History of Judaism

Question: “Is there any evidence that the Bible is more than two thousand years old?”

Answer: Yes, in fact there’s plenty of evidence of that. We have had the Torah for at least 3,313 years, when Hashem gave it to us at Mount Sinai. Can we prove that the Torah is really that old? Yes, we can.

Let us trace the existence of the Torah back through history. We will show that the Torah existed during the time of Moses and Joshua, and was not created later.

First, a brief rundown of the periods of Jewish History, so we can understand all this better:

From Leader to Leader

Each generation had its own leader. After Moses died, Joshua became leader. During the next four hundred years we had a succession of Prophet-Judges leading us. That was called the period of the Judges. Each leader was a Judge. You might recognize some of the names: Boaz, Samson, Gideon, to name just a few of the many.

The last Judge was the Prophet Samuel. The next leader was King David. After King David passed away, his son King Solomon became leader. Some call this the Era of the Kings.

When King Solomon passed away, the kingdom was split into two. Ten Tribes left and created their own kingdom. They called it the kingdom of Israel. One of the later kings of Israel bought some land from a man named Shemer, and so he called the area “Shomron.” You may have heard of it as “Samaria.” Samaria became the capital of the kingdom of Israel.

The Tribes of Judah and Benjamin, along with some of the members of the Tribe of Levi and some of the kohanim (priests from the Tribe of Levi), remained faithful to the Royal Family of David. They remained subjects of King Rehoboam, whose father had been King Solomon. They became the kingdom of Judah (the Romans later called them the Kingdom of Judea), and their capital was still in Jerusalem. Most Jews alive today are descendants of the people of the kingdom of Judah.

When the Ten Tribes rebelled against the rightful king, Rehoboam, they rejected the House of David entirely. They therefore decided to reject any Holy Book that mentioned King David, and any Holy Book written by a Prophet who supported King David.

Which Holy Books were in existence then?

The Five Books of Moses, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Ruth, Kings, Psalms, Proverbs, Song of Songs, and Ecclesiastics. The Ten Tribes rejected the Book of Judges, because it had been written by the Prophet Samuel, who had anointed and supported King David. They rejected the Books of Samuel and Kings because those Books supported King David, and because they were written by the Prophets Samuel, Nathan, and Gad, who strongly supported King David.

They rejected the Book of Ruth because it told of the ancestry of King David. They rejected Psalms because it was written (and collected from other Prophets) by King David. They rejected Proverbs, Song of Songs, and Ecclesiastics, because those were written by King Solomon.

So all they kept were the Five Books of Moses, and Joshua. The Book of Joshua tells of their capturing the land of Israel, so they felt it supported them.

All the other Holy Books of the Tanach were written after the break up (and for the most part also supported King David), so the Ten Tribes never had those Books at all.

So now there were two kings at once: one in Judah and one in Israel. However, the leaders of Judaism were the Prophets. The Prophets traveled to both Israel and Judah, and were seen in both kingdoms of the country. So while we call this period the era of the kings, we also call it the era of the Later Prophets.

The Samaritans

About two hundred and fifty years later (in the year 555 B.C.E.) the king of Assyria conquered the kingdom of Israel, and took most of the people into exile. We do not know where he sent them. Those are the Ten Lost Tribes, and we will not see them again until the Messiah comes.

Assyria was, at that time, a world power, having conquered many countries. Shalmanesser, King of Assyria, had the practice of relocating entire nations, in order to better subjugate and control them. When he took the Ten Tribes of Israel away from Samaria, he brought the people called the Cuthites to replace them. We don’t know where the Cuthites came from. Since the Cuthites settled in the area known as Samaria (Shomron), they later became known as the Samaritans (Shomronim).

When the Cuthites were first relocated into Samaria, they were being killed by plagues of lions, and they did not know what to do about it. So they sent a message to the king of Assyria, asking for help. The king of Assyria did not know what to do about this either, so he asked advice from some kohanim (priests) of Israel, those people he had exiled from the land of Samaria and relocated elsewhere. They told him that it is dangerous to live in Hashem’s Holy Land and not obey the Torah.

The king of Assyria therefore decided to send some Kohanim of Israel to teach the Cuthites how to keep the Torah. The Cuthites, because of the plagues, decided to accept some of the Torah. They began to worship Hashem, but it was soon discovered that they had not stopped worshiping their idols. They were doing some odd combination of both. Nevertheless, the lions went away. (You can read about all this in II Kings, Chapter 17.)

Since the Samaritans still worshiped their idols, their conversion was not proper, and it was unacceptable. The Jews could therefore not accept the Samaritans as Jews. For this, the Samaritans developed a deep and terrible hatred for the Jews. They did whatever they could to destroy the Jews. They would send messages to the enemy overlord, claiming that the Jews were planning to revolt. They tried many times to get the Jews killed.

They also built their own temple on Mount Gerizim, and there they worshiped an odd combination of religions, which includes their distorted version of the Chumash, and idolatry. Their temple was dedicated to both G-d and to their own pagan idols.

The Samaritans also decided to accept the Sacred Book of the country (i.e., the Torah). However, they did not adopt all the Books of the Torah. They adopted some of what the kohanim of the Kingdom of Israel taught them about. The kohanim of the Ten Tribes had only the Five Books of Moses, and the Book of Joshua. So that’s what they taught to the Samaritans. The Samaritans accepted the Chumash, with some distortions of their own, but they refused to accept the Book of Joshua, because it excluded their ownership of the land they occupied. So they created their own book, which they call Joshua. Today, the small number of Samaritans on Mount Gerizim still have a distorted version of the Chumash, and their own book that they call Joshua.

So, during the sixth and fifth century B.C.E. there was the kingdom of Judah, and the Samaritans, both living in the land of Israel, not all that far away from each other.

The Babylonians

Then, 130 or so years later, in 422 B.C.E., the Babylonians conquered the kingdom of Judah. The people of Judah were taken into exile. The Holy Temple was destroyed. The Jews were exiled to a number of places. Most were taken to Babylon, but there were many sent to such faraway places as Yemen. The Jews in Yemen today are descendants of those Jews who were sent there when the First Holy Temple was destroyed.

The Samaritans stayed in their land, and were under the rule of the enemy conquerors.

The Babylonians finally lost their ascendancy over the world, and the Persians and Medes came into power. The Persians eventually gave the Jews permission to rebuild the Holy Temple. So some Jews returned to Israel, the part of it called Judea, and began to rebuild the city and the Holy Temple.

Most Jews, however, stayed where they were, but some Jews left Babylon to return to Israel, to resettle the area of Judah and to rebuild the Holy Temple. (Jews in or from Iraq and Iran this century are decendants of those Jews who stayed in Babylon and did not return for the resettling of Judah and the building of the Second Holy Temple.)

The returning Jews encountered many hardships in their endeavor, not the least of which was the Samaritans, who often waged war against them. The Samaritans also attempted to sabotage the building of the Holy Temple. At one point they tried to turn the Holy Temple into a pagan temple for their own religion.

Among the tricks they tried was pretending to be interested in helping the rebuilding. The Jews had already had too much negative experience with the Samaritans to be fooled by this trick, so the Jews refused to allow the Samaritans to join.

The Samaritans did not like the competition, so they decided to prevent the rebuilding of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. They told the king of Persia that the Jews were only pretending to rebuild the Holy Temple, but were really planning a revolt (which was not true). Persia put an immediate stop to the rebuilding of the Holy Temple.

Then a Jewish woman became queen of Persia. Her name was Esther. She could not convince her husband King Ahasueraus to allow the rebuilding of Holy Temple, but when her husband died she convinced her son Darius to let the Jews rebuild the Holy Temple.

Finally, in 352 B.C.E., the Holy Temple was rebuilt and rededicated. Around that time, prophecy came to an end. There are still other means of Divine Inspiration, but these are all of lesser levels.

The Samaritans continued to make trouble. When the Persians knuckled under the Macedonians, and Alexander the Great created the Greek empire, they tried to get Alexander to destroy the Holy Temple and kill all the Jews, and they almost succeeded. Even as late as the end of the first century C.E., the Samaritans were still ambushing and murdering Jews. The “good Samaritan” of the Christian bible is not only a myth, it is also a horrible false accusation against the Jews. It was akin to saying that the Nazis were good and the Jews were bad.

The Holy Temple stood from 352 B.C.E. until 68 C.E., a total of 420 years. In 68 C.E., the Romans (who were now the most powerful rulers of the world,) destroyed the Holy Temple.

They captured and enslaved most of the Jews who were in Judah, and sent them in exile to many parts of the world, including Italy and Spain.

We are still in the midst of that exile, and we await the coming of the Messiah, who will bring us — all twelve Tribes — back to the land of Israel, and will rule us with wisdom and benevolence.

So, let’s recap. The Periods of Jewish History are, basically:
Moses
Joshua
the Judges
the Kings (also known as the Later Prophets)
Destruction of the First Holy Temple
the Babylonian Exile
Second Holy Temple Era (also known as the Second Commonwealth)
Destruction of the Second Holy Temple
Roman Exile until today.
Tracing the Torah Back to Moses

We will show, with Hashem’s help, that during all that time, the Torah already existed. We will show that it was not created during the time of the Judges and the Early Prophets, nor during the time of the Kings, nor when the kingdom was divided into two, nor during the period of the two kingdoms, nor during the time of the Second Holy Temple, nor since then.

We will work backwards in time. Let’s first prove that the Bible is two thousand years old, and work backwards from there.

