however, remained little touched. In the eleventh century, the Almoravid intervention, led by a group of Berber nomads who were strict observers of Islamic law, gave the conversion process a new momentum in the Ghana empire and beyond. The spread of Islam throughout the African continent was neither simultaneous nor uniform, but followed a gradual and adaptive path. However, the only written documents at our disposal for the period under consideration derive from Arab sources (see, for instance, accounts by geographers al-Bakri and Ibn Battuta).

Islamic Influence on African Societies
Islamic political and aesthetic influences on African societies remain difficult to assess. In some capital cities, such as Ghana and Gao, the presence of Muslim merchants resulted in the establishment of mosques. The Malian king Mansa Musa (r. 1312–37) brought back from a pilgrimage to Mecca the architect al-Sahili, who is often credited with the creation of the Sudano-Sahelian building style. Musa’s brother, Mansa Sulaiman, followed his path and encouraged the building of mosques, as well as the development of Islamic learning. Islam brought to Africa the art of writing and new techniques of weighting. The city of Timbuktu, for instance, flourished as a commercial and intellectual center, seemingly undisturbed by various upheavals. Timbuktu began as a Tuareg settlement, was soon integrated into the Mali empire, then was reclaimed by the Tuareg, and finally incorporated into the Songhai empire. In the sixteenth century, the majority of Muslim scholars in Timbuktu were of Sudanese origin. On the continent’s eastern coast, Arabic vocabulary was absorbed into the Bantu languages to form the Swahili language. On the other hand, in many cases conversion for sub-Saharan Africans was probably a way to protect themselves against being sold into slavery, a flourishing trade between Lake Chad and the Mediterranean. For their rulers, who were not active proselytizers, conversion remained somewhat formal, a gesture perhaps aimed at gaining political support from the Arabs and facilitating commercial relationships. The strongest resistance to Islam seems to have emanated from the Mossi and the Bamana, with the development of the Ségou kingdom. Eventually, sub-Saharan Africans developed their own brand of Islam, often referred to as “African Islam,” with specific brotherhoods and practices.

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tsis/hd_tsis.htm

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There is a lot of information out there regarding the Kingdom of Kush which the Bible states was the boundary of Noah’s son through Ham. The Kingdom of Kush stretched to Egypt Ethiopia and Sudan and some suggest through to Arabia and further East.

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Abrahams-Descendants

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On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your offspring I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates,

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Mizraim A son of Ham, and father of various African races, Genesis 10:6, but particularly of the Egyptians, to whom his name was given. Mizraim is also the Hebrew word for Egypt in the Bible, and this country is still called Misr in Arabic.

http://biblehub.com/topical/m/mizraim.htm

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nounplural Negroes.

1.

Anthropology. (no longer in technical use) a member of the peoples traditionally classified   as the Negrorace, especially those who originate in sub-Saharan Africa.

 

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noun: Semite; plural noun: Semites 

  1. a member of any of the peoples who speak or spoke a Semitic language, including in particular the Jews and Arabs.
From modern Latin Semita, via late Latin from Greek Sēm ‘Shem’, son of Noah in the Bible, from whom these peoples were traditionally supposed to be descended.

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Strong’s Concordance
Eber: “region beyond,” a descendant of Shem, also the name of several Israelites

Original Word: עֵ֫בֶר

INT: and Shelah the father of Eber

 

People called Eber in the bible Noun: 

A Gadite chief 1 Chronicles 5:13ᵐ5 Ωβηδᵐ5LΕβερ.

 Benjamite names: a. 1 Chronicles 8:12ᵐ5 Ωβηδᵐ5L Αβερ.

b. 1 Chronicles 8:22 (עֵבֶר van d. H. Ginsb; עֶבֶד Baer),ᵐ5 Ωβδη, A Ωβηδᵐ5L Αβερ.

4 a priest Nehemiah 12:20 ᵐ5L Αβεδ.

So from this we can see that Eber related to Benjamin and Gad and Nehemiah. All of the “Negroes” we learnt according to the bible were not from Ham in the sense of starting a lineage. Eber became the progenitor of the original Jews and Arabs. The Semites.  The Jews or Yudahians came from Joktar Peleg and Eber.

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The path some of the Hebrews took from Jerusalem to West Africa the tribes Ashanti Yoruba  mentioned below in what looks like the Songhai empire area.

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The Jamaican Akan Root

You are Judah! your Root is Akan

Ours is the story of the scriptures.

The prophecies of the Bible accurately describes the series of migrations of the Hebrew Israelites throughout the continent of Africa, especially to West Africa, where the infamous trans-Atlantic slave trade took place. Many of the tribes of West Africa, such as the Ashanti, Fulani, Akan, Yoruba , etc., have oral histories stating that they are descendants of the nation of Israel, and their cultural practices are exactly the same as described in the bible. Therefore, many of the Africans captured and transported to America and throughout the western hemisphere were Hebrew Israelites. History and prophecy validates the claim of many African-Americans that they are actual descendants of the so-called lost tribes of Israel. The Prophecies and Historical Evidence of the Migration of the Scattered Tribes of Israel in Africa

The recent discovery of the Israelite tribe in South Africa named the ‘LEMBA’ tribe, has sparked renewed interest in this subject. If we read and discern the ‘biblical prophecies’ that describe the ‘scattering’ (diaspora)’ of the nation of Israel (the Hebrew Israelites), we will discover that GOD (YAHWEH) has fulfilled his promise to ‘scatter his people Israel throughout ‘ALL’ nations and countries’ and among ‘all tribes,’ especially throughout the continent of Africa.

“And the LORD shall ‘scatter’ (disperse) you among ‘all people’ (tribes), from the one end of the earth even unto the other.” Deuteronomy 28:64.

Read the full article at the link below

https://www.modernghana.com/news/609011/the-jamaican-akan-root.html

 

The African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem are comprised of approximately 2,000 men, women and children residing in three development towns – – Dimona, Arad and Mitzpe Ramon – – in southern Israel. We maintain a vibrant culture which includes a communal lifestyle, a vegan diet, a system of preventive health care and high moral standards – – a holistic approach to life based on righteousness. Our intent is to live according to the laws and prophecies of God.

…..

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As a direct result of their disobedience to the laws and commandments of God, the ancient Hebrew Israelites were held captive by various nations including the Egyptians, Assyrians and Babylonians. In 70 C.E. the remnants of The African Hebrew Israelites were driven from Jerusalem by the Romans into different parts of the world, including Africa. Many Hebrew Israelites migrated to West Africa where they, once again, were carried away captive – this time by Europeans on slave ships – to the Americas along with other African tribes people.

In 1966 our spiritual leader, Ben Ammi, had a vision that it was time for the Children of Israel who remained in America (the land of their captivity) to return to the Holy Land (the land of their origin).

