Category Archives: Maroons

The scattered Israelites in West Africa

D33CFRgroup-prayer-in-an-evangelical-church-kpalime-togo-west-africa-BRBY0A

The Living descendants of the Egyptians: article by All empires.com

One fact that was meant to be hidden is that the M2 lineage carrying, Niger-Congo/Kordofanian speaking, broad featured (“true Negro”) populations of Equatorial Africa and their New World extensions are the living descendants of the ancient Egyptians (and Hebrews). They do not want us to know that we were at the basis of all of these ancient civilizations and not as slaves but masters (Sidi Badr). WE DID NOT ORIGINATE IN WEST AFRICA, BUT AS ATTESTED TO BY EVERY TRIBAL ELDER WE ORIGINATED IN NUBIA-EGYPT (see the black and white map below) IN EASTERN AFRICA. These two civilizations were the oldest (Nubia), longest lasting and greatest (most contributing) civilizations in World History. The ancient Egyptian civilization is much older than the 5,000 year date given by “traditional”(liars) Egyptologist but instead it’s over 12,000 years old. Older black and or African scholars still alive today like Theophile Obenga and Dr. Yosef Ben Jochannan  for decades have debunked the Western lead lies in regards ancient Egypt and to the “Bantu Migration” from Cameroon and the ridiculous lie that the ancient Egyptian language is not related to Niger-Congo. African scholars (who actually speak African languages) have long criticized the entire “Afro-Asiatic” category of African languages. This video explains the basics behind the dilemma.
End

Above is a quote from the article click the below link for the full post which I recommend. I will be compiling my own research on the above matter and my previous post Reclaiming the African in My African American Ethnicity — Ariana Fiorello-Omotosho The previous post is of a African descendant brought to the New world in slavery from Nigeria and Cameroon. The analysis of her DNA by a professional company traces her genealogy to one of 2 places (I would personally say both places) Egypt or Palestine. If you have read my post on my Akan and Igbo ancestors you will be aware that I also have a DNA match cousin who’s ancestry was tracing back to Egypt and Saudi Arabia rather than palestine 1000-2000 years ago.

Click below for the full post (The article is mind blowing and needs to be read more than once to be truly absorbed in my opinion)

http://www.allempires.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=35257

From Babylon to Timbuktu full audio

The first audio covers the background information however after an hour and 40 minutes ish it goes back to the beginning. Once it starts repeating you can go to part 2 audio clip. These audios are not the best quality however the information is detailed and useful.

Here is the book for cross referencing

From-Babylon-To-Timbuktu-by-Rudolph-R-Windsor

My Igbo and Ashanti Akan Jamaican slave ancestors Part 2

 

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If you have seen my first post you know that I dealt with a lot of information both historical and oral traditions and biblical definitions of the Jamaican slaves. I also covered the oral stories of Hebrews in Africa.

For those who want to read the story of what I found when I took the steps back to retrieve my ancestors past. See the link below.

https://blackhistory938.wordpress.com/2017/06/16/my-igbo-slave-ancestor/

In this post I am going to look at who my African relatives were in Africa. I am going to look at the family names and places of residence. I am also going to explore West African history. This post will focus on Africa which has to include the middle east which really is North East Africa. We will  look at the migration from Israel towards the end of this post. Ancestry DNA have also updated their information and I will be using my updated analysis to find out which tribes I am connected to.

 

Below is a list of surnames of DNA matched distant cousins

Nwokocha a Nigerian Igbo Surname. The surname is from The Bight of Biafra. Bordering Nigeria Cameroon Guinea area.

Nwagou which is from The Bight of Biafra Port Harcourt region with people sharing the name as far as Abuja Igbo 

Onu which is also Nigerian.

Olugbala which is a Nigerian Yoruba surname.

Akinwummi which is a Nigerian Yoruba surname. Found in the Lagos region.

Ageypong which is a Ghanaian Ashanti surname.

Lartey a Ghanian Ga surname.

From the above DNA matches my genetic ties are with the Igbo, Yoruba, Ashanti and Ga.

 Below West African tribes and some connections
 ethnic-africa-1
The below is a map of  the different tribes in Nigeria.
nigeria_ethnic_v3
The Yoruba are right next to Benin as are the Hausa Fulani.
This could explain why one of my cousins is matching
the Hausa tribe in the North and Saudi Arabia despite
having no North African DNA.
See DNA below Hausa Fulani??

Ethnicity

Regions: Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Ireland

Trace Regions: Africa Southeastern Bantu, Senegal, Nigeria, Europe West, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Great Britain, Finland/Northwest Russia,

The below is a copy of of feature from my original post. The below DNA is similar to mine.

The below is from an African American 

Screen+Shot+2014-08-30+at+12.15.49+PM

Tribe matches for the above were Bantu and Yoruba

Bantu Ke= 0.370 Mandenka= 0.444 
Maasai= 0.130 Yoruba= 0.685 
Maasai= 0.159 Yoruba= 0.662 
O-Ethiop= 0.110 Yoruba= 0.718 Irish= 0.172 

Here is my breakdown below which points at Akan Esan and Yoruba Hausa and Igbo tribal ancestry for me

HX2171525_EB4566

Population
Nilo_Saharan 1.47 Pct
Ubangian_Congo 1.93 Pct
W_Benue_Congo 58.89 Pct
Eastern_HG 2.17 Pct
E_Benue_Congo 25.56 Pct
Omotic 2.47 Pct
Southern_HG 2.39 Pct
Western_Semitic 5.12 Pct

 

 This information above is significant because with my research and my ancestry matches DNA I am able to chart which groups of people we are connected to. The sophisticated DNA tests such as DNA tribes and others are picking up the West African connection to the middle east. The areas that my family are connected to mirror what the bible says. 2000 years ago some of my direct ancestors were in Saudi Arabia.
My raw DNA points to ancient Palestine Jordan and Libya.
The test states this about the analysis,
EthioHelix Africa K10 + Palestinian – Palestinian acts as a proxy for Middle Eastern ancestry in this case. Results are currently most meaningful for persons who are a mix of African and Middle Eastern
EB4566
Population
Nilo-Saharan 7.44 Pct
East-Africa1 4.65 Pct
Mbuti-Pygmy 2.25 Pct
Eastern-Bantu 21.41 Pct
Khoi-San 3.12 Pct
West-Africa 39.04 Pct
Hadza 2.69 Pct
Biaka-Pygmy 10.73 Pct
Palestinian 5.31 Pct
Omotic 3.37 Pct
For more background on this see these posts if you haven’t already The Queen of sheba The history of Judah Ouidah Whydah Judeo
Yoruba people below
So far my DNA matches South Sudan Oromo tribes South Somalia Bantu and Yoruba Igbo/Ibo. My cousin is matching Oromo & Hausa Fulani.
Having uploaded my own raw data to Gedmatch my own ancient DNA results show I match the Esan, Igbo Hausa Fulani and  Yoruba tribe.
See below  my Ancient asian DNA

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Gambian @ 4.575696
2 Esan @ 7.768073
3 Yoruba @ 7.768073
4 Mota @ 12.071078
5 Hadza @ 13.417694
6 Masai @ 25.794815
7 Somali @ 46.685955
8 Moroccan @ 80.260406
9 Saharawi @ 81.614891
10 Algerian @ 83.698547
11 Yemeni @ 89.642319
12 Libyan @ 90.041283
13 Egyptian @ 93.023880
14 GoyetQ116 @ 97.088066
15 BedouinA @ 98.755363
16 Jordanian @ 101.344734
17 Syrian @ 102.231903
18 Palestinian @ 102.558189
19 Steppe_IA @ 104.329994
20 Jew_Libyan @ 104.358345

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 Sub_Saharan 93.13
2 West_European_Hunter_Gartherer 2.39
3 Natufian 1.95
4 Ancestral_North_Eurasian 1.76
5 Ancestral_South_Eurasian 0.76

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 Gambian 4.77
2 Esan 8.16
3 Yoruba 8.16
4 Mota 12.59
5 Hadza 14.06
6 Masai 27.1
7 Somali 49.08
8 Moroccan 84.37
9 Saharawi 85.73
10 Algerian 87.94
11 Yemeni 94.4
12 Libyan 94.75
13 Egyptian 97.91
14 GoyetQ116 101.79
15 BedouinA 103.97
16 Jordanian 106.72
17 Syrian 107.67
18 Palestinian 107.97
19 Steppe_IA 109.71
20 Turkmen 109.76

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 96% Gambian + 4% Steppe_Eneolithic @ 0.67
2 96% Gambian + 4% Steppe_EMBA @ 0.71
3 93.2% Yoruba + 6.8% Steppe_MLBA @ 0.8
4 93.2% Esan + 6.8% Steppe_MLBA @ 0.8
5 96% Gambian + 4% Steppe_MLBA @ 0.89
6 93.3% Yoruba + 6.7% Ukrainian @ 1.07
7 93.3% Esan + 6.7% Ukrainian @ 1.07
8 95.9% Gambian + 4.1% Steppe_IA @ 1.07
9 93.3% Esan + 6.7% Russian @ 1.11
10 93.3% Yoruba + 6.7% Russian @ 1.11
11 93.4% Yoruba + 6.6% Norwegian @ 1.11
12 93.4% Esan + 6.6% Norwegian @ 1.11
13 96% Gambian + 4% Russian @ 1.12
14 96.1% Gambian + 3.9% Estonian @ 1.13
15 96% Gambian + 4% Finnish @ 1.13
16 96.1% Gambian + 3.9% Lithuanian @ 1.13
17 93.4% Yoruba + 6.6% Hungarian @ 1.14
18 93.4% Esan + 6.6% Hungarian @ 1.14
19 93.4% Yoruba + 6.6% Scottish @ 1.14
20 93.4% Esan + 6.6% Scottish @ 1.14
My first ancestry DNA analysis

Estimate

Benin/Togo
40%
Cameroon, Congo, and Southern Bantu Peoples
22%
Ivory Coast/Ghana
12%
Africa Southeastern Bantu
10%
Nigeria
7%
Iberian Peninsula
2%
Senegal
2%
Mali
2%
England, Wales & Northwestern Europe
1%
Ireland/Scotland/Wales
1%
Europe East
1%
The updated version

Ethnicity Estimate

Benin/Togo49%

Cameroon, Congo, and Southern Bantu Peoples34%

Ivory Coast/Ghana11%

England, Wales & Northwestern Europe5%

Mali1%

DNA land analyses my data like this

Lower Niger Valley

Includes: Yoruba and Esan in Nigeria and Yoruba in (Nigeria) Ibadan

Senegal River Valley

Includes: Mandenka in Senegal and Gambian in Western Gambia

Mende/Akan

Includes: Mende Sierra_Leone_MSL and Mende in Sierra Leone

Balkan

Includes: Albanian in Albania; Bulgarian in Bulgaria and Greek in (2 sites) Greece

Northwest European

Includes: Scottish Argyll_Bute_GBR and British in England; Icelandic in Iceland; Norwegian in Norway and Orcadian in Orkney Islands

My Raw DNA

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 W_African 82.21
2 Wht_Nile_River 8.08
3 NE_European 3.62
4 S_African 2.6
5 Horn_Of_Africa 2.37
6 Mediterranean 0.62
7 Oceanian 0.27
8 Omo_River 0.25
The tribes that  I am connected to are  spread all over
Africa. The African Kingdoms spread across vast areas
in the past.
Over the years there has been endless migrations and
mixing. However many tribes will only have children
with neighbouring tribes. With DNA analysis you can
track the places that your ancestors have been.
 The Hausa are a diverse but culturally homogeneous people based primarily in the Sahelian and Sudanian Daura area of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger, with significant numbers also living in parts of CameroonCôte d’IvoireChadTogoGhana,[1]SudanGabon and Senegal.
The below shows an African Ancestry DNA certificate which confirms the below person’s Ancestry is from the Hausa Fulani tribe in Cameroon.

 

20180206_003430

I decided to explore the possible Saudi Arabia and Yemen connections a little further.

Kuwaiti native population comprises three distinct genetic subgroups of Persian, “city-dwelling” Saudi Arabian tribe, and nomadic “tent-dwelling” Bedouin ancestry. Bedouin subgroup is characterized by presence of 17% African ancestry; it owes it origin to nomadic tribes of the deserts of Arabian Peninsula and North Africa

Bedouins are “tent-dwelling” nomads who roamed the deserts of Middle East; they epitomize the best adaptation of human life to desert conditions [7]. In much of the Middle East and North Africa, the term Bedouin is used to descriptively differentiate between those (bedu) whose livelihood is based on raising livestock by mainly natural graze and those (hadar) who have an agricultural or urban base [8]. Bedouins are originally desert-dwelling tribes of the Arabian Peninsula and are particularly descendants of (i) those settled in the southwestern Arabia, in the mountains of Yemen; and (ii) those settled in North-Central Arabia. Bedouins started to spread out to surrounding deserts of Middle East (particularly Arabian and Syrian deserts) and North Africa (particularly Sinai Peninsula of Egypt and the Sahara Desert of North Africa

The mitochondrial haplogroup (indication of maternal ancestry) of the Bedouin participant is determined as L3d1a1a [L3d], that is predominantly seen in West-Central Africa—among the Fulani [13], Chadians [13], Ethiopians [14], Akan people [15], Mozambique [14], and Yemen [14]. Kivisild et al.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213596014001299#bb0015

 

the above extract clearly states that this particular participant is Bedouin and related to the Akan and Fulani. Further research has shown that there are middle eastern people’s who share Ghanaian and Nigerian ancestry generations back. When the first African nomads migrated they went to the East.