1,800 Years Ago
The Christians

I think there is little question that 1,800 years ago the Torah already existed. The Christians have been using their confused mistranslations of the Tanach at least since the second century C. E., and even trying to prove their mistaken beliefs from the Torah. So the Torah is certainly already in existence for about 1,800 years.

2,000 Years Ago
Josephus and Philo

But it certainly existed before then as well. Josephus lived almost two thousand years ago, around the first century C.E., and wrote his works probably around 75 C.E. Josephus mentions the Torah numerous times, and clearly refers to it as something that had been around a long time. In his work called Contra Apion, he writes:

For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another, as the Greeks have, but only twenty-four books, which contain the records of all things past; which are justly believed to be divine; and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. (Book 1, Chapter 1, Number 8)
There you have a clear reference to the Books of the Bible, and explicit mention of the Five Books of Moses. This is just one reference of many. Josephus mentions the Torah throughout many of his works. (See, for example, Antiquities of the Jews 4:8:3 and 2:16:5.)

Josephus is very clear that by his time there already existed a book of Laws written by Moses, and that it tells of the stories that Josephus himself tells in his Antiquities.

But was Josephus speaking of something new, or something that was already very old? Josephus was speaking of something that was already considered very old in his time. How do I know? Because he says so. In Contra Apion, Josephus writes that our Sacred Books are very old, and he asserts that no one has ever added to them or changed them in all the years since they were created.

…and how firmly we have given credit to these books of our own nation is evident by what we do; for during so many ages as have already passed, no one has been so bold as either to add any thing to them, to take any thing from them, or to make any change in them; but it is become natural to all Jews immediately, and from their very birth, to esteem these books to contain Divine doctrines, and to persist in them, and, if occasion be willing to die for them. It is no new thing for our captives, many of them in number, and frequently in time, to be seen to endure racks and deaths of all kinds upon the theaters, that they may not be obliged to say one word against our laws and the records that contain them; whereas there are none at all among the Greeks who would undergo the least harm on that account [i.e., for their own books]…. (1:1:8)
So it is quite clear that the Jews had these books, and believed in them, long before Josephus, who lived almost two thousand years ago. The Jews of his time, almost 2,000 years ago, already had all the Written Torah we have today, and believed them to be the originals, just as we believe today.

Let’s go back a little further. Philo (around 20 B.C.E. to around 50 C.E.) also talks about the Books of the Torah, in his work The Life of Moses (II:288-91). He also says that the books of the Torah are very old.

The writings of Josephus and Philo both prove that the Written Torah was already composed by the first century of the Common Era.

2,200 Years Ago
The Septuagint, Sadducees, and Ben Sira

Let’s go back a little more. The Septuagint (a Greek translation of the Torah first written by Rabbis and later changed dozens of times by numerous people), is claimed by the Gentiles to date back to 275 B.C.E. (Our Tradition dates it a bit later, at 245 B.C.E., according to Rabbi Fendel, in Legacy of Sinai, page 136.) So the Written Torah already existed at that time.

Also around that time, the emergence of the Sadducee and Boethusian sects took place. The Sadducees took as their platform the statement that they believed only in the Written Torah, and rejected the Oral Torah. Evidently, at that time both the Written Law and the Oral Law already existed.

So now we know that the Torah already existed by around 275 or so B.C.E. That’s 2,275 years ago, as I write this.

Let’s go back a little more. Ben Sira (circa 400 B.C.E.) also mentions the Books of Torah, in the same number and names that we have them today. So the Tanach existed then as well, around 2,400 years ago.

2,500 Years Ago
The Samaritans, and the Ten Tribes

We can go yet further back. The Samaritans learned the Torah from the Ten Tribes sometime around 550 B.C.E. So, by then the Chumash and Joshua were already written. Some of the Kohanim of the Ten Tribes taught it to them. Any time after that, the Samaritans would not have accepted the Torah from the people of Judah, because of the Samaritans’ hatred for them. So, since both the Jews and the Samaritans have the Chumash, we know that the Chumash had to have been written some time before 550 B.C.E., before the two groups stopped having contact with each other.

This also proves that the Torah could not have been written during the time of the two kingdoms. Since the Ten Tribes taught the Chumash to the Samaritans, that means the Ten Tribes had to have had the Chumash before they split off from the other two Tribes. During all the time that they were split, neither kingdom would never have taken Torah from the other.

Yet the later Books, written by Prophets among the two Tribes in Judah show numerous examples of how the Ten Tribes kept the Laws of the Torah (with occasional lapses), and that they had the Torah (see, for example, I Kings 21:13; II Kings 4:23, 7:3; Hosea 4:6; 8:1, 8:12; Amos 8:5, et. al.).

So, during the time of King Solomon, before the breakup of the nation into two kingdoms, the Chumash must have already existed. But they must have already existed earlier, or the Ten Tribes would never have accepted them. They took them because before they broke off these Books had already been fully accepted by all Israel.

2,800 Years Ago
King David

Could the Torah have been written during the time of King Solomon, or during the reign of his father, King David? Definitely not.

Consider what the Torah says about the nations of Moab.

The Torah (Deut. 23:4-7) says that a man from the nation of Moab may never marry a Jewish woman, even if he converts to Judaism. Even the descendant of a convert from Moab may never marry a Jewish woman. This was because of the way they treated us when we passed near their land on the way to the Land of Israel. They did not come forward to offer us bread and water, as was their custom. The women of Moab, however, after conversion to Judaism, are not forbidden to marry a Jewish man, because it was not the custom of the Moabite women to meet travelers with bread and water, and also because they had no connection with the attempt to curse Israel.

Now, you may remember that King David was a descendent from Ruth, a Moabite woman who converted to Judaism. You can imagine the trouble that must have caused. As a matter of fact, the Rabbis tells us that King David’s enemies certainly tried to get a lot of mileage out of that, and tried to claim, falsely, that a converted Moabite woman was also forbidden to marry a Jew.

Now, wouldn’t it simply have been easier for King David, if he wrote the Torah, to leave out that Law? It does not seem at all logical that King David would have written this in the Torah, or that any of the people of his time would have done that.

Therefore, that dates the Torah to at least before the time of King David, who was born in 836 B.C.E. That’s already 2836 years ago.

(By the way, King David and King Solomon are both mentioned in the history of the Phoenicians and the Tyrenes, according to Josephus. Both the Phoenicians and the Tyrenes did business with the Israelites during those eras.)

2,900 Years Ago
The Judges

Perhaps the Torah was written just before King David was born, during the era of the Judges? That, too, cannot be. The Torah says that it is forbidden to wage war against the nations of Moab and Ammon (Deuteronomy 2:19). Yet the Judges all the way from after Joshua to King David (inclusive) fought with those nations! Ammon invaded Israel during the time of Yiftach the Judge (around 970 B.C.E.), and Moab oppressed them during the time of Ehud the Judge (around 1160 B.C.E.). They had to fight with them out of self-defense, so they would never have included such a Law in the Torah had they composed it!

The Israelites spent a great deal of time and energy, and lost many good people defending themselves against those nations. Would the Prophets or Judges or anyone of that time have written a Law stating that it was forbidden to attack Moab or Amon if they were inventing the Torah? So the Torah could not have been written during the time of the Judges either.

Therefore the Torah predates the Judges, and come from the time of Moses and Joshua! That means that we have had the Torah for 3,313 years. And therefore, the Torah tells us that Moses told the Children of Israel:

Only take heed and watch yourselves very carefully, so that you do not forget the things that your eyes saw. Do not let this memory leave your hearts, all the days of your lives. Teach your children, and your children’s children about the day you stood before Hashem your G-d at Horeb (Deut. 4:9-10).
(Horeb is another name for Mount Sinai.)

Moses wrote the Torah according to the instructions given him by Hashem. Hashem dictated the Torah to Moses, letter by letter. Moses then taught it to the Children of Israel. And we have studied the Torah ever since, for 3,313 or so years.

Of course, the Torah itself is much older than that. Our Tradition tells us that Hashem created the Torah, both the Written and the Oral, 2,000 years before He created the universe. Hashem used it as a blueprint when He created the universe. And Hashem then kept it until it was time for us to receive it.

(The approach of this article, as well as some of the proofs, I took primarily from the works of Rabbi Avigdor Miller, especially Sing You Righteous, paragraphs 102-121.)

[Home] | [ History of Judaism ] |

http://www.beingjewish.com/mesorah/ageoftorah.html

English Bible History

The Pre-Reformation History of the Bible
From 1,400 BC to 1,400 AD

The story of how we got the English language Bible is, for the most part, the story of the Protestant Reformation which began in the late 14th Century AD with John Wycliffe. Indeed, if we go back more than just one thousand years, there is no language recognizable as “English” that even existed anywhere. The story of the Bible is much older than that, however.

Moses and the Ten Commandments
The first recorded instance of God’s Word being written down, was when the Lord Himself wrote it down in the form of ten commandments on the stone tablets delivered to Moses at the top of Mount Sinai. Biblical scholars believe this occurred between 1,400 BC and 1,500 BC… almost 3,500 years ago. The language used was almost certainly an ancient form of Hebrew, the language of Old Covenant believers.

The earliest scripture is generally considered to be the “Pentateuch”, the first five books of the Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, & Deuteronomy… though there is some scholarly evidence to indicate that the Old Testament Book of Job may actually be the oldest book in the Bible. The Old Testament scriptures were written in ancient Hebrew, a language substantially different than the Hebrew of today. These writings were passed down from generation to generation for thousands of years on scrolls made of animal skin, usually sheep, but sometimes deer or cow. Animals considered “unclean” by the Jews, such as pigs, were of course, never used to make scrolls.