In 1967, after almost two thousand years in the Diaspora, four hundred Hebrew Israelites were inspired by the spirit of God to make an exodus from America. According to plan, they settled in Liberia’s interior to purge themselves of the negative attributes they had acquired in the captivity. After spending a two-and-one-half year period in Liberia, The African Hebrew Israelites were prepared to make the last portion of their journey home, returning to Israel in 1969.

http://africanhebrewisraelitesofjerusalem.com/?page_id=2

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(Nehemiah Chap. 1) Aramaic to English Old Testament

5 And said, I beseech thee, O LORD God of heaven, the great and terrible God, that keepeth covenant and mercy for them that love him and observe his commandments:

6 Let thine ear now be attentive, and thine eyes open, that thou mayest hear the prayer of thy servant, which I pray before thee now, day and night, for the children of Israel thy servants, and confess the sins of the children of Israel, which we have sinned against thee: both I and my father’s house have sinned.

7 We have dealt very corruptly against thee, and have not kept the commandments, nor the statutes, nor the judgments, which thou commandedst thy servant Moses.

8 Remember, I beseech thee, the word that thou commandedst thy servant Moses, saying, [If] ye transgress, I will scatter you abroad among the nations:

9 But [if] ye turn unto me, and keep my commandments, and do them; though there were of you cast out unto the uttermost part of the heaven, [yet] will I gather them from thence, and will bring them unto the place that I have chosen to set my name there.

 

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Understanding The Good News: The Eve’s Erhverhs

And it shall come to pass in that day, that Yahweh shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, from lower Egypt, and from upper Egypt, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth.

Isaiah 11:11-12

The Eve’s Erhverhs is one of the titles given to the Ewe people spread across West Africa. Ethnic groups such as the Ewe of Ghana and Togo, the Ga-Dangme of Ghana and the Yoruba of Nigeria are a part of what scholars call Eve’s Erhverh’s. The ancestors of these groups migrated from Israel after the destruction of the first and second temples and due to other wars and tragedy’s. Sadly, after centuries of living a relatively peaceful life in West Africa they were captured and shipped in the millions to the “new world” in the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

https://eslkevin.wordpress.com/2017/08/23/understanding-the-good-news-the-eves-erhverhs/

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The Definition of Niger

In Spanish, we find another more familiar word that also has the same meaning:

  • Negro: Mid 16th century: via Spanish and Portuguese from Latin niger, nigr- black. – Oxford Dictionary

Spanish is a Latin based language, and Latin was spoken by the Roman conquerors that the Hebrews referred to as Gentiles (Matthew 20:19). The early uses of the word niger and later negro, were not racist, but were more descriptive of skin color. When slaves were brought to the Americas, the descriptive terms were later turned into racial slurs meant to degrade slaves and their descendants.

Simeon – He was surnamed Niger, pronounced “nee-jer”, which means “black skin” in Latin.

Saul – Later renamed Paul, he was from the tribe of Benjamin, and was mistaken for an Egyptian (Acts 21:38).

http://www.blackhistoryinthebible.com/hidden-history/from-niger-to-nigger-simeon-and-the-other-black-apostles/

 

Biafra

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It is a Nation. The word Biafra is coind from two IGBO WORDS ‘bia’ which means COME and ‘fara’ which means LIVE. The people are part of the AFAR ethnic group in the horn of Africa, although CHRISTIANS. They are also from NRI KINGDOM and part of the LOST TRIBE OF ISRAEL.They were amalgameted to be part of Nigeria in 1914 by the British government led by Frederick Lugard. The people of Biafra do not see themselves as NIGERIANS. Between 6 July 1967 and 15 January 1970, about 3.5 million Biafrans were killed in a genocide war led by the British and the Nigerian government when they seceded from Nigeria.They lost the war and were once more integrated into Nigeria.They own the eastern and southern part of Nigeria. They are still seeking for their freedom Independence from Nigeria. The nationality is Biafran.

https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Biafra

Below maps show Deserts of Seth in Biafra, Kingdom of Judah and Euphrates river
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A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden, and there it divided and became four rivers. The name of the first is the Pishon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good; bdellium and onyx stone are there. The name of the second river is the Gihon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Cush. And the name of the third river is the Tigris, which flows east of Assyria. And the fourth
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The film, titled “Black Jews, Juifs noir en Afrique,” focuses on a dozen African tribes – in Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon and other countries – each with a Jewish story. Some claim to be descendants of the Bible’s 10 Lost Tribes. Others believe that their ancestors were Jews who emigrated from Judea to Yemen looking for gold.

Rabbinical authorities have not accepted any of the groups as Jewish under halakhah, Jewish law, although all the tribes strive to be recognized as such at some level or another.

Edith Bruder, who has been studying these Jewish groups for more than a decade and wrote the book “The black Jews of Africa, history, identity, religion,” turned to Gavron for the film, which is expected to be released in the coming months.

“In sub-Saharan Africa, you can find ‘Judaic’ tribes in Ghana, Nigeria, Mali, Uganda, Cameroon, South Africa, Zimbabwe and even in Sao Tome and other countries. There are many of them,” Bruder said. “It is really a vast subject.”

The two women are documenting Sabbath celebrations in remote African villages, Ghanaian Jews practicing circumcision and Jewish-African traditional marriage ceremonies. They have even been deep into the forests filming black Jews preparing their “kosher” meals – in their own tradition, the way the Torah explains it simply – not mixing the meat of the veal with its mother’s cow milk.

read more: https://www.haaretz.com/jewish/features/tracing-the-lost-tribes-to-jewish-communities-in-africa-1.458224

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Ramses II

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Haile selassie descendant of King Solomon and Queen Sheba and Menelik below.

 

 

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Ethiopia [N] [E] [H]

(burnt faces). The country which the Greeks and Romans described as “AEthiopia” and the Hebrews as “Cush” lay to the south of Egypt, and embraced, in its most extended sense, the modern Nubia, Sennaar, Kordofan and northern Abyssinia , and in its more definite sense the kingdom of Meroe. ( Ezekiel 29:10 ) The Hebrews do not appear to have had much practical acquaintance with Ethiopia itself, though the Ethiopians were well known to them through their intercourse with Egypt. The inhabitants of Ethiopia were a Hamitic race. ( Genesis 10:6 ) They were divided into various tribes, of which the Sabeans were the most powerful. The history of Ethiopia is closely interwoven with that of Egypt. The two countries were not unfrequently united under the rule of the same sovereign. Shortly before our Saviours birth a native dynasty of females, holding the official title of Candace (Plin. vi. 35), held sway in Ethiopia, and even resisted the advance of the Roman arms. One of these is the queen noticed in ( Acts 8:27 )

….

