One fact that was meant to be hidden is that the M2 lineage carrying, Niger-Congo/Kordofanian speaking, broad featured (“true Negro”) populations of Equatorial Africa and their New World extensions are the living descendants of the ancient Egyptians (and Hebrews). They do not want us to know that we were at the basis of all of these ancient civilizations and not as slaves but masters (Sidi Badr). WE DID NOT ORIGINATE IN WEST AFRICA, BUT AS ATTESTED TO BY EVERY TRIBAL ELDER WE ORIGINATED IN NUBIA-EGYPT(see the black and white map below) IN EASTERN AFRICA. These two civilizations were the oldest (Nubia), longest lasting and greatest (most contributing) civilizations in World History. The ancient Egyptian civilization is much older than the 5,000 year date given by “traditional”(liars) Egyptologist but instead it’s over 12,000 years old. Older black and or African scholars still alive today like Theophile Obenga and Dr. Yosef Ben Jochannan for decades have debunked the Western lead lies in regards ancient Egypt and to the “Bantu Migration” from Cameroon and the ridiculous lie that the ancient Egyptian language is not related to Niger-Congo. African scholars (who actually speak African languages) have long criticized the entire “Afro-Asiatic” category of African languages. This video explains the basics behind the dilemma.
Above is a quote from the article click the below link for the full post which I recommend. I will be compiling my own research on the above matter and my previous post Reclaiming the African in My African American Ethnicity — Ariana Fiorello-Omotosho The previous post is of a African descendant brought to the New world in slavery from Nigeria and Cameroon. The analysis of her DNA by a professional company traces her genealogy to one of 2 places (I would personally say both places) Egypt or Palestine. If you have read my post on my Akan and Igbo ancestors you will be aware that I also have a DNA match cousin who’s ancestry was tracing back to Egypt and Saudi Arabia rather than palestine 1000-2000 years ago.
Click below for the full post (The article is mind blowing and needs to be read more than once to be truly absorbed in my opinion)
Nok Culture spanned the end of the Neolithic (Stone Age) and start of the Iron Age in sub-Saharan Africa, and may be the oldest organized society in sub-Saharan Africa; current research suggests it predated the founding of Rome by some 500 years. Nok was a complex society with permanent settlements and centres for farming and manufacturing, but we are still left guessing who the Nok were, how their culture developed, or what happened to it.
The function of Nok terracotta sculptures is still unknown. For the most part, the terracotta is preserved in the form of scattered fragments. That is why Nok art is well known today only for the heads, both male and female, whose hairstyles are particularly detailed and refined. The statues are in fragments because the discoveries are usually made from alluvial mud, in terrain made by the erosion of water. The terracotta statues found there are hidden, rolled, polished, and broken. Rarely are works of great size conserved intact making them highly valued on the international art market.
The terracotta figures are hollow, coil built, nearly life sized human heads and bodies that are depicted with highly stylized features, abundant jewelry, and varied postures.
For the water spirits, see Nokke. For Nigerian Village, see Nok. For Other uses, see NOK.
The Nok culture is an early Iron Age population whose material remains are named after the Hamvillage of Nok in Kaduna State of Nigeria, where their famous terracotta sculptures were first discovered in 1928. The Nok Culture appeared in northern Nigeria around 1000 BC and vanished under unknown circumstances around 500 AD, thus having lasted for approximately 1,500 years.
Potsherds are the most abundant archaeological artefacts at Nok sites. Since 2009, excavated pottery has been undergoing systematic analysis with a central aim to try and establish a chronology. Certain attributes of the pottery such as decoration, shape and size appear with an increasing frequency and then disappear being replaced with different pottery attributes. This change can sometime allow one to divide the progression into different intervals based on the different attributes. In total approximately 90,000 potsherds have been collected, and out of that 15,000 have been considered diagnostic meaning that they are decorated, sherds from the rim or the bottom of the vessel, or they have handles or holes in them. The results of the pottery analysis can be delineated into three distinct time periods: Early, Middle, and Late.
From approximately c. 1500–900 BC the pottery of the Early Nok Period are mostly small and not very well preserved. They seem to be richly decorated with various elaborate patterns directly below the vessels’ rims and covering a large part of the ceramic body. The lines made on the pottery seem to be remarkably fine or curving lines. There tends to be many lines which are close together and some even have criss-crossing lines beneath the rim. Pottery frequently had everted and broad, thick rims.
The Middle Nok Period is approximately from c. 900–300 BC and with this time period there is a dramatic increase of sites, terracotta fragments and iron objects. Instead of the early period’s decoration which tended to cover most of the pot instead there is a decorative band which is bordered by deep horizontal lines. This band appears on the pots’ upper half or directly under the rim of the bowls. Some bands have a sharp ends as well as impressed zigzag lines or an incised wave or arc. Unlike the Early Nok period the Middle Nok ceramics tend to have more variety in the rim with everted rims, open bowls, bowls with inverted rims and incised line ornaments on the rims’ lips.
The Late Nok period is from approximately c. 300–1 BC and has only a few known sites. There is little pottery available for analysis but from the pottery that was found there is a decrease in the strictness of the ornamental band. While the band is still used they are being more complexly decorated with additional patterning. There also tends to be a returning pattern of body decoration. The variety of rim sizes and types seem to be increasing even more than in the Middle Nok period.
At almost all Nok sites there are charred plant remains consisting of firewood and plant material for cooking. Pearl millet remains tend to frequent Nok sites. Pearl millet is one of Africa’s oldest grain crop. It is highly productive and are remarkably resistant to adverse growing conditions such as droughts. Cowpea also appears at sites but less frequently and valued upon their high protein content. So far, pearl millet and cowpeas seem to be the only crops with seem to be cultivated by the Nok people. It is unclear whether they ate or farmed tubers of any kind. The numerous grinding stones found at Nok sites indicate that the grains were most likely ground into flour and made into a type of porridge.
The collection of wild fruits is attested to the hard pits found at many Nok sites. At some sites, fruit and seeds of other wild plants such as grasses and legumes with small seeds were discovered. Overall there is not a huge selection of plant remains which could be due to different preservation abilities.
The Nok people probably used an agroforestry system which is a plot of land of cultivated crops with useful trees in the same plot of land. These plots are ecologically sustainable and inter-cropping of trees and several cultivated plant species were common from the savannas to the rain forest with its origins going back to the first millennium BC, right at the time of the Nok culture. Most West African trees are not domesticated but are part of the wild vegetation which is left after farmers clear their fields of their crops. Because they are left to grow they multiply naturally without needing to be planted. Trees can produce food, medicine and animal feed.
Because of the acidic soil, there are no bones that have preserved so there is no evidence for which animals if any the Nok people utilized. The only evidence for animals during the Nok culture period is the depictions of animals as figurines or terracotta sculptures.
Since the 1970s, Nok terracotta figures have been heavily looted. Even larger-scale lootingcommenced in the Nok cultural area in 1994, and by 1995 two main local traders emerged. Each of the main traders could employ approximately 1,000 diggers to unearth terracottas every day. Although the majority of the terracottas were fragmented, some were intact and sellable.Because of this, hundreds of Nok Culture sites have been illegally dug in search of these terracotta sculptures. Valuable information about the Nok Culture is lost when these objects are taken from out of the ground and removed from their archaeological contexts.
In 1979, Nigeria’s National Commission of Museums and Monuments Decree established theNational Commission for Museums and Monuments (NCMM), which is used to manage Nigeria’s cultural heritage. NCMM Decree number 77 made it illegal for anyone other than authorized personnel to buy or sell antiquities within Nigeria or export an antiquity without a permit from the NCMM. Towards the end of the 1990s the federal government of Nigeria implemented the NCMM, which initiated a series of actions to work out strategies for combating the problems of looting and to map out a plan of action. The general consensus was that laws governing antiquities and penalties for offenders needed to be strictly enforced and that all archaeological sites should be monitored. The NCMM also recommended more aggressive public enlightenment campaigns as well as a series of sensitization programs across the nation. These programs are considered a success in terms of increased awareness by law enforcement agents, as well as the Nigerian customs authorities and Interpol. However, not all of the recommendations were implemented, because the Nigerian government did not have the resources to face the enormity of some of the challenges. For example, the government did not have the resources to place monitors at all archaeological sites, and terracotta figures still slip through Nigeria’s borders.
This post is full of information and documentaries. You may want to bookmark or save the page and read it over a period of time.
When I started this post and this journey I had no idea what I would find. I will be updating this post until it is full (like my Hebrew Israelites and the trans Atlantic slave trade post which is full and can’t be added to) I pray for guidance and for truth in my study and retrieval of the history of my ancestors.
This is our story.
The ancestors found were Igbo & Akan described in Jamaica as Eboe & Coromantee
Before I get into te exploration of who these ancestors are I’m going to drop this Jamaican poem here
According to records my first ancestors into the new world were Charlotte (birth 1765ish) and William senior (birth 1767) and their descendants they started the lineage that I stem from in Jamaica. Charlotte was born in Africa. Charlottes son Quamin formerly known as William had Billy also known as William after his father. Charlotte was described as Igbo in the census listing on the plantation. Billy was described as a Creole Negroe. Creole was sometimes used to describe people born on a different island such as America or a different Carribean Island. Creole could also refer to a mixed race person. I have already discovered a line of family born in America from this side of the family and every record points to them stemming from this William or his relatives. I researched the name Quamin and it relates to West Africa and the Akan and Ga tribe. Although the jamaican records describe my ancestors as Igbo it is quite possible that they used one umbrella term “Igbo” to describe slaves who may have called themselves something else.
By about 1810 my ancestors have gone from being called Igbo to Maroons.
Afro-Jamaicans are Jamaicans of entirely or predominantly African descent. The first Africans to arrive came in 1513 from the Iberian Peninsula. They were servants, cowboys, herders of cattle, pigs and horses, as well as hunters. When the English captured Jamaica in 1655, many of them fought with the Spanish who gave them their freedom and then fled to the mountains resisting the British for many years to maintain their freedom, becoming known as Maroons. The British in this point in time, brought with them mostly Akan slaves, some of which ran away and joined with Maroons and even took over as leaders.
Documentation later lists my relatives as escapees known as Maroons in the late 1700 and they are advertised as missing.