When the entire Pentateuch is present on a scroll, it is called a “Torah”. An entire Torah Scroll, if completely unraveled, is over 150 feet long! As most sheep are only about two to three feet long, it took an entire flock of sheep to make just one Torah scroll. The Jewish scribes who painstakingly produced each scroll were perfectionists. If they made even the slightest mistake in copying, such as allowing two letters of a word to touch, they destroyed that entire panel (the last three or four columns of text), and the panel before it, because it had touched the panel with a mistake! While most Christians today would consider this behavior fanatical and even idolatrous (worshiping the scripture, rather than the One who gave it to us), it nevertheless demonstrates the level of faithfulness to accuracy applied to the preservation of God’s Word throughout the first couple of thousand years of Biblical transmission.

Hebrew has one thing in common with English: they are both “picture languages”. Their words form a clear picture in your mind. As evidence of this; the first man to ever print the scriptures in English, William Tyndale, once commented that Hebrew was ten times easier to translate into English than any other language. Tyndale would certainly be qualified to make such a statement, as he was so fluent in eight languages, that it was said you would have thought any one of them to be his native tongue.

By approximately 500 BC, the 39 Books that make up the Old Testament were completed, and continued to be preserved in Hebrew on scrolls. As we approach the last few centuries before Christ, the Jewish historical books known as the “Apocrypha” were completed, yet they were recorded in Greek rather than Hebrew. By the end of the First Century AD, the New Testament had been completed. It was preserved in Greek on Papyrus, a thin paper-like material made from crushed and flattened stalks of a reed-like plant. The word “Bible” comes from the same Greek root word as “papyrus”. The papyrus sheets were bound, or tied together in a configuration much more similar to modern books than to an elongated scroll.

These groupings of papyrus were called a “codex” (plural: “codices”). The oldest copies of the New Testament known to exist today are: The Codex Alexandrius and the Codex Sinaiticus in the British Museum Library in London, and the Codex Vaticanus in the Vatican. They date back to approximately the 300’s AD. In 315 AD, Athenasius, the Bishop of Alexandria, identified the 27 Books which we recognize today as the canon of New Testament scripture.

In 382 AD, the early church father Jerome translated the New Testament from its original Greek into Latin. This translation became known as the “Latin Vulgate”, (“Vulgate” meaning “vulgar” or “common”). He put a note next to the Apocrypha Books, stating that he did not know whether or not they were inspired scripture, or just Jewish historical writings which accompanied the Old Testament.

The Apocrypha was kept as part of virtually every Bible scribed or printed from these early days until just 120 years ago, in the mid-1880’s, when it was removed from Protestant Bibles. Up until the 1880’s, however, every Christian… Protestant or otherwise… embraced the Apocrypha as part of the Bible, though debate continued as to whether or not the Apocrypha was inspired. There is no truth to the popular myth that there is something “Roman Catholic” about the Apocrypha, which stemmed from the fact that the Roman Catholics kept 12 of the 14 Apocrypha Books in their Bible, as the Protestants removed all of them. No real justification was ever given for the removal of these ancient Jewish writings from before the time of Christ, which had remained untouched and part of every Bible for nearly two thousand years.

By 500 AD the Bible had been translated into over 500 languages. Just one century later, by 600 AD, it has been restricted to only one language: the Latin Vulgate! The only organized and recognized church at that time in history was the Catholic Church of Rome, and they refused to allow the scripture to be available in any language other than Latin. Those in possession of non-Latin scriptures would be executed! This was because only the priests were educated to understand Latin, and this gave the church ultimate power… a power to rule without question… a power to deceive… a power to extort money from the masses. Nobody could question their “Biblical” teachings, because few people other than priests could read Latin. The church capitalized on this forced-ignorance through the 1,000 year period from 400 AD to 1,400 AD knows as the “Dark and Middle Ages”.

Pope Leo the Tenth established a practice called the “selling of indulgences” as a way to extort money from the people. He offered forgiveness of sins for a fairly small amount of money. For a little bit more money, you would be allowed to indulge in a continuous lifestyle of sin, such as keeping a mistress. Also, through the invention of “Purgatory”, you could purchase the salvation of your loved-one’s souls. The church taught the ignorant masses, “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the troubled soul from Purgatory springs!” Pope Leo the Tenth showed his true feelings when he said, “The fable of Christ has been quite profitable to us!”

Editorial Note: Let us state at this point, that it is not our intent to offend or “bash” Roman Catholics. It is unavoidable that every historical account has its “good guys” and its “bad guys”. Just as it is impossible to accurately tell the story of World War Two without offending the Germans and the Italians who were undeniably the enemies of world peace at that time… it is equally impossible to accurately tell the story of the English Bible without unintentionally offending those who continue to revere the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches.
Where was the true church of God during these Dark Ages?

On the Scottish Island of Iona, in 563 AD, a man named Columba started a Bible College. For the next 700 years, this was the source of much of the non-Catholic, evangelical Bible teaching through those centuries of the Dark and Middle Ages. The students of this college were called “Culdees”, which means “certain stranger”. The Culdees were a secret society, and the remnant of the true Christian faith was kept alive by these men during the many centuries that led up to the Protestant Reformation.

In fact, the first man to be called a “Culdee” was Joseph of Aremethia. The Bible tells us that Joseph of Aremethia gave up his tomb for Jesus. Tradition tells us that he was actually the Uncle of the Virgin Mary, and therefore the Great-Uncle (or “half-Uncle” at least) of Jesus. It is also believed that Joseph of Aremethia traveled to the British Isles shortly after the resurrection of Christ, and built the first Christian Church above ground there. Tradition also tells us that Jesus may have spent much of his young adult life (between 13 and 30) traveling the world with his Great Uncle Joseph… though the Bible is silent on these years in the life of Jesus.

In the late 1300’s, the secret society of Culdees chose John Wycliffe to lead the world out of the Dark Ages. Wycliffe has been called the “Morning Star of the Reformation”. That Protestant Reformation was about one thing: getting the Word of God back into the hands of the masses in their own native language, so that the corrupt church would be exposed and the message of salvation in Christ alone, by scripture alone, through faith alone would be proclaimed again.

This concludes our overview of the Pre-Reformation history of the Bible. You should now click here to return to the main English Bible History Page, to pick up this story with John Wycliffe in the 14th Century, and continue on to the 21st Century.

From site
http://www.greatsite.com/timeline-english-bible-history/pre-reformation.html

Catholic Church Admits They Made the Change to the Sabbath

Moses and the commandments
Was the Sabbath changed from the seventh day of the week to the first day? Well, yes and no. Let’s deal with the “no” first.

God, “with whom there is no variation or shadow of turning” (James 1:17), does not change (Malachi 3:6). The Israelites received two laws from Moses: the law of Moses, that of ordinances and ceremonies; and the Law of God, embodied in the Ten Commandments, which is an expression of God’s character. If God does not change, neither will His Law. “My covenant I will not break, nor alter the word that has gone out of My lips” (Psalm 89:34). “I know that everything God does will endure forever; nothing can be added to it and nothing taken from it” (Ecclesiastes 3:14). “The works of his hands are faithful and just; all his precepts are trustworthy. They are steadfast for ever and ever, done in faithfulness and uprightness” (Psalm 111:7, 8).

God gave His Law to the Israelites at Mt. Sinai. Amid thunder and lightning, a thick cloud covered the mountain, and a trumpet blasted. Smoke billowed up as from a furnace and the whole mountain shook as the trumpet grew louder and louder. Moses led the Israelites out of their camp to meet with God, and every one of them trembled. Then God spoke (Exodus 19:16-19, 20:1). If this Law were to be changed, it would be reasonable to expect God Himself to announce it, and give reasons for its alteration, amid the same amount of ceremony. Yet there is no indication in Scripture of such an announcement.

What About the New Testament?

In the New Testament, the seventh day of the week is called the Sabbath; it is mentioned 58 times. The first day of the week is mentioned eight times. It is simply called the first day of the week, and it is always differentiated from the Sabbath. This in itself is evidence for the continued validity of the seventh-day Sabbath.

The gospel writers record Jesus and the apostles going to the synagogue on Sabbath as their “custom” (Luke 4:16 ). Jesus said, “I have kept My Father’s commandments” (John 15:10). The women who went to anoint His body after his death “rested on the Sabbath according to the commandment” (Luke 23:56). Nearly all of the incidents reported of the apostles’ preaching occurred on the seventh-day Sabbath. Of all the accusations the Jews made against the apostles, never once did they accuse the apostles of breaking the Sabbath.

Some teach that after Christ’s death and resurrection, the Old Testament law was done away with and a new covenant took its place. But Jesus Himself said, “Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill. For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled” (Matthew 5:17, 18). The law of Moses, which foreshadowed Christ’s sacrifice, was indeed made irrelevant, but Paul maintains that the Law of God is to be kept, though we now be under grace. “Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid; yea, we establish the law” (Romans 3:31).

How It Happened…

Yet for nearly 2,000 years now, millions of Christians have worshiped on Sunday. So was the Sabbath changed from the seventh to the first day of the week? Let’s look at the “yes” now.