Modern discoveries prove their close racial and linguistic connection with Southern Arabia and particularly with the kingdom of Sheba (the Sabeans), that most powerful people whose extensive architectural and literary remains have recently come to light. The Sabean inscriptions found in Abyssinia go back some 2,600 years and give a new value to the Bible references as well as to the constant claim of Josephus that the queen of Sheba was a “queen of Ethiopia.” The Falashas are a Jewish community living near Lake Tsana, of the same physical type and probably of the same race as other Abyssinians. Their religion is a “pure Mosaism” based upon the Ethiopic version of the Pentateuch, but modified by the fact that they are ignorant of the Hebrew language (Jewish Encyclopedia). It is uncertain when they became Jews. The older scholars thought of them as dating back to the Solomonic era, or at least to the Babylonian captivity. Since the researches of Joseph Halevy (1868), some date within the Christian era has seemed preferable, notwithstanding their ignorance of Talmudic rules. However, the newly discovered fact that a strong Jewish community was flourishing at Syene in the 6th century BC makes it clear that Jewish influence may have been felt in Ethiopia at least that early. Although Abyssinians are noted for their strict adherence to ancient custom, Jewish characteristics are prominent all over the entire country. The opening formula of the king in every official letter–“The Lion of the Tribe of Judah has Conquered!”–is no more Jewish than scores of ordinary phrases and customs. Although it is barely possible that some rites, like circumcision and observance of the Sabbath, may have been received from the ancient Egyptians or Christian Coptics (The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge Encyclopedia) yet a strong Hebrew influence cannot be denied. All travelers speak of the “industry” of the Falashas and of the “kindliness and grave courtesy” of the Abyssinians. Besides those named above there are many communities of mixed races in Ethiopia, but the ancient basis is invariably Negro, Semitic or Egyptian

https://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionary/ethiopia/

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Semitic 
sɪˈmɪtɪk/
adjective
  1. 1.
    relating to or denoting a family of languages that includes Hebrew, Arabic, and Aramaic and certain ancient languages such as Phoenician and Akkadian, constituting the main subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic family.
  2. 2.
    relating to the peoples who speak Semitic languages, especially Hebrew and Arabic.

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Shem and Ham have been mixing for centuries and sharing and debating and fighting over scriptures and land.

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Ishmael the Shemite and Egyptian

(28) Concerning Kedar . . .–The name belonged to a tribe of the Bedouin type, descended from Ishmael (Genesis 25:13), and at this time conspicuous as supplying the markets of Tyre with sheep and goats (Ezekiel 27:21). In PP. 120:5 it appears as the representative of the fierce nomadic life of the Arabians. Hazor appears as the name of many cities in Palestine (Joshua 11:1Joshua 15:23;Joshua 19:36), but the combination with Kedar points to quite a different region. The probable explanation is that Jeremiah uses the term (as a like word, haz?rein, is used in Isaiah 42:11 for the “villages” of Kedar) for the region in which the Kedar Arabs had ceased to be nomadic, and had made a permanent settlement. According to Niebuhr (Assur u. Bab., p. 210) it answers to the modern Hadschar in the angle formed by the southern course of the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf.

 

Ishmaelchart1

Genesis 17:20

And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation.

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Genesis 17:23

And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham’s house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God had said unto him.

Genesis 17:25

And Ishmael his son [was] thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.

Genesis 17:26

In the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son.

Genesis 25:12

Now these [are] the generations of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s handmaid, bare unto Abraham:

Genesis 25:13

And these [are] the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam

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Genesis 25:17

And these [are] the years of the life of Ishmael, an hundred and thirty and seven years: and he gave up the ghost and died; and was gathered unto his people.

Genesis 28:9

Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife.

Chronicles-1 1:29

These [are] their generations: The firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; then Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam,

Chronicles-1 1:31

Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael.

Chronicles-1 8:38

And Azel had six sons, whose names [are] these, Azrikam, Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and Hanan. All these [were] the sons of Azel.

Chronicles-1 9:44

And Azel had six sons, whose names [are] these, Azrikam, Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and Hanan: these [were] the sons of Azel.

Chronicles-2 19:11

And, behold, Amariah the chief priest [is] over you in all matters of the LORD; and Zebadiah the son of Ishmael, the ruler of the house of Judah, for all the king’s matters: also the Levites [shall be] officers before you. Deal courageously, and the LORD shall be with the good.

Chronicles-2 23:1

And in the seventh year Jehoiada strengthened himself, and took the captains of hundreds, Azariah the son of Jeroham, and Ishmael the son of Jehohanan, and Azariah the son of Obed, and Maaseiah the son of Adaiah, and Elishaphat the son of Zichri, into covenant with him.

Ezra 10:22

And of the sons of Pashur; Elioenai, Maaseiah, Ishmael, Nethaneel, Jozabad, and Elasah.

Jeremiah 40:8

Then they came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, even Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and Johanan and Jonathan the sons of Kareah, and Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth, and the sons of Ephai the Netophathite, and Jezaniah the son of a Maachathite, they and their men.

Jeremiah 40:14

And said unto him, Dost thou certainly know that Baalis the king of the Ammonites hath sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah to slay thee? But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam believed them not.

Jeremiah 40:15

Then Johanan the son of Kareah spake to Gedaliah in Mizpah secretly, saying, Let me go, I pray thee, and I will slay Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and no man shall know [it]: wherefore should he slay thee, that all the Jews which are gathered unto thee should be scattered, and the remnant in Judah perish?

Jeremiah 40:16

But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam said unto Johanan the son of Kareah, Thou shalt not do this thing: for thou speakest falsely of Ishmael.

Jeremiah 41:1

Now it came to pass in the seventh month, [that] Ishmael the son of Nethaniah the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, and the princes of the king, even ten men with him, came unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and there they did eat bread together in Mizpah.

Jeremiah 41:2

Then arose Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and the ten men that were with him, and smote Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan over the land.

Jeremiah 41:3

Ishmael also slew all the Jews that were with him, [even] with Gedaliah, at Mizpah, and the Chaldeans that were found there, [and] the men of war.

Jeremiah 41:6

And Ishmael the son of Nethaniah went forth from Mizpah to meet them, weeping all along as he went: and it came to pass, as he met them, he said unto them, Come to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam.

Jeremiah 41:7

And it was [so], when they came into the midst of the city, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah slew them, [and cast them] into the midst of the pit, he, and the men that [were] with him.

Jeremiah 41:8

But ten men were found among them that said unto Ishmael, Slay us not: for we have treasures in the field, of wheat, and of barley, and of oil, and of honey. So he forbare, and slew them not among their brethren.

Jeremiah 41:9

Now the pit wherein Ishmael had cast all the dead bodies of the men, whom he had slain because of Gedaliah, [was] it which Asa the king had made for fear of Baasha king of Israel: [and] Ishmael the son of Nethaniah filled it with [them that were] slain.