The Maroons are descendants of West Africans, mainly people from the Ashanti region of what is today Ghana. After being brought to Jamaica in the course of the Transatlantic slave trade, many slaves fled from the oppressive conditions of plantations and formed their own communities in the rugged, hilly interior of the island. A minority of slaves originated from other regions of Africa, including the Congo and Madagascar; they were known as Coromantie or Koromantee, and were considered ferocious fighters. People who escaped from slavery joined the other Maroons.
These ancestors and many in the Diaspora would have past through the many ports that lined the coast of West Africa.
Fort Kormantin was built by the English between 1638 and 1645 and sits on a hill in Kormantin-Abandze in the Central Region of Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast). In 1661, the Royal African Company obtained ownership of the fort, and it became the headquarters of English Gold Coast activities until 1665 when Dutch Admiral Michiel Adriaensz De Ruyter captured the fort after a bloody battle.3
Fort Kormantin Ghana West Africa 1661
Renamed Fort Amsterdam by the Dutch, the fort is believed to have housed the first slave prison on the Gold Coast, and the name Kormantin became synonymous for the toughest men who had resisted capture. The Kormantin from the Gold Coast, were sold from the Slave Coast (Kingdom of Juda) and passed through the Door of No Return at Ouidah before being transported to the Caribbean Islands.4 By far the largest number of Jamaicans and Haitians are Korantin.
The below is the return of the runaway slaves list where I found my ancestors
They worked on Golden Grove Estate in St Thomas-in-the-East in Jamaica.
This West African map shows there was a St Thomas in the bottom right corner a tiny Island. I wonder if there was a connection. It is quite possible that my Spanish ancestor came from this Island. This line of family were Catholic and possibly Jewish in the past. I have always wondered why a particular line of my family took part in the Catholic traditions. The connection could be from Sao Tome St Thomas or from Portugal or Spain.
São Tomé and Principe islands lie off the coast of Western Africa, in the Atlantic Ocean. St Thomas and Prince Islands translation, English … São Tomé and Príncipe An island country in the Gulf of Guinea
King Manuel I of Portugal exiled about 2,000 Jewish children under the age of ten, to São Tomé and Príncipe around 1500. Most died, but in the early 17th century “the local bishop noted with disgust that there were still Jewish observances on the island and returned to Portugal because of his frustration with them.”[Although Jewish practices faded over subsequent centuries, there are people in São Tomé and Príncipe who are aware of partial descent from this population. Similarly, a number of Portuguese ethnic Jews were exiled to Sao Tome after forced conversions to Roman Catholicism.
These islands were uninhabited until their discovery by Portuguese explorers in the 15th century. Gradually colonized and settled by the Portuguese throughout the 16th century, they collectively served as a vital commercial and trade center for the Atlantic slave trade. The rich volcanic soil and close proximity to the Equator made São Tomé and Príncipe ideal for sugar cultivation, followed later by cash crops such as coffee and cocoa; the lucrative plantation economy was heavily dependent upon imported African slaves.
The first successful settlement of São Tomé was established in 1493 by Álvaro Caminha, who received the land as a grant from the crown. Príncipe was settled in 1500 under a similar arrangement. Attracting settlers proved difficult, however, and most of the earliest inhabitants were “undesirables” sent from Portugal, mostly Jews. In time these settlers found the volcanic soil of the region suitable for agriculture, especially the growing of sugar.
By 1515, São Tomé and Príncipe had become slave depots for the coastal slave trade centered at Elmina.
Below are some records of the Portuguese and Spanish Jews in Jamaica.
My ancestors were also enslaved in Jamaica St Mary.
I found a book online which describes the owners and the slaves at the plantation my family were enslaved on in St Mary. The slaves worked producing coffee and sugar. The book states that the first person listed there with the surname was Charlotte born in Africa in or around 1760. This I think is correct she was the first person there with the surname but only in that part of town. She had a life as a Maroon on a different plantation that she fled prior to the records at St Mary. As in most cases the records compiled by the British Scottish and Spanish only begin when they believe the natives got there. I calculated Charlotte would be my 6x great grandmother. The book I have regarding the family was written by the descendants of the slave owner so I doubt my x6 great grandmother would have told them the truth. Further research now points to her living as a maroon for sometime and being from St Thomas Parish prior to being a Maroon escaped slave. When the plantation owners thought she arrived may be incorrect as she could have been part of the maroon family and lied about how long she had been on the island as to not expose the truth of the Maroons who had been there as early as the mid to late 1500. There were Portuguese Arawak Taino and African people on the island before Christopher Columbus got there. My first female Maroon ancestor would have likely escaped to West moreland. She would have possibly travelled to the Trelawny Maroon area across the island. I have family who have lived there for hundreds of years according to their birth records and family oral story. The dates on record don’t add up I estimate she was born around 1750 either in Africa as recorded or Maroon Town.
The book Saving Souls: The Struggle to End the Transatlantic Trade in Africans talks of Quamin Tacky and Blackwall who were Maroons in 1790 who led a rebellion in St Mary. The book also states “The Scott’s Hall Maroons were bound by a 1739 treaty to keep the peace and supress the war” and this explains why when my 6x great grandmother and her children were recaptured it said the maroons brought her in. The Maroons who signed a treaty had to abide by the rules of the officials who granted the land. They were expected to catch any new runaways and return them to the officials of the time.
Pictures of Jamaican Maroons below
Here is a link to 2 documentarys on Maroons in Jamaica.
I also saw the migration of one of my possible maroon ancestors Billy, to Haiti on record and note that many Haitians also share a high Benin Togo score as do I. Haiti was also known for its Maroons and I think that my Maroon ancestor it appears fled the island for a time to Haiti. This is my only slave ancestor to die rich according to records.
The distance from Kingston, Jamaica to Carrefour, Haiti is 261 miles and if there were a direct flight, it would only take 35 minutes on a plane. Boukman, the Jamaican, who was sold to a Frenchman and brought to Haiti from Jamaica because of his rebellious spirit, played an instrumental role in the revolution that lead to Haiti being the very first country in the new world, in 1803, to throw off the shackles of slavery, and gain its freedom.
the clip leads me to believe he lived as a free man in Haiti (but was a runaway slave from Jamaica) he went to Haiti because Haiti had already abolished slavery on his arrival. The free mixed people had their own industries and he was able to slip in and go un noticed amongst them. Slavery continued for much longer in Jamaica.
This is how Creole descendants looked.
Exploring my Creole ancestors and possible connections
The Maroon who went to Haiti was married to a Mary Drew who was also Creole. My first thoughts were that she could have been a qudroon like the little girl in the above picture. It turns out that my ancestor married the daughter of the plantation owner she was born to a slave mother I believe. Billy brought his slave mother’s freedom on his death. Billy would have probably been able to earn his own money being married to the plantation owners mixed slave daughter. I do not descend from his wife and her children as I do not share the family name in my DNA . I am also surprised to find that I am only 5% European. I now know that the Maroons were away from the slave plantations and therefore the women removed the likelyhood of being raped. My Igbo and Akan ancestors from the Maroons were certainly full blooded African’s as there is only the one ancestor mentioned as Creole in this side of my lineage.
Amelia Briscoe Drew, 8, Creole Mary Lavinia Drew, 18, Creole
James Briscoe a free Creole Negro man aged about 46 (formerly a slave belonging to Elizabeth Fielding a free mulatto woman) married at Bellemont Pen on June 30, 1819 to Helen Grier Drew a Creole aged about 27 belonging to S. Drew Esq. of Bellemont.
Stirling, Billy, apprentice labourer residence Ardock, and Mary Ann Stirling residence Spring Mount, married 5/27/1838, page 13
The above could be Billy and Mary, William’s son and his wife descendants of Charlotte if their names were changed when they were resold or relocated. I decided to look into this and found that there was a Stirling Castle in St Mary which increases the chances of the above being the same Billy and Mary as the family surname connections are recorded in that area tying the above ancestors together. Their surnames, birth dates and locations and the names of their owners place them exactly where they were at the time and line up with the rest of the family.
Black women slaves might marry a black man and have black children and be raped and have a mixed race or Creole child as they called it. The children might be sold off to different areas that became red skin people areas such as was Clarendon and Redhills as described by one of my grandmothers. Creole slaves came from Africans and either Scottish British French Portuguese Spanish invaders ie colony owners who raped them or sometimes they mixed with runaway slaves such as the Arawak Indians, and Spanish Taino the original inhabitants before Britain entered. Those who had fled to the hills when Britain invaded Jamaica became what we know of the Maroons.
My ancestor almost 70 years prior to the picture below would have probably fit right in with the below Rebellion.
Tracing African roots website Haitian results
2% Iberian Peninsula which is not surprising considering the Spanish And Portuguese slave trade history.
I know that in the late 1800 to mid 1900 some of the family moved to America. The DNA below is from one of those descendants.
Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Benin/Togo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Mali
Trace Regions: Senegal, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Native American, Iberian Peninsula, Ireland
The Ethnicity and history of my ancestors
Corroborating Romer’s assertion, Henderson-Quartey (2001), citing from the work of Bruce-Myers (1927, pp.70-72) quoted him as saying, “the Gas came all the way from the central part of the Continent…and they are kinsmen to the Benins, who by their own choice, kept back in the course of the migration.” This gives credence to the assumption that the Ga ethnic groups were once part of the people of Benin from the mid-western part of Nigeria. See Sheikh Mustufas blog click
The coastal Egbo who were generally known to the slave traders as
Calabaris provided the majority of “ Igbo descended “ captives and were often referred to as KWA IBO. The general tendency to associate the Calabaris with “ Igbo “ is a result of the understanding that the Egbo tribes were related to the “ Greater Igbo Nation “ and therefore Herskovits refers to Calabari as a generic name for “ Ibos “ in the United States.
In Cuba it is understood that those known as Calabaris descend from the Egbo tribes such as the Efik and Ibibio. During the time of the slave trade the most powerful and numerous of the Egbo tribes were those known as THE KWA. In generalizing the Egbo Nation with the dominant Kwa tribe, all of the Egbo tribes were collectively known as Kwa Ibo.
Through the dominance of the Kwa tribe,the Egbo Society was also
known as the AbaKwa Society meaning of the Kwa people.To this day the Egbo Society continues to actively function in Cuba.
The Maroons in Jamaica say they are made up of Koromantee Akan Ashanti and Igbo.
Some Maroons were recaptured and it appears my 6x great grandmother was one of them. There is a story of some of the churches and plantations being burnt down by Maroons when some of them were recaptured.