“The Son of Man is Lord also of the Sabbath” (Luke 6:5). Here Jesus staked His claim and forbade anyone to meddle with the Sabbath. Yet He knew there would be those who would claim the power to change God’s Law. Through Daniel he warned of just such a man. Describing a “little horn power” (Daniel 7:8), Daniel says, “He will speak against the Most High and oppress his saints and try to change the set times and the laws” (Daniel 7:25). Paul made a similar prediction: “Don’t let anyone deceive you in any way, for that day will not come until the rebellion occurs and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the man doomed to destruction. He will oppose and will exalt himself over everything that is called God, or is worshiped, so that he sets himself up in God’s temple, proclaiming himself to be God” (2 Thessalonians 2:3, 4, 7).

Paul warned that this blasphemy was already at work, and that it would come not from an outside influence, but from within the church (2 Thessalonians 2:7, Acts 20:28-30). Sure enough, not long after Paul’s day, apostasy appeared in the church.

About 100 years before Christianity, Egyptian Mithraists introduced the festival of Sunday, dedicated to worshiping the sun, into the Roman Empire. Later, as Christianity grew, church leaders wished to increase the numbers of the church. In order to make the gospel more attractive to non-Christians, pagan customs were incorporated into the church’s ceremonies. The custom of Sunday worship was welcomed by Christians who desired to differentiate themselves from the Jews, whom they hated because of the Jews’ rejection of the Savior. The first day of the week began to be recognized as both a religious and civil holiday. By the end of the second century, Christians considered it sinful to work on Sunday.

The Roman emperor Constantine, a former sun-worshiper, professed conversion to Christianity, though his subsequent actions suggest the “conversion” was more of a political move than a genuine heart change. Constantine named himself Bishop of the Catholic Church and enacted the first civil law regarding Sunday observance in A.D. 321.

On the venerable day of the sun let the magistrate and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed. In the country however, persons engaged in agricultural work may freely and lawfully continue their pursuits; because it often happens that another day is not so suitable for grain growing or for vine planting; lest by neglecting the proper moment for such operations the bounty of heaven should be lost. —Schaff’s History of the Christian Church, vol. III, chap. 75.

Note that Constantine’s law did not even mention Sabbath but referred to the mandated rest day as a “the venerable day of the sun.” And how kind he was to allow people to observe it as it was convenient. Contrast this with God’s command to observe the Sabbath “even during the plowing season and harvest” (Exodus 34:21)! Perhaps the church leaders noticed this laxity as well, for just four years later, in A.D. 325, Pope Sylvester officially named Sunday “the Lord’s Day,” and in A.D. 338, Eusebius, the court bishop of Constantine, wrote, “All things whatsoever that it was the duty to do on the Sabbath (the seventh day of the week) we (Constantine, Eusebius, and other bishops) have transferred to the Lord’s Day (the first day of the week) as more appropriately belonging to it.”

Instead of the humble lives of persecution and self-sacrifice led by the apostles, church leaders now exalted themselves to the place of God. “This is the spirit of the antichrist, which you have heard is coming and even now is already in the world” (1 John 4:3).

The Catechism

Recall the ceremony with which God made known His Law, containing the blessing of the seventh-day Sabbath, by which all humanity is to be judged. Contrast this with the unannounced, unnoticed anticlimax with which the church gradually adopted Sunday at the command of “Christian” emperors and Roman bishops. And these freely admit that they made the change from Sabbath to Sunday.

In the Convert’s Catechism of Catholic Doctrine, we read:

Q. Which is the Sabbath day?
A. Saturday is the Sabbath day.
Q. Why do we observe Sunday instead of Saturday?
A. We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church, in the Council of Laodicea, (AD 336) transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday….
Q. Why did the Catholic Church substitute Sunday for Saturday?
A. The Church substituted Sunday for Saturday, because Christ rose from the dead on a Sunday, and the Holy Ghost descended upon the Apostles on a Sunday.
Q. By what authority did the Church substitute Sunday for Saturday?
A. The Church substituted Sunday for Saturday by the plenitude of that divine power which Jesus Christ bestowed upon her!
—Rev. Peter Geiermann, C.SS.R., (1946), p. 50.

In Catholic Christian Instructed,

Q. Has the [Catholic] church power to make any alterations in the commandments of God?
A. …Instead of the seventh day, and other festivals appointed by the old law, the church has prescribed the Sundays and holy days to be set apart for God’s worship; and these we are now obliged to keep in consequence of God’s commandment, instead of the ancient Sabbath.
—The Catholic Christian Instructed in the Sacraments, Sacrifices, Ceremonies, and Observances of the Church By Way of Question and Answer, RT Rev. Dr. Challoner, p. 204.

In An Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine,

Q. How prove you that the church hath power to command feasts and holy days?
A. By the very act of changing the Sabbath into Sunday, which Protestants allow of; and therefore they fondly contradict themselves, by keeping Sunday strictly, and breaking most other feasts commanded by the same church.
Q. How prove you that?
A. Because by keeping Sunday, they acknowledge the church’s power to ordain feasts, and to command them under sin; and by not keeping the rest [of the feasts] by her commanded, they again deny, in fact, the same power.
–Rev. Henry Tuberville, D.D. (R.C.), (1833), page 58.

In A Doctrinal Catechism,
Q. Have you any other way of proving that the Church has power to institute festivals of precept?
A. Had she not such power, she could not have done that in which all modern religionists agree with her. She could not have substituted the observance of Sunday the first day of the week, for the observance of Saturday the seventh day, a change for which there is no Scriptural authority.
–Rev. Stephen Keenan, (1851), p. 174.

In the Catechism of the Council of Trent,
The Church of God has thought it well to transfer the celebration and observance of the Sabbath to Sunday!
–p 402, second revised edition (English), 1937. (First published in 1566)

In the Augsburg Confession,
They [the Catholics] allege the Sabbath changed into Sunday, the Lord’s day, contrary to the decalogue, as it appears; neither is there any example more boasted of than the changing of the Sabbath day. Great, they say, is the power and authority of the church, since it dispensed with one of the ten commandments.
—Art. 28.

God warned that a blasphemous power would “seek to change times and laws,” and the Catholic Church openly admits doing it, even boasts about it. In a sermon at the Council of Trent in 1562, the Archbishop of Reggia, Caspar del Fossa, claimed that the Catholic Church’s whole authority is based upon the fact that they changed the Sabbath to Sunday. Does this not fulfill the prophecies of Daniel and Paul?

“For centuries millions of Christians have gathered to worship God on the first day of the week. Graciously He has accepted this worship. He has poured out His blessings upon Christian people as they have sought to serve Him. However, as one searches the Scriptures, he is forced to recognize that Sunday is not a day of God’s appointment… It has no foundation in Scripture, but has arisen entirely as a result of custom,” says Frank H. Yost, Ph.D. in The Early Christian Sabbath.

Let us ask the question again: Was the Sabbath changed from the seventh day of the week to the first? The Bible is clear: “And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy” (Genesis 2:3). “Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy” (Exodus 20:11). If God intended for another day to become the Sabbath, He must have removed the blessing from the seventh day and placed it on the day which was to replace it. But when God bestows a blessing, it is forever. “…You, O Lord, have blessed it, and it will be blessed forever” (1 Chronicles 17:27). “I have received a command to bless; He has blessed, and I cannot change it” (Numbers 23:20). Your birthday, a memorial of your birth, can’t be changed, though you may celebrate it on a different day. Neither can the Sabbath, a memorial of creation (Exodus 20:11), be changed, though some may celebrate it on a different day.

God instructed Moses to construct the earthly sanctuary, all its furniture, and the ark according to “the pattern” he was shown. (Exodus 25:9, 40) The ark was called the “ark of the covenant” (Numbers 10:33, Deuteronomy 10:8, Hebrews 9:4), and the “ark of the testimony” (Exodus 25:22), because in it Moses placed the tablets of stone on which God wrote His Law. (Exodus 25:16, 31:18) John, in Revelation 11:19, describes the scene before him when “the temple of God was opened in Heaven.” John saw the ark of the covenant in the heavenly sanctuary. David wrote, “Your word, O Lord, is eternal; it stands firm in the heavens” (Psalm 119:89). It is safe to assume that God’s Law remains, contained within the ark of the covenant in the heavenly sanctuary.

When God says, “The seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God” (Exodus 20:10), that ends all controversy. We cannot change God’s Word for our own convenience. “But if serving the Lord seems undesirable to you, then choose for yourselves this day whom you will serve” (Joshua 24:15).

– Emily Thomsen

Present by Amazing Facts Inc.

https://www.sabbathtruth.com/free-resources/article-
library/id/916/catholic-church-admits-they-made-the-change

THE HEBREW ISRAELITES AND THE TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE CONNECTION

 


2017-06-07-00-20-28-2042907768

19399073_467608213592931_6378655402314576799_n

19424131_235967603586730_7132364805742604896_n

faqimg1

“Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother. Thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land.”