 OOA

berbera

m10805_mo

m12070_ni

ethipiopids-as-a-separate-race

Now let’s explore this high ancient asian connection

15 BedouinA 103.97
16 Jordanian 106.72
17 Syrian 107.67
18 Palestinian 107.97
19 Steppe_IA 109.71
20 Turkmen 109.7

The region of Palestine is among the earliest sites of human habitation in the world. Archaeological evidence suggests a hunter-gatherer community living a nomadic existence in the region pre-10,000 BCE. In the Early Bronze Age, permanent settlements were founded and agricultural communities developed. Trade was initiated with other regions in the Near East and, because of its location between the cities of Mesopotamia and those of Arabia and Egypt, Palestine became an important trading hub and attracted the attention of Sargon the Great (2334-2279 BCE)

https://www.ancient.eu/palestine/

YorubaMuslim

A study found that the Palestinians, like Jordanians, Syrians, Iraqis, Turks, and Kurds have what appears to be Female-Mediated gene flow in the form of Maternal DNA Haplogroups from Sub-Saharan Africa. Of the 117 Palestinian individuals tested, 15 carried maternal haplogroups that originated in Sub-Saharan Africa. These results are consistent with female migration from eastern Africa into Near Eastern communities within the last few thousand years. There have been many opportunities for such migrations during this period. However, the most likely explanation for the presence of predominantly female lineages of African origin in these areas is that they may trace back to women brought from Africa as part of the Arab slave trade, assimilated into the areas under Arab rule.[160]

turkic-invasions-slavery-routes-in-africa5041-050-8C145322YORUBA MIGRATIONS0013f4b94fa1b2b85221f9e22fd43b8c

Yorubaland spans the modern day countries of NigeriaTogo and Benin,

400px-Yorubaland_Cultural_Area_of_West_Africa

Geophysically, Yoruba land spreads north from the Gulf of Guinea and west from the Niger River into Benin and Togo; In the northern section, Yorubaland begins in the suburbs just west of Lokoja and continues unbroken up to the Ogou tributary of the Mono River in Togo, a distance of around 610 km. In the south, it begins in an area just west of the Benin river occupied by the Ilaje Yorubas and continues uninterrupted up to Porto Novo, a total distance of about 270 km as the crow flies. West of Porto Novo Gbe speakers begin to predominate.

350px-HistoYoruba

See the below

Four of the major coastal tribes of Western Africa: the Yoruba, Igbo, Akan and the Gaa-Adangbe are dissimilar at a glance and evidently geographic neighbours, but very closely related, when examined at the genetic level.

According to this landmark study, there was a 99.9 percent within-population variance, the between-population variance was less than 0.1 percent. This means that Yorubas, Igbos, Gaa and Akan are 99.9 percent similar.

  http://venturesafrica.com/black-panther-is-just-what-it-is/

 

144

The Southern part of Nigeria is Biafra. Biafra borders Cameroon. My DNA shows high Benin/ Togo and Cameroon/Congo

Biafra was once in modern day Cameroon.

nigeria-1

nounplural Ibos (especially collectivelyIbo.

1.

a member of an indigenous black people of southeastern Nigeria, renowned as traders and for their art.

2.

the language of the Ibo, a Kwa language.
Igbo people

Cameroon_CIA_WFB_2006_map

The Bight of Benin was the Slave Coast. You can see Dahomey and Benin in the map below with Cameroon as it’s neighbour.

a7696481c95a51fe969dd914c6cfdd3d--statistics-edinburgh

The Ebo connection to Benin is further supported by Onyebuechi Amene who states the following;

“ Ebo is a Benin name. It was the Binis that went to Igala and
formed the Igala Royal families that took the name to Igala.”

“ The Ebo family of Isiskre still retain their ancestral Bini
names.”

Those captives who came to the Americas from Ghana and Benin (Dahomey) were those known as Ebo or the Mina tribes. In fact a Mina tribe remains in the Kwara State of Yorubaland and refer to themselves as Igbo-Mina using the original Igbo spelling of the name.

It was the Portuguese Jewish slave traders who began selling Ebo captives from Benin to Ghana where they were used to work the Gold Mines. These traders coined the Ebo as “ Mina tribes “ meaning those destined for El-Mina, a Portuguese word meaning “ The Mines “. El-Mina became central to the slave trade in Ghana.

The most powerful amongst the Ebo(Mina) to arrive in Ghana were those called Ewe.

https://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-greater-igbo-nation-by-ishaq-d-al-sulaimani/comment-page-2/#comment-76198

Negroland_and_Guinea_with_the_European_Settlements,_1736

Most of the slaves of Bight of Benin that hailed from Benin itself were imported to South Carolina (36%), Virginia (23%), Gulf Coast (28%) and Florida (9,8%). The top three picked up a few thousand slaves of this Straits (Florida only received 698 slaves from Bight of Benin).[citation needed] Many of those slaves were imported to Louisiana and Alabama (where was famous the case of Clotilde slave ship, that exported between 110 and 160 slaves from Dahomey to Mobile in 1859, between them to Cudjo Lewis (ca. 1840 – 1935), considered the last person born on African soil to have been enslaved in the United States when slavery was still lawful),[2] both belonging to the Gulf Coast. It was in Louisiana where her presence was notable. Indeed, between 1719 and 1731, most of the slaves who came to that place came directly from Benin. They were especially Fon,[3] but many slaves also were of ethnics such as Nago (Yoruba subgroup, although exported mainly by Spanish,[4] when the Louisiana was Spanish) -, Ewe, and Gen. Many of the slaves imported to the modern United States since Benin were sold by the King of Dahomey, in Whydah.[2] [note 1] However, not all the slaves sold in day-present Benin were of there: Many were of other places, but were captured by Dahomeyan warriors.[6] The native slaves from current Benin came from places as Porto-Novo, from where were brought to the port of Ouidah, place in the that was realized the slave shopping. This place brought many slaves

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beninese_Americans

biafra43-2.png

This area is highlighted in my DNA. See my region results of that area below.

20180907_004723.jpg

35de13db2a9115f2ce36c0072c68e7c2

Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa personal account of a slave

That part of Africa known by the name of Guinea, to which the trade for slaves is carried on, extends along the coast above 3400 miles, from the Senegal to Angola, and includes a variety of kingdoms. Of these the most considerable is the kingdom of Benin, both as to extent and wealth, the richness and cultivation of the soil, the power of its king, and the number and warlike disposition of the inhabitants. It is situated nearly under the line, and extends along the coast about 170 miles, but runs back into the interior part of Africa to a distance hitherto I believe unexplored by any traveller; and seems only terminated at length by the empire of Abyssinia, near 1500 miles from its beginning.

This kingdom is divided into many provinces or districts: in one of the most remote and fertile of which, called Eboe, I was born in the year 1745 in a charming fruitful vale named Essaka. The distance of this province from the capital of Benin and the sea coast must be very considerable, for I had never heard of white men or Europeans, nor of the sea: and our subjection to the king of Benin was little more than nominal; for every transaction of the government, as far as my slender observation extended, was conducted by the chiefs or elders of the place.

 

INAUGURalmeetinginbenincity.jpg

The Kingdom of Whydah /ˈhwɪdəˈhwɪdˌɔː/ (YorubaXwédaFrenchOuidah) was a kingdom on the coast of West Africa in the boundaries of the modern nation of Benin. Between 1677 and 1681 it was conquered by the Akwamu, one of the Akan people.[1] It was a major slave trading post. In 1700, it had a coastline of around 16 kilometres (10 mi);[2] under King Haffon, this was expanded to 64 km (40 mi), and stretching 40 km (25 mi) inland.[3]

The name Whydah (also spelt HuedaWhidah, OuidahWhidaw, and Juda[4]) is an anglicised form of Xwéda (pronounced o-wi-dah), from the Yoruba language of Benin. Today the port city of Ouidah bears the kingdom’s name; it is in the far west of the former Popo Kingdom and is where most of the European slave traders lived and worked.

Whidah is also spelt Juda (spoken as Jew-dah/ Yahudah) see the below for historical evidence.

Istealite.PNG

13434917_10207961110284385_8633878494114018912_n2

(Scholars state whydah is a bird but I propose another meaning to the name)

Whydah (also spelt HuedaWhidah, OuidahWhidaw, and Juda[4]

See strongs 3063

3063 [e] וִֽיהוּדָ֔ה
wî-hū-ḏāh,
and Judah

wî·hū·ḏāh = Juda

Englishman’s Concordance

wî·hū·ḏāh — 47 Occurre  nces

Genesis 35:23 
HEB: וְשִׁמְעוֹן֙ וְלֵוִ֣י וִֽיהוּדָ֔ה וְיִשָּׂשכָ֖ר וּזְבוּלֻֽן׃
KJV: and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar,

See strongs 5912

5912 [e] עָכָ֗ן
‘ā-ḵān,
Achan
ā·ḵān 
Englishman’s Concordance

ā·ḵān — 6 OccurrencesJoshua 7:1 
HEB: בַּחֵ֑רֶם וַיִּקַּ֡ח עָכָ֣ן בֶּן־ כַּרְמִי֩
NAS: under the ban, for Achan, the son
KJV: in the accursed thing: for Achan, the son
INT: to the things took Achan the son of Carmi

https://biblehub.com/hebrew/achan_5912.htm

ACHAN a’-kan (`akhan (in 1 Chronicles 2:7 Achar, `akhar, “troubler”): The descendant of Zerah the son of Judah.

(Joshua 7).

701a3649dfd8c532c53bce18b7021900--ashanti-empire-kumasi-ghana.jpg

Asante and Akan Kingdoms

    Travelling North from Congo you have Guinea Gabon Cameroon Biafra Benin Nigeria Togo Ghana which brings you to the Gold and Slave Coast.

Asante_map-1

The Ashanti are believed to descend from Abyssinians, who were pushed south by the Egyptian forces.[4][5]

Abyssinian people (Ge’ezሐበሻይት), also known as the Habesha or Abesha, are a population inhabiting the Horn of Africa.

Members’ cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the Kingdom of Dʿmt (usually vocalized Diʿamat) and the Kingdom of Aksum.[3] Scholars have classified the Amhara and the Tigreans as Abyssinians proper.[4] The Ge’ez speaking people, minimally affected by Sabaean influence, formed the ethnic and cultural stock for both the pre-Axumite and Axumite states.[5][6] Ge’ez, which is closely related to Tigrinyaand Tigre, is also believed to be the ancestor of the diverse southern Ethiopian Semitic languages including Amharic.[7][8] Together, the Amhara and Tigray constitute over 33% of Ethiopia‘s population (c. 27 million Amhara, 6.1 million Tigray).[9][10]

End

CIMG1219

FANTE people above

My paternal line shared African Ethnicity 

 

Match 1 

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo, 

Trace Regions:   Benin/Togo,

 

Match 2

 

 

 

 

Immediately above in bold my Ghanian cousins DNA whose surname is an Ashanti Akan surname. From the 2 DNA matches above I can see that in my Father’s family line is Ivory Coast/Ghana & Benin/Togo

GHANAIAN DNA sample below

VkYSUgu

gh-4x

In my DNA matches I have Quartey and Lartey Surnames which are Ghanian Akan Ga Dangme 

See the below brief history

The GaDangmes of Ghana are believed to be related by blood to the Igbos of Nigeria.  However, in his book, GA HOMOWO, Charles Nii Ammah (1982) stated that according to oral tradition, the Ga believe they migrated from Israel.  Ammah suggested that the Ga people are descendants of Cush (Benjamin) from the twelfth tribe of Israel.  He contends that the Ga people were really ‘JEWS’ who migrated from “Egypt” and settled on the land they now occupy.

http://gadangme.weebly.com/ga-dangme-origins.html

King Ayi Kushi: the Revered Spiritual and Political Leader.
Ayi Kushi was a revered political and spiritual ruler who is credited with the formation of the Gá State. His son, Ayitey, is said to have marched with the Gá, Dangmes, Obutus, and Awutus to establish the inland kingdom of Ayawaso. The kingdom of Ayawaso’s capital was Okaikoi. Osudoku, at the time, was the epicentre of Dangme culture. Ayi Kushi is described as an illustrious and astute leader, and law-giver who united the Gá-Dangme into a powerful tribe; and set the precedent for the diplomatic and conquering activities of later Gá kings. To strengthen the Gá state, Ayi Kushi encouraged intermarriage between Gás, Dangmes, Akyems, Awutus, Akwapims and Obutus.

https://www.thegadangme.com/ga-mantsemei-list-and-short-descriptions/

The Ga are descended from immigrants who came down the Niger River and across the Volta during the 17th century. The Ga-speaking peoples were organized into six independent towns (Accra, Osu, Labadi, Teshi, Nungua, and Tema). Each town had a stool, which served as the central object of Ga ritual and war magic. Accra became the most prominent Ga town and is now the capital of Ghana.

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ga

Kings of the Ga State

Nii Ayi Kushi (Cush)                                 1510- 1535)                    He led the GaDangmes
to Ayawaso in Ghana.                                                                      Nii Ayite                                                         1535 -1560
Nii Koi Nalai                                                 1560 – 1585

Owura Mampong Okai                               1585- 1610Queen Dode (Dodi) Akaibi                         1610 – 1636          She was said to have reigned with tyranny.

Nii Okaikoi                                                  1635 – 1660

 

akuapem56

The Lartey area and people of Ghana and their history extract from http://www.easternchiefs.org/akuapem/

  • The following 17 principal towns form the Akuapem state, 
    1. Berekuso
    2. Atweasing
    3. Aburi
    4. Ahwerase
    5. Asantema (Obosomase)
    6. Tutu
    7. Mampong
    8. Abotakyi
    9. Amanokurom
    10. Mamfe
    11. Akropong
    12. Abiriw
    13. Odawu,
    14. Awukugua
    15. Adukrom
    16. Apirede 
    17. Larteh.

The story of Larteh Akuapem cannot be told in isolation without a little about the Guans, Ga or Accra, Akyem and Akwamu history.

The indigenous inhabitants on the Akuapem Mountains are the Guans which consists of Larteh (comprising Larteh, Mamfe, Abotakyi, Mampong, Obosomase, and Tutu) and the OKERE or Kyerepong (Comprising Abiriw, Dawu, Awukugua, Adukrom, Apirede, Abonse-Asesieso).

Larteh lies on parallel ridge to the east on the Akonnobepow, while the rest of the towns lie in line along the crest of the main ridge on Bewasebepow.