Jeremiah 41:10

Then Ishmael carried away captive all the residue of the people that [were] in Mizpah, [even] the king’s daughters, and all the people that remained in Mizpah, whom Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had committed to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam: and Ishmael the son of Nethaniah carried them away captive, and departed to go over to the Ammonites.

Jeremiah 41:13

Now it came to pass, [that] when all the people which [were] with Ishmael saw Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that [were] with him, then they were glad.

Jeremiah 41:14

So all the people that Ishmael had carried away captive from Mizpah cast about and returned, and went unto Johanan the son of Kareah.

Jeremiah 41:15

But Ishmael the son of Nethaniah escaped from Johanan with eight men, and went to the Ammonites.

Jeremiah 41:16

Then took Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that [were] with him, all the remnant of the people whom he had recovered from Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, from Mizpah, after [that] he had slain Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, [even] mighty men of war, and the women, and the children, and the eunuchs, whom he had brought again from Gibeon:

Jeremiah 41:18

Because of the Chaldeans: for they were afraid of them, because Ishmael the son of Nethaniah had slain Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, whom the king of Babylon made governor in the land.

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arabs

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Family tree of Abraham 2

Extract from rastalivewire Prophet Mohammed the Black Arab

http://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-original-black-arabs-of-arabia-part-4-the-black-stone-the-black-tribe-of-koreysh-black-prophet-mohammed/

Mohammed himself, who was to unite the whole of Arabia, thus appears to have had a prominent African-Kushitic lineage. According to al-Jahiz a renowned Black Arab writer and philosopher of Ethiopian origin who had lived in Baghdad, “…the guardian of the sacred Kaaba–Abd al-Muttalib, “fathered ten Lords, Black as the night and magnificent.” One of these men was Abdallah, the father of Muhammad.

JA Rogers, one of the most pre-eminent of Black African historians had the following to say of Muhammad(pbuh):

“Mohamet, himself, was to all accounts a Negro. A contemporary of his describes him as “large mouthed,” and “bluish-colored, with hair that was neither straight nor curly…Mohamet’s mother was also African. His grandfather, Abd el Motalib, is spoken of as being “very dark.”…A Negroid strain, more or less predominant, ran through the whole. As Keane says, “All who accepted the Koran became merged with the conquerors in a common Negroid population.”

Diop in “Orgin of Civillization” stated forthrightly that:

“….the entire arab people, including the Prophet [Muhammad(pbuh)] is mixed with Negro blood. All educated Arabs are conscious of that fact.”

Ethiopia and the Black Muslim Arabs

In the 5th and 6th century, the pre-eminece of Ethiopia was still putative in the Arabia and surrounding regions. As such, Mecca was teeming with millions of Black Cushitic Arabian and Ethiopian scientists, engineers, soilders, philosophers, writers, social revolutionaries. Besides the probable Ethiopian origins of Muhammed, Islam was deeply associated with Ethiopia, and was overwhelmingly influenced by Ethiopia in terms of the formation of its basic tenets, the elaboration of its doctrine and the development of its philosophy. According to tradition, the first Muslim killed in battle was Mihdja–a Kushitic Black Arab. Another Black Arab that greatly influenced Islam was Bilal, probably of Ethiopian-Yemenite extraction, who was such a pivotal figure in the development of Islam that he has been referred to as “a third of the faith.

” Many of the earliest Muslim converts were original descendants of the ancient Black Arabs,or they were African soliders, administrators, scientist that stayed over from the 70,000 man Ethiopian army that ruled Yemen in these times. In fact, the very survival of the Islamic faith in its most susceptible periodwas due tothe intervention of the Ethiopian King of Axum, who saved the earliest followers of Muhammed seeking refuge in Ethiopia from persecution in Arabia. They were given safety, succor and further education and instruction by the Priests of Ethiopia.

These early teachings underlaid the elaboration and further development of Islamic thought and they remain fundamental in Islamic teachings of today. It is therefore no wonder that Muhammed had instructed his followers to always be kind and considerate to the Ethiopians because they are a kindred nation of great righteousness.

John G Jackson, another pillar of Black History stated in his book “The Story of The Moors In Spain” that:

“At the present time Arabia is inhabited by two distinct races, namely the descendents of the old Adite,Kushite, or Ethiopian race, known under various appellations, and dwelling cheify at the south, the east, and the central parts of the country, but formerly supreme throughout the whole peninsula; and the semitic Arabians—Mohamet’s(pbuh) race—found cheifly in the Hejaz and at the north. In some districts of the country, these races more or less mixed and since the rise of Mohametanism, the language of the Semites, known to us as Arabic, has almost wholly superceded the old Ethiopian or Kushite tongue….”

Taharqo

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I will be constantly updating this post so feel free to check back at a later date for added information and links.

My Igbo & Akan slave ancestors from Jamaica & The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade connection. The Hebrews ie Heeboes

This post is full of information and documentaries. You may want to bookmark or save the page and read it over a period of time.

When I started this post and this journey I had no idea what I would find. I will be updating this post until it is full (like my Hebrew Israelites and the trans Atlantic slave trade post which is full and can’t be added to) I pray for guidance and for truth in my study and retrieval of the history of my ancestors.

This is our story.

 

The ancestors found were Igbo & Akan described in Jamaica as Eboe & Coromantee

 

Before I get into the exploration of who these ancestors were, I’m going to drop this Jamaican poem here

https://youtu.be/0Hz-DG4-q6s

According to records my first ancestors into the new world were Charlotte (birth 1765ish) and William senior (birth 1767) and their descendants they started the lineage that I stem from in Jamaica.  Charlotte was born in Africa. Charlottes son Quamin formerly known as William had Billy also known as William after his father. Charlotte was described as Igbo in the census listing on the plantation. Billy was described as a Creole Negroe.  Creole was sometimes used to describe people born on a different island such as America or a different Carribean Island. Creole could also refer to a mixed race person. I have already discovered a line of family born in America from this side of the family and every record points to them stemming from this William or his relatives. I researched the name Quamin and it relates to West Africa and the Akan and Ga tribe.  Although the jamaican records describe my ancestors as Igbo it is quite possible that they used one umbrella term “Igbo” to describe slaves who may have called themselves something else.

 

By about 1810 my ancestors have gone from being called Igbo to Maroons.

Afro-Jamaicans are Jamaicans of entirely or predominantly African descent. The first Africans to arrive came in 1513 from the Iberian Peninsula. They were servantscowboys, herders of cattle, pigs and horses, as well as hunters. When the English captured Jamaica in 1655, many of them fought with the Spanish who gave them their freedom and then fled to the mountains resisting the British for many years to maintain their freedom, becoming known as Maroons. The British in this point in time, brought with them mostly Akan slaves, some of which ran away and joined with Maroons and even took over as leaders.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afro-Jamaican

Documentation later lists my relatives as escapees known as Maroons in the late 1700 and they are advertised as missing.