 

This post has lots of information. I suggest that you come back to it at different stages as the information can’t be absorbed in one sitting. There are documentaries varying in length and items to download for free. However if you have the time to get through the majority of the information in here you should have a good basic understanding of the Hebrews and the information  that they have been instructed to follow. We must educate each other and not throw the baby out with the bath water. We can throw away the false teachings but still live by the Holy word. Religion has been manipulated to suit man but The Truth has always been there

Watch the below links then press the back botton. The Migration of Judah is listed as the first link. The second is a church service where a preacher discusses the subject of The Real Jews.

https://livestream.com/accounts/21783054/events/6561832/videos/140391193/player?width=640&height=360&enableInfo=true&autoPlay=true&mute=false

https://youtu.be/pt3cjf1_IjQ

Watch a Gentile break it down if you haven’t already https://youtu.be/bEDfrBBPZzg

Watch the history of Khazar Jews and people from the Caucasus mountains https://youtu.be/_m0GeNIXvTE

                   Watch Israel is part of Africa https://youtu.be/sfb1px3gtHQ

 

Ten Lost Tribes of Israel10 of the original 12 Hebrew tribes, which, under the leadership ofJoshua, took possession of Canaan, the Promised Land, after the death of Moses. They were named AsherDanEphraimGadIssacharManassehNaphtaliReubenSimeon, and Zebulun—all sons or grandsons of Jacob. In 930 bc the 10 tribes formed the independent Kingdom of Israel in the north and the 2 other tribes, Judah and Benjamin, set up the Kingdom of Judah in the south. Following the conquest of the northern kingdom by the Assyrians in 721 bc, the 10 tribes were gradually assimilated by other peoples and thus disappeared from history. Nevertheless, a belief persisted that one day the Ten Lost Tribes would be found. Eldad ha-Dani, for instance, a 9th-century Jewish traveler, reported locating the tribes “beyond the rivers of Abyssinia” on the far side of an impassable river calledSambation, a roaring torrent of stones that becomes subdued only on the sabbath, when Jews are not permitted to travel. Manasseh ben Israel (1604–57) used the legend of the lost tribes in pleading successfully for admission of Jews into England during Oliver Cromwell’sregime. Peoples who at various times were said to be descendants of the lost tribes include the Nestorians, the Mormons, the Afghans, the Falashas of Ethiopia, the American Indians, and the Japanese. Among the numerous immigrants to the State of Israel since its establishment in 1948 were a few who likewise claimed to be remnants of the Ten Lost Tribes. The descendants of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin have survived as Jews because they were allowed to return to their homeland after the Babylonian Exile of 586 bc.

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ten-Lost-Tribes-of-Israel

 

02EEEJESUSEGYPTmap-40-02

300px-Neues_Reich

images-241

368

slide_5-1

2017-08-12-10-17-03-1492755965

The middle Eastern belt and African continent have shaped religion and are the centre of the Bible

4850043

path of the ancient hebrews

Egypt to Kush

images-8

sons-of-noah-300x250.jpg

See this link for a comprehensive breakdown of the races in biblical terms http://allofthescriptures.org/genesis-10/http://allofthescriptures.org/genesis-10/

43ae5fbd0e8e748d9c56f0cedaa8c972

images-843

intro-to-africana-studiescheikh-anta-diop-and-black-scholars-2-728

screen-shot-2015-09-26-at-9-40-18-am

the-presence-of-blacks-in-the-bible-18-638

 

After the flood, one of the grandsons of Noah was named Cush. His brothers were Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. All four were founders of nations. Mizraim founded Egypt. Canaan founded the Canaanite city-states in the land of Canaan. Cush founded Ethiopia (just south of Egypt) and Put founded the country we now know as Libya (just west of Egypt). Ethiopia is called the land of Cush, not because it matches the location near Eden, but because its founding ancestor was named Cush.

Havilah was also a region in the pre-flood world that is mentioned in Genesis 2:11. The Pishon flowed around it and it was noted for its gold. After the flood, one of Cush’s sons (Noah’s great-grandson) was named Havilah. Do you see the trend in this family to name sons after remembered lands from before the flood? Havilah and his descendants settled in the region between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, the area we now call the Arabian Desert, on the northwest end.

http://lavistachurchofchrist.org/LVanswers/2004/2004-08-11.htm

Havila

 

Havilah and Garden of Eden location

Havilah is mentioned in Genesis 2:10 http://www.biblegateway.com

And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;

In addition to the region described in chapter 2 of Genesis two individuals named Havilah are listed in the Table of Nations which lists the descendants of Noah, who are considered eponymous ancestors of nations. They are mentioned in Genesis  and Chronicles. One is the son of Cush, the son of Ham; the other, a son of Joktan and descendant of Shem.

Another land named Havilah is mentioned in Genesis where it defines the territory inhabited by the Ishmaelites as being “from Havilah to Shur, opposite Egypt in the direction of Assyria”; and in Samuel, which states that king Saul attacked the Amalekites who were living there.

2017-08-13-12-46-35-755445930

map_of_saudi-arabia

2017-08-13-12-46-38--453902220

2017-08-10-11-09-35--1155828718

43dbaf02b587b774c8160e7ea15efadd

8d46a6a97366e79de3087954c8c56412

images-94

Afro Asiatic and cushite Arab descendants

cushitic-people-of-east-africa

The word Cush is an Egyptian word, which was borrowed into Hebrew to designate the area south of Egypt. Specifically it was an area that was from the second cataract [rocky formations along the Nile]. The Egyptians have another word for what was Lower Nubia, or northern Nubia. But in general it came to mean the area which is the Sudan, the area south of Egypt, especially remarkable for the black complexion of its inhabitants. That ethnic makeup is reflected in the modern name of the country, Sudan, which comes from the Arabic phrase for “the country of the blacks.”

There are two wives mentioned in the Bible for Moses. Some scholars wish to combine the two on the basis of a text that seems to use a parallelism between the area of Midian and Cushan. Cushan, however is not the same as Cush—this is in Habakkuk 3:7. I think it’s better to keep the two wives separate. And there’s every reason to believe that the Cushite wife was a wife from the area south of Egypt.

https://blackhistory938.wordpress.com/2017/06/05/sudans-biblical-history/

 

 

 

2017-08-10-10-58-01--666110865

See also https://youtu.be/piakN1zG5Aw

Zephania 3:10:

From beyond the borders of Ethiopia my suppliants, even the daughter of my dispersed shall bring mine offering.

793px-Expansion_of_Afroasiatic.svg

images-272

Picture of a red Ibo/igbo descendant above. There is documented evidence that in America they were preferred by slave owners and one commentator who lived in that era states that during slavery the red Igbo were raped to the point of becoming practically white through breeding.  Now take a look at the below theory.

Esau a hebrew with red skin as in red skin black???

See this thought provoking article click the link below for the full article.

We are first introduced to Esau through his father Isaac. According to the story, Esau came out red and hairy, while his twin brother Jacob (Israel) came out like a normal baby.

“And the first came out red, all over like an hairy garment; and they called his name Esau. And after that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau’s heel; and his name was called Jacob: and Isaac was threescore years old when she bare them.” – Genesis 25:25-26

In Hebrew culture, the lineage is traced through the father. We know that Abraham was a Hebrew, therefore his son Isaac was a Hebrew, and so were Isaac’s sons Jacob and Esau.

Inconsitency #1 – Twin Brothers

Those that take the position that Israel was black and Esau is the origin of today’s white people, need to explain why they believe in twins of two different races born to Rebekah, who had only been sexually intimate with Isaac. We are not talking about an albino twin, but according to the theory, Esau was white.

Click below for the full article then press the back button.

http://www.blackhistoryinthebible.com/blurred-lines/esau-dukes-of-edom-what-happened-edomites/?fref=gc

See also http://www.blackhistoryinthebible.com/hidden-history/ruddy-skin-in-the-bible-forget-everything-youve-been-told/

Rasta live wire.com part summary of the tribes below

1) Beta Israel/Falasha- Ethiopia
2)Abayudaya-Uganda
3)Tutsi- Rwanda
4) Rusape- Zimbabwe
5)Lemba- South Africa
6) Sefwi Wiawso- Ghana
7) Ashanti- Ghana Ga- Ghana
9) Ewe- Ghana
10) B’nai Ephraim(sons of Ephraim)-
Yoruba, Nigeria
11) Lam-Lam- Timbuktu
12) Katsena- Nigeria
13)Zafin Ibrahim- Malagasy Republic
14)Ibo- Nigeria….

Niger Delta, aerial photograph

The River Niger

Niger+River

Below is the Hebrew migration.

1+ISRAEL+NEGRO+RACE

Sudan covered the west and East of Africa see the maps below the final map shows West Africa to East and South as being Sudan Niger. They were the same Hebrews who had travelled from the East the Shemites.

91b70806d336a4ac84be0f4f144e30f6

map

The below map shows from Ghana Nigeria to Sudan encompassing South Africa as the African Negroes race and the North of Africa as being mainly inhabited by Hamites. The map is German 1936 edition. This map also details Negroes being in Australia. The first thing I think is I knew the aborigines were related to Africans. Some  state that they were never from Africa or the Middle East however they have the same features and some of the same customs.

meyers-l2

The below post which I have added a link to below, provides this insight.

This information is noteworthy because it identifies two of the primary tribes of the Niger-Congo branch of West Africans, the Yoruba and Ibo, as being “Middle Eastern”/Shemitic/Semitic Israelites that migrated into to Africa from territories outside of the African continent. The Bantu people are related to the Niger-Congo groups because it is from the Niger-Congo regions that the Bantu expansion originated.

  • Zondervan’s Bible Dictionary let’s us know that the Negroes are not Hamites (True Africans) but instead are from Shem (Middle Eastern). The Negroes are Shemitic.
  • The Niger-Congo people had a branch that diffused the Near-East/Mediterranean customs throughout the lands the migrated all over Africa during the Bantu Expansion.