Legend has it that the founding fathers of Larteh carried with them flint stone to ignite fire, and for this reason the La who traveled from Boni on the Niger Delta fraternized with the Larteh during their journey along the beach.

The people of Larteh, Kpeshie and La originated from the Les who originally occupied the coast before the arrival of the Gá; The La are closely related to the Larteh, the people of Gbese, the Agotimes and the original inhabitants of Osu. However, the oral traditions of the La suggest that their people were part of the original Gá, and that the town was in fact founded by descendants of a brother of Ayi Kushi; hence in constitutional matters the La Mantse deputises for the Gá Mantse in all issues affecting the Gá polity.

After briefly settling at Ayawaso the La seems to have re-located to Ladoku and from thence to Podoku. The Las, under Adjei Onano and Numo Ngmashie his great chief, appear to have been granted land by the king of Nungua who owned all the land between Nungua and Osu; the grant was against the expressed wishes of Borketey Larweh, the priest of Nungua. After a dispute over water rights and alleged murder of a La princess, the Labadis proposed to have a hand each cut off from Sowa, the high priest and Borketey Larweh. After Borketey Larweh’s hand had been cut off the La reneged on their part of the bargain; as a result, Borketey Larweh is said to have vanished into the sea.

Various traditions indicate that Teshie was founded by Nii Mgmashie, a nephew of the mankralo of Labadi. The town soon attracted other Gá-Dangme peoples, including Aseres, Nunguas, Krobos, Obutus, Pramprams. It therefore grew to become one of the principal Gá-Dangme towns.

Due to their location Tema and Kpone tended to feature less prominently in Gá-Dangme history and politics than their present importance suggests. A considerable early presence of Les in the vicinity of Tema was overlain by immigrant Gá and Dangme peoples. Although Kpone is a Dangme town it appears to be more influenced than other Dangme towns by Gá language and culture. With the re-location of people of Tema New Town on Kpone traditional lands it appears that the future of Tema and Kpone is intertwined.

The main Ga goup known as the Tumgwa We led by Ayi Kushie arrived by sea. When the Guans (Lartehs) on the coast saw them on their canoes on sea they looked like ants. Hence the Lartehs refer to them as Nkran (ants). Nkran was later corrupted by the Danes to Akra then to present day Accra. Nkran in the Ga language is Gaga, thus they also started calling themselves Ga. Due to their sheer numbers, the Lartehs thus relocated to the Hills. The Ga are also part of the main Guan group that started the initial migration from the Nubia Empire.

The Guan speaking people live mostly in Ghana though there are some pockets in Togo, Benin and Cote D’Ivoire. Modern historians more or less agree that since time immemorial the Guans have been the original inhabitants of Ghana, because unlike the Akan who arrived from Bouna in the north west, the Ewe from Notsie in Togo in about 1720, the Ga-Adangbe from certain parts in Nigeria and the Mossie-Dagomba group of state who emigrated from the north-east ,the Guans, on the other hand, migrated from nowhere thus Ghana is the ancestral homeland of the Guans. Another school of thought is that the Guans migrated from Israel through Nubia in East Africa to the west of Africa with their capital at Timbuktu.

Even the pockets of the Guans in Togo (The Anyanga), those In Benin (The Gbede, Wese, Okomfo) and the Baule In Cote D’Ivoire claim migrant origin from Ghana. There are numerous studies, which support Guans claim to their autochonous (i.e. aboriginal) status. There is a factual information provided by Professor Adu Boahene who says; neither the Akan nor the Ga-Adangbe found the coastal district of Ghana unoccupied.

asante_map1355183030379-1

Nii-Adam-Kwatei-Quartey

Above the Gbawe Kwatei Head of family, Nii Adam Kwatei Quartey

Quarteys’ all over the world are descendants of the Royal Family of Kpakpatse We clan of the Asεrε group of the Ga speaking people, which is one of the seven quarters (Akutséii) that constituted the Ashiedu Kεtεkε District within the Odododiodioo Constituency of the Ga Mashie Community in Accra. The Asεrε group of people comprises of five different clans which relocated to the coastal settlements of Little Akra (Ga Mashie) after the destruction of Great Akra (Ayawaso) by the Akwamus in the early Sixteen Century.

https://kpakpatseweroyalfamily.wordpress.com/2011/06/18/origin-of-the-ga-people-in-ghana/

Nanny of the Maroons

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Nanny was born into the Ashanti tribe about 1686 in what is now Ghana, West Africa.[4] It is believed that some of her family members were involved in intertribal conflict and her village was captured. Nanny and several relatives were sold as slaves and transported to Jamaica. There she was likely sold to a plantation in Saint Thomas Parish, just outside the Port Royal area. The commodity crop was sugarcane, and the slaves toiled under extremely harsh conditions to cultivate, harvest and process it. Another version of her life tells that she was of royal African blood and came to Jamaica as a free woman. She may have been married to a man named Adou, but had no known children who survived.[3]

As a child, Nanny was influenced by other slave leaders and maroons. She and her “brothers”, Accompong, Cudjoe and Quao, ran away from their plantation and hid in the Blue Mountains area of northern Saint Thomas Parish.[4] While in hiding, they split up to organize more Maroon communities across Jamaica: Cudjoe went to Saint James Parish and organized a village, which was later named Cudjoe Town; Accompong settled in Saint Elizabeth Parish, in a community that came to be known as Accompong Town;[6] and Nanny and Quao founded communities in Portland Parish.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanny_of_the_Maroons

I did not realise that my maroon ancestor was from the same parish in Jamaica as Nanny of the maroons, St Thomas in the East until I re read the information. My maroon ancestor would have surely heard the legacy of Nanny of the Maroons as there were 70 years maximum between them. The stories of some of the Ashanti being in the mountains would have been alive at the time of my ancestor. It is quite possible the Maroons came and released my ancestor and others as this is what they did on many occasions. They released the slaves took them with them, took food and guns and sometimes killed the slave masters and burnt down their buildings before leaving. Nanny’s oral history is that her village was captured during war.  Below we will explore accounts of the Ashanti wars.

Below before we look at the Ashanti I have posted a short clip on the African female warriors.

Below from https://amazingbibletimeline.com/blog/ashanti-empire-trade-slaves-guns/

The Rise of the Ashanti Empire

During the 1670s, groups of Akan people from northern Ghana escaped strife in their homeland and flocked to the fertile region around Kumasi. Two of the most powerful clans that migrated to Kumasi were the Bretuo and the Oyoko. At that time, however, the refugees were forced to submit to the powerful Denkyira nation.To assure the Denkyira of his people’s submission, the Oyoko chief Obiri Yeboa sent his nephew Osei Tutu to live with and serve them.

Osei Tutu served as a shield bearer to Boa Amponsem, the chief of the Denkyira. He later fled to the territory of the Akwamu because of the cruelty of the people he served. He worked for the Akwamu chief and quickly rose to prominence there. He also befriended the priest Okomfo Anokye who soon became his firm ally. His uncle, chief Obiri Yeboa, later died in battle, so Osei Tutu was summoned back to his homeland to rule. He continued the conquests made by his uncle and even subdued other groups of Akan people in the area.

Osei Tutu, with the help of Okomfo Anokye and his Akwamu allies, slowly built the Ashanti kingdom. During the 1690s, Osei Tutu and his people declared their independence from the Denkyira. Full-scale war flared out between the Denkyira and the Ashanti in 1699, but the Ashanti emerged victorious in 1701 in the Battle of Feyiase.  

End

ashanti-kingdom.jpg

In their struggle against the suzerain state of Denkyera and lesser neighbouring states, the Asante people made little headway until the accession, probably in the 1670s, of Osei Tutu. After a series of campaigns that crushed all opposition, he was installed as Asantehene, or king of the new Asante state, whose capital was named Kumasi. His authority was symbolized by the Golden Stool, on which all subsequent kings were enthroned.

From the beginning of the 18th century, the Asante supplied slaves to British and Dutch traders on the coast; in return they received firearms with which to enforce their territorial expansion. After the death of Osei Tutu in either 1712 or 1717, a period of internal chaos and factional strife was ended with the accession of Opoku Ware (ruled c. 1720–50), under whom Asante reached its fullest extent in the interior of the country. Kings Osei Kwadwo (ruled c. 1764–77), Osei Kwame (1777–1801), and Osei Bonsu (c. 1801–24) established a strong centralized state, with an efficient, merit-based bureaucracy and a fine system of communications.

In 1807 Osei Bonsu occupied southern Fante territory—an enclave around British headquarters at Cape Coast; in the same year, Great Britain outlawed the slave trade. Declining trade relations and disputes over the Fante region caused friction over the following decade and led to warfare in the 1820s. The Asante defeated a British force in 1824 but made peace in 1831 and avoided conflict for the next 30 years.

In 1863, under Kwaku Dua (ruled 1834–67), the Asante again challenged the British by sending forces to occupy the coastal provinces. In 1869 the British took possession of Elmina (over which Asante claimed jurisdiction), and in 1874 an expeditionary force under Sir Garnet Wolseley marched on Kumasi. Though Wolseley managed to occupy the Asante capital for only one day, the Asante were shocked to realize the inferiority of their military and communications systems. The invasion, moreover, sparked numerous secessionary revolts in the northern provinces. The old southern provinces were formally constituted the Gold Coast colony by the British later in 1874. Asante’s king Kofi Karikari was then deposed, and Mensa Bonsu (ruled 1874–83) assumed power. He attempted to adapt the agencies of Asante government to the changed situation. Although he reorganized the army, appointed some Europeans to senior posts, and increased Asante resources, he was prevented from restoring Asante imperial power by the British political agents, who supported the northern secessionist chiefs and the opponents of central government in Kumasi. The empire continued to decline under his successor, Prempeh I (acceded 1888), during whose reign, on January 1, 1902, Asante was formally declared a British crown colony, the former northern provinces being on the same day separately constituted the Protectorate of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast.

https://www.britannica.com/place/Asante-empire

 

Kumasi (historically spelled Comassie or Coomassie and usually spelled Kumase in Twi)[3] is a city in Ashanti Region, and is among the largest metropolitan areas in Ghana. Kumasi is near Lake Bosomtwe, in a rain forest region, and is the commercial, industrial and cultural capital ofAsanteman. Kumasi is approximately 500 kilometres (300 mi) north of the Equator and 200 kilometres (100 mi) north of the Gulf of Guinea. Kumasi is alternatively known as “The Garden City” because of its many beautiful species of flowers and plants. It is also called Oseikrom (Osei Tutu’s town). Kumasi is described as Ghana’s second city.[4]

AsantemanEdit

Kings Way Road in Kumasi, 1925.

The city rose to prominence in 1695 when it became capital of the Ashanti Confederacy due to the activities of its ruler Osei Tutu. The ruler of Kumasi, known as the Asantehene, also served as ruler of the Confederacy. With their 1701 victory over Denkyira the Asante confederacy became the primary state among the Ashantis.[5]Parts of the city, including the then royal residence, were destroyed by British troops in the Third Anglo-Ashanti War of 1874.

2006_44_40.jpg

The Kwa people of Africa include the Ga-Dangbe, Ewe, Akwapim, Fanti, Kwahu, and Akim and Ashanti.

This totally matches what I have found through my DNA analysis. This is is why in my posts you see me looking at Ga Ewe Akan Fanti and Ashanti and Ibo DNA and seeing that I match them. We are the KWA Niger Congo Bantu Afro Asiatic family. It is known but not publicised that the Bantu expanded from Cameroon/Congo to populate the South and North of Africa.

bantu-1 

12862_2009_Article_1308_Fig2_HTML

Between the 10th and 12th centuries AD the ethnic Akan people migrated into the forest belt of Southern Ghana and established several Akan states:

  • Ashanti The Ashanti Region is known for its major gold bar and cocoa production. The largest city and regional capital is Kumasi.

Before the Ashanti Kingdom had contact with Europeans, it had a flourishing trade with other African states due to the Ashanti gold wealth. Trade with European states began after contact with the Portuguese in the 15th century AD.[6] When the gold mines in the Sahel started to play out, the Ashanti Kingdom rose to prominence as the major player in the gold trade.[5] At the height of the Ashanti Kingdom, the Ashanti people became wealthy through the trading of gold mined from their territory.[5]

Ewe People also known as Evê can be found in Ghana, Togo, Benin, some parts of Nigeria and Ivory Coast, they are part of the Gbe Speaking People and related to the Fon, Mina and Aja people.  According to Professor Amenumey he claimed they originally came from Ketu in Dahomey See this link for the original post Ewe People of Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Benin and Ivory Coast

The Ewes moved into the area which is now Togo from the Niger river valley between the 12th and 14th centuries. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portuguese explorers and traders visited the coast. For the next 200 years, the coastal region was a major raiding center for Europeans in search of slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name “The Slave Coast.”

http://www.worldrover.com/history/togo_history.htmlp

ghana-anloewe-girls-at-the-hogbetsoto-festival-picture-id549027823-1.jpg

The Gbe languages (pronounced [ɡbè])[2] form a cluster of about twenty related languages stretching across the area between eastern Ghana and western Nigeria. The total number of speakers of Gbe languages is between four and eight million. The most widely spoken Gbe language is Ewe (3 million speakers in Ghana and Togo), followed by Fon (1.7 million, mainly in Benin). The Gbe languages were traditionally placed in the Kwa branch of the Niger–Congo languages, but more recently have been classified as Volta–Niger languages. They include five major dialect clusters: Ewe, Fon, Aja, Gen (Mina), and Phla–Pherá.

Akan-States

princeraymap1

The Ghanaian diet and staple foods below

I see where Jamaicans get their style of cooking. The above collage could be Jamaican or West Indian.