The Maroons are descendants of West Africans, mainly people from the Ashanti region of what is today Ghana. After being brought to Jamaica in the course of the Transatlantic slave trade, many slaves fled from the oppressive conditions of plantations and formed their own communities in the rugged, hilly interior of the island. A minority of slaves originated from other regions of Africa, including the Congo and Madagascar; they were known as Coromantie or Koromantee, and were considered ferocious fighters.[3] People who escaped from slavery joined the other Maroons.[3]

These ancestors and many in the Diaspora would have past through the many ports that lined the coast of West Africa.

The Ports

Fort Kormantin

Fort Kormantin was built by the English between 1638 and 1645 and sits on a hill in Kormantin-Abandze in the Central Region of Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast). In 1661, the Royal African Company obtained ownership of the fort, and it became the headquarters of English Gold Coast activities until 1665 when Dutch Admiral Michiel Adriaensz De Ruyter captured the fort after a bloody battle.3 

Fort Kormantin Ghana West Africa 1661

Renamed Fort Amsterdam by the Dutch, the fort is believed to have housed the first slave prison on the Gold Coast, and the name Kormantin became synonymous for the toughest men who had resisted capture. The Kormantin from the Gold Coast, were sold from the Slave Coast (Kingdom of Juda) and passed through the Door of No Return at Ouidah before being transported to the Caribbean Islands.4  By far the largest number of Jamaicans and Haitians are Korantin.

https://www.historyrevised.com/the-door-of-return/

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Door of no return Benin

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300px-St._George_Castle,_Elmina,_Ghana

 

The below is the return of the runaway slaves list  where I found my ancestors

1806 SR1817 p1 They worked on Golden Grove Estate in St Thomas-in-the-East in Jamaica.

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2a002127f058336530e964ef76ff2c44--mountains-maps

This West African map shows there was a St Thomas in the bottom right corner a tiny Island. I wonder if there was a connection. It is quite possible that my Spanish ancestor came from this Island. This line of family were Catholic and possibly Jewish in the past. I have always wondered why a particular line of my family took part in the Catholic traditions. The connection could be from Sao Tome St Thomas or from Portugal or Spain.

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São Tomé and Principe islands lie off the coast of Western Africa, in the Atlantic Ocean.  St Thomas and Prince Islands translation, English … São Tomé and Príncipe An island country in the Gulf of Guinea 

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Wikipedia

São Tomé e PríncipeEdit

King Manuel I of Portugal exiled about 2,000 Jewish children under the age of ten, to São Tomé and Príncipe around 1500. Most died, but in the early 17th century “the local bishop noted with disgust that there were still Jewish observances on the island and returned to Portugal because of his frustration with them.”[10][Although Jewish practices faded over subsequent centuries, there are people in São Tomé and Príncipe who are aware of partial descent from this population. Similarly, a number of Portuguese ethnic Jews were exiled to Sao Tome after forced conversions to Roman Catholicism.

These islands were uninhabited until their discovery by Portuguese explorers in the 15th century. Gradually colonized and settled by the Portuguese throughout the 16th century, they collectively served as a vital commercial and trade center for the Atlantic slave trade. The rich volcanic soil and close proximity to the Equator made São Tomé and Príncipe ideal for sugar cultivation, followed later by cash crops such as coffee and cocoa; the lucrative plantation economy was heavily dependent upon imported African slaves. 

The first successful settlement of São Tomé was established in 1493 by Álvaro Caminha, who received the land as a grant from the crown. Príncipe was settled in 1500 under a similar arrangement. Attracting settlers proved difficult, however, and most of the earliest inhabitants were “undesirables” sent from Portugal, mostly Jews.[9] In time these settlers found the volcanic soil of the region suitable for agriculture, especially the growing of sugar.

By 1515, São Tomé and Príncipe had become slave depots for the coastal slave trade centered at Elmina.[10]

 

Below are some records of the Portuguese and Spanish Jews in Jamaica.

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My ancestors were also enslaved in Jamaica St Mary.

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I found a book online which describes the owners and the slaves at the plantation my family were enslaved on in St Mary. The slaves worked producing coffee and sugar. The book states that the first person listed there with the surname was Charlotte born in Africa in or around 1760. This I think is correct she was the first person there with the surname but only in that part of town. She had a life as a Maroon on a different plantation that she fled prior to the records at St Mary. As in most cases the records compiled by the British Scottish and Spanish only begin when they believe the natives got there. I calculated Charlotte would be my 6x great grandmother. The book I have regarding the family was written by the descendants of the slave owner so I doubt my x6 great grandmother would have told them the truth. Further research now points to her living as a maroon for sometime and being from St Thomas Parish prior to being a Maroon escaped slave. When the plantation owners thought she arrived may be incorrect as she could have been part of the maroon family and lied about how long she had been on the island as to not expose the truth of the Maroons who had been there as early as the mid to late 1500. There were Portuguese Arawak Taino and African  people on the island before Christopher Columbus got there. My first female Maroon ancestor would have likely escaped to West moreland. She would have possibly travelled to the Trelawny Maroon area across the island. I have family who have lived there for hundreds of years according to their birth records and family oral story. The dates on record don’t add up I estimate she was born around 1750 either in Africa as recorded or Maroon Town.

 

The book Saving Souls: The Struggle to End the Transatlantic Trade in Africans talks of  Quamin Tacky and Blackwall who were Maroons in 1790 who led a rebellion in St Mary. The book also states  “The Scott’s Hall Maroons were bound by a 1739 treaty to keep the peace and supress the war” and this explains why when my 6x great grandmother and her children were recaptured it said the maroons brought her in. The Maroons who signed a treaty had to abide by the rules of the officials who granted the land. They were expected to catch any new runaways and return them to the officials of the time.

Pictures of Jamaican Maroons below

Here is a link to 2 documentarys on Maroons in Jamaica.

https://youtu.be/rnQ2rqvLtiA

https://youtu.be/FKmK4CVqPFM

maliflag

I also saw the migration of one of my possible maroon ancestors Billy, to Haiti on record and note that many Haitians also share a high Benin Togo score as do I. Haiti was also known for its Maroons and I think that my Maroon ancestor it appears fled the island for a time to Haiti. This is my only slave ancestor to die rich according to records.