Therefore the Bantu’s of Sub Saharan Africa are related to the Niger-Congo peoples who are Negros found in the African region (West Africa) identified as Negroland. Click for original post 

Below just for fun I’ve added my ancestry DNA to see where my West African DNA fits. The Bantu people say they came from Nigeria and Ghanaians are related to Cameroons and the people in Benin have similar genetics to the other regions I have in my DNA.

20170429_160330

My trace regions were 2% Mali 2% Senegal 1% British 1% Irish 2% Iberian peninsula 1% Europe East Russia Poland

 

 

Africa Southeastern Bantu

Primarily located in: South Africa, Kenya, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Angola, Tanzania, Mozambique, Uganda

Also found in: Nigeria, Congo

 

The Lemba Bantu tribe

According to some Lemba, they had male ancestors who were Jews who left Judea about 2,500 years ago and settled in a place called Senna, later migrating into East Africa.[8] According to the findings of British researcher Tudor Paurfitt, the location of Senna was more than likely in Yemen, specifically, in the village of Sanāw within the easternmost portion of the Wadi Hadhramaut.[9] The city had a vibrant Jewish population since ancient times, but it dwindled to a few hundred people since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.[10]
According to their oral tradition, the male ancestors of the Lemba came to southeast Africa to obtain gold[7][11] ( see my post on the Lemba tribe)

Genetic tests carried out by British scientists have revealed that many of the Lemba tribesmen in southern Africa have Jewish origins, according to a report by the BBC. The Lemba, a tribe of 70,000 to 80,000 members who live in central Zimbabwe and northern South Africa, have customs which are similar to Jewish ones: Lemba refrain from eating pork or other foods forbidden by the Torah, or forbidden combinations of permitted foods, wear yarmulke-like skull caps, conduct ritual animal slaughter, have a holy day once a week, and even put a Star of David on their gravestones. According to their oral tradition, the Lemba are descended from seven Jewish men who left Israel 2,500 years ago and married African women, according to the BBC. The Lemba prefer their children to marry other Lembas, and marriage to non-Lembas is being discouraged.

Their sacred prayer language is a mixture of Hebrew and Arabic. Their religious artifact is a replica of the Biblical Ark of the Covenant known as the ‘ngoma lungundu’, meaning “the drum that thunders.” The object went on display recently at a museum in Harare, Zimbabwe, and has instilled pride in many of the Lemba. They say the ark was built almost 700 years ago from the remains of the original ark, which according to the Bible was used to store the Ten Commandments. For decades, the ancient vessel was thought to be lost until it was discovered in a storeroom in Harare recently. http://www.worldjewishcongress.org/en/news/lemba-tribe-in-southern-africa-has-jewish-roots-genetic-tests-reveal

Nigeria Ibo Igbo Yoruba Efik

According to Eze Nri, Nri-Enwelana II, the “Nri Kingdom is the oldest Kingdom in Nigeria. It was founded around 900AD by the progenitor, Eri, the son of Gad. According to biblical accounts, Jacob had Leah as his wife who begot four sons for him. When Leah noticed she had passed child-bearing age, she gave her maid servant, Zilpah to Jacob to wife, and through Zilpah he had a son named Gad. Gad then bigot Eri, who later formed a clan known as Erites vide Genesis Chapter 30 verse 9; 46 verse 16 and Numbers chapter 26 verses 15-19. Eri was therefore amongst the twelve tribes of Israel via Gad.”

641640aab74569f6e8ee09eacd524681--letter-j-black-people

Ghana

Throughout the culture and history of the Ga-Dangmes of Ghana, is a very strong conclusive evidence that they are direct descendants of the Hebrew Israelties that migrated to West Africa by way of Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan, Lake Chad, Ile-Ife, Dahome, Togo and to the Gold Coast (modern Ghana).  Their cultural practices, laws and customs and even, some of their names are so identical to those described in the Holy Bible.  Thus, the only logical conclusion to make is that they are, as they claim descendants of Biblical Hebrew Israelites.

Oral history had it that Ga-Dangmes people migrated from Israel about 6th Century B.C through Egypt, then to Ethiopia, having been expelled or exiled by the Assyrians (Hebrew Biblical Revelations, July 2008; see also: OMANYE ABA by A.A AMARTEY).  In Ethiopia, they settled in the Gonder Province in northern Ethiopia, where the Blue Nile originates.  That is where the name NAI WULOMO, meaning, HIGH PRIEST OF THE NILE comes from. In 640 B.C, the Assyrians attacked the Ga-Dangmes again while they were in Ethiopia.  From Ethiopia, they travelled through Southern Sudan and settled for a period of time at Sameh in Niger and then to Ileife in Nigeria.  They migrated again in 1100 A.D 

Mali

Senegalese bush, Bani Israel tribe claims Jewish heritage

BANI ISRAEL, Senegal (JTA) — He will welcome you into his earthen-floor home, introduce you to his three wives, and let you sample their cooking. But Dougoutigo Fadiga does not want foreigners to come near the sacred tree of his village deep in the Senegalese bush.

“The tree is holy grounds,” says Fadiga, president of this remote settlement of 4,000 souls. “Our Jewish ancestor, Jacob, planted it when his people first settled here 1,000 years ago.”

The lush kapok tree towers over the parched shrubbery at the edge of Bani Israel, a dusty community in eastern Senegal near the border with Mali. The residents, all Muslims, are members of a tribe whose name means “sons of Israel,” and they trace their lineage to two clans — Sylla and Drame — they say are descended from Egyptian Jews.

Dougoutigo Fadiga outside the Bani Israel clinic near the Senegalese village’s sacred tree, May 2013.

“We are all practicing Muslims and we don’t want to become Jewish,” Fadiga says. “In fact, we don’t like to talk too much about our Jewish background, but we don’t hide it either. We know our people came from Egypt to Somalia, and from there to Nigeria, where they split about 1,000 years ago. One branch of the two families went to Mali, another to Guinea, and we settled here.”

The truth of such claims is difficult to establish, but West Africa has had a documented Jewish presence since at least the 14th century, when several Jewish merchants set up shop in Timbuktu, in western Mali. Jews kept trickling in from Spain and Portugal during the Inquisition of the 15th and 16th centuries, and later from Morocco.

http://israelitishworldwide.blogspot.co.uk/2016/01/there-are-plenty-of-jewish-roots-in.html

 

 

Falasha

Loango+Jews

 

Ethiopia

Beta Israel (Hebrewבֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל‎, Beyte (beyt) YisraelGe’ezቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 

‘Isrā’ēl?, modernBēte ‘Isrā’ēlEAE: “Betä Ǝsraʾel”, “House of Israel” or “Community of Israel”[4]), also known as Ethiopian Jews (Hebrewיְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה‎: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge’ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews that developed and lived for centuries in the area of Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia

Many of the Beta Israel accounts of their own origins stress that they stem from the very ancient migration of some portion of the Tribe of Dan to Ethiopia, led it is said by sons of Moses, perhaps even at the time of the Exodus, or perhaps due to later crises in Judea, e.g., at the time of the split of the northern Kingdom of Israel from the southern Kingdom of Judah after the death of King Solomon or at the time of the Babylonian Exile.[28] Other Beta Israel take as their basis the Christian account of Menelik‘s return to Ethiopia.[29] Menelik is considered the first SolomonicEmperor of Ethiopia, and is traditionally believed to be the son of King Solomon of ancient Israel, and Makeda, ancient Queen of Sheba (in modern Ethiopia).

Benin/Togo

Primarily located in: Benin, Togo

Also found in: Ghana, Nigeria, Mali

For years, anthropologists and others looked at African ethnic groups as being mostly solitary and static. However, historians now know that huge empires and kingdoms, with administrations and armies, diplomatic corps and distant trading partners, have long been part of Africa’s fabric. This is especially true of West Africa, where migrations, conquests and intermarriage within allied kingdoms help explain why, for example, 43% of people from the Benin/Togo region have DNA that looks similar to the profile for the Ivory Coast/Ghana region, and 28% similar to the profile for Nigeria.

Benin Ouidah Judah

Screen Shot 2014-03-01 at 8.35.53 PM

Above door of no return in Ouidah  Benin where the slaves were shipped to the New World. This place marks history and holds many stories. The Igbo committed mass suicides walking into the ocean and drowning. In Haiti they had a saying “the Igbo drown themselves” therefore the descendants of West African slaves are the bloodline of those strong survivors who were captured AND DID NOT kill themselves.

1172122_441008886009347_814200666_n

The slave port in Ouidah Judah is gone but the people there left the door as a symbol of what happened to some of their family members.

Ouidah /ˈwdə/, historically also called Whydah /ˈhwdə/Juda,[2] Juida by the French[3] andAjudá by the Portuguese,[4] formally the Kingdom of Whydah (so named for the Whydah Bird of Paradise),


The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of slaves transported to the New World according to written history were NOT NATIVE AFRICANS  from Central and Western and Eastern parts of the continent, in fact these people have been historically proven to be descendants of  EARLY HEBREWS THAT HAD MIGRATED FROM ARABIA AND EGYPT, ISRAEL AND ETHIOPIA into West Africa.  These people were attacked and sold by NATIVE AFRICAN TRIBES and Muslims to European slave traders who then transported them to North and South and Central America.To further prove this statement I have obtained written records from Arab and Muslim writers and also medieval African maps written in the 17th century by the conquering Europeans. In the maps are shown geographical locations of Hebrew cities and Kingdoms that were later taken into Slavery.The First medieval African Map was Performed by the Sr. Danville Under the Patronage of the Duke of Orleans.” Revised and Improved by Mr. Bolton(1766)
And another medieval African Map called Negroland and the adjacent countries also UPPER GUINEA showing the principal European Settlements and Distinguishing by Eman Bowen 1747 West Africa


 The World’s Best Kept Secret

THE 1747 MAP BELOW SHOW THE KINGDOM OF JUDA (YahUDAH) IN WEST AFRICA 

Shown below, the Kingdom of Juda (or Whidah) can be clearly seen in the area named the “Slave Coast” where the Portuguese first set up their slave port in 1580.