814px-niger-congo_map_with_delimitation-1-1

Coromantee (derived from the name of the Ghanaian coastal town “Kormantse”), also called Coromantins, Coromanti or Kormantine was the English name given to Akan slaves from the Gold Coast or modern-day Ghana. The term Coromantee is now considered archaic as it simply refers to Akan people, and was primarily used in the Caribbean. Coromantins actually came from several Akan ethnic groups – Ashanti, Fanti, Akyem, etc. – presumably taken as war captives. Owing to their militaristic background and common Akan language, Coromantins organized dozens of slave rebellions in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. Their fierce, rebellious nature became so notorious among white plantation owners in the 18th century that an Act was proposed to ban the importation of people from the Gold Coast despite their reputation as strong workers. The Akans had the single largest African cultural influence on Jamaica, including Jamaican Maroons whose culture and language was seen as a derivation of Akan.Names of some notable Coromantee leaders such as Cudjoe, Quamin, Cuffy, and Quamina correspond to Akan day names Kojo, Kwame, Kofi, and Kwabena, respectively.

Ghana Rising: Coromantee : The Akan Warriors of the New World….

Read more: http://www.city-data.com/forum/americas/1588182-african-country-does-jamaica-have-lot-5.html#ixzz5PfAuAkmp

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large
Now that I have gained a general understanding of the back ground of these ancestors, I will begin to dig deeper into their tribes. Since doing my DNA test ancestry DNA have further developed their DNA technology. The updates point to me being completely of Akan descent.

 

As we have established the Ewe and Ga tribes are part of the Niger Congo Kwa Akan language group.

On the below map the Akan are again shown to be part of the Niger Congo people’s, Kwa and Volta Congo.

1280px-Map_of_the_Volta–Congo_languages.svg

2Ghana-map-langues

The above puts the Ga subgroup right in the heart of Accra. This map reflects my findings on my Akan ancestors who were almost certainely from western Ghana. Research suggests my DNA is reflective of the Ga Ewe and Ashanti living in and near Accra.

ghana-ashanti-ewe-map

jul-17-1-1-gap2_1

Below is the Ghanaian region identified in my DNA.

20180907_004915

Records and DNA analysis indicate that some of my ancestors were from Accra.

See my below results. My ancestors seem to be from this South west region and also further to the East.

20180907_005333

20180907_011619.jpg

Earlier I mentioned having a DNA match with the surname Ageypong which is a Ashanti surname. Some of my ancestors were from the area above, especially Akropong and Larteh.

Now let’s briefly explore the ancient history of the Akans

ancient egyptians and the akana people – ResearchGate
DOC https://www.researchgate.net › links › Ak…

The descendants of Ancient Egyptians (Akans) and the Assyrians (Assin) are currently living in the African continent. … Those Akan groups and some of the present day smaller tribes, who form minorities in West Africa as a whole, all wandered from the Ancient civilisations in the Mesopotamia and the Ancient world.
Akan people – Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Akan_p…

The Akan are a meta-ethnicity predominantly speaking Central Tano languages and residing in the southern regions of the former ... They migrated from the north, they went through Egypt and settled in Nubia (Sudan).
Ghana: 12 million

Ivory Coast: 9 million

End
Now we will look at where North Mesopatamia  and the ancient world was.
494px-Neo_babylonia_empire_540_bc.svg
The above shows according to Akan history they were from the dark area above.
DNA tribe analysis and oral tradition suggest the migration patterns below 1000-2000 years ago.
Akan_people_(Migration_Pattern_Origin_&_Ethnogenesis)
The below is a migration pattern for Nigeria and Cameroon descendant using DNA. Accra is right next to the blue marker Lagos. The continent had not yet been divided as it is today.
d679d-gps2bo
Other tribes like the Ga took the below pattern

20180830_115535

Below is a picture of the area in South Sudan that is identified in my DNA  from my actual results.

20180906_121151

In the South of Sudan in the same region live a tribe called the Azande tribe.

m10526_od

The Azande people and Congo people are neighbours and probably have the same ancestors .

Azande people

old-man-with-hat-A8122X5fu5XRhi

Congo people

images-6

ForestPygmy2.a

 

screen-shot-2015-04-29-at-2-11-34-pm

DNA analysis of West Africans
E-1b1a-map-_Africa-_Arabia-_Iran-_Pakistan
29093682_167994707192472_4407025552553148416_nfamous-_E1b1-_Y-_DNA-haplogroups
DH-g0bPV0AA5Xmj
For the next part we will look briefly at historical and biblical factors.
The whole region that includes what the Bible calls the Land of Canaan, Palestine and Israel was an extension of the African mainland before it was artificially divided from the main African continent by the manmade Suez Canal.
Second World War correspondents introduced the new name Middle-East for the portion of the land separated from the African mainland.
Before the Second World War the whole region now called Middle-East was known as North-Eastern Africa.
Ancient wagons in the Bible journeyed from these regions to the mainland of Africa on foot (Gen 46:5-7).
Historians Flavius Josephus, Celus, Plutarch, Tacitus, Eusebius, and Diodorus confirm that the original Hebrew were a group of Ethiopians and Egyptians who were forced to leave Egypt and migrate with their caravans on foot to this Land which Canaan ruled, a Land of Africans in North-Eastern Africa.
This is the Land of Africa where Abraham lived for 10 years and married Hagar the Egyptian (Gen 15: 3).
The borders of this land that Canaan and his African descendants lived in and ruled, according to the Bible (Gen 10: 19), extended “from Sidon as thou comest to Gerar unto Gaza and goest unto Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zoboim, even unto Lasha.”
This is the land that was known as North-Eastern Africa.”
images-4
See possible Ashan above close to Beersheba
Ashan Achan Achar Akan??? Ashanti??
ASHAN PEOPLE
Below evidence of  black people in Arabia.
images-5
Below 1813 Arabia
f81a6e8edb981f7299084f01873e125d
Sixteen Views of Places in the Persian Gulph… Forces… Against the Arabian Pirates No 3. Muskat from the Harbour – Apr 1813 Temple, R Clark, I William Haines, William
Click this link below to watch an afro palestinian confirm the above information. West African “Negros” blacks were in Palestine for thousands of years. Some of those that moved to West Africa were sold into slavery.
africaIsrael_Stattered_1_1
9780195390643
afr-ethnicities-n-america-caribbean

 

Below is from bible hub

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

ASHAN

a’-shan (`ashan): An unknown site in the domain of Judah (Joshua 15:42), possessed by Simeon (Joshua 19:7), and mentioned among the priests’ cities in 1 Chronicles 6:59. (44) = Joshua 21:16(`ayin is a corruption of `ashan). Chorashan (or Borashan), which was probably the site of some reservoir in the Southwest part of Judah (1 Samuel 30:30), is the same as Ashan.

6228. Ashan — a place in Judah and later in Simeon
6227, 6228. Ashan. 6229 . a place in Judah and later in Simeon. Transliteration:
Ashan Phonetic Spelling: (aw-shawn’) Short Definition: Ashan.
/hebrew/6228.htm – 6k

1536_bigMap Of Israel And Judah books of the bible maps geography and the bible bible history 695 X 1061

JudahNegevCities

953b. Bor Ashan — “smoking pit,” a place in Judah
Bor Ashan. 953a, 953b. Bor Ashan. 954 . “smoking pit,” a place in Judah.
Transliteration: Bor Ashan Short Definition: Bor-ashan.
/hebrew/953b.htm – 5k

Strong’s Hebrew

Achar. Achan is probably called Achar, from the trouble he occasioned.

Joshua 7:1-5 But the children of Israel committed a trespass in the accursed thing: …

Achan.
accursed.

Deuteronomy 7:26 Neither shall you bring an abomination into your house, lest you …

Achan(troubler), an Israelite of the tribe of Judah, who, when Jericho and all that it contained were accursed and devoted to destruction, secreted a portion of the spoil in his tent. For this sin he was stoned to death with his whole family by the people, in a valley situated between Ai and Jericho, and their remains, together with his property, were burnt. (Joshua 7:19-26) From this event the valley received the name of Achor (i.e. trouble). [ACHOR, VALLEY OF] (B.C. 1450.)

ACHANa’-kan (`akhan (in 1 Chronicles 2:7 Achar, `akhar, “troubler”): The descendant of Zerah the son of Judah who was put to death, in Joshua’s time, for stealing some of the “devoted” spoil of the city of Jericho (Joshua 7). The stem `akhan is not used in Hebrew except in this name. The stem `akhar has sufficient use to define it. It denotes trouble of the most serious kind-Jacob’s trouble when his sons had brought him into blood feud with his Canaanite neighbors, or Jephthah’s trouble when his vow required him to sacrifice his daughter (Genesis 34:30 Judges 11:35).

The Ghanian Slave forts below

 

 

Tracing my Benin/Togo ancestry

 

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350px-Negroland_and_Guinea_with_the_European_Settlements,_1736

Benin (US: /bɪˈnn, –ˈnɪn/ bǝ-NEEN or –NINUK: /bɛˈnn/ beh-NEENFrenchBéninpronounced [benɛ̃]), officially the Republic of Benin (FrenchRépublique du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north. The majority of its population lives on the small southern coastline of the Bight of Benin, part of the Gulf of Guinea in the northernmost tropical portion of the Atlantic Ocean.[7] The capital of Benin is Porto-Novo, but the seat of government is in Cotonou, the country’s largest city and economic capital. 

 

The official language of Benin is French. However, indigenous languages such as Fonand Yoruba are commonly spoken. The largest religious group in Benin is Roman Catholicism, followed closely by IslamVodun andProtestantism. Benin is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation ZoneLa Francophonie, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Petroleum Producers Association and the Niger Basin Authority.[9]

 

c44e25497563075db611e62fb9b5c5fa--vernacular-architecture-sites

 

 

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The Oldest Surviving Kingdom in the World is Great Benin Kingdom and is 2054 years Old. The Ogiso dynasty lasted for about 854 years plus an interregnum of 285 years between the reign of Ogiso Orire and Ogiso Odia, there was an interregnum of 70 years between Ogiso Owodo and Oba Oranmiyan plus 845 years of Oba ruler-ship till date.
1. The First Storey Building in Nigeria was built at Ughoton by the Dutch in the year 1718, and it was called “The Factory”. The said building was destroyed by the British during the war against the Benins in 1897. The site of the building is still intact.
2. The Oldest Church in West-Africa was established in Great Benin Empire by the Earliest Portuguese missionaries in the 16th Century which is today known as the Holy Aruosa (Benin National Church). Pope Pius XII visited Benin and handed the church to the Oba of Benin, Oba Oreoghene in 1692AD.
3. The first Known Embassy Established in Nigeria was in Benin during the reign of Oba Esigie in the 16th century.
4. Elaba is the only Chieftaincy title in Benin Kingdom in whose presence the Oba’s Sword bearer (Omada) would ceremonially hold the Oba’s symbol of Authority(Ada) upside down
5. Oba Orhogbua is the first literate king ever recorded in the present day West-Africa.
6. Chief Ogiamien is one of the Uzama N’Ibie (Uzama Minor), the council was created by Oba Esigie.
7. The Oldest known letter written in Nigeria was by Duarte Pires instructed by Oba Esigie which was addressed to King John II, on the 20th October, 1516AD. The second oldest letter was written by Anthonio Domingo (Great-grand Son of Oba Olua) to the Pope to seek for missionary assistance in other to spread Christianity in Benin Empire in 1652AD.
8. Oba Orhogbua founded Lagos and planted a dukedom, the Obaship of Lagos (Eko).
9. Oba Orhogbua introduced the common salt from his numerous voyage to Benin Cuisine in replacement of our traditional organic salt (Obu).
10. The word Okoro means prince in Benin and Uvbi as princess.
11. Oba Orhogbua is the first Sailor king in the present day West-Africa.
12. They are five fighting Empire building Obas of Benin, Oba Ewuare I, Oba Ozolua, Oba Esigie, Oba Orhogbua and Oba Ehengbuda N’Obo.
13. Oba Ehengbuda was the last Oba of Benin to lead the Benin armies physically in battle.
14. Ogiso Odoligie and Oba Esigie were regarded as the redeemer kings because of their pre-ordination by God.
15. Ogiso Orriagba created the college (council) of the hereditary Uzama Chiefs.
16. The last Ogiso palace was located in the present day Ring-Road where the National museum is sited and it was called “Ogbe Ogiso”
17. Oldest ever recorded market in Africa is Ogiso (Agbado) Market dated 60BCE.
18. Ekpeye, Ogba and Iwurhuohna people of River State are children of Akalaka a Benin warrior that migrated from Benin to found their present location during Oba Ewuare I reign.
19. Onitcha town was founded by Benin royal house who migrated during Oba Esigie reign.
20. The shortest Oba that reigned in Great Benin kingdom was Oba Ezoti (14 days) 1473-1473AD.
For facts 21-80 click below link

List of Obas of the Benin Empire (1180-present)

Pre-Imperial Obas of Benin (1180-1440)

Obas of the Benin Empire (1440-1897)

–  Ewuare the Great (1440–1473)
 Ezoti (1473–1475)
 Olua (1475–1480)
 Ozolua (1480–1504)
 Esigie (1504–1547)
 Orhogbua (1547–1580)
 Ehengbuda (1580–1602)
 Ohuan (1602–1656)
 Ohenzae (1656–1661)
 Akenzae (1661–1669)
 Akengboi (1669–1675)
 Akenkpaye (1675–1684)
 Akengbedo (1684–1689)
 Ore-Oghene (1689–1701)
 Ewuakpe (1701–1712)
 Ozuere (1712–1713)
 Akenzua I (1713–1740)
 Eresoyen (1740–1750)
 Akengbuda (1750–1804)
 Obanosa (1804–1816)
 Ogbebo (1816)
 Osemwende (1816–1848)
 Adolo (1848–1888)
 Ovonramwen Nogbaisi (1888–1914) (exiled to Calabar by the British in 1897)

Post-Imperial Obas of Benin (1914-Present)

 Eweka II (1914–1933)
 Akenzua II (1933–1978)
 Erediauwa I (1979–present)

Erediauwa I (1979–present)

Some of the families of the Royal Benin Empire live elsewhere in the world through Europe, The United States, and Africa.

https://ihuanedo.ning.com/profiles/blogs/list-of-obas-of-the-benin-1

 