The distance from Kingston, Jamaica to Carrefour, Haiti is 261 miles and if there were a direct flight, it would only take 35 minutes on a plane. Boukman, the Jamaican, who was sold to a Frenchman and brought to Haiti from Jamaica because of his rebellious spirit, played an instrumental role in the revolution that lead to Haiti being the very first country in the new world, in 1803, to throw off the shackles of slavery, and gain its freedom. 

https://www.yardedge.net/current-affairs/jamaicas-relationship-with-haiti

My ancestor Billy who went to Haiti left with a lot of money. I have been intrigued about what he did there.

image004

See the history of Creole people in Haiti a short clip https://youtu.be/yb8Ig5IMhZU

the clip leads me to believe he lived as a free man in Haiti (but was a runaway slave from Jamaica) he went to Haiti because Haiti had already abolished slavery on his arrival. The free mixed people had their own industries and he was able to slip in and go un noticed amongst them. Slavery continued for much longer in Jamaica.

JHered_5_12_552_2

This is how Creole descendants looked.

 

Exploring my Creole ancestors and possible connections

The Maroon who went to Haiti was married to a Mary Drew who was also Creole. My first thoughts were that she could have been a qudroon like the little girl in the above picture. It turns out that my ancestor married the daughter of the plantation owner she was born to a slave mother I believe. Billy brought his slave mother’s freedom on his death. Billy would have probably been able to earn his own money being married to the plantation owners mixed slave daughter. I do not descend from his wife and her children as I do not share the family name in my DNA . I am also surprised to find that I am only 5% European. I now know that the Maroons were away from the slave plantations and therefore the women removed the likelyhood of being raped. My Igbo and Akan ancestors from the Maroons were certainly full blooded African’s as there is only the one ancestor mentioned as Creole in this side of my lineage.

Amelia Briscoe Drew, 8, Creole
Mary Lavinia Drew, 18, Creole

James Briscoe a free Creole Negro man aged about 46 (formerly a slave belonging to Elizabeth Fielding a free mulatto woman) married at Bellemont Pen on June 30, 1819 to Helen Grier Drew a Creole aged about 27 belonging to S. Drew Esq. of Bellemont.

 

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/m/MethodistStAnn.html

Stirling, Billy, apprentice labourer residence Ardock, and Mary Ann Stirling residence Spring Mount, married 5/27/1838, page 13

The above could be Billy and Mary, William’s son and his wife descendants of Charlotte if their names were changed when they were resold or relocated. I decided to look into this and found that there was a Stirling Castle in St Mary which increases the chances of the above being the same Billy and Mary as the family surname connections are recorded in that area tying the above ancestors together. Their surnames, birth dates and locations and the names of their owners place them exactly where they were at the time and line up with the rest of the family.

62d824bbfbcb80c54bb9c6db41426ba0--jamaican-people-school-children

Black women slaves might marry a black man and have black children and be raped and have a mixed race or Creole child as they called it. The children might be sold off to different areas that became red skin people areas such as was Clarendon and Redhills as described by one of my grandmothers. Creole slaves came from Africans and either Scottish British French Portuguese Spanish invaders ie colony owners who raped them or sometimes they mixed with runaway slaves such as the Arawak Indians, and Spanish Taino the original inhabitants before Britain entered.  Those who had fled to the hills when Britain invaded Jamaica became what we know of the Maroons.

arawakindians

002

images-110

images-290

My ancestor almost 70 years prior to the picture below would have probably fit right in with the below Rebellion.

cecil-le-fleur

Tracing African roots website Haitian results

compil-ht-max-png.jpg

20171213_234326-1
My DNA 95% African

2% Iberian Peninsula  which is not surprising considering the Spanish And Portuguese slave trade history.

The below is from an African American 

Screen+Shot+2014-08-30+at+12.15.49+PM

Tribe matches for the above were Bantu and Yoruba

Bantu Ke= 0.370 Mandenka= 0.444 
Maasai= 0.130 Yoruba= 0.685 
Maasai= 0.159 Yoruba= 0.662 
O-Ethiop= 0.110 Yoruba= 0.718 Irish= 0.172 or

I know that in the late 1800 to mid 1900 some of the family moved to America. The DNA below is from one of those descendants.

Ethnicity

Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Benin/Togo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Mali

Trace Regions: Senegal, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Native American, Iberian Peninsula, Ireland

 

The Ethnicity and history of my ancestors

Corroborating Romer’s assertion, Henderson-Quartey (2001), citing from the work of Bruce-Myers (1927, pp.70-72) quoted him as saying, “the Gas came all the way from the central part of the Continent…and they are kinsmen to the Benins, who by their own choice, kept back in the course of the migration.” This gives credence to the assumption that the Ga ethnic groups were once part of the people of Benin from the mid-western part of Nigeria. See Sheikh Mustufas blog click

The coastal Egbo who were generally known to the slave traders as
Calabaris provided the majority of “ Igbo descended “ captives and were often referred to as KWA IBO. The general tendency to associate the Calabaris with “ Igbo “ is a result of the understanding that the Egbo tribes were related to the “ Greater Igbo Nation “ and therefore Herskovits refers to Calabari as a generic name for “ Ibos “ in the United States.

In Cuba it is understood that those known as Calabaris descend from the Egbo tribes such as the Efik and Ibibio. During the time of the slave trade the most powerful and numerous of the Egbo tribes were those known as THE KWA. In generalizing the Egbo Nation with the dominant Kwa tribe, all of the Egbo tribes were collectively known as Kwa Ibo.
Through the dominance of the Kwa tribe,the Egbo Society was also
known as the AbaKwa Society meaning of the Kwa people.To this day the Egbo Society continues to actively function in Cuba.

Link to full post click

1200px-Niger-Congo_map-1814px-Niger-Congo_map_with_delimitation-1

The Maroons in Jamaica say they are made up of Koromantee Akan Ashanti and Igbo.

Some Maroons were recaptured and it appears my 6x great grandmother was one of them. There is a story of some of the churches and plantations being burnt down by Maroons when some of them were recaptured.

Guerrilla warfare in the 18th century states the below link

The Windward Maroons also subjected themselves to the severe discipline made necessary by the constant threat of battle. The head man at Nanny Town ordered the entire military operation, and anyone who committed a crime was shot to death. Here too, those men who were least noted for their courage worked with the women in raising provisions. The Nanny Town Maroons were well coordinated for fighting. A captured Maroon told of the way in which they prepared for the advance of troops toward their settlement: “… there were at Hobby’s [a plantation captured by the Maroons] 2 Gangs of Men 100 in each Gang & Several women which they had brought to help carry off the Spoil: . .. they left one Gang in the Negro Town to Guard the rest of the Women & Children; … they had determined on hearing the Partys coming to Ambush them in the River’s Course, that a Gang of 100 was to lay on Carrion Crow Hill & 100 more Hobby’s way, that a Drum was to be placed on the ridge over the Town to View the Partys and the Women in the town to burn the houses in case the Party should be too Strong, if not the three Gangs to Surround them on the beat of Drum, all under the Command of Scipio.”

In addition to their headmen, Maroons in both ends of the island relied on obeah men and women, that is, magical practitioners, for help in their battle for survival. One of them, Nanny, after whom Nanny Town was named, is still revered and remembered as a heroine for turning back the British fire by magic. Such supernatural aids may have given the Maroons a boost in confidence, but the bulk of their defense was provided by careful planning and ingenuity and a great deal of courage and resourcefulness.

 see this article Maroons settlements in Jamaica

Accompong (from the Akan name Acheampong) is a historical Maroon village located in the hills of St. Elizabeth Parish on the island of Jamaica. It is located in Cockpit Country, where the local terrain enabled Maroons and indigenous Taíno to establish a fortified stronghold in the 17th century. They defended it to maintain independence from the Spanish and then later against British forces, after the colony changed hands.

Jamaican woman 1920

a99b61b66e8da1f30a562455610d83b1--jamaican-women-jamaica-history

 

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Benin woman

 

Here is some real records of that time I note Quamin in there and Cudjoe and Cuffee Quashiba and Quamina being there also. Quamin is my relative Billy is there and I suspect some of those mentioned could also be relatives from the record below.

NEW CANAAN PLANTATION, St. James, Jamaica.

The Schedule to which the annexed Indenture refers-

Anthony

Damon

Liverpool

Quamin

April

Daniel

Lorraine

M.B. Quashie

Apollo

Emanuel

May

Rob) Roy

Adam

Frank

Michael

Robert

Alick

Fox

Morton

Richard

Abraham

Fortune

Ned

Rodney

E. Adam

H. George

Nicholas

M. B. Rodney

Billy

General

Nick

Sylvan

Badluck

Hector

Ned

Eboe Sylvan

Boatswain

Hazard

M. B. Ned

Sam

M.B. Boatswain

Hamlet

Nickey

Sampson

M.B. Billy

Jacob

Asop

Sylvan

Bob

Jamaica

Pembroke

Swaney

C. Billy

Jeffery

Pan

Sandy

C. Boatswain

James

Peter

C. Sam

Colin

Jacob

Pope

Tom Williams

Caesar

Joe

Portius

M.B.Tom

Camrose

Jack Williams

Portius

C. Tom

Cudjoe

M. B. James

Pan

Trim

Cuffee

Jove

Primus

Valentine

Charles

Kettle

Plato

William

Cimon

Kent

Pew

Will

Cook

King

Prince

M.B.William

M. B. Cudjoe

Kinsale

Pompey

Winter

H. Cuffee

London

E. Primus

Wales

Dick

Liberty

Quawo

Yankey

Dassery

Lockhart

Quashie

 

 

(19)

 

 

Ariana

Fidelia

Mimba

Phoebe

Abba

Flavia

Maria

Pamela

Bess

Fancy

Macco Mole

Penny

Bella

Fama

Molly

Polly

Beneba

Fidelia

Minerva

Quashebe

Ole Beneba

Frankey

Mary

M.B.Quashba

Belinda

Gift

Marina

Rose

Bele

Grace

Milly

Rachel

Bessy

Hannah

Nelly

Ruthy

C. Beneba

Jenny

Nancy Duncan

Rusticiana

Bunny

Joan

Nancy

Creole Rose

Cleopatra

Jane

Olive

Sylvia

Celia

Juba

Pleasant

Stella

Cooba

Judy

Phibba

Sukey

Catilina

Kate

Prudence

Sally

Clarissa

Kitty

Patience

Sally

Cleana

Livinia

Pretty

Sarah

Eve

Lund

Portia

Sue

Elsey

Lucinda

E. Patience

Tabia

Frama

Lucia

Phillis

M.B.Venue

Flora

Lucy

Pindar

90 Steers

Friskey

Monimia

Peggy

60 Mules

 

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/mNewCanaan.htm

What is interesting is that one of my African cousins in my DNA matches has a surname that is said to be from a royal family in Ghana and so is Nanny of the Maroons in Jamaica. Nanny is described as being from the Ashanti tribe and the mother of all Jamaicans. Nanny had about 5 brothers taken as slaves including Cudjoe. It does seem that my Maroon ancestors may have been related to people who lived in the same area of Africa as Nanny. The Igbo in Jamaica practised their African traditions. Also they continued the naming practice prevalent in the Ga Akan and Ashanti tribe. The evidence is that my ancestors tracing Charlotte’s line were from the Ashanti region. The Ashanti Akan Ga Dangme are the same group of people genetically found in the Ghana region. In Jamaica they were called Igbo. In modern times we now consider Igbo to be predominantly Nigerian but this is based on the definition of Europe during the slave trade.

 

The below maps show how Europeans continuously relabeled West Africa. The Aethiopian Ocean translates to the ocean of the Blacks or burnt faces.

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Ethiopia spanned a much larger area

ethiopic-ocean

Ethiopian_Ocean_Map

Below Negroland was called Soudan and Western Soudan. Sudan means black the o in Soudan has been dropped in modern times.

Dislocated_African_Place-Names_Map-1

map-1

2599f004364ca8ab800334a90e868a65

The Sudan, a region stretching across Africa south of the Sahara and north of the tropical zone: inhabited chiefly by Negroid tribes rather than Arabs. Word Origin and History for Sudan. 1842, from Arabic Bilad-al-sudan, literally “country of the blacks,” from sud, plural of aswad (fem. sauda) “black.”

1777 map below

AMD8254L - 1771 Map of Africa - R. Reynolds - U. of Florida Map & Imagery Library.jpg

1827 map below

1827_Finley_Map_of_Africa_-_Geographicus_-_Africa-finley-1827.jpg

Ashanti Empire – Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Ashanti…
The Ashanti (also spelled Asante) Empire (1701–1957) was an Akan empire and kingdom in what is now modern-day Ghana. The Ashanti Empire expanded from Ashanti to include the Brong-Ahafo, Central region,

 

The Ashanti empire was well established when my ancestor left Africa in the mid 17th century. This adds credibility to the Maroons account of who the people were. The area was called The Gold Coast and they traded in Gold and Kent cloth to name a few things.

ghana-ashanti-ewe-map-1

CoromanteeCoromantinsCoromanti or Kormantine (derived from the name of the Ghanaian slave fort of Fort Kormantine in Koromanti, Ghana[1]) was the English name originally given to enslaved Ashanti people in Jamaica, but became synonymous for all Akan groups from the Gold Coast or modern-day Ghana. The term Coromantee is now considered archaic as it simply refers to Akan people, and was primarily used in the Caribbean.

Coromantins actually came from several Akan ethnic groups and were sent to separate European colonies in the Caribbean based on their alliance with Europeans back in the Gold Coast – Asante(or Ashanti) being opposed the Fante (Fanti) and the British were shipped to Jamaica and Barbados; the Fante, being opposed to the Asante and the Dutch, were sent to the Guianas, etc. as war and kidnapped captives, respectively.[2] Owing to their militaristic background and common Akan language, Coromantins organized dozens of slave rebellions in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. Their fierce, rebellious nature became so notorious among white plantation owners in the 18th century that an Act was proposed to ban the importation of people from the Gold Coast, despite their reputation as strong workers.