Guerrilla warfare in the 18th century states the below link
The Windward Maroons also subjected themselves to the severe discipline made necessary by the constant threat of battle. The head man at Nanny Town ordered the entire military operation, and anyone who committed a crime was shot to death. Here too, those men who were least noted for their courage worked with the women in raising provisions. The Nanny Town Maroons were well coordinated for fighting. A captured Maroon told of the way in which they prepared for the advance of troops toward their settlement: “… there were at Hobby’s [a plantation captured by the Maroons] 2 Gangs of Men 100 in each Gang & Several women which they had brought to help carry off the Spoil: . .. they left one Gang in the Negro Town to Guard the rest of the Women & Children; … they had determined on hearing the Partys coming to Ambush them in the River’s Course, that a Gang of 100 was to lay on Carrion Crow Hill & 100 more Hobby’s way, that a Drum was to be placed on the ridge over the Town to View the Partys and the Women in the town to burn the houses in case the Party should be too Strong, if not the three Gangs to Surround them on the beat of Drum, all under the Command of Scipio.”
In addition to their headmen, Maroons in both ends of the island relied on obeah men and women, that is, magical practitioners, for help in their battle for survival. One of them, Nanny, after whom Nanny Town was named, is still revered and remembered as a heroine for turning back the British fire by magic. Such supernatural aids may have given the Maroons a boost in confidence, but the bulk of their defense was provided by careful planning and ingenuity and a great deal of courage and resourcefulness.
Accompong (from the Akan name Acheampong) is a historical Maroon village located in the hills of St. Elizabeth Parish on the island of Jamaica. It is located in Cockpit Country, where the local terrain enabled Maroons and indigenous Taíno to establish a fortified stronghold in the 17th century. They defended it to maintain independence from the Spanish and then later against British forces, after the colony changed hands.
Jamaican woman 1920
Here is some real records of that time I note Quamin in there and Cudjoe and Cuffee Quashiba and Quamina being there also. Quamin is my relative Billy is there and I suspect some of those mentioned could also be relatives from the record below.
NEW CANAAN PLANTATION, St. James, Jamaica.
The Schedule to which the annexed Indenture refers-
What is interesting is that one of my African cousins in my DNA matches has a surname that is said to be from a royal family in Ghana and so is Nanny of the Maroons in Jamaica. Nanny is described as being from the Ashanti tribe and the mother of all Jamaicans. Nanny had about 5 brothers taken as slaves including Cudjoe. It does seem that my Maroon ancestors may have been related to people who lived in the same area of Africa as Nanny. The Igbo in Jamaica practised their African traditions. Also they continued the naming practice prevalent in the Ga Akan and Ashanti tribe. The evidence is that my ancestors tracing Charlotte’s line were from the Ashanti region. The Ashanti Akan Ga Dangme are the same group of people genetically found in the Ghana region. In Jamaica they were called Igbo. In modern times we now consider Igbo to be predominantly Nigerian but this is based on the definition of Europe during the slave trade.
The below maps show how Europeans continuously relabeled West Africa. The Aethiopian Ocean translates to the ocean of the Blacks or burnt faces.
Ethiopia spanned a much larger area
Below Negroland was called Soudan and Western Soudan. Sudan means black the o in Soudan has been dropped in modern times.
The Sudan, a region stretching across Africa south of the Sahara and north of the tropical zone: inhabited chiefly by Negroid tribes rather than Arabs. Word Origin and History for Sudan. 1842, from Arabic Bilad-al-sudan, literally “country of the blacks,” from sud, plural of aswad (fem. sauda) “black.”
The Ashanti (also spelled Asante) Empire (1701–1957) was an Akan empire and kingdom in what is now modern-day Ghana. The Ashanti Empire expanded from Ashanti to include the Brong-Ahafo, Central region,
The Ashanti empire was well established when my ancestor left Africa in the mid 17th century. This adds credibility to the Maroons account of who the people were. The area was called The Gold Coast and they traded in Gold and Kent cloth to name a few things.
Coromantee, Coromantins, Coromanti or Kormantine (derived from the name of the Ghanaian slave fort of Fort Kormantine in Koromanti, Ghana) was the English name originally given to enslaved Ashanti people in Jamaica, but became synonymous for all Akan groups from the Gold Coast or modern-day Ghana. The term Coromantee is now considered archaic as it simply refers to Akan people, and was primarily used in the Caribbean.
Coromantins actually came from several Akan ethnic groups and were sent to separate European colonies in the Caribbean based on their alliance with Europeans back in the Gold Coast – Asante(or Ashanti) being opposed the Fante (Fanti) and the British were shipped to Jamaica and Barbados; the Fante, being opposed to the Asante and the Dutch, were sent to the Guianas, etc. as war and kidnapped captives, respectively. Owing to their militaristic background and common Akan language, Coromantins organized dozens of slave rebellions in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. Their fierce, rebellious nature became so notorious among white plantation owners in the 18th century that an Act was proposed to ban the importation of people from the Gold Coast, despite their reputation as strong workers.
The Asante had the single largest African cultural influence on Jamaica, both on the Jamaican Maroons and the larger non-maroon population, whose culture and language was seen as a derivation of Asante-Twi. Names of some notable Coromantee leaders — such as Cudjoe, Cuffy, and Quamina — correspond to Akan day names Kojo, Kwame, Kofi, and Kwamina, respectively. A large amount of the enslaved population also had Akan day names, as the name “Quashee” (a distortion of “Kwasi”) was the British planters’ way of implying the Asante majority. The word became the Jamaican British term to mean “black person or slave”; similarly, a white individual was called “obroni” (Twi: white person) by the enslaved populace. The term is still used and is considered a slur.
The Akan people are believed to have migrated to their current location from theSaharadesert andSahelregion of Africa into the forested region around the 11th century,and many Akans tell their history as it started in Eastern region of Africa as this is where theethnogenesisof the Akan as we know them today happened.
Oral traditions of the ruling Abrade (Aduana) Clan relate that they originated from ancient Ghana. They migrated from the north, they went through Egypt and settled in Nubia (Sudan). Around 500AD (5th century), due to the pressure exerted on Nubia by Axumite kingdom of Ethiopia, Nubia was shattered, and the Akan people moved west and established small trading kingdoms. These kingdoms grew, and around 750AD the Empire of Ghana was formed. The Empire lasted from 750AD to 1200AD and collapsed as a result of the introduction of Islam in the Western Sudan, and the zeal of the Muslims to impose their religion: their ancestors eventually left for Kong (i.e. present day Ivory Coast). From Kong they moved to Wam and then to Dormaa (both located in present-day Brong-Ahafo region). The movement from Kong was necessitated by the desire of the people to find suitable savannah conditions since they were not used to forest life. Around the 14th century, they moved from Dormaa South Eastwards to Twifo-Hemang, North West Cape Coast. This move was commercially motivated.
The kingdom of Bonoman (or Brong-Ahafo) was established as early as the 12th century,.Between the 12th and 13th centuries a gold boom in the area brought wealth to numerous Akans.
During different phases of the Kingdom of Bonoman, groups of Akans migrated out of the area to create numerous states based predominantly on gold mining and trading of cash crops.This brought wealth to numerous Akan states like Akwamu Empire, (1550-1650) and ultimately led to the rise of the most well known Akan empire, the Empire of Ashanti,(1700-1900), the most dominant of the Akan states.
With a population of 20 million, the Akan represent the largest ethnic group in Ghana and Ivory Coast. The Akan are a matrilineal society believed to have originated in the Sahel region and who then traveled south into Ghana and Ivory Coast.
The Ashanti, a subgroup of the Akan, formed a number of states in Ghana built around trade and gold. They traded with the Songhai and Hausa along traditional inland routes and also with European partners, starting with the Portuguese, who arrived on the coast in 1482.
The Asante (Ashanti) Gold /Ghana Gold Coast
KONICA MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERA
New crops, such as maize and cassava, and slave labor allowed them (the Ashanti) to push farther into the forests, clearing land to farm and mining gold. In fact, before the transatlantic slave trade began in earnest, the Ashanti bought slaves from the Portuguese.
The Ashanti Empire was established in 1701 by Osei Tutu, who began unifying Ashanti states around the city of Kumasi. The Ashanti continued to expand, through diplomacy and military conquest, building one of the most advanced and powerful empires in sub-Saharan Africa. Not all Akan people wanted part in the empire, and some fled west into modern-day Ivory Coast. These included the Abron, the Baoulé and the Agni. In the 19th century, the Ashanti fought a series of wars with British troops, as England tried to firm up its hold over Ghana. Eventually, the Ashanti kingdom, known as Asanteman, became a British protectorate in 1902 and today is a state within modern Ghana.
French sovereignty over Ivory Coast was recognized by the British in 1889, and the country became a French colony in 1893. Ivory Coast continued to attract new immigrants in the 20th century when two decades of prosperity and relative peace followed independence in 1960.
African surnames identified from my DNA matches Include
Nwokocha a Nigerian Ibo Surname. The surname is from The Bight of Biafra. I have seen this name on a list of tribes of Hebrew descent.
Nwagou which is from The Bight of Biafra Port Harcourt region with people sharing the name as far as Abuja Igbo
Onu which is also Nigerian.
Quartey which is Ghanian Akan Ga Dangme
Ageypong which is a Ghanaian Ashanti surname.
Statistics and meaning of name Nwokocha
Usage: 6% firstname, 94% surname. Nwokocha first name was found 19 times in 2 different countries. (USA,Nigeria) Surname Nwokocha is used at least 267 times in at least 13 countries.
See this extract below
Onyejeocha, Waiyiocha, Wokocha, Okparaocha, Aturuocha, Ewuocha, Onyiyeocha, Onyeocha, Onyeisiocha, Nkwocha, etcetera. The name, though of Igbo origin, never existed as an Igbo village both in ancient times and now in Ikwerre land. The name, ‘Igweocha’, was used to describe the beauty of Port Harcourt city during the colonial era as the city was well planned, decorated with beautiful flowers, gardens, streets with street lights.