ESAN PEOPLE OF NIGERIA ARE BENINS

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By Uwagboe Ogieva
“The Ancient Benin(Edo)s were one in origin, yet they are one in diversity http://ihuanedo.ning.com/video/edo-one-in-origin”
Base on current trend of some Esan politician, scholars and Nigerian pseudo writers with the motive to separate and disorganise the Edo people of Nigeria with the continuation of weakening the ever respected Kingdom of Benin (Edo) (Nation), Southern Nigeria, it becomes imperative to educate the gullible and less informed researchers of the truth fact of history. Again, proper education of true facts of Edos common history, ancestry, language, culture and tradition will not only unite them but help build the mental preparedness for their future national growth and development. Reading through the author on Esan people of Nigeria on WIKIPEDIA, few points were highlighted, (1) that Esan is one of the major ethnic groups in Edo State, South-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria. (2) that they existed on there present location pre-Benin influence. (3) that Oba Ozolua was kill and buried in Esanland (4) that Esan people are the ancestral parents of the benins. While the author have some eloquent facts made of lazy research and incomplete oral history, it is good to note that all of above claims are false and should be written off or ameliorated, or be deleted from one of the most respect and acceptable internet dictionary:WIKIPEDIA. This paper have attempted to answer most pressing question on how the Esan people are not other ethnic group but Edo. What makes up a nation is a shared common values, culture, language, tradtion, religion and teritorial boundaries.
ORIGIN :
According to James B. Webster and Onaiwu.W.Ogbomo in Chronological Problem in C.G. Okojies Esan Narrative Traditions, Esan traditions, all the ancestors of the people, royal commoner alike came from Benin(Edo) and are basically Benin(Edo) people. Itua Egbor, S.J on African Proverb of the Month, stated that the Esan originated from the Benins (the Edo-speaking people of the ancient Benin Kingdom) and a schism in the distant past resulted in the migration and resettlement of the Esan people in their present geographical location. Dr.Jim Akhere on a keynote address at the ENA convention, head in Hilton Seatle Airport and Conference Center, Seatle. Washington. 2007, said, Esan people exodus was mainly jumping into forest and finding their way throuh the bush to where they are today. While some writers are relating to Egharevba and Okojies books, that Esan has always been where they are presently, or that Benin in fact migrated from Esan to their present abode is not only a distorted history but a deliberate attempt to create a separate kingdom and Nation out of the already shrink and encroached Edoland. Jethro Ibileke on his recent article raise a clarion also calling to the Benin(Edo)s who would want to usurp Esan position as the speaker of the Edo state house of Assembly, to remember that the history of Esan traditional relationship and the linage are deep rooted in Benin. He went further to explain that suppressing Esan people would be like a father fighting his son.
The Agbazilo group account of Esan ancestry, says the Esan came into being when one of the children of Benin’s Queen Oakha and Ojiso Owodo, Prince Uzia Asokpodudu (Ojiso Owodo’s crown prince and heir apparent) founded Uzea in about 1188 AD after they fled their father’s (the Ojiso’s) palace following the death sentence passed on their mother, Queen Oakha, who was alleged to have committed adultery with a Benin chief, Ovior. The duo of Ozogbo and Oigi, Asokpodudu’s younger brothers, escaped along with him and the mother. It is believed that not only did Prince Asokpodudu (the founder of Uzea clan) escape with the mother, Oakha, relations and some palace servants, he also left with his father’s (the king’s) royal trident, ‘Uziziẹnghain’, the Ojiso’s heir loom. Here, the Agbazilo group still comfirming that the Esan mother of creation is and was a Benin mother.
Oba Akenzuwa Nironorho 11 once said that Emotan is the mother of Esan people. In other words without Emotan who helped Prince Ogun to regain the Edo throne and was crowned Oba Ewuare N’Ogidigan there wouldn’t have been no Esan today. Notably, Oba Ewuare the great, during his time, enacted laws that was unbearable to some Edos which led to emigration in the core of the Empire. Most settlers, know as Esan today migrated to their present location during the time. The greetings of the Esan ancestors who left the benin couldn’t have been lagiesan-La Ogiesan before Oba Ewuare because there was no Esan before Ewuare as presented by Nosakhare Idubor. According to Ademola Iyi Eweka, the Ishans/Esans were the most avid defender of the Edo(Benin) monarchy and their women have produced most of Obas of Benin. Eheniuan, the first Ezomo of Benin, who later became the commander of the Benin/Edo Royal army is of Ishan descent.
Esan history is a branch or part of Benin(Edo) history, an integral fellowship of the Benin monarch. Her tale is like the story of an extended son from a very large family, who have travelled far from home married and had own family with a different name. This also brings to mind how it relate with the African Americans history and Africa. Though some dispute they are not Africans inspite of the obvious history of trans-atlantic slave trade, many still trace their ancestral lineage to West Africa including the Great Benin Empire. Larry Uklai Johnson-Redd in his book: Journey to Motherland, From Sant fransisco to Benin City, explained the experience of enslaved Africans to the America and how his ancestral parents hail from Benin.
Rulership, Tradition and Culture:
What is represented as the Esan monarch are not monarch or separate kingdom per ser, as the Benin(Edo) monarch but dukedoms. This also extends among many villages and towns across territories of the Great Benin(Edo) Empire, Geographically touching South-South, South-East, South – West and South – East. To this day the Esan chiefs and traditional rulers, the Enogies(Enogie is the Esan title for a king), sometimes called kings of the Esan people are crowned by the Oba, the supreme head or king of the Benin Empire. The Onojie of Uromi and the Onojie of Irrua are direct sons of the Oba of Benin.
Prof. Iyi Ademola Eweka on his Irrua and Evbohinmwin Relations to Benin-Edoland of Nigeria, explained that the people of Irrua are not only from benin but Benins. Irrua (Iruwa), he said, was named after the Benin princess who married the first Enogie of Irrua, with the people of Evbohimwin belonging to the Ishan/Esan clan, of the (Benin)Edo-speaking group. In the last hundred years, the Enogie of Irrua suddenly became the leader of Enigies in Ishan/Esan land. Whenever the Ishan/Esans are gathered, the Irrua man would normally demand the right to break the almighty kola nuts, but not without a fight from other Ishans/Esans and the reason for this phenomenon can be broken into these parts: a) Although the dukedom of Evbohimwin is probably the oldest, it has always been a haven for Edo princes fleeing from the oba of Benin after a protracted succession struggle. It was also a sort of military out post.
Everybody wanted the control of military outposts of Orhodua and Evbohimwin to be in their hands. Obanosa was the Oba of Benin, 1804-1816. When he died, his two eldest sons, Princes Ogbebor and Erediauwa slugged it out for the throne. Prince Ogbebor won and Prince Erediauwa ran to Evbohimwin for safety. His mother was an Ishan/Esan woman from Evbohimwin. Prince Ogbebor, now the Oba of Benin, tried desperately to dislodge Erediauwa from Evbohimwin. He sent messegers to Ishan/Esan, loaded with coral beads and money, to encourage the Enigies in Ishan/Esan to turn over Prince Erediuwa to him or have his head brought to him in a box. Unfortunately, the supporters of Prince Erediauwa waylaid the messegers to Ishan/Esan, killed many of them and carted way the loot to Prince Erediauwa. Prince Erediauwa now distributed the loot to the Enigies in Ishan/Esan begging for their support and protection. In the ensuing civil war, the army of Oba Ogbebor was defeated. He killed himself, after blowing the palace to pieces with gun powder. He reigned for only eight months. Prince Erediauwa marched into Benin City, ahead of an Ishan/Esan dominated military. He was crowned Oba Osemwende of Benin in 1816. It was Oba Osewende who granted to the Enogie of Uromi, the right to inherit the estate of any person who died childless within Uromi district.This was his reward for supplying men and material in the war to reconquer Akure in 1818-20 rebellion and the battle in defence of the Ekitis against the Ibadans. b) During his reign, he noticed there was an intrigue, to prevent his senior son nicknamed ” Ogbewekon,” from ascending the throne when he passes on. Prince Ogbewekon and Odin-ovba who later became known as Oba Adolor were born on the same day.
 
Prince Ogbewekon was born first but reported last to the palace. Oba Osemwende found out that Prince Ogbewekon´s mother had been misled by the Edo chiefs at Ogbe quarter in Benin City, tired of Ishan/Esan (Queens) mothers of Obas. Added to that, was the intrigue of Princess AGHAYUBINI, the most senior daughter of Oba Osemwende., the mother of the Osulas and Aiwerioghenes of Benin. She had become very wealthy by trading with the Itsekhiris. This is the popular Itsekhiri factor in the Benin Royal family. When Oba Osemwende passed on, Ogbewekon bypassed and Odin-ovba installed as Oba Adolor, there was another civil disturbance. Prince Ogbewekon ran first to Evbohimwin and finally settled at Igueben were he raised an army with which he wanted to invade Benin City. From his hide out at Igueben, he made life uncomfortable for Oba Adolor in Ishan/Esan land. The Enogie of Evbohimwin was also involved. The Amaho uprising of 1853/54 in Ishan/Esan land, had Prince Ogbewekon signature all over it. It was General Ebohon of Ova, the same general who stopped Ogedengbe of Ilesha at Irhuekpen, who put down the uprising with alot of bloodshed. c) When Oba Adolor passed on, Oba Ovonramwen was installed as the Oba of Benin in 1888, but not without a fight from his brother, Prince Orokhoro. Prince Orokhoro lost and ran first to Evbohimwin and then to Orhodua in Ishan/Esan land. His mother was also an Ishan/Esan. He was busy raising an army in Ishan/Esan when the British army struck in 1897. These were some of the factors responsible for the defeat of the Benin army by the British army in 1897 .
To punish Evbohimwin and the Enogie for supporting rebellious Edo Princes, Erhumwunse (Eromosele), the Enogie of Irrua, the son of Enogie Isidahome 1, the son of Enogie Ogbeide, who commited suicide for ordering the death of a pregnant woman between 1830 and 1847, was made Okaegiesan by Oba Ovonramwen in 1895.
дворец-iga-idungaran

History of The Royal palace of the Oba of Benin

This was built in 1255AD – 1280AD. It is notable as the home of the Oba of Benin and other royal leaders.

  • it was destroyed in 1897 during the British expedition

  • It was made a UNESCO heritage site in 1999

 

  

The Oba Royal Palace with its unique traditional architecture and works of the arts was first built about 1255 AD by Oba Ewedo. This ancient royal palace is centrally located near the king’s square in Benin City. It was rebuilt By Oba Eweka II {1914AD-1932AD} after the 1897 infamous British punitive expedition destroyed the former palace.It attracts a lot of visitors from far and near all year round.

Emotan Status

The statue of the stately woman, clad in the traditional wrapper and a headgear associated with the Benin royalty, stands opposite the Oba market in Benin City. The statue was erected in honor of Emotan, a patriotic woman who traded in foodstuff at the very spot where the statue stands, in the 15th century.

Benin Moat

The Benin moat, also known traditionally as Iya, is the largest man-made earthworks in the world. It is one of the wonders of the world. It predates the use of modern earth-moving equipment or technology in these parts. The moat encircles the old perimeter precincts of the City and was constructed as a defensive barrier in times of war.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Below Holy Aruosa Cathedral in Benin

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This is the oldest church in Nigeria .It was built in the 15th century. It was situated in Akpakpava Street in the ancient city of Benin. Aruosa {Church of Benin} is the Benin’s version of Church of England or the Dutch reformed church. The Portuguese brought Christianity to the imperial Benin kingdom in the 15th century during the reign of Oba Esigie {about 1504-1550} and during this period, missionaries were sent from Portugal to establish churches in the kingdom.

 

 

 

http://www.egbede.com/history.htm

The Royal Palaces of Abomey are 12 palaces spread over an area of 40 hectares (100 acres) at the heart of the Abomey town in Benin, formerly the capital of the West African Kingdom of Dahomey.[1][2][3] The Kingdom was founded in 1625 by the Fon people who developed it into a powerful military and commercial empire, which dominated trade with European slave traders on the Slave Coast until the late 19th century, to whom they sold their prisoners of war.[4] At its peak the palaces could accommodate for up to 8000 people.[5] The King’s palace included a two-story building known as the “cowrie house” or akuehue.[6] Under the twelve kings who succeeded from 1625 to 1900, the kingdom established itself as one of the most powerful of the western coast of Africa.

UNESCO had inscribed the palaces on the List of World Heritage Sites in Africa. Following this, the site had to be included under the List of World Heritage in Danger since Abomey was hit by a tornado on 15 March 1984, when the royal enclosure and museums, particularly the King Guezo Portico, the Assins Room, King’s tomband Jewel Room were damaged. However, with assistance from several international agencies the restoration and renovation work was completed. Based on the corrective works carried out and reports received on these renovations at Abomey, UNESCO decided to remove the Royal Palaces of Abomey, Benin from the List of World Heritage in Danger, in July 2007.[7]

Today, the palaces are no longer inhabited, but those of King Ghézo and King Glélé house the Historical Museum of Abomey, which illustrates the history of the kingdom and its symbolism through a desire for independence, resistance and fight against colonial occupation.

 

church oba

 

Holy Arousa is a unique church in Benin city, Edo state where Christians, Muslims and traditionalists worship together under the spiritual leadership of the Oba of Benin

Along the ever busy Akpakpava Street,in the ancient city of Benin, the Edo State capital, stands a concrete building housing the Holy Aruosa Church where Omo N’ Oba Ne Edo Uku Akpolokpolo, Oba of Benin, worships. The Holy Aruosa is a combination of English and Bini word. Holy as it implies means to be pure while Aruosa is a place or site of worshipping God. According to sources close to the church, the Holy Aruosa was founded in 1506 during the reign of Oba Esigie.

The Church, said to be the oldest church in Africa, was established by the Portuguese before they started the Roman Catholic and other churches. Today, it is common to see tourists from America and Europe visiting the church. The purpose of their visit is to come and see the first church in Nigeria because according to them, they have seen that the establishment of churches in Nigeria have been expanding.