The Asante had the single largest African cultural influence on Jamaica, both on the Jamaican Maroons and the larger non-maroon population, whose culture and language was seen as a derivation of Asante-Twi.[3] Names of some notable Coromantee leaders — such as CudjoeCuffy, and Quamina — correspond to Akan day names Kojo, Kwame, Kofi, and Kwamina, respectively. A large amount of the enslaved population also had Akan day names, as the name “Quashee” (a distortion of “Kwasi”) was the British planters’ way of implying the Asante majority. The word became the Jamaican British term to mean “black person or slave”;[4] similarly, a white individual was called “obroni” (Twiwhite person) by the enslaved populace. The term is still used and is considered a slur.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coromantee

The Asante Kingdom documentary

Akan people

Strong’s Concordance
Akan: an Israelite name

Original Word: עָכָן
Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine
Transliteration: Akan
Phonetic Spelling: (aw-kawn’)
Short Definition: Achan

Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance

Achan

From an unused root meaning to trouble; troublesome; Akan, an Israelite — Achan. Compare Akar.

see HEBREW Akar

Strong’s Concordance
Akar: a man of Judah

Original Word: עָכָר
Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine
Transliteration: Akar
Phonetic Spelling: (aw-kawr’)
Short Definition: Achar

http://biblehub.com/hebrew/5917.htm

 The Akan people are believed to have migrated to their current location from the Sahara desert and Sahel region of Africa into the forested region around the 11th century,[4] and many Akans tell their history as it started in Eastern region of Africa as this is where the ethnogenesis of the Akan as we know them today happened.[5][6][7]

African-civilizations-map-pre-colonial

Oral traditions of the ruling Abrade (Aduana) Clan relate that they originated from ancient Ghana. They migrated from the north, they went through Egypt and settled in Nubia (Sudan). Around 500AD (5th century), due to the pressure exerted on Nubia by Axumite kingdom of Ethiopia, Nubia was shattered, and the Akan people moved west and established small trading kingdoms. These kingdoms grew, and around 750AD the Empire of Ghana was formed. The Empire lasted from 750AD to 1200AD and collapsed as a result of the introduction of Islam in the Western Sudan, and the zeal of the Muslims to impose their religion: their ancestors eventually left for Kong (i.e. present day Ivory Coast). From Kong they moved to Wam and then to Dormaa (both located in present-day Brong-Ahafo region). The movement from Kong was necessitated by the desire of the people to find suitable savannah conditions since they were not used to forest life. Around the 14th century, they moved from Dormaa South Eastwards to Twifo-Hemang, North West Cape Coast. This move was commercially motivated.[8]

The kingdom of Bonoman (or Brong-Ahafo) was established as early as the 12th century,.[9]Between the 12th and 13th centuries a gold boom in the area brought wealth to numerous Akans.[10]

During different phases of the Kingdom of Bonoman, groups of Akans migrated out of the area to create numerous states based predominantly on gold mining and trading of cash crops.[11][12]This brought wealth to numerous Akan states like Akwamu Empire,[13] (1550-1650) and ultimately led to the rise of the most well known Akan empire, the Empire of Ashanti,[14](1700-1900), the most dominant of the Akan states.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akan_people

The Akan

With a population of 20 million, the Akan represent the largest ethnic group in Ghana and Ivory Coast. The Akan are a matrilineal society believed to have originated in the Sahel region and who then traveled south into Ghana and Ivory Coast.

The Ashanti, a subgroup of the Akan, formed a number of states in Ghana built around trade and gold. They traded with the Songhai and Hausa along traditional inland routes and also with European partners, starting with the Portuguese, who arrived on the coast in 1482.

 

The Asante (Ashanti) Gold /Ghana Gold Coast

New crops, such as maize and cassava, and slave labor allowed them (the Ashanti) to push farther into the forests, clearing land to farm and mining gold. In fact, before the transatlantic slave trade began in earnest, the Ashanti bought slaves from the Portuguese.

The Ashanti Empire was established in 1701 by Osei Tutu, who began unifying Ashanti states around the city of Kumasi. The Ashanti continued to expand, through diplomacy and military conquest, building one of the most advanced and powerful empires in sub-Saharan Africa. Not all Akan people wanted part in the empire, and some fled west into modern-day Ivory Coast. These included the Abron, the Baoulé and the Agni. In the 19th century, the Ashanti fought a series of wars with British troops, as England tried to firm up its hold over Ghana. Eventually, the Ashanti kingdom, known as Asanteman, became a British protectorate in 1902 and today is a state within modern Ghana.

French sovereignty over Ivory Coast was recognized by the British in 1889, and the country became a French colony in 1893. Ivory Coast continued to attract new immigrants in the 20th century when two decades of prosperity and relative peace followed independence in 1960.

 https://www.ancestry.com/dna/ethnicity/ivory-coast-ghana we

GhanaM
The Jews of Ghana

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African surnames identified from my DNA matches Include

 

Nwokocha a Nigerian Ibo Surname. The surname is from The Bight of Biafra. I have seen this name on a list of tribes of Hebrew descent.

Nwagou which is from The Bight of Biafra Port Harcourt region with people sharing the name as far as Abuja Igbo 

Onu which is also Nigerian.

Quartey which is Ghanian Akan Ga Dangme 

Ageypong which is a Ghanaian Ashanti surname.

 

Statistics and meaning of name Nwokocha


Usage: 6% firstname, 94% surname.
Nwokocha first name was found 19 times in 2 different countries. (USA,Nigeria)
Surname Nwokocha is used at least 267 times in at least 13 countries.

See this extract below

Onyejeocha, Waiyiocha, Wokocha, Okparaocha, Aturuocha, Ewuocha, Onyiyeocha, Onyeocha, Onyeisiocha, Nkwocha, etcetera.
The name, though of Igbo origin, never existed as an Igbo village both in ancient times and now in Ikwerre land. The name, ‘Igweocha’, was used to describe the beauty of Port Harcourt city during the colonial era as the city was well planned, decorated with beautiful flowers, gardens, streets with street lights.

https://edonationsatelite.blogspot.co.uk/2016/07/facts-about-benin-origin-of-ikwerre.htm

Igocha Ikwerre tribe are listed as part of the 12 tribes of Israel here click

nigeria-political-map-vector-id498125517

Port Harcourt (IkwerreÍgúọ́cha;[12][13][14] PidginPo-ta-kot[3][Note 1]) is the capital and largest city of Rivers StateNigeria. It lies along the Bonny River and is located in the Niger Delta