I have checked through records and consensus and my DNA matches and Charlotte was described as Igbo on records by her captors however she would have had family in Nigeria and Ghana Accra aswel. The surname Kwatei or Quartey is what I believe could have been her family name. Here are my reasons, she was described as Igbo jamaican maroon. I have a cousin by the name of Quartey who matches this line of family. Maroons were created by Nanny and Cudjoe who said they came from royalty in Ghana. The African names that Charlotte chose to call her children was in custom with the GA tribe Naming patterns after the day of the week. Many slaves from Ghana said they were of royal descent. Some say Nanny took her own boat to Jamaica and did not arrive as a slave. If Nanny and her family did make their way to Jamaica themselves from the Ashanti empire it would make sense that they would be the original inhabitants along with the Taino and Arawak Indians who were there before the colonists. Oral history states Nanny and many of the Maroons were Ashanti. The Maroons were either Coromantee or Ashanti and the Coromantee were not happy when the Ashanti signed the peace treaty confirmed by the Maroons oral history. Nanny of the Maroons was the only woman to receive her own designated land which someone of royalty might demand. The lineage of Kpakpatsewe and Kwei Quartey and Quartey Papafio have a record of their history in Ghana. Whilst I was researching my Spanish lineage I noticed one ancestor kept changing their names and it was because they were hiding their Jewish ancestry. Quartey Papafio is the African Spanish named side of the lineage.
These families are of Asere lineage and show a migration through slave labour and as indentured slaves from Africa to Spain The Carribean and Americas. Names such as Kwatei Kwatei, or spelt Qwatei or Quartey are part of this lineage and named their children in the custom above and records are readily available online.
My cousins DNA below is Ghanian ancestry from the Ga Dangme an Akan tribe.
Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo
Trace Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Nigeria
As per my thoughts there is a Ghanian and Nigerian mix in my families case higher Ghanian than Nigerian.
I now know that one of my ancestors definitely came from the Akan Ga tribe because I asked my cousin DNA match. MY ancestry results are matching Akan Ewe people.
This DNA below I believe is also from the same side of family and related to me through my Paternal side. I believe the 2 DNA matches are my Paternal side.
Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Benin/Togo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Mali
Trace Regions: Senegal, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Native American, Iberian Peninsula, Ireland
This DNA above in reflection to others of the slave trade descendants see the below from Tracing African roots
Ewe People of Ghana, Togo, Nigeria , Benin and Ivory Coast. Ewe People also known as Evê can be found in Ghana, Togo, Benin, some parts of Nigeria and Ivory Coast, they are part of the Gbe Speaking People and related to the Fon, Mina and Aja people. According to Professor Amenumey he claimed they originally came from Ketu in Dahomey See this link for the original post Ewe People of Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Benin and Ivory Coast
The Ewes moved into the area which is now Togo from the Niger river valley between the 12th and 14th centuries. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portuguese explorers and traders visited the coast. For the next 200 years, the coastal region was a major raiding center for Europeans in search of slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name “The Slave Coast.”
The Bight of Biafra is situated between Niger River and near Cape Lopez. An old map shows Biafra was once in modern day Cameroon.
Originating primarily from what was known as the Bight of Biafra on the West African coast, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as a result of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, beginning around 1750.
The primary ports from which the majority of these enslaved people were taken from were Bonny and Calabar, two port towns that are now in south-eastern Nigeria. The slave ships arriving from Bristol and Liverpool delivered the slaves to British colonies including Jamaica. The bulk of enslaved Igbo people arrived relatively late, between 1790 and 1807. Jamaica, after Virginia, was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from the Bight of Biafra.
Igbo people were spread on plantations on the island’s northwestern side, specifically the areas around Montego Bay and St. Ann’s Bay, andconsequently, their influence was concentrated there. The region also witnessed a number of revolts that were attributed to people of Igbo origin. Slave owner Matthew Lewis spent time in Jamaica between 1815 and 1817 and studied the way his slaves organised themselves by ethnicity and he noted, for example, that at one time when he “went down to the negro-houses to hear the whole body of Eboes lodge a complaint against one of the book-keepers”.
Igbo slaves were known, many a times, to have resorted to resistance rather than revolt and maintained “unwritten rules of the plantation” of which the plantation owners were forced to abide by. Igbo culture influenced Jamaican spirituality with the introduction of Obeah folk magic; accounts of “Eboe” slaves being “obeahed” by each other have been documented by plantation owners. However, it is more likely that the word “Obeah” was also used by enslaved Akan people, before Igbos arrived in Jamaica. Other Igbo cultural influences include the Jonkonnu festivals, Igbo words such as “unu”, “una”, idioms, and proverbs in Jamaican patois. In Maroonmusic were songs derived from specific African ethnic groups, among these were songs called “Ibo” that had a distinct style.
The Esan people migrated from the Bini Kingdom in Nigeria. The word Esan is a Bini word meaning “they jumped away, or they have fled.” The name became the accepted name of the group of people who escaped from the reign of Oba Ewuare of Benin in the middle of the 15th century. During the 15th century, the Oba Ewuare of Benin had two sons that both tragically died on the same day. Oba Ewuare then declared for mourning the death of his sons to the whole kingdom that there shall be no sexual intercourse in the kingdom; no washing, sweeping of the houses or compound, drumming or dancing; and making of fire in the land. Oba Ewuare insisted that these laws be strictly adhered to for a period of three years as a mark of respect for his dead sons.
What is represented as the Esan monarch are not monarch or separate kingdom per ser, as the Benin(Edo) monarch but dukedoms. This also extends among many villages and towns across territories of the Great Benin(Edo) Empire, Geographically touching South-South, South-East, South – West and South – East. To this day the Esan chiefs and traditional rulers, the Enogies(Enogie is the Esan title for a king), sometimes called kings of the Esan people are crowned by the Oba, the supreme head or king of the Benin Empire. The Onojie of Uromi and the Onojie of Irrua are direct sons of the Oba of Benin.
Prof. Iyi Ademola Eweka on his Irrua and Evbohinmwin Relations to Benin-Edoland of Nigeria, explained that the people of Irrua are not only from benin but Benins. Irrua (Iruwa), he said, was named after the Benin princess who married the first Enogie of Irrua, with the people of Evbohimwin belonging to the Ishan/Esan clan, of the (Benin)Edo-speaking group. In the last hundred years, the Enogie of Irrua suddenly became the leader of Enigies in Ishan/Esan land. Whenever the Ishan/Esans are gathered, the Irrua man would normally demand the right to break the almighty kola nuts, but not without a fight from other Ishans/Esans and the reason for this phenomenon can be broken into these parts: a) Although the dukedom of Evbohimwin is probably the oldest, it has always been a haven for Edo princes fleeing from the oba of Benin after a protracted succession struggle. It was also a sort of military out post.
ESAN was a division in the old Benin Province of Bendel State now broken into Edo and Delta States. It is bounded on the North and North-East by the old Kukuruku Division which became Afemai before that division was split into Owan, Etsako and Akoko-Edo Local Government Areas; on the South by the old Asaba Division now broken into Oshimili, Ika and Aniocha Local Government Areas; on the West by Owan, Orhiomwon, Ohumwode Local Government Areas, and the East, by River Alika and the lordly River Niger.
Until 1945 the Ora speaking people of Sabongidda were classed with ESAN people. The population of UJAGBE, AMA with many AWAIN districts and ERHA speak ESAN – but like Anegbete on the North-East of Ugboha and the Northern half of Ifeku (IHEKU) ISLAND are now classed with Etsako Local Government Area.
Olowe of Ise was a Yoruba, one of Africa’s most numerous peoples. The Yoruba-speaking peoples share a rich and complex heritage that is at least one thousand years old. Today 18 million Yoruba live primarily in the modern nations of southwestern Nigeria and the Republic of Benin. The Yoruba diaspora, a result of the Atlantic slave trade and religious pilgrimages to Mecca, extends from Senegal to the Nile in Africa and from North to South America. Through most of their history, Yoruba-speaking peoples have referred to themselves by particular group names (e.g., Oyo and Ekiti) or town names (e.g., Oyo and Ise). Their language, of which there are numerous dialects, provides the main evidence for a common identity. In addition, the various groups, including many in the Ekiti region, share the belief that the world was created at Ile-Ife, the first Yoruba kingdom.
Map of eastern Yorubaland
Extract from Facts about Benin origin of Ikwerre
For example, the Igbo tribe, I learnt, is of Israeli origin through their progenitor Nri. Granted that this is true, the question now is, do the present Igbo people possess the same skin colour as the Jews, speak Jewish language, bear Jewish names, practice their culture and tradition? The answer is no. Yet the Igbo people claim Israeli origin. How would one believe their claim?
The Yoruba tribe, I learnt, is of Middle East origin through their progenitor, Oduduwa. Granted that this is true, the question now is do the present Yoruba people possess the same skin colour as the people of Middle East, speak Middle East language, bear their names, practice their culture and tradition? The answer is no. Yet the Yoruba people claim Middle East origin. How would one believe their claim?
The Bini tribe, I learnt, is of Egypt origin. Granted that this is true, the question now is, do the present Bini people possess the same skin colour as the people of Egypt, speak Egypt language, bear Egypt names, practice their culture and tradition? The answer is no. Yet the Bini people claim Egypt origin. How would one believe their claim?
The Ogoni tribe, I learnt, is of Ghana origin. Granted that this is true, the question now is, do the present Ogoni people speak Ghana language, bear Ghana names, practice their culture and tradition? The answer is no. Yet the Ogoni people claim Ghana origin. How would one believe their claim? The list is inexhaustible.
To that point above I want to add that my family was in Jamaica and America for 400 years yet I and many of my cousins do not have Jamaican and Native American DNA. Many Americans don’t have American DNA it doesn’t do away with the fact they have family members who have lived there sometimes for hundreds of years.
My opinion in brackets (Ashanti Yoruba Efik???)
Suggestive of this person having a multi-ethnic background. ethnic groups surrounding Igboland such as the Ijaw, Efik, Edo etc.
I have no certainty about the ethnic background of this person. Although there is valid reason to assume at least a partial Igbo background. The breakdown on display is atypical compared with what i have seen sofar for Nigerians and especially for Igbo’s. “Nigeria” is being trumped by both “Benin/Togo” and “Cameroon/Congo”!Although the composition is actually pretty much balanced in between these 3 overlapping regions. I suppose this might be suggestive of this person having a multi-ethnic background. Inter-ethnic unions possibly involving ethnic groups surrounding Igboland such as the Ijaw, Efik, Edo etc. (see ethnolinguistical maps of Nigeria in section 5). This ethnic mixing might have taken place just 1 or a few generations ago but it could also be dating from further back in time, beyond family recollection even. Naturally all of this is just speculation on my part For all i know this person selfidentifies as fully Igbo and so would her parents, grandparents etc. The sample size i managed to collect is very small still so it might turn out a result like this might not be that unusual afterall. Perhaps it’s also more representative for certain Igbo subgroups. Link
I would say the above DNA could be reflective of an Ashanti person from the Dahomey Benin area rather than Igbo. My DNA make up has surprisingly low Nigerian ancestry only 7% Such high Benin and Togo and Cameroon scores likely reflect some Nigerian ancestry however the tribes would have to me been something other than Igbo. I will continue to research and update this post with my findings.
So in summary the oldest traceable maroon ancestor was Akan Ga but described as Eboe in Jamaica. There is definitely evidence in my cousin matches and DNA that I have an Igbo/Ebo Ibo ancestor also from Nigeria Lagos region with their surnames and migration patterns. Many if not the majority of Ghanian’s have some Nigerian ancestry and so are related to the Igbo Yoruba and Ashanti of Nigeria by blood. My high Benin and Cameroon scores I believe is because like the maroons of Jamaica my ancestors were Ashanti and Koromantee ie Akan from Ghana and Ashanti from the Benin Dahomey region.
Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.
They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.
Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace. http://jablogz.com/2015/10/how-the-red-igbos-came-to-jamaica/
My maternal sides colour exactly the same as above picture
Red eboe were considered more tame than the darker Eboes who ran away and there is a copy of a plantation owner describing this in detail online. The plantation owners also raped these women which produced very light mixed race people at this time who were favoured over their darker relatives. As mentioned by others who are researching the Igbo slave, it is possible that they were called Eboe Igbo because they could understand the language and they could have been from neighbouring tribes. We say these people are red skin. Red skin like the rich land. See the pictures below.
The West Indies planters prefer the slaves of Benin or Eboe.”
“ Deformity is indeed unknown amongst us.I mean that of shape. Numbers of natives of Eboe in London might be brought in support of this assertion for in regard to complexion ideas of beauty are wholly relative.” (GatesJr.1987:17)
The Ebo connection to Benin is further supported by Onyebuechi Amene who states the following;
“ Ebo is a Benin name. It was the Binis that went to Igala and
formed the Igala Royal families that took the name to Igala.”
“ The Ebo family of Isiskre still retain their ancestral Bini
Those captives who came to the Americas from Ghana and Benin
(Dahomey) were those known as Ebo or the Mina tribes. In fact a Mina tribe remains in the Kwara State of Yorubaland and refer to themselves as Igbo-Mina using the original Igbo spelling of the name.
It was the Portuguese Jewish slave traders who began selling Ebo captives from Benin to Ghana where they were used to work the Gold Mines. These traders coined the Ebo as “ Mina tribes “ meaning those destined for El-Mina, a Portuguese word meaning “ The Mines “. El-Mina became central to the slave trade in Ghana.
The most powerful amongst the Ebo(Mina) to arrive in Ghana were those called Ewe.
The word Ewe derives from the Igbo name Eke. Eke in the Igbo culture
refers to the feminine, motherly or birth giving attributes of the Supreme Deity Chineke. Through the interchangeable nature of the letters v and w Ewe is also pronounced with the v sound of Eve(Yeveh). It is from the life giving Eke,Ewe or Eve that a female lamb is called a Ewe and the mother of all humanity Eve.
Some reports estimate that over 3 million Ewe were brought to the
American South alone. Amongst the followers of African religions in Cuba, Ewe refers to the life giving herbs,while in Haiti,the Ewe deity Nanan Boclou is remembered as the god of life giving herbs and medicine..
The Ewe are closely related to the Mina tribe known as the Fon(Fongbe). In fact the word voodoo often associated with Haitian religious practice is a Fongbe word. The last Fon ruler of Dahomey was named Agbo.
The slave coast covered Benin Togo Ghana and Nigeria and the people taken would have had a mix of West African heritage from those and surrounding areas. It is said that most descendants of West African slaves have at least 1 Igbo ancestor. I found the records for one of my Eboe ancestor’s but my Eboe ancestor also had Akan Ga ancestry or was just wrongly named. With 2 parents on each side of a family that gives 4 grandparents and the further back you go the more people you find so finding one tribe to me is unrealistic although doable if you are native to the country. In Jamaica they separated the tribes and tried to pair slaves with people outside of their tribe to balance out the temperments.
I am a mix of tribes and so are most of the trans atlantic descendants . You cant really find one tribe because who would that be reflecting? We have a Paternal and Maternal side and when you trace your DNA you will be going back 5-10 generations of both sides. Imagine the mix of places they lived. To lunp yourself into one tribe in my personal opinion is doing an injustice to the ancestors. Do the research yourself see where they came from and the belief of the people and what tribes were in the area. If you have more than a few regions that is not likely to be just one tribe. The Ghanians left Nigeria to set up their own neighbour hood centuries ago. There may be some 100% Ghanian’s and 100% Nigerians I haven’t seen any DNA results of the many African results out there yet.
Igbo women were paired with Akan or Coromantee men and this shows in the DNA of many of the descendants who often have equal Nigerian and Ghanian main regions in their DNA.
The DNA of the Akan Ga Yoruba Igbo is almost identical.
Adebowale et al made the shocking discovery that whereas there was 99.9% within-population variance, the between-population variance was less than 0.1%. This means that Yorubas, Igbos, Gaa and Akan are 99.9% similar as populations, while within each of the groups there are differences/variations between individuals as high as 99%, i.e. One Igbo may be 99% variant to another Igbo, or one Yoruba to another Yoruba.
See this similarity between the Ashanti Coromantee abeng and shofar. This isn’t merely a coincidence they are the Hebrews.
Below Asante evidence of Hebrewisms
The collage above shows an Ashanti priest with the 12 tribes necklace.
The meaning and location of Ashan that appears in the bible
An unknown site in the domain of Judah (Joshua 15:42), possessed by Simeon (Joshua 19:7), and mentioned among the priests’ cities in 1 Chronicles 6:59. (44) = Joshua 21:16 (`ayin is a corruption of `ashan). Chorashan (or Borashan), which was probably the site of some reservoir in the Southwest part of Judah (1 Samuel 30:30), is the same as Ashan.
Among the ASHANTI tribe the priesthood is hereditary to a specific family such a family has little or no possessions, is exempt from all taxes, supplied with food and advises the king. Compare this with the Levities of ancient Israel and you will see that both are exactly the same.
The name ASHANTI has Hebrew origins, the “TI” at the end means race of or people of, Ashan was the name of a city located in southern Israel Judah (Joshua 15:42 – 19:7 / 1st chronicles 4:32 – 6:59).
The word Ashan in Hebrew means smoke city / burning city. ASHANTI means the people of Ashan or the people of the smoke city, This was the reference to the city of Ashan after the Romans destroyed it in 70 C.E.
Judah (Hebrew: יְהוּדָה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian Yəhūḏāh) was, according to the Book of Genesis, the fourth son of Jacob and Leah, the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Judah. By extension, he is indirectly eponymous of the Kingdom of Judah, the land of Judea and the word “Jew”.
Below is some research into where the Igbo originated from.
Guinea/ Benin in 1747 was known as The kingdom of Judah in negroland.
So from old maps as shown above we can see that on the slave coast and gold Coast was the kingdom of Judah. Deserts of Seth country of Adam Tribe of Benjamin. Ender and Gihon. No wonder they called them the Heeboes ie Hebrews.
Star of David West African Coins
Palace in Benin
Oral history had it that Ga-Dangmes people migrated from Israel about 6th Century B.C through Egypt, then to Ethiopia, having been expelled or exiled by the Assyrians (Hebrew Biblical Revelations, July 2008; see also: OMANYE ABA by A.A AMARTEY). In Ethiopia, they settled in the Gonder Province in northern Ethiopia, where the Blue Nile originates. That is where the name NAI WULOMO, meaning, HIGH PRIEST OF THE NILE comes from. In 640 B.C, the Assyrians attacked the Ga-Dangmes again while they were in Ethiopia. From Ethiopia, they travelled through Southern Sudan and settled for a period of time at Sameh in Niger and then to Ileife in Nigeria. They migrated again in 1100 A.D and settled at Dahome and later, travelled to Huatsi in Togo where they stayed briefly.
From Huatsi, the Ga-Dangmes travelled to the eastern banks of River Volta (know as JOR). From there, they crossed the Volta River at a place between the Old Kpong and Akuse and established settlements on the plains of Tag-logo where they lived till 1200 A.D. Later, the Ga-Dangmes migrated to the plains of Lorlorvor between Lorlorvor and Osudoku Hills. The Shai occupied a settlement in Shai highlands.
The Ga-Dangmes claim to be descendants DAN and GAD, the fifth and seventh sons of Jacob. Biblical history suggests that Jacob, whom God named YISRAEL had Leah as his wife who gave birth to four sons for him. When Leah noticed that she had passed child-bearing age, she gave her maid servant, ZILPAH, to Jacob to wife. Through Zilpah, Jacob had and Gad and four more sons. Jacob has two sons with Rachel. Rachel gave her maid servant Bilha to Jacob to wife when she passed her child-bearing age. Jacob had Dan with Bilha. Gad’s fifth son was Eri who later formed a clan known as Erites (Genesis 30:9, Genesis 46:16, Numbers 26:15-19 and Deuteronomy 3:12; Genesis 30:4-8, 3:12.The descendant of Eri, son of Gad are believed to have founded the Nri Kingdom around 900 A.D of the South Eastern and parts of the mid-western Igboland in Nigeria with other tribes of Levi, Zebulon, Ephraim and possibly more. In the Book of numbers, the Bible had made extensive references to the children of Israel, which includes Gad and Dan and their children (Numbers 1:1-54).
Gad was the full brother of Asher (Genesis 35: 26; Genesis 46:16-18; Exodus 1:4; I Chronicle 2:2). Gad (1749 BCE) was the 7th son of Jacob, first born of Zilpah (Leah’s maid) and uterine brother of Asher. Numbers 26:15 cites the “son of Gad. The sons of Gad by clans: Zephlon and the Zephonite clan; Haggi and the Haggite clan; Suni and the Shunite clan; Ozni and the Oznite clan; Eri and the Erite clan; Arondi and the Arondite clan; Areli and the Arelite clan. The clans of Gad numbered about 40, 500 men (20 years and older, able to serve in the army of Israel.
Areli was the son of Gad according to Genesis 46:16 and Numbers 26:17. Areli was one of the 70 souls that migrate to Eqypt with Jacob (Genesis 46: 27). The GaDangmes of Ghana claim to be descendants of Gad and Dan according to their oral history and supported by their ancient Israeli traditions. Eri was the 5th son of Gad. The descendants of Eri were believed to have founded the Nri Kingdom about 900 A.D in Nigeria. The Igbos practice many of the same laws that GOD(YAH) gave to the Israelites.
Hosid Levi (2005) suggested in his writing, THE LOST TRIBES OF ISRAEL IN AFRICA, that the name Igbo is a form of the name HEBREW. In many ways, the affinity between the native Igbo law and the Mosaic legal system is remarkable, according to Levi (2005).
The GaDangmes of Ghana are believed to be related by blood to the Igbos of Nigeria. However, in his book, GA HOMOWO, Charles Nii Ammah (1982) stated that according to oral tradition, the Ga believe they migrated from Israel. Ammah suggested that the Ga people are descendants of Cush (Benjamin) from the twelfth tribe of Israel. He contends that the Ga people were really ‘JEWS’ who migrated from “Egypt” and settled on the land they now occupy. However, it is believed that the tribes of Judah and Benjamin were left behind in Israel following the attack of Israel by the Assyrians in 6th Century B.C. Ten of the twelve tribes were exiled by the Assyrians. If the GaDangmes were decendants of Benjamin as Charles Nii Ammah claims, they would probably have remained in Israel with tribes of Benjamin and Judah following the attack by the Assyrians. Regardless of whether one accepts Ammah’s assertion or not, it is clear that the GaDangmes are Hebrew Israelites as suggested by their oral history, Hebrew names, customs and traditions.
Biblical history strongly lends support to the claim by Ga-Dangmes that they are HEBREW ISRAELITES due to the fact Ga-Dangme names are found throughout the OLD TESTAMENT. Examples are: NIIKOILAI (Rev:2, 6, 15); AMASA (2 Samuel 17, 25; 1 Chronicle 33 20-21 DJAANI/JANNE, 2 Timothy 3: 8; AMON, 2 Chronicle 33: 20-21; ASHALE (ASAHEL), 1 Chronicle 2:16, 2 Samuel 2: 18-19.
King AYI KUSHI, spelled Cush in Hebrew, Genesis 10: 6 Jeremiah 13:23, Isaiah 18:12) led the Ga-Dangmes from Cush in Jerusalem to Ayawaso and was the founder of the GA DYNASTY. It is believed that the Ga-Dangmes Kingdom at AYAWASO was the first Kingdom in GHANA. It is interesting that Queen Dode (Dodi) Akaibi’s name DODI is a Hebrew Name. Also, the name of the hunter, KADI, who found a group people at OSU DOKU and introduced them to the Nungua Mantse, is a Hebrew name. The Nungua Mantse, in consultation with the Ga Mashi Mantse gave Osu lands to the “KADI GBOI” or ” guests of KADI as people of Osu were referred to.
Ga-Dangmes custom of circumcision (Luke 2:21; Acts 15:1-2,7,10; Romans 2:17-19; Romans 3:1; Col.2:8-14) of their male born; their Outdooring/Sanctification (Kpodjiemo) and naming of the GaDangme newly born baby on the eight day after birth, is in accordance with ancient Hebrew custom (Matthew 2:1-12); and their patriach or patrilenial traditions (Gen.15:5; Gen.25:19; Gen,12:2) further lend support to their claim that they are of Hebrew Israelites origins (Genesis 17: 1-12). The HOMOWO FESTIVAL ( FEAST OF PASSOVER, Matthew 26:17); (Exodus 11:4-7, Exodus 12: 1-50, Exodus 13: 1-9, Numbers 9 1-5) celebrated by the Ga-Dnagmes supports their claim that they are Hebrew Israelites, descendants of children of Jacob. One may note that in traditonal Ga Mashi (Accra) and other areas of Greater Accra, the GaDangmes used to paint the door posts of their houses with the blood of a lamb during the Homowo Festival. This was done to commemorate what the angel of God told Moses to ask the Israelites to do when they were under bondage of Pharoah. That way, the angel of God would only kill the first male born Egyptians babies and not the Hebrews (Exodus 11: 4-7). The door posts of houses painted with the blood of the lamb would let the angel of God know that those houses belong to the Hebrews; and thus, the angel would not enter those houses to kill the first male born. After the angel of God had passed, the Hebrews were to feast (Exodus12: 1-50); Exodus 13:1-9); Numbers 9:1-5). This is exactly what the GaDangmes do during the Homowo Festival. In subsequent years, the GaDangmes replaced the blood of the lamb with a red mud known as “ntsuma”, when the lamb became too expensive for most GaDangmes to afford.Oral history had it that Ga-Dangmes people migrated from Israel about 6th Century B.C through Egypt, then to Ethiopia, having been expelled or exiled by the Assyrians (Hebrew Biblical Revelations, July 2008; see also: OMANYE ABA by A.A AMARTEY). In Ethiopia, they settled in the Gonder Province in northern Ethiopia, where the Blue Nile originates. That is where the name NAI WULOMO, meaning, HIGH PRIEST OF THE NILE comes from. In 640 B.C, the Assyrians attacked the Ga-Dangmes again while they were in Ethiopia. From Ethiopia, they travelled through Southern Sudan and settled for a period of time at Sameh in Niger and then to Ileife in Nigeria. They migrated again in 1100 A.D and settled at Dahome and later, travelled to Huatsi in Togo where they stayed briefly.
First time Africans heard of Jesus was when they were enslaved and beaten into submission. The so-called white “Jews” were the main buyers and sellers in the slave trade. One Jewish slave merchant owned 63 slave ships see http://wp.me/p8G5k7-ZL
Bible prophesy states we would be taken on ships to a land we know not to serve a God we know not.
This advert below speaks of an African Negroe black as a pan turning up in Europe who was deaf and dumb and only wrote in Hebrew. It was proven he came from a Hebrew community in Africa as they got a Rabbi in Europe to test and quiz him.
The first African slaves wrote in Hebrew.
FIRST AFRICAN BAPTIST CHURCH
January 14, 2011
Found on Franklin Square, the First African Baptist Church is the oldest black church in North America. Founded by slaves in 1775, it has a history nearly as old as Savannah itself.
Also, on the ends of each pew, all of which are original and date back hundreds of years, the wavy lines of cursive Hebrew have been scratched into the wood. Our guide wasn’t able to translate any of the words, but he did tell us that a few Ethiopian tourists had visited recently and instantly recognized it. Apparently, it’s still used by Jewish communities in Africa.
Kongo Cosmograms, Underground Railroad Patchwork, Cursive Hebrew… now this is the kind of unexpected history which totally interests me! If you’re the same, make sure to visit the First African Baptist Church, either for the tour or for the Sunday service.
The first slave ship was called The Good Ship Jesus
Ibo/Igbo, Nigeria Some recent returnees to the Jewish people have ancient roots. The Ibo (or Igbo) are a tribe in Nigeria numbering in the millions. Remy Illona writes in his 2005 book about the history of the Ibo:
The Ibo Benei-Yisrael of Nigeria […] are an ethnic group [that] descended from the southern and westward migrations of both ancient Hebrew and later Israeli peoples from the Middle East into Africa. […] The oral traditions of the Ibo maintain that their presence has been in what is termed “Ibo land” for over 1,500 years. [They] state that their ancestors were migrants from ancient Israel, possibly beginning with the Semitic migrations from Northern Arabia into Eastern Africa around 500 B.C.E..
Ibo oral tradition references the names of specific Lost Tribes from which these clans are believed to have originated. However, many Ibo have no awareness of their Jewish heritage. Others are aware and proud of their Jewish ancestry and are actively reclaiming Judaism. Certain Nigerian Jewish communities have been making increasing connections with world Jewry. There are relatively recent efforts to reestablish the Jewish community in Nigeria, including building synagogues. Rabbi Capers Funnye’s congregation in Chicago, represented by Nigerian-born Dele Jane Osawe, is sponsoring the building of a sister synagogue in Delta State, Nigeria. Because no formal census has been taken in the region, it is unknown how many native Jews reside in Nigeria. There may be twenty-six synagogues of various sizes and estimates of possibly as many as 30,000 Ibos practicing some form of Judaism. Further research is necessary.
House of Israel, Ghana The House of Israel, centered in the southwestern towns of Sefwi Wiawso and Sefwi Sui, is a relatively new Jewish community, but one that may have ancient roots. In 1976, a Ghanaian man named Aaron Ahomtre Toakyirafa recognized that the traditions of his Sefwi ancestors were similar to traditions of ancient Jews. Their story is typical of many communities in Africa: Before Christian missionaries converted much of Ghana nearly a hundred years ago, the Sefwi people practiced many “unusual” traditions, such as adherence to Saturday as a day of rest, dietary restrictions that forbade them from eating pork, the circumcision in youth of male community members, and the isolation of women in the community during their menstrual cycle.
Toakyirafa, along with his neighbor, David Ahenkorah, and others, researched their community and traced their historical origins from ancient Israel, through Mali, the Ivory Coast, wandering throughout West Africa to escape persecution, to their present home in Ghana. Convinced of their Jewish origins, Toakyirafa began to teach about Judaism. After he died in 1991, many thought that Judaism would disappear from the community, but in 1993 Ahenkorah became community leader. He re-affirmed the community’s Jewish identity, reinstituted open Jewish practice, and built a synagogue.
The Jewish people say that Adonai means Lord but this is half the meaning because “Ado” is Lord and “nai” is “Nnayi” is our father, meaning “Lord our Father”. In the same way, “Adonenu” is “Lord in Heaven”. I don’t expect any Jew to question what I am saying because I can go further to show the individual that Jewish people do not speak the true Hebrew(igbo ) language.
Do you know that its, It is a sacrilegious blunder for an Israelite to say “Shalom” to one who is not a descendant of Jacob.
Igbo language is the only means to recover human lost history. For example, no one will know the meaning of “manna” without Igbo language.
Igboland in Nigeria is the root of all Semitic religions and all of the names of these religions has meaning only in Igbo language alone.
Far-East religions as Hindu,Shinto, & Buddhism, for example were established by early Igbo settlers. Igbo shrines are found in such lands.
Original Hebrew language and culture is above western scholarship. What people study in colleges.
over 90% of the meanings assigned to Hebrew names and titles of God in the sacred texts are wrong
Igbo culture is rooted in the original spirituality or the culture of peace and righteousness.
Elohim (El ohim or Elu ohimiri- above the divine waters) is not God but is the title of Shekinah (Chi ke nna-Spirit
Jewish words like Bereshit, Brit, & Beth are not Hebrew words and so have no meaning whatsoever in Hebrew
The word for peace in Hebrew is “udo’ and this word “udo” can be seen appended to the first letter of JHVH as “Yud.”
Jewish, Christian and Islamic leaderships would not know much about Hebrews because their collective knowledge of Hebrews ends with Abraham.
the word Hebrew is the anglicized form of the Igbo (Ibo, Ebo, Heebo, Hiburu).
Igbo language which is the original Hebrew is found in most languages on earth and broken English or slang is not the same as true English language.The language which they call modern Hebrew that.
If the Jewish people speak the true Hebrew, how come they do not understand the meaning of the names in the Bible?.
It is shocking how the world has accepted the wrong meanings given to the Hebrew names in the Bible as true
No God-fearing Jew or Christian can say without guilt that the language spoken in Israel and studied in colleges is the true igbo( hebrew language. they lied against God .
That Abraham is a Hebrew shows that he is not an European for his culture, language, and original spirituality is found only in black africa.
The origin of Abraham’s ancestors is hidden in the meaning of the term “Ur of Chaldim” for they are not indigenous to Mesopotamia.
The word “Hebrew” means ancient people, and ancient language in relation to language. They are the people established by God Isiah 44:7
So, Abraham paid tithe (Ihu) to the oldest patriarch and high priest of the Hebrew race, for no Gentile is ever priest of God, Most High.
The Amorite priestly lineage from which Abraham descended is Umudiana (Midian) and his great ancestor is Shem (Chima) – alias Melchizedek.
The language and culture of Kabala and Nag Hammadi tractates requires a good knowledge of the culture and language for proper understanding.
It is impossible for a non-Hebrew to get a good grasp of the scriptures of Kabala and Nag Hammadi tractates because of Igbo language & culture.
Both the Jewish and Christian agree on the sons of Seth, the people of highest spiritual quality among men, depict them as black people.
Many people may not accept the fact that Abraham, a descendant of Seth, is a black man but I traced him to Igboland, Nigeria
It is impossible to get the true understanding of Kabala or the Bible without a good knowledge of Igbo language and its culture.
Take for example, the word Shalom does not mean peace; It means “God of the good land” same as Chaldim in Mesopotamia.
Since Abraham and Ham derive from the same root language, can we then say that Abraham means FATHER OF BLACKS if we accept Ham means black.
Bible scholars teach that Abraham means FATHER OF MANY NATIONS AND HAM MEANS BLACK. Neither the name Ham or Abraham means what they say.
The language and culture of Igbo people of Nigeria is the only language and culture through which mysteries of human past can be recovered.
What culture would remove the words mother & father from the family except a Gentile culture?Thank God for the blessing of Hebrew scriptures.European culture is exact opposite of Hebrew culture.
The names of people and titles of God in the Bible are all Igbo names, and this proves that the authors of the Sacred Scriptures are Igbo.
Most of the ancient cities and peoples of Asia Minor are found mostly in the Igboland of Nigeria, and the rest of West African nations.
Like Judaism, far Eastern religions like Hindu, Shinto, and Buddha all developed from the Original spirituality of Igboland, Nigeria.
The language spoken in Israel and the one studied in colleges are not true Hebrew and cannot give the world the meaning of the titles of God
No Jew, Christian, or Moslem can tell the world the meaning of the word “Sabbath.” It is original Igbo (Hebrew) & language of aloma people.
Why is it that this western civilization is bent on promoting lies, deception, & confusion of facts? Only the necessary truth can bring peace to us.
The Igbo (Hebrews) are relatives or children of God from among whom God chose Abraham to establish the lineage of the chosen people, Israel.
Adama Priesthood of the Most High God is what is known to non-Hebrews as Priesthood of Melchizedek. There is Adama Shrine in Igboland, Nigeria.
Abraham is of Umudiana (Midian) lineage of the Amorites, same as Melchizedek (Shem) and Jethro (Reuel) both are Adama priests of Most High.
Igbo language is invaluable to the world. For example, not even the Arabs know the meaning of the word Kaaba because it is original Hebrew.
The evidence of the Hebrew culture and its language found only in Igboland (Hebrew land), Nigeria attest to the validity of the Holy Bible.
There are Udo Shrines all over Anambra State, Nigeria & there is one in Japan and in Honduras erected by early Igbo settlers of these lands.
The word for peace in original Hebrew (Igbo) is “udo”. The Hebrew deity of peace is also called “Udo,” when pronounced with a high pitch.
Shalom is a memorial greeting in honor of God of good land for all lands where the Hebrew lived including the “Pleroma” is titled good land.
The only Adama Priesthood (Priesthood of Melchizedek) and Adama Shrine are found only in Igboland of Nigeria and nowhere else in the world.
When I say that neither the word “Shalom” nor “Salam” means peace, I mean no disrespect. Both words are pure Igbo words (original Hebrew).
The word “Abraham” does not mean “father of many nations.” Rather, it means “He who comes as a witness.” The Hebrew rendering is Abiama.
Only that necessary truth can nullify the difference b/w the Hebrew and the Gentile for the aim of God to unify his children into one body.
First word God spoke before creation is Tsimzom. It means “hide me, my Spirit”. Only Igbo can give the correct meaning of ancient words.
All ancient peoples of the Bible like Amorites, Hettites, Hivites, Hamathites, and Jebusites can be traced to Nigeria today along Israelites.
Far-East religions as Hindu,Shinto, & Buddhism, for example were established by early Igbo settlers. Igbo shrines are found in such lands
Igboland in Nigeria is the root of all Semitic religions and all of the names of these religions has meaning only in Igbo language alone.
Abraham’s maternal grandfather’s name is “Kanu Ebo”, a pure and unadulterated Igbo (Hebrew) name that many Igbo citizens of today are named after. This is truly, the end times, for the truth are coming out as never before.
To belittle Africa, European perverts of the truth want the world to believe that the ancient people of the Asia Minor that flocked to Sub-Saharan Africa are extinct, but I can assure anyone, “none of these peoples are extinct”. Just look harder in Africa,
Igboland has more people and towns named after the towns and cities of ancient Israel, even more than the State of Israel today – I mean with the biblical verses to support the evidence. Regardless, the entire Southern Nigeria was the ancient origin of the Hebrews and this can be stretch to way, way back in human history when there was no human being with white skin on earth. Hence, Igboland not only validates the Bible Scriptures, it also validates the prophecies of the dispersal of Israel and who are truly, the Children of Israel. Not only that, there are other Children of Israel scattered all over Nigeria and other sub-Saharan Afrcan nations.
Aum and Om are the exact two sacred words that all the heavenly hosts greet Chukwunna (God Almighty Father) and Ibenne (Mother of all).
There are adverts for missing slaves which describes the tribal marks on the slaves faces. Many of the slaves chose suicide.
Egyptian words with Igbo sounds and meanings are legion. They include but are not limited to the following:
Egyptian: Musi/mose/msi – ‘to give birth’ (Igbo – mmusi ‘to give birth to many children’). From this word is derived names of Pharaohs such as Thoth-mose (‘Born of Thoth’), Rameses (‘Descended from Ra’), etc. The fact that many pharaohs of Egypt bear this word in their names would tend to add weight to an Igbo origin of Egyptian civilization and divinities.
Egyptian: akhu – ‘fire/light’ (Igbo: oku – ‘fire/light’). Akhu is the sacred vernacular name for the Giza Pyramid – one of the greatest wonders of the world. Its native Igbo name implies that an Igbo-speaking team of ancient engineers possibly constructed it, especially because noted in They Lived Before Adam, many key words in Egyptian Engineering lexicon are cognates of Igbo language.
Egyptian: aru – ‘body/form’ (Igbo: aru – ‘body’)
Egyptian: ba – ‘heart’(Igbo: obi – ‘heart’)
Egyptian: Busiris ‘House of Osiris’ (Igbo/Nri/Nsukka dialect: ‘Obu Osiris’ – ‘House of Osiris’).
Egypt was known as ‘Black land’. Probably the word ‘Egypt’ could have been derived from the Igbo wordOjikputu, which means ‘Pitch Black’ (Orlu dialect)
Egyptian: hike – ‘power/strength’ (Igbo – ike – ‘power/strength’
Egyptian – hekau – ‘word of power’ (Igbo – ike okwu – ‘word of power’)
There is a theory that slavery is Deuteronomy 28 and curses for not serving Yahuah The Most High. Worshipping Ba’al and various other gods meant the people were led into captivity for not following the Gospel sent to Moses and the covenant agreement agreed on Mount senai
A DNA test study submitted to BMC Medicine in 2012 states that “….despite the historical evidence that an overwhelming majority of slaves were sent from the Bight of Biafra and West-central Africa near the end of the British slave trade, the mtDNA haplogroup profile of modern Jamaicans show a greater affinity with groups found in the present day Gold Coast region….this is because Africans arriving from the Gold Coast may have thus found the acclimatization and acculturation process less stressful because of cultural and linguistic commonalities, leading ultimately to a greater chance of survivorship and a greater number of progeny.
More detailed results stated: “Using haplogroup distributions to calculate parental population contribution, the largest admixture coefficient was associated with the Gold Coast (all of which were Ashanti based on the culture) (0.477 ± 0.12 or 59.7% of the Jamaican population with a 2.7 chance of Pygmy and Sahelian mixture), suggesting that the people from this region may have been consistently prolific throughout the slave era on Jamaica. The diminutive admixture coefficients associated with the Bight of Biafra and West-central Africa (0.064 ± 0.05 and 0.089 ± 0.05, respectively) is striking considering the massive influx of individuals from these areas in the waning years of the British Slave trade. When excluding the pygmy groups, the contribution from the Bight of Biafra and West-central rise to their highest levels (0.095 ± 0.08 and 0.109 ± 0.06, respectively), though still far from a major contribution. When admixture coefficients were calculated by assessing shared haplotypes, the Gold Coast also had the largest contribution, though much less striking at 0.196, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.189 to 0.203. Interestingly, when haplotypes are allowed to differ by one base pair, the Jamaican matriline shows the greatest affinity with the Bight of Benin, though both Bight of Biafra and West-central Africa remain underrepresented. The results of the admixture analysis suggest the mtDNA haplogroup profile distribution of Jamaica more closely resembles that of aggregated populations from the modern day Gold Coast region despite an increasing influx of individuals from both the Bight of Biafra and West-central Africa during the final years of trading enslaved Africans.
Results also stated that black Jamaicans(that make up over 90% of the population) on an average have 97.5% of west African MtDNA and very little European or Asian ancestry could be found. Both ethnic and racial genetic results are based on a low sample of 390 Jamaican persons and limited regional representation within Jamaica.
Pub Med results were also issued ion the same year (2012): “Our results reveal that the studied population of Jamaica exhibit a predominantly South-Saharan paternal component, with haplogroups A1b-V152, A3-M32, B2-M182, E1a-M33, E1b1a-M2, E2b-M98, and R1b2-V88 comprising 66.7% of the Jamaican paternal gene pool. Yet, European derived chromosomes (i.e., haplogroups G2a*-P15, I-M258, R1b1b-M269, and T-M184) were detected at commensurate levels in Jamaica (18.9%), whereas Y-haplogroups indicative of Chinese [O-M175 (3.8%)] and Indian [H-M69 (0.6%) and L-M20 (0.6%)] ancestry were restricted to Jamaica. African paternal DNA 66.7% European paternal DNA 18.9% Chinese paternal DNA 3.8% Indian paternal DNA 1.2%
The compact Bible dictionary above confirms Noah became the progenitor of the dark races: Not the Negroes but the Egyptians Ethiopians, Libyans and Caanites.
Further down we will explore the Shem/Eber/PELEG Negroe descendants
NOAH The progenitor of the human race according to the Bible.
The flood of Noah likely occurred during the late Holocene Wet Period which lasted from about 10,000 to 3000 B.C. During the peak of the rainy period, around 8000, Mega-Chad would have covered 157,000 square miles. The surrounding land was spongy and there was great flooding at the confluence of the Niger, Benue, Yobe and Osimili Rivers. The floodwaters created a disaster of such proportions that it is still remembered. Rainbows would have been a common sight over the region due to rising mists.
In the ancient world, regional chiefs controlled rivers, lakes and wells from west central Africa to the Indus River Valley. The region where Lake Chad is located is called “Bor-no”, the “Land of Noah”, suggesting that Noah controlled the water commerce in the area. As a chief he would have had access to the best and the most plentiful supply of boat building materials and shipwrights.
Since the worst flooding occurred about 8500 years ago we can assume that Noah ruled this region at that time. Noah was a figure of such importance that a great portion of the Genesis Prehistory pertains to him. We are told that the land of Noah was tilled and there were grape vines. In the late 1980s, German archaeologists found remains of wine making equipment in the tomb of the ancient Nubian king Scorpion I (dating to about 3150 BC). That find consisted of grape seeds, grape skins, dried pulp and imported ceramic jars covered inside with a yellow residue chemically consistent with wine. Ancient Egyptian murals depict details of wine-making. Egyptians flavored their wines with tree resins, herbs, and figs.
An oracle concerning Noah states, “This one shall bring us relief from our work and the toil of our hands.” (Genesis 5:29) We are also told that Noah was drunk with wine on at least one occasion.
Many factors caused population migration from the area of Borno. The region suffered the effects of a massive volcanic explosion on the floor of the Dead Sea. The eruption caused earthquakes and likely more severe flooding. The loss of life and homesteads among the peoples living in the southern edge of Lake Chad was apparently great and archaeologists report that the area shows no evidence or re-habitation for at least 200 years.
Peleg is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as one of the two sons of Eber, an ancestor of the Israelites, according to the “Table of Nations” in Genesis 10-11 and 1 Chronicles link
Hebrew – Ever, the great-grandson of Shem
The second interpretation pertains to Ever, the great-grandson of Shem, son of Noah (Genesis 10:21, 24). Even though Shem has numerous offspring, he is referred to as “progenitor of all the descendants of Eber” in Genesis 10:21, giving precedence to the lineage from which Abraham will emerge (11:16–27).
Erverh Ewe Hebrews
HOW IVRI (ERVERH) BECAME HEBREW A direct translation of the name of the Israelites would read IVRI (pronounced Êrverh). However, in time, this true name of the Israelites took a backseat. What replaced the name of the Israelites is a great departure from the truth. To make matters worse, the name Hebrew comes from a double translation from the original name. Let me explain what I mean by all of that.
The name ‘Hebrew,’ is the English translation of the name pronounced Erverh from Latin. That means the first translation of the name of the Israelites into Latin was the first step. This first step dropped and lost the proper pronunciation of Erverh. With the proper pronunciation lost in translation, in came the second step, which is the new Latin name’s translation into what we have now in English as Hebrew.
The following is how it all unfolded. From the time of Abraham until the time of Jesus Christ, the world knew the Israelites as Erverh. In fact, Jesus and all his apostles were Erverh. This name became lost after the death of Christ, two thousand years ago, when the Roman Empire ruled the Middle East.
Around the time of Christ, Judea the home of the Israelites became a province of the Roman Empire. The national language of the Roman Empire was Latin; therefore, all the literature people wrote and read was in Latin. Available Books not originally written in Latin were all translated into it. Included in these translations were the Hebrew Scriptures. The name IVRI pronounced Erverh translated into Latin became, ‘Hebraicus.’ This name Hebraicus, as you can see yourself, is nowhere near the pronunciation of Erverh.
Some years later the Roman Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity. He subsequently changed the religion of the entire Empire to Christianity – the birth of Christendom. For the next thousand years, Latin was the dominant language in Christendom and the Latin translation of the Bible was the de-facto book. If you did not read Latin, you did not know what you were missing. Salvation was in the Latin book.
The reformation in Europe, led by Martin Luther changed the status quo. Before then, only the small-educated minority who read Latin knew of what was in the scriptures. After the reformation, translation of the Bible began in other European languages including English. This opened up an unprecedented access to Bible information to anyone who could read his or her local language.
However, there was a problem. All these translations were from the Latin version instead of the original language.
Therefore, instead of using the original name IVRI (Erverh), the translated Latin name Hebraicus carried into the European languages, which included English. The name “Hebrew,” is the result of translating the Latin “Hebraicus,” into English. Thus, the name, “Hebrew” is the result of a double translation of the original name Erverh.
Had the translation been from the original texts with the name that is represented by the English letters IVRI (Erverh), you’d never have heard the name Hebrew. Instead the proper name Erverh is what people will know as the name of the Israelites.
So there you have it! The proper pronunciation in the native language of the ancient Israelites’ designation, commonly known, as “Hebrew” in English is “IVRI” pronounced Erverh (erH-VerH).
BATHSHEBA בַּת־שֶׁבַע fBiblical
Means “daughter of the oath” in Hebrew. In the Old Testament this is the name of a woman married to Uriahthe Hittite. King David seduced her and made her pregnant, so he arranged to have her husband killed in battle and then married her. She was the mother of Solomon.
“1 Then again Abraham took a wife, and her name [was] Keturah.” “2 And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah.””3 And Jokshan begat Sheba, and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim.”
See the above named on the below
“13 And these [are] the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam,”
See the below definition of Kedar and a image of some tents in Kedar and the Songs of Solomon.
Noah was the progenitor of the dark races not the Negroes the races found in Egypt Ethiopia known as descendants of Ham. Shem descendants are still related to the Hamites and as above quote shows often mixed. Shemites although classed as being Eber Negroes are also still related to Ham and Japheth as they were brothers.
Who were the Negroes see below
The Shemites Western Semetic Shem Eber
Dictionary definition below of Hebrews- Of the Afro Asiatic family descendants of Abraham Isaac and Jacob
The Bantu have E1B1A which has been proven to be the DNA of the Hebrew Israelites and some of the Biblical Jews. Sub Saharan West African Haplogroup
People also need to understand that the Jews are only a small portion of the Israelites who descend from Jacob’s son Judah. All Israelites are not Jews but all Jews are Israelites.
A paternal haplogroup is passed from father to son and a maternal haplogroup is passed from mother to daughter and from mother to son since males get two haplogroups, while females get only one haplogroup.
Only men will be found with the haplogroup E1B1A but if a woman’s father has this haplogroup, then she is an Israelite as well.
Jacob passed the haplogroup E1B1A to his twelve sons who became the nations of Israel.
The Bantu males in Africa also have the haplogroup E1B1A in abundance and are descendants of the Biblical Israelites. Scientists have claimed that there was a Bantu expansion in Africa. The reality is that the Bantu expansion was the scattering of the Israelites on the African continent.
… also states
The Middle East is actually Northeast Africa, which is what the Middle East was originally known as. A map called Mar di Aethiopia vulgo Oceanus Aethiopicus, shows that the Middle East is Africa. This map was created by the Dutch cartographer Johannes Janssonius in the 17th century and it is something that the media will not speak about.
Another thing that people are not aware of is that the country of Israel sits on the African tectonic plate and has plants and animals that are of African species. Israel is in Africa.
“Any male, regardless of race who has the paternal haplogroup E1B1A is a true descendant of the Biblical Israelites but most of the men in the world who have the haplogroup E1B1A are black men,” says Henry.
E1B1A is mostly found in black men who live in Canada, America, the
Caribbean, Latin America, Europe and Africa.
The paternal haplogroup J has been widely recognized as Abraham’s lineage but people have been misled. The oldest fossils of the haplogroup J were found in Eurasia and the only reason it is found in the Middle East is because of the invasions of foreign peoples during the last few thousand years that include the British, French, Romans, Greeks, Turks, Babylonians and Assyrians.
“Haplogroup J originated in Eurasia and did not come from Abraham, Isaac or Jacob.
The Garden of Eden was in Ethiopia. The original Hebrews evolved out of Africa and eventually moved up from Egypt to Canaan. Some of them fled slavery in canaan later moving back into West Africa. They travelled through Egypt and Sudan settling in places like Benin which was once part of Nigeria. The Hebrews also settled in Togo Ghana and parts of Igboland which was known as Negroland and El Bilad Al Sudan Land of the Blacks.
Here is a list of tribes in Africa that are Israelites: From the book Jesus is a black man
“31 Wherefore he called that place Beer-sheba; because there they sware both of them.”
32 Thus they made a covenant at Beer-sheba: then Abimelech rose up, and Phichol the chief captain of his host, and they returned into the land of the Philistines. (33) And Abraham planted a grove in Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of the LORD, the everlasting God. (34) And Abraham sojourned in the Philistines’ land many days.
(Genesis Chap. 21:32,33,34)
Simeon was from Beersheba and the map above shows Beersheba was in Judah.