 

The twenty eight chapter of Deuteronomy verses 15 – 68 details the plight of the people of Yah after fleeing Jerusalem, and fifteen centries later being caught up in the transatlantic slave trade.

 

On today’s modern maps the place is called Ouidah, which means Whydah or Judah.

 


http://www.perfectman.org/judah-in-africa.html

ob_e28323_whidah-kupfer

Kingdom-of-SHANKALA-Falafjam-Jews-Exiled-Danvilles-Map-of-Africa-.jpg

2017-06-24-12-30-14--492932923

https://youtu.be/-pOD4VZd-28

Hebrews of the

Trans Atlantic Slave trade

 

africa

images-57

images-221

mqdefault

4b0f86b501d7b73047beb95445d40809

images-136

images-343

King James Bible
The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border.

2017-07-04-23-58-34--1952521268

bgv85j

default

The Kingdom of Juda was right on the slave coast as we know.

2017-06-12-15-02-26-1917829835

The map was worthy enough to be translated into different languages in 1747

images-379

Watch this video on The kingdom of Judah and when it was last featured on the map. It is a must see if you are new to this information  https://youtu.be/PLYwpl_o9Wo

See also https://youtu.be/enCH1ra5smA

Now let’s see what else featured on the West African Map.

956f3b78e8c4be5270d9b1d9e2d12452--this-city-civilization

The above shows the Deserts of Seth the below the country of Adom/ Adamawa. Seth is the son of Adam in the bible.

images-367

maxresdefault-4.jpg

The Children of Seth mingle with the Children of Cain

It was the custom during ancient times and still is today for patriarchs to name cites, districts or lands after themselves or their posterity, and this was true of both pre-flood and post-flood generations.

Even the land of the Ammonites who are the children of Lot can be found in North Africa as can be seen in this map, and this is by no means the end of the story.

The ‘righteous’ branch of the Adamic tribe had been commanded by God over successive generations not to descend the holy mountain and mingle their seed with that of the children of Cain, but Satan had persistently thought up inventive ways to entice them down from the mountain and place them outside the protection of God. It was during the leadership of Jared that the Adamic tribe who remained upon the mountain were finally enticed to descend and intermarry with the sons of Cain and these were the generations who lived before the flood, and of which only the family of Noah was preserved.

https://hubpages.com/education/Seth-son-of-Adam-Found-in-West-Africa

13118025_533961450143906_2103046991_n

2017-07-31-20-26-46--1897204905

a123a1b1061a1d164533fb2536ea04c4--history-facts-black-people

images-99

f485019d21adb780e4ca916a50e0ddbc--no-religion-judah

1897-educated-african-jewish-man-is-conceptually-confusing-to-americans

Negroland

A 1729 map titled: “NEGROLAND and GUINEA. with the European settlements, Explaining what belongs to England, Holland, Denmark &c.” By Herman MollGeographer.

Negroland or Nigritia,[1] was an archaic term in European mapping, describing the inland and thinly explored region in West Africa as an area populated with Negro people.

This area comprised at least the western part of the region called Sudan (not to be confused with the modern country). The term is probably a direct translation of the Arabic term Bilad al-Sudan meaning “Land of the Blacks“, corresponding to about the same area. There were various kinds of people in the area, including the Jews of Bilad el-Sudan. Some of the greatest states of those considered part of Negroland were the Bornu Empire and the Sokoto Caliphate.

“Negroland” represented the area between the region of Guinea and the “Zaara Desart”, the Sahara Desert. “Guinea”, not to be confused with the modern country, then referred to the south-facing coast of West Africa and the land stretching upriver from there. Herman Moll‘s 1727 map labels these “Grain Coast“, “Slave Coast“, and “Gold Coast“. “Negroland” was the territory to the north of this, along the east–west axis of the Niger River, and the west-facing coast. Moll’s map labels Gambia, Senegal, Mandinga, and many other territories.

In 1823, approximately the same area was described as “Nigritia” on an American map published by Fielding Lucas, Jr

End

2017-07-31-20-26-57--950915893

The above quote shows that the people in West Africa and west of the Niger river were considered negro. Just review this statement again European mapping, describing the inland and thinly explored region in West Africa as an area populated with Negro people.” as per the Bible descriptions the map makers also identified that these people were of a different tribe to the Africans. The Negroes were not called African.

images-240

So now we have identified that the Negroes were black but not African.

jmaireslaves

Check out the below detailed map of Negroland.

ethiopia-old-1

28ZIMMER-master768images-110cecil-le-fleur

  

19429787_151016155443725_6068104023818681178_n

See this for the Bantu Hebrew Israelite expansion. https://nasiresearch.org/2015/02/07/the-bantu-branch-of-africans-are-hebrew-israelites-part-i-of-ii/

19260625_470866543267098_8360050740707925671_n

9989267

5966651

Now let’s turn to the Bible to see what it states.

Throughout the Bible the Israelites constantly rebelled against the Most High by disobeying his Commandments. In the book of Dabarym (Deuteronomy) Moses forewarned the Israelites of the punishments that would befall them if they did not observe His commandments.

 

maxresdefault-2

See this video for a full documentary  https://youtu.be/kR2DRq37cmE

Part of that punishment was the Israelites would be scattered throughout the different parts of the Earth.

 In Deuteronomy 28:64 the Bible says this:

‘And Yah shall scatter thee among all people, from one end of the earth even unto the other…’

ASSYRIA

In 721 B.C. Shalmanesser, the King of Assyria conquered the Ten Northern Tribes. They were deported out of the land of Yahsharal (Y’Israel) and into the land of Assyria. In II Kings 18: 11-12 it says this:

‘And the king of Assyria did carry away Y’Israel unto Assyria, and put them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. Because they obeyed not the voice of Yah, but transgressed his covenant, and all that Moses the servant of Yah commanded, and would not hear nor do them’
                                      
BABYLON

In 586 B.C. approximately 200 years later, the same fate happened to the three Southern Tribes when Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, destroyed Yahrushalayim (Jerusalem) and the Temple and led thousands of Israelites into captivity in Babylon.

 

PERSIANS

After serving captivity for 70 years in Babylon the Persian King Darius conquered the Babylonians and allowed a remnant of Israelites to return and rebuild the kingdom.
 
GREEKS

In the year 331 B.C. Alexander the Great conquered the Persians. The Greeks became the next world power. After Alexander’s death, his kingdom was divided. Around 176 BC Antiochus came against Israel and destroyed it. The city was burned down and the women and children were taken captive. He also wrote a decree to his entire kingdom that people should abandon their practices and adopt the customs of the Greeks. All people should be one.  During this time the Maccabbean revolt took place against the Greeks and in the year 165 B.C. the Greek empire fell to the Romans.

ROMANS

The Romans persecuted the Israelites just as the Greeks, forbidding them from circumcising their boys, observing the Shabat (Sabbath) and reading the Bible. In MathathYahu (Matthew) 24:15-16 and Luke 21:20, Yahusha (Messiyah) foretold the destruction of the Temple and the overthrowing of Yahrushalayim (Jerusalem) by the Roman armies:

964cc07f1df2959323c988ce7e1ce954.jpg

‘When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whosoever readeth, let him understand). Then let them which are in Judea flee into the mountains.’

This destruction of the Temple and the dispersion of the Israelites took place in 70 A.D. as Yahusha (Messiyah) had prophesied.

In Luke 21:24, Yahusha (Messiyah) also says this:
‘And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led captive unto all nations: and Yahrushalayim (Jerusalem) shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the time of the Gentiles be fulfilled.’

AFRICA

In his book ‘From Babylon to Timbuktu’ Rudolf R Windsor gives an account of this scattering of the Israelites:

‘In the year 65 B.C. the Roman armies under General Pompey captured Jerusalem. In 70 A.D. General Vespasian and his son, Titus put an end to the Jewish state, with great slaughter. During the period of the military governors of Palestine, many outrages and atrocities were committed against the residue of the people. During the period of Pompey to Julius, it has been estimated that over 1,000,000 Jews (Israelites) fled into Africa, fleeing from Roman persecution and slavery. The slave markets were full of black Jewish slaves.’