According to Harrison Okao, the Ohen- Osa, or Chief Priest of the Church, it was founded as a place of worshipping God directly without passing through any intermediary. “We don’t pray through Jesus not because we are against Jesus, we don’t pray through Mohammed not because we are against Mohammed, we don’t pray through the deities like Olokun, Ogun, Sango and all others, not because we are against them but because we believe that God existed before their existence. Therefore, if you want anything from your father, you ask him directly rather than going through an intermediary.”
He explained that Holy Aruosa is a place where anybody can come to worship irrespective of tribe or religion. If you are a Christian, you can come here and worship, if you are a Muslim, you can come here to worship, if you are an idol worshipper, you can also worship at the church.

The only difference is that most of the religions pray through an intermediary but in Holy Aruosa they pray directly to God.”
The priest went further, “we start the day’s service with an opening song otherwise known as “Ohenosa muegbugie. After that, we say the opening prayers before we pray for the Oba of Benin, we pray for the heir apparent to the throne, which is the Omo N’ Oba’s first son, we pray for the other Oba’s children both at home and abroad, we pray for the palace, the chiefs, the government of the day, starting from the president, the governors, local government chairmen, councillors and others in the position of authority.”
Okao added that they also pray for good things to happen in the Benin Kingdom and the state while concentrating on members present while we individually ask God for whatever we want from him.

Another wonderful feature about the Holy Aruosa is the choir which is made of elderly people otherwise known as the Edion Ni kao nomadode meaning the elders that will never go astray.
There is also the Chiefs Group, the Wardens’ Group, Youth and Children’s group. And Aruosa N okao, Osagbemwenorue, Ikiede and Ohen Nogu Osawe group as members of the church. These groups are for effective coordination of the church’s activities.
The difference between Holy Aruosa and the orthodox church is the mode of worship and belief. Okao explained that: “If you are talking about the fear of God, the Holy Aruosa members have the fear of God and we have it in our creed that if you sin against mankind, you must go and beg that man and if you don’t go and beg that person, you will receive punishment on earth and after death, you will receive the punishment. That is why we don’t commit sin.
“For instance, if you leave anything here and you come back in three days, nobody will take it because we believe that if you take what does not belong to you, it means you have sin already and you will not enter the kingdom of God. Sinners will not enter the kingdom of God, whoever fornicates will not enter the kingdom of God, whoever covets another person’s wife or property will not enter the kingdom of God and whoever kills cannot enter the kingdom of God.”

He disclosed that the church doctrine is against adultery because it is wrong for a man to sleep with another person’s wife and it is equally wrong for a woman to leave her husband’s house to go and sleep with another woman’s husband. It is wrong and so anybody that does this will not see the kingdom of God. But as a member of the Holy Aruosa church, if you want to marry more than 20 wives, the church cannot say no but would advise that you give them equal love but if you cannot share equal love with all of them, you have to hands off. So the idea of having a wife at home and maybe two or three concubines outside is a sin.”

Another feature is that the church has its own book of worship like the Bible. The difference is that it is known as the Book of Holy Aruosa and was written by the “wise men with the dictate, teachings and sayings of the ancient Benin kingdom.” It is made up of the dos and don’ts that fore fathers bequeathed to the present generation. Okao explained further that the book is just like “the Old Testament in the Bible and if we have anything or any area that we want to refer to in the Bible, we do so, we also refer to the Koran for things to move on properly”.
The mode of worship in Aruosa follows the pattern of the Catholic.

Though in those days, there was no drumming in any church but drumming started in Holy Aruosa and a white Bishop in Lagos then, criticized Aruosa saying that is not the way to serve God. The case even went to court but today, every church drums and sings

The Oba of Benin is the spiritual head of the Church, while the heir apparent to the throne, that is the Omo N’Oba’s first son is number two and the Chief Priest of the Holy Aruosa is number three. All others work with the priest.
The ordination of the Chief Priest is done in the church after the confirmation from the Omo N’ Oba being the head and the selection. It mostly a spiritual exercise.

http://ihuanedo.ning.com/m/group/discussion?id=2971192%3ATopic%3A151367

History of Christianity In Nigeria 
THE URHOBO, THE ISOKO, AND THE ITSEKIRI

By Samuel U. Erivwo, Ph.D.

It is proper that a history of Christianity in Nigeria should begin with the Itsekiri and their  neighbours. Because of their geographical location the Itsekiri came into contact with Portuguese priest who accompanied Portuguese explorers in their bid to find a sea route to India in the fifteenth century. By about 1477 the first European contacts were made with Benin, and by 1555 Augustinian monks visited Warri. They were sent by Gasper, who was the bishop of the diocese of Sao Tome. One of the monks, Father Franscisco a Mater Dei, baptized the son of the Olu  of  Warri  under the name of Sebastian.[1]

When Sebastian later succeeded his father he encouraged the work of the Portuguese missionaries, and indeed allowed his son, Domingos, to be sent to Portugal and trained for the priesthood.It was hoped that if this happened the spread of Christianity to the hinterland would be expedited since indigenous priests would not suffer from the ill effect of the equatorial climate which imposed a serious limitation on the work of the European missionaries. However, Domingos  was not able to qualify for the priesthood since he ended his ten years stay in Portugal by marrying, contrary to the stipulation of the Roman Catholic Church in respect of those who wish to enter the priesthood. (His wife was a Portuguese woman.) Some other attempts made later to train indigenous priest also failed, with the result that the  Itsekiri  came to the conclusion that the Almighty did not intend Africans to become  celebate  priests![2]

 The difficulty of providing trained indigenous priests constituted a set back to the propagation of Christianity among the  Itsekiri . As already indicated, the climate of the area was  unfavourable  to European missionaries; the place was not only too humid, it was also infested by mosquitoes, the carriers of malaria which was to be a formidable menace to missionary work in this area until after 1854.  Furthermore, the Portuguese kingdom, experiencing a period of decline as a result, among other things, of her loss of naval power, was incapable of supporting Portuguese priests who worked among the  Itsekiri  for a long time.

All this apart, had the  Itsekiri  themselves responded  favourably  to the appeal of the Portuguese missionaries, Christianity might have taken deep root, and possibly spread to the hinterland. But they did not. So superstitious were they of the implication of baptism that they were most reluctant to release their children for baptism, fearing, as they did, that the children would die shortly after baptism.  Thus, the adverse climate, the decline of Portuguese empire consequent upon the poverty of that kingdom and her loss of naval power, the unsuccessful attempts to train indigenous priests, and the superstition of the  Itsekiri , all militated against the work of the Portuguese missionaries in Ode  Itsekiri, the capital of the  Itsekiri  kingdom.

But these were not the only adverse factors.  Perhaps even more important was the slave trade.  The Portuguese priests who came to the area from the sixteenth century onwards did so in the gunboats of slave traders.  It is even reported that some of them, in a desperate effort to maintain themselves in the area, participated in the inhuman trade.  Even if it be admitted that on the whole the Roman Catholic Church at the time did not approve of the slave trade, yet she took no positive steps to discourage the inhuman traffic in living tools.  Instead, there was an attempt to see the good side of the inhuman trade: the possibility of converting the negro slaves once they were transported from the darkness of  Africa to the marvelous light of Christianity which the Church in Europe believed to be in her possession to radiate. As a matter of fact, most of the slaves carried from the West Coast did not land in Europe; they were carried to sugar plantations in Americ where they were treated as beasts of burden.

No matter in what bright  colours  the slave trade may be painted, viewed in retrospect and from the West African stand point, on no ground can it be justified.  Any Christianity, therefore, which allied itself to such a diabolic force s the Portuguese slave trade was doomed to fail.  Thus the failure of the first attempt to plant Christianity among the  Itsekiri , and in part of what was later to be known as Nigeria, was, more than any other factor, due to the slave trade.  Before the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, Roman Catholicism had practically disappeared from Ode  Isekiri.

 However, as stated elsewhere[3], in spite of the difficulties which rendered missionary work in the area of little consequence some impression was made as is evidenced from the court of the Olu of Warri  even today.Even among the Urhobo in the hinterland some impression was made, especially by Father Monteleone, a prefect from Sao Tome, who, according to Professor Ryder[4], came in contact with the Urhobo in 1689 in his unsuccessful attempt to visit Benin from  Warri.

http://www.waado.org/UrhoboCulture/Religion/Erivwo/HistoryOfChristianity/ChapterOne.html

Some Pagan Egyptian Babylonian connections below. I will cover more on this subject in a different post later.

 

 

 

 

 

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From the 17th to the 19th century, the main political entities in the area were the Kingdom of Dahomey along with the city-state of Porto-Novo and a large area with many different tribes to the north. This region was referred to as the Slave Coast from as early as the 17th century due to the large number of slaves shipped to the New World during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. After slavery was abolished, France took over the country and renamed it French Dahomey. In 1960, Dahomey gained full independence from France, and had a tumultuous period with many different democratic governments, military coups and military governments.

Precolonial historyEdit

The current country of Benin combines three areas which had different political and ethnic systems prior to French colonial control. Before 1700, there were a few important city states along the coast (primarily of the Aja ethnic group, but also including Yoruba and Gbe peoples) and a mass of tribal regions inland (composed of Bariba, Mahi, Gedevi, and Kabye peoples). The Oyo Empire, located primarily to the east of modern Benin, was the most significant large-scale military force in the region and it would regularly conduct raids and exact tribute from the coastal kingdoms and the tribal regions.[13] The situation changed in the 1600s and early 1700s as the Kingdom of Dahomey, which was of Fon ethnicity, was founded on the Abomey plateau and began taking over areas along the coast.[14] By 1727, king Agaja of the Kingdom of Dahomey had conquered the coastal cities of Allada and Whydah, but it had become a tributary of the Oyo empire and did not directly attack the Oyo allied city-state of Porto-Novo.[15] The rise of the kingdom of Dahomey, the rivalry between the kingdom and the city of Porto-Novo, and the continued tribal politics of the northern region, persisted into the colonial and post-colonial periods.[16]

The Dahomey Kingdom was known for its culture and traditions. Young boys were often apprenticed to older soldiers, and taught the kingdom’s military customs until they were old enough to join the army.[17] Dahomey was also famous for instituting an elite female soldier corps, called Ahosi, i.e. the king’s wives, or Mino, “our mothers” in the Fon language Fongbe, and known by many Europeans as the Dahomean Amazons. This emphasis on military preparation and achievement earned Dahomey the nickname of “black Sparta” from European observers and 19th century explorers like Sir Richard Burton.[18]

Portuguese EmpireEdit

Map of the Kingdom of Dahomey, 1793

The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery;[19] otherwise the captives would have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. By about 1750, the King of Dahomey was earning an estimated £250,000 per year by selling Africans to the European slave-traders.[20] Though the leaders of Dahomey appeared initially to resist the slave trade, it flourished in the region of Dahomey for almost three hundred years, beginning in 1472 with a trade agreement with Portuguese merchants, leading to the area’s being named “the Slave Coast”. Court protocols, which demanded that a portion of war captives from the kingdom’s many battles be decapitated, decreased the number of enslaved people exported from the area. The number went from 102,000 people per decade in the 1780s to 24,000 per decade by the 1860s.[21]

Dahomey Amazons with the King at their head, going to war, 1793

The decline was partly due to the banning of the trans-Atlantic slave trade by Britain and other countries.[20] This decline continued until 1885, when the last slave ship departed from the coast of the present-day Benin Republic bound for Brazil, a former Portuguese colony, that had yet to abolish slavery.

The capital’s name Porto-Novo is of Portuguese origin, meaning “New Port”. It was originally developed as a port for the slave trade.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benin

 

The Kingdom of Dahomey was established around 1600 by the Fon people who had recently settled in the area (or were possibly a result of intermarriage between the Aja people and the local Gedevi). The foundational king for Dahomey is often considered to be Houegbadja (c. 1645–1685), who built the Royal Palaces of Abomey and began raiding and taking over towns outside of the Abomey plateau.[2]

Victims for sacrifice – from The history of Dahomy, an inland Kingdom of Africa, 1793.

Rule of Agaja (1708–1740)Edit

King Agaja, Houegbadja’s grandson, came to the throne in 1708 and began significant expansion of the Kingdom of Dahomey. This expansion was made possible by the superior military force of King Agaja’s Dahomey. In contrast to surrounding regions, Dahomey employed a professional standing army numbering around ten thousand.[4] What the Dahomey lacked in numbers, they made up for in discipline and superior arms. In 1724, Agaja conquered Allada, the origin for the royal family according to oral tradition, and in 1727 he conquered Whydah. This increased size of the kingdom, particularly along the Atlantic coast, and increased power made Dahomey into a regional power. The result was near constant warfare with the main regional state, the Oyo Empire, from 1728 until 1740.[5]The warfare with the Oyo empire resulted in Dahomey assuming a tributary status to the Oyo empire.[6]

End of the kingdomEdit

The kingdom fought the First Franco-Dahomean War and Second Franco-Dahomean War with France. The kingdom was reduced and made a French protectorate in 1894.[7]

In 1904 the area became part of a French colony, French Dahomey.

In 1958 French Dahomey became the self-governing colony called the Republic of Dahomey and gained full independence in 1960. It was renamed in 1975 the People’s Republic of Benin, and in 1991 the Republic of Benin. The Dahomey kingship exists as a ceremonial role to this day.

PoliticsEdit

Early writings, predominantly written by European slave traders, often presented the kingdom as an absolute monarchy led by a despotic king. However, these depictions were often deployed as arguments by different sides in the slave trade debates, mainly in the United Kingdom, and as such were probably exaggerations.[2][6] Recent historical work has emphasized the limits of monarchical power in the Kingdom of Dahomey.[3] Historian John Yoder, with attention to the Great Council in the kingdom, argued that its activities do not “imply that Dahomey’s government was democratic or even that her politics approximated those of nineteenth-century European monarchies. However, such evidence does support the thesis that governmental decisions were molded by conscious responses to internal political pressures as well as by executive fiat.”[8] The primary political divisions revolved around villages with chiefs and administrative posts appointed by the king and acting as his representatives to adjudicate disputes in the village.[9]

The kingEdit

King Ghezo displayed with a royal umbrella

The King of Dahomey (Ahosu in the Fon language) was the sovereign power of the kingdom. All of the kings were claimed to be part of the Alladaxonou dynasty, claiming descent from the royal family in Allada. Much of the succession rules and administrative structures were created early by HouegbadjaAkaba, andAgaja. Succession through the male members of the line was the norm typically going to the oldest son, but not always.[10] The king was selected largely through discussion and decision in the meetings of the Great Council, although how this operated was not always clear.[2][8] The Great Council brought together a host of different dignitaries from throughout the kingdom yearly to meet at the Annual Customs of Dahomey. Discussions would be lengthy and included members, both men and women, from throughout the kingdom. At the end of the discussions, the king would declare the consensus for the group.[8]

The royal courtEdit

Key positions in the King’s court included the migan, the mehu, the yovogan, the kpojito (or queen-mother), and later the chacha (or viceroy) of Whydah. The migan (combination of mi-our and gan-chief) was a primary consul for the king, a key judicial figure, and served as the head executioner. The mehu was similarly a key administrative officer who managed the palaces and the affairs of the royal family, economic matters, and the areas to the south of Allada (making the position key to contact with Europeans).

Relations with other statesEdit

The relations between Dahomey and other countries were complex and heavily impacted by the Gold trade. The Oyo empire engaged in regular warfare with the kingdom of Dahomey and Dahomey was a tributary to Oyo from 1732 until 1823. The city-state of Porto-Novo, under the protection of Oyo, and Dahomey had a long-standing rivalry largely over control of the Gold trade along the coast. The rise of Abeokuta in the 1840s created another power rivaling Dahomey, largely by creating a safe haven for people from the slave trade.

MilitaryEdit

The military of the Kingdom of Dahomey was divided into two units: the right and the left. The right was controlled by the migan and the left was controlled by the mehu. At least by the time ofAgaja, the kingdom had developed a standing army that remained encamped wherever the king was. Soldiers in the army were recruited as young as seven or eight years old, initially serving as shield carriers for regular soldiers. After years of apprenticeship and military experience, they were allowed to join the army as regular soldiers. To further incentivize the soldiers, each soldier received bonuses paid in cowry shells for each enemy they killed or captured in battle. This combination of lifelong military experience and monetary incentives resulted in a cohesive, well-disciplined military.[11] One European said Agaja’s standing army consisted of, “elite troops, brave and well-disciplined, led by a prince full of valor and prudence, supported by a staff of experienced officers.”[12]

In addition to being well-trained, the Dahomey army under Agaja was also very well armed. The Dahomey army favored imported European weapons as opposed to traditional weapons. For example, they used European flintlock muskets in long range combat and imported steel swords and cutlasses in close combat. The Dahomey army also possessed twenty-five cannons.

When going into battle, the king would take a secondary position to the field commander with the reason given that if any spirit were to punish the commander for decisions it should not be the king.[9] Unlike other regional powers, the military of Dahomey did not have a significant cavalry (like the Oyo empire) or naval power (which prevented expansion along the coast). The Dahomey Amazons, a unit of all-female soldiers, is one of the most unusual aspects of the military of the kingdom.

Dahomey AmazonsEdit

Dahomey female soldiers

The Dahomean state became widely known for its corps of female soldiers. Their origins are debated; they may have formed from a palace guard or from gbetos (female hunting teams).[13]

They were organized around the year 1729 to fill out the army and make it look larger in battle, armed only with banners. The women reportedly behaved so courageously they became a permanent corps. In the beginning the soldiers were criminals pressed into service rather than being executed. Eventually, however, the corps became respected enough that King Ghezoordered every family to send him their daughters, with the most fit being chosen as soldiers.[dubious ]

EconomyEdit

The economic structure of the kingdom was highly intertwined with the political and religious systems and these developed together significantly.[9] The main currency was Cowry shells.

Domestic economyEdit

The domestic economy largely focused on agriculture and crafts for local consumption. Until the development of palm oil, very little agricultural or craft goods were traded outside of the kingdom. Markets served a key role in the kingdom and were organized around a rotating cycle of four days with a different market each day (the market type for the day was religiously sanctioned).[9]Agriculture work was largely decentralized and done by most families. However, with the expansion of the kingdom agricultural plantations began to be a common agricultural method in the kingdom. Craft work was largely dominated by a formal guild system.[14]

Herskovits recounts a complex tax system in the kingdom, in which officials who represented the king, the tokpe, gathered data from each village regarding their harvest. Then the king set a tax based upon the level of production and village population. In addition, the king’s own land and production were taxed.[9] After significant road construction undertaken by the kingdom, toll booths were also established that collected yearly taxes based on the goods people carried and their occupation. Officials also sometimes imposed fines for public nuisance before allowing people to pass.[9]

ReligionEdit

Left: Dance of the Fon chiefs during celebrations. Right: The celebration at Abomey (1908). Veteran warriors of the Fon king Béhanzin, son of king Glele.

The Kingdom of Dahomey shared many religious rituals with surrounding populations; however, it also developed unique ceremonies, beliefs, and religious stories for the kingdom. These included royal ancestor worship and the specific vodunpractices of the kingdom.

Royal ancestor worshipEdit

Early kings established clear worship of royal ancestors and centralized their ceremonies in theAnnual Customs of Dahomey. The spirits of the kings had an exalted position in the land of the dead and it was necessary to get their permission for many activities on earth.[9] Ancestor worship pre-existed the kingdom of Dahomey; however, under King Agaja, a cycle of ritual was created centered on first celebrating the ancestors of the king and then celebrating a family lineage.[3]

The Annual Customs of Dahomey (xwetanu or huetanu in Fon) involved multiple elaborate components and some aspects may have been added in the 19th century. In general, the celebration involved distribution of gifts, human sacrifice, military parades, and political councils. Its main religious aspect was to offer thanks and gain the approval for ancestors of the royal lineage.[3] However, the custom also included military parades, public discussions, gift giving (the distribution of money to and from the king), and human sacrifice and the spilling of blood.[3]

Dahomey cosmologyEdit

Dahomey had a unique form of West African Vodun that linked together preexisting animist traditions with vodun practices. Oral history recounted that Hwanjile, a wife of Agaja and mother of Tegbessou brought Vodun to the kingdom and ensured its spread. The primary deity is the combined Mawu-Lisa (Mawu having female characteristics and Lisa having male characteristics) and it is claimed that this god took over the world that was created by their mother Nana-Buluku.[9] Mawu-Lisa governs the sky and is the highest pantheon of gods, but other gods exist in the earth and in thunder. Religious practice organized different priesthoods and shrines for each different god and each different pantheon (sky, earth or thunder). Women made up a significant amount of the priest class and the chief priest was always a descendent of Dakodonou.[2]

 

The Fon people, also called Fon nuAgadja or Dahomey, are a major African ethnic and linguistic group.[1][2] They are the largest ethnic group in Benin found particularly in its south region; they are also found in southwest Nigeria and Togo. Their total population is estimated to be about 3,500,000 people, and they speak the Fon language, a member of the Niger-Congo languagegroup.[1]

Fon people
D263- amazone dahoméenne. - L1-Ch5.png

A female warrior of the Fon people
Total population
4.1 Million
Regions with significant populations
Benin (39% of its population) and Nigeria (less than 1% of its population)
Languages
Fon
Related ethnic groups
Aja,Ewe,Yoruba

The history of the Fon people is linked to theDahomey kingdom, a well organized kingdom by the 17th-century but one that shared more ancient roots with the Aja people.[2]The Fon people traditionally were a culture of an oral tradition and had a well developed polytheistic religious system.[3]They were noted by early 19th-century European traders for their N’Nonmitonvpractice or Dahomey Amazons– which empowered their women to serve in the military, who decades later fought the French colonial forces in 1890.[4][5]

Most Fon today live in villages and small towns in mud houses with corrugated iron gable roofs. Cities built by the Fon includeAbomey, the historical capital city of Dahomey, and Ouidah on what was historically referred to by Europeans as theSlave Coast. These cities became major commercial centres for theslave trade. A significant portion of the sugar plantations in the French West Indies, particularlyHaitiandTrinidad, were populated with slaves that came from the Slave Coast, through the lands of Ewe and Fon people.[6]

Contents

OriginEdit

The Gbe language area. Map of the Fon (purple) and other ethnic groups, according to Capo (1988). Since the seventeenth century, the Fon have been concentrated in the Benin region and the southwestern part of Nigeria.

The Fon people, like other neighboring ethnic groups in West Africa, remained an oral traditionsociety through late medieval era, without ancient historical records. According to these oral histories and legends, the Fon people originated in present day Tado, a small Aja town now situated near the Togo-Benin border. Their earliest rulers were originally a part of the ruling class in the Aja kingdom of Allada (also called Ardra kingdom).[2][6]

The Aja people had a major dispute, one group broke up and these people came to be the Fon people who migrated to Allada with king Agasu. The sons of king Agasu disputed who should succeed him after his death, and the group split again, this time the Fon people migrated with Agasu’s son Dogbari northwards to Abomey where they founded the kingdom of Dahomey sometime about 1620 CE. The Fon people have been settled there since, while the kingdom of Dahomey expanded in southeast Benin by conquering neighboring kingdoms.[2]

The Oral history of the Fon further attributes the origins of the Fon people to the intermarrying between this migrating Allada-nu Aja group from the south with the Oyo-nu inhabitants in the (Yoruba) Kingdoms of the plateau. These Yorubas were known as the Igede, which the Ajas called the Gedevi.[7][8] The fusion of the immigrant Aja conquerors and the original Indigenous Yorubas of the Abomey plateau thus created a new culture, that of the Fon.

…..  also

Slavery, Bight of BeninEdit

The Fon people did not invent slavery in Africa, nor did they have a monopoly on slavery nor exclusive slave trading activity. The institution of slavery long pre-dates the origins of the Fon people in Aja kingdom and the formation of kingdom of Dahomey. The sub-Saharan and the Red Sea region, states Herbert Klein – a professor of History, was already trading between 5,000 to 10,000 African slaves per year between 800 and 1600 CE, with a majority of these slaves being women and children.[15] According to John Donnelly Fage – a professor of History specializing in Africa, a “slave economy was generally established in the Western and Central Sudan by about the fourteenth century at least, and had certainly spread to the coasts around the Senegal and in Lower Guinea by the fifteenth century”.[16]

Slave shipment between 1501-1867, by region[17][note 1]
Region Total embarked Total disembarked
Kongo people region 5.69 million
Bight of Benin 2.00 million
Bight of Biafra 1.6 million
Gold Coast 1.21 million
Windward Coast 0.34 million
Sierra Leone 0.39 million
Senegambia 0.76 million
Mozambique 0.54 million
Brazil (South America) 4.7 million
Rest of South America 0.9 million
Caribbean 4.1 million
North America 0.4 million
Europe 0.01 million

By the 15th-century, Songhay Empire rulers to the immediate north of Fon people, in the Niger River valley, were already using thousands of captured slaves for agriculture.[15] The demand for slave labor to produce sugarcane, cotton, palm oil, tobacco and other goods in the plantations of European colonies around the globe had sharply grown between 1650 to 1850. The Bight of Benin was already shipping slaves in late 17th-century, before the Fon people expanded their kingdom to gain control of the coast line.[18] The Fon rulers and merchants whose powers were established on the Atlantic coast between 1700 to 1740, entered this market.[16] The Fon people were divided on how to respond to the slave demand. Some scholars suggest that Fon people and Dahomey rulers expressed intentions to curtail or end slave trading, states Elizabeth Heath, but historical evidence affirms that the Benin coastline including the ports of the Dahomey rulers and the Fon people became one of the largest exporter of slaves.[2]

The kingdom of Dahomey, along with its neighbors kingdom of Benin and Oyo Empire, raided for slaves and sold their captives into transatlantic slavery. The competition for captives, slaves and government revenues, amongst the African kingdoms, escalated the mutual justification and pressure. The captives were sold as slaves to the Europeans from the Bight of Benin (also called the Slave Coast), from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century.[19] The Fon people were both victims and also ones who victimized other ethnic groups. Some captives came from wars, but others came from systematic kidnapping within the kingdom or at the frontiers as well as the caravans of slaves brought in by merchants from the West African interior. The kingdom of Dahomey of Fon people controlled the Ouidah port, from where numerous European slave ships disembarked. However, this was not the only port of the region, and it competed with the ports controlled by other nearby kingdoms on the Bight of Benin and the Bight of Biafra.[19]

The Fon people, along with the neighboring ethnic groups such as the Ewe people, disembarked in French colonies to work as slaves in the plantations of the Caribbean and coasts of South America. They were initially called Whydah, which probably meant “people sold by Alladah”. The word Whydah phonetically evolved into Rada, the name of West African community that embarked in slave ships from the Bight of Benin, and is now found in HaitiTrinidadFrench Antilles and other nearby islands with French influence.[6] In some Caribbean colonial documents, alternate spellings such as Rara are also found.[20]

The slave traders and ship owners of European colonial system encouraged competition, equipped the various kingdoms with weapons which they paid for with slaves, as well as built infrastructure such as ports and forts to strengthen the small kingdoms.[21] In 1804, slave trading from the Bight of Benin was banned by the Great Britain, in 1826 France ban on slave purchase or trading came into effect, while Brazil banned slave imports and trading in 1851.[2][22] When slave exports ceased, the king of Fon people shifted to agricultural exports to France, particularly palm oil, but used slaves to operate the plantations. The agricultural exports were not as lucrative as slave exports had been in past. To recover the state revenues, he leased the ports in his kingdom to the French through a signed agreement in late 19th century. The French interpreted the agreement as ceding the land and ports, while the Dahomey kingdom disagreed.[2] The dispute led to a French attack in 1890, and annexation of the kingdom as a French colony in 1892.[23] This started the colonial rule experience of the Fon people.[2]

End

The Fon culture has a mixture of Ewe and Yoruba presence in it. In the city of Abomey, as a result of Yoruba presence, the Fon people there have their original culture, mixed with Yoruba whom defeated their Oyo kingdom whiles in the city of Ouidah, its more like that of their Ewe brothers and sisters with whom they all migrated from Tado.
Whether by part of empire of Dahomey by itself or their enemy states, many Fon slaves were sold to European traders, who exported to Americas. So, many descendants of the Fon now live in the Americas as a result of the Atlantic slave trade. In United States they were mostly in Louisiana,New Orleans. Together with other cultural groups from the Fon homeland region such as the Yoruba and Bantu, Fon culture merged with French, Portuguese or Spanish to produce distinct religions (Voodoo, Mami Wata, CandomblÉ and SanterÍa), dance and musical styles (ArarÁ, Yan Valu). As a result of what the Fons did to their fellow brethrens through their slave trading activities,the Fons and other voodoo practicing tribes in Benin has instituted annual Voodoo festival for to invite all Africans in diaspora to visit their homeland. The festival falls on the second week of January every year at the Benin city of Ouidah.

http://www.africanamerica.org/topic/fon-people-benin-s-empire-builders-of-the-past-kingdom-of-dahomey-and-an-unrepentant-practitioners-of-voodoo-religion

THE AJA PEOPLE

Aja-4.jpg

The Aja are a group of people native to south-western Benin and south-eastern Togo.[1] According to oral tradition, the Aja migrated to southern Benin in the 12th or 13th centuries from Tado on theMono River, and c. 1600, three brothers, Kokpon, Do-Aklin, and Te-Agdanlin, split the ruling of the region then occupied by the Aja amongst themselves: Kokpon took the capital city of Great Ardra, reigning over the Allada kingdom; Do-Aklin founded Abomey, which would become capital of the Kingdom of Dahomey; and Te-Agdanlin founded Little Ardra, also known as Ajatche, later called Porto Novo (literally, “New Port”) by Portuguese traders and the current capital city of Benin.

Aja are an ethnic group also found in the South Sudan state of Western Bahr el Ghazal. They mostly live along the upper reaches of the Sopo River.[1]

Ewe People of Ghana, Togo, Nigeria , Benin and Ivory Coast.
Ewe People also known as Evê can be found in Ghana, Togo, Benin, some parts of Nigeria and Ivory Coast, they are part of the Gbe Speaking People and related to the Fon, Mina and Aja people. According to Professor Amenumey he claimed they originally came from Ketu in Dahomey Present day Benin which is considered as a Yoruba area, they were eventually forced which led to migration from eastward as a result of the expansions others claimed the Eweland extended from the mono river on the western border of Dahomey Present day Benin across Present day Togo and into the present day southeastern Ghana which is believed to be formely British Togoland as far as the volta river, from the south to the north and extend from the coast into the heavily forest hills.

https://rediscoveringafricaheritage.wordpress.com/2017/07/11/ewe-people-of-ghana-togo-nigeria-benin-and-ivory-coast/

THE GREAT BINI EMPIRE: AN AFRICAN LEGACY By RASTA LIVeWIRE

When the great Benin empire reached the zeniths of its power, it extended its boundaries and exercised power over all the west African lands bordering the entire stretch of the bight of Benin, from the mouth of the river Volta in the west and eastward to the present day Congo and to the delta of river Niger in the east e.g. Ghana, Republic of Benin, both across the borders of modern Nigeria. Onitsha on the Niger and many other cities such as Asaba, Agbor, Isele-Uku, Warri, Idah e.t.c. Many of these states and other cities owe their corporate existence to the ancient Benin Empire. The influence of the great Benin Empire was said to have even extended to the present day Sierra Leone in the west.

The legendary fame of the Great Benin empire was such that the name Benin had many meanings, e.g. there was Benin-city and Benin empire, Benin river close to the new Benin (Warri) and there is the bight of Benin and the Benin district comprising of Sapele and Warri. Beyond the Gulf of Benin, the great Benin Empire’s legendary fame was indeed wide spread. Several European states heard about the empires might and civilized attitudes, many sought for it.

That a vast stretch of the West African coastline bears the name ” BIGHT OF BENIN” is no accident of history. Even until these day, it quite evident and amazing how the cultural influence of the ancient Benin empire remains strong till today. An independent republic of former Dahomey in 1975 decided to change its name to the republic of Benin as a way of reconnecting its roots to Africa’s once glorious kingdom.

The republic of Togo on the other hand named some of her prestigious institutions after the great Benin empire e.g. Universite du Benin, Togo hotel du Benin e.t.c. President Gnassingbe Eyadema during his 1974 visit to Benin City openly stated that the Togolese people originated from the ancient Benin Empire. His open declaration was cardinal in the sense that it ended the historical dilemma that clouded the ancient Benin and present day Benin speaking Yoruba influence on many West African nations. The Political & Spiritual Purpose of the Holy Land nations.

Today, the people of Onitsha across the Niger, the Isekiris, Urobos, Isian and Ijaws just to mention but a few all proudly trace their venerated royal lineages to the ancient Benin empire.

https://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-great-bini-empire-african-legacy/comment-page-1/

20170429_160330

My highest ancestry regions are Benin Togo 40% Cameroon Congo 22% Ivory Coast Ghana 12%

I also have 2% Iberian Peninsula Portuguese/Spanish which correlates with Benin history and the Portuguese slave history.

We were sold for guns and material things but I’m genetically more African than some Africans especially in the north and east.  We are called white or Europeans by some but the truth is in our DNA. If I’m claiming anything I’m claiming a legacy that was stolen and destroyed. I want it back and if you check out this blog I dig into everything. This is dear to my heart for my ancestors. The truth will set you free as they say. Africans and the Africans that went into captivity we hold a missing link we each have half of the history. We are one.

Benin’s largest ethnic group is the Fon (39%), followed by the Adja (15%), Yoruba (12%) and Bariba (9%). Togo’s largest ethnic groups are the Ewe (21%), Kabye (12%), Mina (3.2%) and Kotokoli (3.2%). Benin has more ethnic ties to its neighbor Nigeria; Togo has more links to Ghana. These ethnic ties are the result of long-standing kingdoms that flourished before European colonists created new borders.

https://www.ancestry.com/dna/ethnicity/benin-togo

Ewe people show high Togo and Ghana

Ga Dangme show high Togo and Ghana

Yoruba show high Benin and Togo and Ghana and Nigeria

Below results are similar to mine above and are African American

ancestry

GHANA (Ewe from Peki/Volta region) 

EWE

benin1-3

Ewe

They are particularly found in southern Togo (formerly French Togoland), Volta Region in southeastern Ghana (formerly British Togoland), and in southwestern parts of Benin. The Ewe region is sometimes referred to as the Ewe nation or Eʋedukɔ́ region (Togoland in colonial literature). Wikipedia

This is a very insightful even if perhaps counterintuitive breakdown for a Ghanaian person. The predominant score is afterall “Benin/Togo” combined with a smaller but still considerable proportion of “Ivory Coast/Ghana”. The socalled “Benin/Togo” region has been reported very frequently and also with high scores among African Americans and also West Indians. Often surprisingly so. I have no complete certainty about the ethnic background of the person whose DNA results are being shown above. However judging from his name and his family’s location in theVolta regionof Ghana, nearby the Togolese border. And more specifically their hometown being Peki, a traditional Ewe state, this person could very well be anEwe, an ethnic group living in eastern Ghana as well as southern Togo (see alsothis map).

https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/ancestrydna/african-results/

 Ewe People of Ghana, Togo, Nigeria , Benin and Ivory Coast.

Ewe People also known as Evê can be found in Ghana, Togo, Benin, some parts of Nigeria and Ivory Coast, they are part of the Gbe Speaking People and related to the Fon, Mina and Aja people. According to Professor Amenumey he claimed they originally came from Ketu in Dahomey Present day Benin which is considered as a Yoruba area, they were eventually forced which led to migration from eastward as a result of the expansions others claimed the Eweland extended from the mono river on the western border of Dahomey Present day Benin across Present day Togo and into the present day southeastern Ghana which is believed to be formely British Togoland as far as the volta river, from the south to the north and extend from the coast into the heavily forest hills.

The DNA of my Ghanian cousin on Ancestry DNA below

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo

Trace Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Nigeria

 

YORUBA

Yoruba2a

 

yorubaland_map-1

Ga Dangme

The Ga-AdangmeGã-AdaŋbɛGa-Dangme, or GaDangme are an ethnic group in Ghana andTogo. The Ga and Adangbe people are grouped respectively as part of the Ga–Dangmeethnolinguistic group.[2][3]

Ga-Adangbes
Gã-Adaŋbɛs

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Marcel Desailly George Ayittey Obo Addy
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Harry Aikines-Aryeetey Joseph Ankrah Eric Anang
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Paul Sackey Nii Amugi II David Hansen

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Total population
(Approximately 2.0 million[1])
Regions with significant populations
Ghana – Greater Accra Region & Eastern Region-, Togo, as well as the United KingdomGermany,Brazil the United States of America, and Canada
Languages
Ga and Adangme
Religion
Christianity • Traditional • Islam • Hinduism

The Ga-Adangmes are one ethnic group that lives primarily in the Greater AccraEastern Region and the Volta Region of Ghana. Others areas are Aného in Togo and Benin.

The Ga peoples were organized into six independent towns (Accra (Ga Mashie), Osu,LaTeshieNungua, and Tema). Each town had a stool, which served as the central object of Ga ritual and war magic. Accra became the most prominent Ga-Dangme towns and is now the heartbeat and capital of Ghana.[4] The Ga people were originally farmers, but today fishing and trading in imported goods are the principal occupations. Trading is generally in the hands of women, and a husband has no control over his wife’s money. Succession to most offices held by women and inheritance of women’s property are by matrilineal descent. Inheritance of other property and succession to male-held public offices are by patrilineal descent. Men of the lineage live together in a men’s compound, while women, even after marriage, live with their mothers and children in a women’s compound. Each Ga town has a number of different cults and many gods, and there are a number of annual town festivals.[4]

The Adangme people occupy the coastal area of Ghana from Kpone to Ada, on the Volta River and South Atlantic Ocean along the Gulf of Guinea and inland along the Volta River. The Adangme People include the Ada, Kpong,Krobo, Ningo, Osuduku, Prampram, and Shai, all speaking Adangbe of the Kwa branch of the Niger-Congo family of languages. [5] The Adangme People have the largest Population among the two related Ga-Adangme People. About 70% of the Greater Accra Regional Land is owned by the Adangmes located in Dangme East and Dangme West Districts of Ghana. Also, in the Eastern Region and Volta Region of Ghana, about 15% of lands belong to the Adangme People. These are mainly in the Manya Krobo and Yilo Krobo Districts of the Eastern Region. In the Agotime Area of Volta Region and the Adangbe Area in the Southern part of Togo.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ga-Adangbe_people

This is the original list of returned escaped slaves in Jamaica.

 Return of the ACCOMPONG Maroons 27TH OCTOBER 1831 CO 140/121

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/MaroonsAccompong.htm

 

Please note this is only one list of escaped slaves and my ancestors were found on a 1809 census aswel ( quoted from memory the record is on one of my other posts) Nanny of the Maroons started the movement of runaway slaves and founded her own towns for them. Maroon Town and Accompong. You can visit my related posts by doing a search in my search bar. Some Maroons were deported to Freetown.

My family are listed. If you are Jamaicans American Haitian your family might be listed too.

OFFICERS

Lieutenant-colonel Andrew White

61

Lieutenant Robert Reid Peate

54

Captain James Rowe

61

Lieutenant Richard Rowe

30

Captain William Dennis Reid

55

Lieutenant John Reid

53

Captain James Dennis Foster

57

Lieutenant John Watson

43

 

PRIVATES

 

William Adlam

54

George Reid

34

John Adlam

22

Robert Hugh Reid

43

Samuel Adlam

18

Thomas Reid

35

Colin Adlam

18

George Roache

39

Charles Austen

44

Thomas Roache

40

Samuel Anderson

26

Samuel Roden

32

Joseph Barrett

26

Charles Rowe

56

Edward Barrett

22

Henry Rowe

35

William Brice

26

Billy Rowe

30

Frank Cross

36

James Rowe

29

John Cross

43

William Rowe (sambo)

40

Thomas Cross

44

Robert Salmon

33

Thomas Cross, jun.

19

Smallin Smith

26

Thomas Currie (mulatto)

23

Quao Smith

22

William Davis

54

Thomas Smith

37

Barnet Dennis (mulatto)

45

Joseph Smith

30

Joseph Dennis (sambo)

29

Barnet Smith

35

Rodger Reid Dennis

55

Cabina Smith

41

William Dowan (mulatto)

26

Alexander Shilletto

31

Alexander Faulkner

26

Thomas Stretch

23

Samuel Faulkner

28

James Stone

38

Matthew Farquharson

37

James Swaby

39

Antonio Flesharkey (quadroon)

21

Robert Virvin

54

John Griffith

56

John Webb

22

Thomas Holliday

26

Thomas White

31

James Haughton

36

John White

21

Charles George Ludwig (quadroon)

22

Robert White

19

Richard Miles

33

Billy Wright

25

Edward Peate

25

Robert Wright

34

Billy Peate

25

William Wright

31

Thomas Peate

24

Samuel Wright

25

John Peate

30

James Wright

19

Samuel Pight

36

Samuel Barrett

18

Lewis Pight

35

James Montague

18

Charles Quarrey

26

 

 

 

 

WOMEN

 

Fanny Austin

53

Ann Rowe

26

Nanny Austin

77

Ellen Rowe

28

Catherine Barrett

51

Bess Rowe

27

Bash Beat

51

Debby Rowe

19

Barbara Boucher

69

Grace Salmon

60

Charlotte Bookay (mulatto)

23

Jane Salmon

31

Bella Brice

23

Bess Salmon

30

Nancy Carr

43

Nancy Salmo [Salmon]

27

Mary Carr