Millions of Israelites who escaped the persecution of the Roman-Jewish War fled into the interiors of Africa. In his book ‘Jewish Roots in Africa,’ Mr Litchtblau, speaking of the Israelites that ran into Africa, says this:

‘Pressed under sweeping regional conflicts, Jews settled as traders and warriors in Yemen, the Horn of Africa, Egypt, the kingdom of Kush and Nubia, North African Punic settlements (Carthage and Velubilis), and areas now covered by Mauritania. More migrants followed these early Jewish settlers to Northern Africa…’

Rudolf R Windsor in his book ‘Babylon to Timbuktu points out:

‘The black Jews who migrated to the Sudan from the North converged with the Jews migrating from the eastern Sudan to the countries of the Niger River…There is much proof, and still much more to be revealed by scholars, that there existed prior to the slave trade and subsequent to it many tribes, colonies, and kingdoms in West Africa’. pg 120

1600 years later their descendants were rounded up and captured by African and Arab slave traders and sold to the Europeans, fulfilling the curses that were written in Deuteronomy the 28th chapter. Rudolf R Windsor in his book ‘From Babylon to Timbuktu’ goes on further to explain on pg 132:

‘As persecuted communities, they were rather more in danger than other Negroes of being raided by war-parties and sold as slaves…’

images-281

FORETELLING BY MOSES

Moses forewarned the Children of Yahsharal (Y’ Israel) of the curses that would befall them if they did not follow the commandments of Yah. In Deuteronomy 28:15 it says this:

‘And it shall come to pass, if thou shalt not harken (listen) unto the voice of Yah thy Elohim to observe to do all his commandments and his statutes which I command thee this day that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee.’

The particular curses that would befall the Children of Yahsharal (YIsrael) for not keeping the commandments of Yah is that they would be transported into this final captivity in ships and that the places where they would be transported they would be sold as slaves to their enemies. In Deuteronomy 28:68 it says this:

‘And Yah shall bring thee into Egypt (slavery) again (a second time) with ships (Cargo Slave Ships), by the way of whereof I spake unto thee, thou shalt see it no more again: and there ye shall be sold unto your enemies for bondmen (slave men) and bondwomen, (slave women) and no man shall buy you’.
This is the missing link between the Hebrew Israelites and the Transatlantic Slave Trade. It explains how the Israelites fled into the interiors of Africa as refugees after the destruction of Yahrushalayim (Jerusalem) by the Romans in 70 AD. They were rounded up on the African continent and shipped all over the western hemisphere to be sold as slaves. This is the history that has been omitted from the pages of history.

The fact the Hebrew Israelites were rounded up in Benin, West Africa which was the location of the Door of No Return and the Transatlantic Slave Trade, which was then renamed Whydah, Ouidah, Juidah, Adjuda is proof positive of that fact.

https://plus.google.com/116503641390679788982/posts/L1C6cJJ3CXx

images-184

See also http://israelitishworldwide.blogspot.co.uk/2014/03/there-are-plenty-of-jewish-roots-in_26.html

Yahushua-logo

images-310

There are claims Jesus name should be along the lines of Yahusha Yahoshua Yeshua, YAHUSHUA as it stems from Joshua. A good point I read online was if Adam and Eve’s name never changed isn’t it fair to say that The Almighty name will have remained the same and The Messiah or Mashiach’s name also? Even if some have tried to hide it or make it “Obsolete for Ba’al, ie God, Lord. Lord is a title and we know people worshipped many gods.

Watch this person breakdown what he believes is The Saviours name https://youtu.be/yAwQPAS7u4U

 

name-yahuah

 

2017-07-04-22-14-40--1822859864

images-168

See also The Migration of Judah

And click the linked in link to rid yourself of doubt once you visit the page below there will be no room for doubt.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/research-concerning-negroes-being-hebrew-israelites-nick

I will be constantly updating this post with new information so feel free to check back on it every once in a while. For now my latest find and something to help on the spirtual path see my below links. I have downloaded free copies of the Aramaic to English Bible and Ethiopian Ge’ez to English Bible for free online. Unfortunately they can’t be uploaded. If you search online you can find free books pdfs and handouts to help you on your spiritual journey.

Down load a free copy of The 1917 Tanakh The Jewish bible here to do further research this is not my preferred translation of the Bible but since the current Jews don’t want to let people into the community we have to find our own sources of their information to analyse it and see if there is any truth there. In my opinion the Tanakh has been polluted also and includes a lot of rituals.  I am a learner and not a teacher so although I have been studying the Bible for years I am still at the beginning of my journey. I am recording my evidence and if you believe in The Almighty then you will be aware that we must declare and stick to the truth. It is my goal to compare the ancient biblical books and uncontaminate my worship of The most High YAHUAH as much as is physically possible in this world, with my limited understanding. I think when we start calling our selves teachers and Prophets we run the risk of thinking we know everything. My aim is to be like the child who does not hold on to the past and is willing to learn.

 https://jps.org/download-the-tanakh-1917-translation/

and the hebraicRootsBible

From-Babylon-To-Timbuktu-by-Rudolph-R-Windsor

Paeleo Hebrew

Peace = Shalam

Holy Spirit = Qadash Rawach

Messiah = Yashiya

Father = Ahayah = Abba

AHAYAH BAHASHAM YASHIYA WA RAWACH – means Our Father name is AHAYAH – in the name of is BAHASHAM – his Son name is YASHIYA – WA is and – RAWACH is the HOLY SPIRIT.

http://ahayahyashiyaphoenicianpaleohebrew.blogspot.com/p/home.html

 http://www.thehebrewcafe.com/forum/forumdisplay.php?fid=61

matt1-21-name

yah-names

YAHUAH= Father (The almighty) YHUH

YAHUSHA= YHUH saves

YAHUDAH= Judah Kingdom tribe of Judah

 

51efaa24b766cb7c7783f8c0c7028a8b--zephaniah--holy-spirit

174515_orig

The hebrew bible states WE would be deceived into replacing YHWH YAHUAH for Ba’al Lord God.

2017-08-02-18-21-49-87196904images-2832017-08-02-18-21-54--1460485575

2017-08-02-18-21-13--700985291

2017-08-02-18-21-36-1795966829

namesalvyah

images-255

images-314

2017-07-04-22-32-24-1809478145

images-310

8738062

images-117

False+Gregorian+Days+of+the+Week3

 

94ce2ce040669d8770552a03704bb72f

images-8

 

18951154_1521691897874271_116842954223937291_n19225129_344183066001544_8066769802971939399_n19105704_344182159334968_3398912225758991204_n

19274985_344182162668301_5165655752138756137_n

I think it’s important to add that online there are so many different teachings that it’s important to make up your own mind. A lot of people who claim Hebrew Israelites status are preaching and showing anger to other tribes. Whether we fall into this Hebrew israelite category or not we are no different to any other human in the sense that we were created by The Almighty. As I do my research I find myself filtering out some of the things that do not ring true for me. Getting stuck on who the real Hebrews are is a deploy that keeps us from walking with who brought us forth into this place we call earth. With a world filled with crime and hate where we focus on who is different, buying into the labels does the same thing. That being said if your history has been tainted corrupted and manipulated then you will have a desire to know who your people were at the time. We will be judged on whether we have a clean heart and whether we did good things whilst worshipping The Almighty. As I always say where man has had his hand expect some form of corruption or biase. Continue your own research for each man will be judged on his own merit. A point to consider if you are religious is those people that are deaf blind maime who cannot read a book, do you believe the Creator would leave them out? For me it’s not about the book you pick up but about your actions.

See also  The History of Ouidah aka Juda, Judea Judah Whydah 

http://ministerfortson.com/true-identity-israel-eye-opening-journey/

http://sarabe3.tripod.com/israeliteimages.html

Is Yeshua Hamashiach the proper Hebrew name/title for Jesus Christ?

 

611989

2017-06-28-18-41-35--1838742726

2017-06-28-18-40-32--9727607

AHAYAH ASHER AHAYAH = I AM THAT I AM

images-127

bc1c558e7826484e06214f33fedb40a7--alone-time-happy-sabbath

2017-06-28-15-49-08--1370100288

images-184

images-99

Thank you for reading this post

 

Analysing trans-atlantic DNA results

statsplus

tast-ghana-vs-liberia-salone-timeperiodtast-ghana-vs-liberia-salone

The details have been taken from https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/ancestrydna/african-american-results/comment-page-1/#comment-1044

High “Ivory Coast/Ghana” 

Judging from the few African results i’ve seen this category is very predictive of both Ghanaian (Ga) and Ivorian (Akan) origins. However in addition also Liberian and (southern) Sierra Leonean ancestry is being described by this region. Making the distinction at this stage cannot be done yet, unless other ancestral clues exist.

***AAGHA1

***

High “Cameroon/Congo”

This region is somewhat ambigious as it might suggest either origins from Congo/Central Africa or from Cameroon/southeast Nigeria. The first result is from someone who’s from South Carolina. Given the strongly documented presence of Congolese people in that state it seems tempting to assume that in this case Central African ancestry is being picked up on.

***

AACON1

***

AncestryDNA results for 2 Nigerians (both Igbo)

***(click to enlarge)

Igbo (Anambra)

***(click to enlarge)

Igbo On1

Eventhough this person’s breakdown is quite diverse, the “Ivory Coast/Ghana” score is still very noticeable and in fact it is the highest i’ve observed among my sample group. Aside from signalling origins from Ghana this region might also be suggestive of origins further west from Liberia and even Sierra Leone. All of these 3 ancestral options being quite likely for South Carolina i suppose.

***

AASC1

***

High “Nigeria”

As discussed above this region might represent the relatively least diluted African lineages among my sample group. Because it is the only region for which i have observed original percentages of above 50%. Plus when calculated as a ratio of total African ancestry, it is the only region to show scores of inbetween 60-70% of total African ancestry. Of course because of individual variation it is also very much possible that other people will score much lower amounts of “Nigeria” or even zero percent 😉

***

AANIG1

***

AANIG2

***

AANIG3

Check these links for more background info, references and maps:

https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/ancestrydna/african-american-results/comment-page-1/#comment-1044

Transatlantic journey from West Africa to beyond

%d bloggers like this: