Tag Archives: Ancient Egypt

The Negro by W.E.B. Du Bois


The Negro, by W.E.B. Du Bois, [1915], at sacred-texts.com


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The below article is from http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/dbn/dbn05.htm

It only looks at Egypt Ethiopia and Sudan and information on Negroland can be found by doing a search on the Hebrew Israelites or Transatlantic slave trade on this blog.

III    ETHIOPIA AND EGYPT

The valleys of the Nile and of the Congo, the borders of the great Gulf of Guinea, the Sudan, and South Africa. These divisions do not cover all of Negro Africa, but they take in the main areas and the main lines in development.

First, we turn to the valley of the Nile, perhaps the most ancient of known seats of civilization in the world, and certainly the oldest in Africa, with a culture reaching back six or eight thousand years. Like all civilizations it drew largely from without and undoubtedly arose in the valley of the Nile, because that valley was so easily made a center for the meeting of men of all types and from all parts of the world. At the same time Egyptian civilization seems to have been African in its beginnings and in its main line of development, despite strong influences from all parts of Asia. Of what race, then, were the Egyptians? They certainly were not white in any sense of the modern use of that word–neither in color nor physical measurement, in hair nor countenance, in language nor social customs. They stood in relationship nearest the Negro race in earliest times, and then gradually through the infiltration of Mediterranean and Semitic elements became what would be described in America as a light mulatto stock of Octoroons or Quadroons. This stock was varied continually: now by new infiltration of Negro blood from the south, now by Negroid and Semitic blood from the east, now by Berber types from the north and west.

Egyptian monuments show distinctly Negro and mulatto faces. Herodotus, in an incontrovertible passage, alludes to the Egyptians as “black and curly-haired” 1–a peculiarly significant statement from

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one used to the brunette Mediterranean type; in another passage, concerning the fable of the Dodonian Oracle, he again alludes to the swarthy color of the Egyptians as exceedingly dark and even black. Æschylus, mentioning a boat seen from the shore, declares that its crew are Egyptians, because of their black complexions.

Modern measurements, with all their admitted limitations, show that in the Thebaid from one-seventh to one-third of the Egyptian population were Negroes, and that of the predynastic Egyptians less than half could be classed as non-Negroid. Judging from measurements in the tombs of nobles as late as the eighteenth dynasty, Negroes form at least one-sixth of the higher class. 1

Such measurements are by no means conclusive, but they are apt to be under rather than over statements of the prevalence of Negro blood. Head measurements of Negro Americans would probably place most of them in the category of whites. The evidence of language also connects Egypt with Africa and the Negro race rather than with Asia, while religious ceremonies and social customs all go to strengthen this evidence.

The ethnic history of Northeast Africa would seem, therefore, to have been this: predynastic Egypt was settled by Negroes from Ethiopia. They were of varied type: the broad-nosed, woolly-haired type to which the word “Negro” is sometimes confined; the black, curly-haired, sharper featured type, which must be considered an equally Negroid variation. These Negroes met and mingled with the invading Mediterranean race from North Africa and Asia. Thus the blood of the sallower race spread south and that of the darker race north. Black priests appear in Crete three thousand years before Christ, and Arabia is to this day thoroughly permeated with Negro blood. Perhaps, as Chamberlain says, “one of the prime reasons why no civilization of the type of that of the Nile arose in other parts of the continent, if such a thing were at all possible, was that Egypt acted as a sort of channel by which the genius of Negro-land was drafted off into the service of Mediterranean and Asiatic culture.” 2

To one familiar with the striking and beautiful types arising from the mingling of Negro with Latin and Germanic types in America, the puzzle of the Egyptian type is easily solved. It was unlike any of its neighbors and a unique type until one views the modern mulatto; then the faces of Rahotep and Nefert, of Khafra and Amenemhat I,

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of Aahmes and Nefertari, and even of the great Ramessu II, become curiously familiar.

The history of Egypt is a science in itself. Before the reign of the first recorded king, five thousand years or more before Christ, there had already existed in Egypt a culture and art arising by long evolution from the days of paleolithic man, among a distinctly Negroid people. About 4777 B.C. Aha-Mena began the first of three successive Egyptian empires. This lasted two thousand years, with many Pharaohs, like Khafra of the Fourth Dynasty, of a strongly Negroid cast of countenance.

At the end of the period the empire fell apart into Egyptian and Ethiopian halves, and a silence of three centuries ensued. It is quite possible that an incursion of conquering black men from the south poured over the land in these years and dotted Egypt in the next centuries with monuments on which the full-blooded Negro type is strongly and triumphantly impressed. The great Sphinx at Gizeh, so familiar to all the world, the Sphinxes of Tanis, the statue from the Fayum, the statue of the Esquiline at Rome, and the Colossi of Bubastis all represent black, full-blooded Negroes and are described by Petrie as “having high cheek bones, flat checks, both in one plane, a massive nose, firm projecting lips, and thick hair, with an austere and almost savage expression of power.” 1

Blyden, the great modern black leader of West Africa, said of the Sphinx at Gizeh: “Her features are decidedly of the African or Negro type, with ‘expanded nostrils.’ If, then, the Sphinx was placed here–looking out in majestic and mysterious silence over the empty plain where once stood the great city of Memphis in all its pride and glory, as an ’emblematic representation of the king’–is not the inference clear as to the peculiar type or race to which that king belonged?” 2

The middle empire arose 3064 B.C. and lasted nearly twenty-four centuries. Under Pharaohs whose Negro descent is plainly evident, like Amenemhat I and III and Usertesen I, the ancient glories of Egypt were restored and surpassed. At the same time there is strong continuous pressure from the wild and unruly Negro tribes of the upper Nile valley, and we get some idea of the fear which they inspired throughout Egypt when we read of the great national rejoicing which followed the triumph of Usertesen III (c. 2660-22) over

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these hordes. He drove them back and attempted to confine them to the edge of the Nubian Desert above the Second Cataract. Hemmed in here, they set up a state about this time and founded Nepata.

Notwithstanding this repulse of black men, less than one hundred years later a full-blooded Negro from the south, Ra Nehesi, was seated on the throne of the Pharaohs and was called “The king’s eldest son.” This may mean that an incursion from the far south had placed a black conqueror on the throne. At any rate, the whole empire was in some way shaken, and two hundred years later the invasion of the Hyksos began. The domination of Hyksos kings who may have been Negroids from Asia 1 lasted for five hundred years.

The redemption of Egypt from these barbarians came from Upper Egypt, led by the mulatto Aahmes. He founded in 1703 B.C. the new empire, which lasted fifteen hundred years. His queen, Nefertari, “the most venerated figure of Egyptian history,” 2 was a Negress of great beauty, strong personality, and of unusual administrative force. She was for many years joint ruler with her son, Amenhotep I, who succeeded his father. 3

The new empire was a period of foreign conquest and internal splendor and finally of religious dispute and overthrow. Syria was conquered in these reigns and Asiatic civilization and influences poured in upon Egypt. The great Tahutmes, III, whose reign was “one of the grandest and most eventful in Egyptian history,” 4 had a strong Negroid countenance, as had also Queen Hatshepsut, who sent the celebrated expedition to reopen ancient trade with the Hottentots of Punt. A new strain of Negro blood came to the royal line through Queen Mutemua about 1420 B.C., whose son, Amenhotep III, built a great temple at Luqsor and the Colossi at Memnon.

The whole of the period in a sense culminated in the great Ramessu II, the oppressor of the Hebrews, who with his Egyptian, Libyan, and Negro armies fought half the world. His reign, however, was the beginning of decline, and foes began to press Egypt from the white north and the black south. The priests transferred their power at Thebes, while the Assyrians under Nimrod overran

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[paragraph continues]Lower Egypt. The center of interest is now transferred to Ethiopia, and we pass to the more shadowy history of that land.

The most perfect example of Egyptian poetry left to us is a celebration of the prowess of Usertesen III in confining the turbulent Negro tribes to the territory below the Second Cataract of the Nile. The Egyptians called this territory Kush, and in the farthest confines of Kush lay Punt, the cradle of their race. To the ancient Mediterranean world Ethiopia (i.e., the Land of the Black-faced) was a region of gods and fairies. Zeus and Poseidon feasted each year among the “blameless Ethiopians,” and Black Memnon, King of Ethiopia, was one of the greatest of heroes.

“The Ethiopians conceive themselves,” says Diodorus Siculus (Lib. III), “to be of greater antiquity than any other nation; and it is probable that, born under the sun’s path, its warmth may have ripened them earlier than other men. They suppose themselves also to be the inventors of divine worship, of festivals, of solemn assemblies, of sacrifices, and every religious practice. They affirm that the Egyptians are one of their colonies.”

The Egyptians themselves, in later days, affirmed that they and their civilization came from the south and from the black tribes of Punt, and certainly “at the earliest period in which human remains have been recovered Egypt and Lower Nubia appear to have formed culturally and racially one land.” 1

The forging ahead of Egypt in culture was mainly from economic causes. Ethiopia, living in a much poorer land with limited agricultural facilities, held to the old arts and customs, and at the same time lost the best elements of its population to Egypt, absorbing meantime the oncoming and wilder Negro tribes from the south and west. Under the old empire, therefore, Ethiopia remained in comparative poverty, except as some of its tribes invaded Egypt with their handicrafts.

As soon as the civilization below the Second Cataract reached a height noticeably above that of Ethiopia, there was continued effort to protect that civilization against the incursion of barbarians. Hundreds of campaigns through thousands of years repeatedly subdued or checked the blacks and brought them in as captives to mingle their blood with the Egyptian nation; but the Egyptian frontier was not advanced.

A separate and independent Ethiopian culture finally began to

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arise during the middle empire of Egypt and centered at Nepata and Meroe. Widespread trade in gold, ivory, precious stones, skins, wood, and works of handicraft arose. 1 The Negro began to figure as the great trader of Egypt.

This new wealth of Ethiopia excited the cupidity of the Pharaohs and led to aggression and larger intercourse, until at last, when the dread Hyksos appeared, Ethiopia became both a physical and cultural refuge for conquered Egypt. The legitimate Pharaohs moved to Thebes, nearer the boundaries of Ethiopia, and from here, under Negroid rulers, Lower Egypt was redeemed.

The ensuing new empire witnessed the gradual incorporation of Ethiopia into Egypt, although the darker kingdom continued to resist. Both mulatto Pharaohs, Aahmes and Amenhotep I, sent expeditions into Ethiopia, and in the latter’s day sons of the reigning Pharaoh began to assume the title of “Royal Son of Kush” in some such way as the son of the King of England becomes the Prince of Wales.

Trade relations were renewed with Punt under circumstances which lead us to place that land in the region of the African lakes. The Sudanese tribes were aroused by these and other incursions, until the revolts became formidable in the fourteenth century before Christ.

Egyptian culture, however, gradually conquered Ethiopia where her armies could not, and Egyptian religion and civil rule began to center in the darker kingdom. When, therefore, Shesheng I, the Libyan, usurped the throne of the Pharaohs in the tenth century B.C., the Egyptian legitimate dynasty went to Nepata as king priests and established a theocratic monarchy. Gathering strength, the Ethiopian kingdom under this dynasty expanded north about 750 B.C. and for a century ruled all Egypt.

The first king, Pankhy, was Egyptian bred and not noticeably Negroid, but his successors showed more and more evidence of Negro blood–Kashta the Kushite, Shabaka, Tarharqa, and Tanutamen. During the century of Ethiopian rule a royal son was appointed to rule Egypt, just as formerly a royal Egyptian had ruled Kush. In many ways this Ethiopian kingdom showed its Negro peculiarities: first, in its worship of distinctly Sudanese gods; secondly, in the rigid custom of female succession in the kingdom, and thirdly, by the election of kings from the various royal claimants to the throne. “It

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was the heyday of the Negro. For the greater part of the century. . . . Egypt itself was subject to the blacks, just as in the new empire the Sudan had been subject to Egypt.” 1

Egypt now began to fall into the hands of Asia and was conquered first by the Assyrians and then by the Persians, but the Ethiopian kings kept their independence. Aspeluta, whose mother and sister are represented as full-blooded Negroes, ruled from 630 to 600 B.C. Horsiatef (560-525 B.C.) made nine expeditions against the warlike tribes south of Meroe, and his successor, Nastosenen (525-500 B.C.) was the one who repelled Cambyses. He also removed the capital from Nepata to Meroe, although Nepata continued to be the religious capital and the Ethiopian kings were still crowned on its golden throne.

From the fifth to the second century B.C. we find the wild Sudanese tribes pressing in from the west and Greek culture penetrating from the east. King Arg-Amen (Ergamenes) showed strong Greek influences and at the same time began to employ the Ethiopian speech in writing and used a new Ethiopian alphabet.

While the Ethiopian kings were still crowned at Nepata, Meroe gradually became the real capital and supported at one time four thousand artisans and two hundred thousand soldiers. It was here that the famous Candaces reigned as queens. Pliny tells us that one Candace of the time of Nero had had forty-four predecessors on the throne, while another Candace figures in the New Testament. 2

It was probably this latter Candace who warred against Rome at the time of Augustus and received unusual consideration from her formidable foe. The prestige of Ethiopia at this time was considerable throughout the world. Pseudo-Callisthenes tells an evidently fabulous story of the visit of Alexander the Great to Candace, Queen of Meroe, which nevertheless illustrates her fame: Candace will not let him enter Ethiopia and says he is not to scorn her people because they are black, for they are whiter in soul than his white folk. She sent him gold, maidens, parrots, sphinxes, and a crown of emeralds and pearls. She ruled eighty tribes, who were ready to punish those who attacked her.

The Romans continued to have so much trouble with their Ethiopian frontier that finally, when Semitic mulattoes appeared in the east, the Emperor Diocletian invited the wild Sudanese tribe of

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[paragraph continues]Nubians (Nobadæ) from the west to repel them. These Nubians eventually embraced Christianity, and northern Ethiopia came to be known in time as Nubia.

The Semitic mulattoes from the east came from the highlands bordering the Red Sea and Asia. On both sides of this sea Negro blood is strongly in evidence, predominant in Africa and influential in Asia. Ludolphus, writing in the seventeenth century, says that the Abyssinians “are generally black, which [color] they most admire.” Trade and war united the two shores, and merchants have passed to and fro for thirty centuries.

In this way Arabian, Jewish, Egyptian, Greek, and Roman influences spread slowly upon the Negro foundation. Early legendary history declares that a queen, Maqueda, or Nikaula of Sheba, a state of Central Abyssinia, visited Solomon in 1050 B.C. and had her son Menelik educated in Jerusalem. This was the supposed beginning of the Axumite kingdom, the capital of which, Axume, was a flourishing center of trade. Ptolemy Evergetes and his successors did much to open Abyssinia to the world, but most of the population of that day was nomadic. In the fourth century Byzantine influences began to be felt, and in 330 St. Athanasius of Alexandria consecrated Fromentius as Bishop of Ethiopia. He tutored the heir to the Abyssinian kingdom and began its gradual christianization. By the early part of the sixth century Abyssinia was trading with India and Byzantium and was so far recognized as a Christian country that the Emperor Justinian appealed to King Kaleb to protect the Christians in southwestern Arabia. Kaleb conquered Yemen in 525 and held it fifty years.

Eventually a Jewish princess, Judith, usurped the Axumite throne; the Abyssinians were expelled from Arabia, and a long period begins when as Gibbon says, “encompassed by the enemies of their religion, the Ethiopians slept for nearly a thousand years, forgetful of the world by whom they were forgotten.” Throughout the middle ages, however, the legend of a great Christian kingdom hidden away in Africa persisted, and the search for Prester John became one of the world quests.

It was the expanding power of Abyssinia that led Rome to call in the Nubians from the western desert. The Nubians had formed a strong league of tribes, and as the ancient kingdom of Ethiopia declined they drove back the Abyssinians, who had already established themselves at Meroe.

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In the sixth century the Nubians were converted to Christianity by a Byzantine priest, and they immediately began to develop. A new capital, Dongola, replaced Nepata and Meroe, and by the twelfth century churches and brick dwellings had appeared. As the Mohammedan flood pressed up the Nile valley it was the Nubians that held it back for two centuries.

Farther south other wild tribes pushed out of the Sudan and began a similar development. Chief among these were the Fung, who fixed their capital at Senaar, at the junction of the White and Blue Nile. When the Mohammedan flood finally passed over Nubia, the Fung diverted it by declaring themselves Moslems. This left the Fung as the dominant power in the fifteenth century from the Three Cataracts to Fazogli and from the Red Sea at Suakin to the White Nile. Islam then swept on south in a great circle, skirted the Great Lakes, and then curled back to Somaliland, completely isolating Abyssinia.

Between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries the Egyptian Sudan became a congeries of Mohammedan kingdoms with Arab, mulatto, and Negro kings. Far to the west, near Lake Chad, arose in 1520 the sultanate of Baghirmi, which reached its highest power in the seventh century. This dynasty was overthrown by the Negroid Mabas, who established Wadai to the eastward about 1640. South of Wadai lay the heathen and cannibals of the Congo valley, against which Islam never prevailed. East of Wadai and nearer the Nile lay the kindred state of Darfur, a Nubian nation whose sultans reigned over two hundred years and which reached great prosperity in the early seventeenth century under Soliman Solon.

Before the Mohammedan power reached Abyssinia the Portuguese pioneers had entered the country from the east and begun to open the country again to European knowledge. Without doubt, in the centuries of silence, a civilization of some height had flourished in Abyssinia, but all authentic records were destroyed by fire in the tenth century. When the Portuguese came, the older Axumite kingdom had fallen and had been succeeded by a number of petty states.

The Sudanese kingdoms of the Sudan resisted the power of the Mameluke beys in Egypt, and later the power of the Turks until the nineteenth century, when the Sudan was made nominally a part of Egypt. Continuous upheaval, war, and conquest had by this time done their work, and little of ancient Ethiopian culture survived except the slave trade.

The entrance of England into Egypt, after the building of the

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Suez Canal, stirred up eventually revolt in the Sudan, for political, economic, and religious reasons. Led by a Sudanese Negro, Mohammed Ahmad, who claimed to be the Messiah (Mahdi), the Sudan arose in revolt in 1881, determined to resist a hated religion, foreign rule, and interference with their chief commerce, the trade in slaves. The Sudan was soon aflame, and the able mulatto general, Osman Digna, aided by revolt among the heathen Dinka, drove Egypt and England out of the Sudan for sixteen years. It was not until 1898 that England reëntered the Sudan and in petty revenge desecrated the bones of the brave, even if misguided, prophet.

Meantime this Mahdist revolt had delayed England’s designs on Abyssinia, and the Italians, replacing her, attempted a protectorate. Menelik of Shoa, one of the smaller kingdoms of Abyssinia, was a shrewd man of predominantly Negro blood, and had been induced to make a treaty with the Italians after King John had been killed by the Mahdists. The exact terms of the treaty were disputed, but undoubtedly the Italians tried by this means to reduce Menelik to vassalage. Menelik stoutly resisted, and at the great battle of Adua, one of the decisive battles of the modern world, the Abyssinians on March 1, 1896, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Italians, killing four thousand of them and capturing two thousand prisoners. The empress, Taitou, a full-blooded Negress, led some of the charges. By this battle Abyssinia became independent.

Such in vague and general outline is the strange story of the valley of the Nile–of Egypt, the motherland of human culture

End

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IV    THE NIGER AND ISLAM

The Arabian expression “Bilad es Sudan” (Land of the Blacks) was applied to the whole region south of the Sahara, from the Atlantic to the Nile. It is a territory some thirty-five hundred miles by six hundred miles, containing two million square miles, and has to-day a population of perhaps eighty million. It is thus two-thirds the size of the United States and quite as thickly settled. In the western Sudan the Niger plays the same role as the Nile in the east. In this chapter we follow the history of the Niger.

The history of this part of Africa was probably something as follows: primitive man, entering Africa from Arabia, found the Great Lakes, spread in the Nile valley, and wandered westward to the Niger. Herodotus tells of certain youths who penetrated the desert to the Niger and found there a city of black dwarfs. Succeeding migrations of Negroes and Negroids pushed the dwarfs gradually into the inhospitable forests and occupied the Sudan, pushing on to the Atlantic. Here the newcomers, curling northward, met the Mediterranean race coming down across the western desert, while to the southward the Negro came to the Gulf of Guinea and the thick forests of the Congo valley. Indigenous civilizations arose on the west coast in Yoruba and Benin, and contact of these with the Mediterranean race in the desert, and with Egyptian and Arab from the east, gave rise to centers of Negro culture in the Sudan at Ghana and Melle and in Songhay, Nupe, the Hausa states, and Bornu.

The history of the Sudan thus leads us back again to Ethiopia, that strange and ancient center of world civilization whose inhabitants in the ancient world were considered to be the most pious and the oldest of men. From this center the black originators of African culture, and to a large degree of world culture, wandered not simply down the Nile, but also westward. These Negroes developed the

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original substratum of culture which later influences modified but never displaced.

We know that Egyptian Pharaohs in several cases ventured into the western Sudan and that Egyptian influences are distinctly traceable, Greek and Byzantine culture and Phœnician and Carthaginian trade also penetrated, while Islam finally made this whole land her own. Behind all these influences, however, stood from the first an indigenous Negro culture. The stone figures of Sherbro, the megaliths of Gambia, the art and industry of the west coast are all too deep and original evidences of civilization to be merely importations from abroad.

Nor was the Sudan the inert recipient of foreign influence when it came. According to credible legend, the “Great King” at Byzantium imported glass, tin, silver, bronze, cut stones, and other treasure from the Sudan. Embassies were sent and states like Nupe recognized the suzerainty of the Byzantine emperor. The people of Nupe especially were filled with pride when the Byzantine people learned certain kinds of work in bronze and glass from them, and this intercourse was only interrupted by the Mohammedan conquest.

To this ancient culture, modified somewhat by Byzantine and Christian influences, came Islam. It approached from the northwest, coming stealthily and slowly and being banded on particularly by the Mandingo Negroes. About 1000-1200 A.D. the situation was this: Ghana was on the edge of the desert in the north, Mandingoland between the Niger and the Senegal in the south and the western Sahara, Djolof was in the west on the Senegal, and the Songhay on the Niger in the center. The Mohammedans came chiefly as traders and found a trade already established. Here and there in the great cities were districts set aside for these new merchants, and the Mohammedans gave frequent evidence of their respect for these black nations.

Islam did not found new states, but modified and united Negro states already ancient; it did not initiate new commerce, but developed a widespread trade already established. It is, as Frobenius says, “easily proved from chronicles written in Arabic that Islam was only effective in fact as a fertilizer and stimulant. The essential point is the resuscitative and invigorative concentration of Negro power in the service of a new era and a Moslem propaganda, as well as the reaction thereby produced.” 1

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Early in the eighth century Islam had conquered North Africa and converted the Berbers. Aided by black soldiers, the Moslems crossed into Spain; in the following century Berber and Arab armies crossed the west end of the Sahara and came to Negroland. Later in the eleventh century Arabs penetrated the Sudan and Central Africa from the east, filtering through the Negro tribes of Darfur, Kanem, and neighboring regions. The Arabs were too nearly akin to Negroes to draw an absolute color line. Antar, one of the great pre-Islamic poets of Arabia, was the son of a black woman, and one of the great poets at the court of Haroun al Raschid was black. In the twelfth century a learned Negro poet resided at Seville, and Sidjilmessa, the last town in Lower Morocco toward the desert, was founded in 757 by a Negro who ruled over the Berber inhabitants. Indeed, many towns in the Sudan and the desert were thus ruled, and felt no incongruity in this arrangement. They say, to be sure, that the Moors destroyed Audhoghast because it paid tribute to the black town of Ghana, but this was because the town was heathen and not because it was black. On the other hand, there is a story that a Berber king overthrew one of the cities of the Sudan and all the black women committed suicide, being too proud to allow themselves to fall into the hands of white men.

In the west the Moslems first came into touch with the Negro kingdom of Ghana. Here large quantities of gold were gathered in early days, and we have names of seventy-four rulers before 300 A.D. running through twenty-one generations. This would take us back approximately a thousand years to 700 B.C., or about the time that Pharaoh Necho of Egypt sent out the Phœnician expedition which circumnavigated Africa, and possibly before the time when Hanno, the Carthaginian, explored the west coast of Africa.

By the middle of the eleventh century Ghana was the principal kingdom in the western Sudan. Already the town had a native and a Mussulman quarter, and was built of wood and stone with surrounding gardens. The king had an army of two hundred thousand and the wealth of the country was great. A century later the king had become Mohammedan in faith and had a palace with sculptures and glass windows. The great reason for this development was the desert trade. Gold, skins, ivory, kola nuts, gums, honey, wheat, and cotton were exported, and the whole Mediterranean coast traded in the Sudan. Other and lesser black kingdoms like Tekrou, Silla, and Masina surrounded Ghana.

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In the early part of the thirteenth century the prestige of Ghana began to fall before the rising Mandingan kingdom to the west. Melle, as it was called, was founded in 1235 and formed an open door for Moslem and Moorish traders. The new kingdom, helped by its expanding trade, began to grow, and Islam slowly surrounded the older Negro culture west, north, and east. However, a great mass of the older heathen culture, pushing itself upward from the Guinea coast, stood firmly against Islam down to the nineteenth century.

Steadily Mohammedanism triumphed in the growing states which almost encircled the protagonists of ancient Atlantic culture. Mandingan Melle eventually supplanted Ghana in prestige and power after Ghana had been overthrown by the heathen Su Su from the south.

The territory of Melle lay southeast of Ghana and some five hundred miles north of the Gulf of Guinea. Its kings were known by the title of Mansa, and from the middle of the thirteenth century to the middle of the fourteenth the Mellestine, as its dominion was called, was the leading power in the land of the blacks. Its greatest king, Mari Jalak (Mansa Musa), made his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324, with a caravan of sixty thousand persons, including twelve thousand young slaves gowned in figured cotton and Persian silk. He took eighty camel loads of gold dust (worth about five million dollars) to defray his expenses, and greatly impressed the people of the East with his magnificence.

On his return he found that Timbuktu had been sacked by the Mossi, but he rebuilt the town and filled the new mosque with learned blacks from the University of Fez. Mansa Musa reigned twenty-five years and “was distinguished by his ability and by the holiness of his life. The justice of his administration was such that the memory of it still lives.” 1 The Mellestine preserved its preëminence until the beginning of the sixteenth century, when the rod of Sudanese empire passed to Songhay, the largest and most famous of the black empires.

The known history of Songhay covers a thousand years and three dynasties and centers in the great bend of the Niger. There were thirty kings of the First Dynasty, reigning from 700 to 1335. During the reign of one of these the Songhay kingdom became the vassal kingdom of Melle, then at the height of its glory. In addition to this the Mossi crossed the valley, plundered Timbuktu in 1339, and

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separated Jenne, the original seat of the Songhay, from the main empire. The sixteenth king was converted to Mohammedanism in 1009, and after that all the Songhay princes were Mohammedans. Mansa Musa took two young Songhay princes to the court of Melle to be educated in 1326. These boys when grown ran away and founded a new dynasty in Songhay, that of the Sonnis, in 1355. Seventeen of these kings reigned, the last and greatest being Sonni Ali, who ascended the throne in 1464. Melle was at this time declining, other cities like Jenne, with its seven thousand villages, were rising, and the Tuaregs (Berbers with Negro blood) had captured Timbuktu.

Sonni Ali was a soldier and began his career with the conquest of Timbuktu in 1469. He also succeeded in capturing Jenne and attacked the Mossi and other enemies on all sides. Finally he concentrated his forces for the destruction of Melle and subdued nearly the whole empire on the west bend of the Niger. In summing up Sonni Ali’s military career the chronicle says of him, “He surpassed all his predecessors in the numbers and valor of his soldiery. His conquests were many and his renown extended from the rising to the setting of the sun. If it is the will of God, he will be long spoken of.” 1

Sonni Ali was a Songhay Negro whose father was a Berber. He was succeeded by a full-blooded black, Mohammed Abou Bekr, who had been his prime minister. Mohammed was bailed as “Askia” (usurper) and is best known as Mohammed Askia. He was strictly orthodox where Ali was rather a scoffer, and an organizer where Ali was a warrior. On his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1495 there was nothing of the barbaric splendor of Mansa Musa, but a brilliant group of scholars and holy men with a small escort of fifteen hundred soldiers and nine hundred thousand dollars in gold. He stopped and consulted with scholars and politicians and studied matters of taxation, weights and measures, trade, religious tolerance, and manners. In Cairo, where he was invested by the reigning caliph of Egypt, he may have heard of the struggle of Europe for the trade of the Indies, and perhaps of the parceling of the new world between Portugal and Spain. He returned to the Sudan in 1497, instituted a standing army of slaves, undertook a holy war against the indomitable Mossi, and finally marched against the Hausa. He subdued these cities and even imposed the rule of black men on the Berber town of Agades,

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a rich city of merchants and artificers with stately mansions. In fine Askia, during his reign, conquered and consolidated an empire two thousand miles long by one thousand wide at its greatest diameters; a territory as large as all Europe. The territory was divided into four vice royalties, and the system of Melle, with its semi-independent native dynasties, was carried out. His empire extended from the Atlantic to Lake Chad and from the salt mines of Tegazza and the town of Augila in the north to the 10th degree of north latitude toward the south.

It was a six months’ journey across the empire and, it is said, “he was obeyed with as much docility on the farthest limits of the empire as he was in his own palace, and there reigned everywhere great plenty and absolute peace.” 1 The University of Sankore became a center of learning in correspondence with Egypt and North Africa and had a swarm of black Sudanese students. Law, literature, grammar, geography and surgery were studied. Askia the Great reigned thirty-six years and his dynasty continued on the throne until after the Moorish conquest in 1591.

Meanwhile, to the eastward, two powerful states appeared. They never disputed the military supremacy of Songhay, but their industrial development was marvelous. The Hausa states were formed by seven original cities, of which Kano was the oldest and Katsena the most famous. Their greatest leaders, Mohammed Rimpa and Ahmadu Kesoke, arose in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. The land was subject to the Songhay, but the cities became industrious centers of smelting, weaving, and dyeing. Katsena especially, in the middle of the sixteenth century, is described as a place thirteen or fourteen miles in circumference, divided into quarters for strangers, for visitors from various other states, and for the different trades and industries, as saddlers, shoemakers, dyers, etc.

Beyond the Hausa states and bordering on Lake Chad was Bornu. The people of Bornu had a large infiltration of Berber blood, but were predominantly Negro. Berber mulattoes had been kings in early days, but they were soon replaced by black men. Under the early kings, who can be traced back to the third century, these people had ruled nearly all the territory between the Nile and Lake Chad. The country was known as Kanem, and the pagan dynasty of Dugu reigned there from the middle of the ninth to the end of the eleventh century. Mohammedanism was introduced from Egypt

p. 33

at the end of the eleventh century, and under the Mohammedan kings Kanem became one of the first powers of the Sudan. By the end of the twelfth century the armies of Kanem were very powerful and its rulers were known as “Kings of Kanem and Lords of Bornu.” In the thirteenth century the kings even dared to invade the southern country down toward the valley of the Congo.

Meantime great things were happening in the world beyond the desert, the ocean, and the Nile. Arabian Mohammedanism had succumbed to the wild fanaticism of the Seljukian Turks. These new conquerors were not only firmly planted at the gates of Vienna, but had swept the shores of the Mediterranean and sent all Europe scouring the seas for their lost trade connections with the riches of India. Religious zeal, fear of conquest, and commercial greed inflamed Europe against the Mohammedan and led to the discovery of a new world, the riches of which poured first on Spain. Oppression of the Moors followed, and in 1502 they were driven back into Africa, despoiled and humbled. Here the Spaniards followed and harassed them and here the Turks, fighting the Christians, captured the Mediterranean ports and cut the Moors off permanently from Europe. In the slow years that followed, huddled in Northwest Africa, they became a decadent people and finally cast their eyes toward Negroland.

The Moors in Morocco had come to look upon the Sudan as a gold mine, and knew that the Sudan was especially dependent upon salt. In 1545 Morocco claimed the principal salt mines at Tegazza, but the reigning Askia refused to recognize the claim.

When the Sultan Elmansour came to the throne of Morocco, he increased the efficiency of his army by supplying it with fire arms and cannon. Elmansour determined to attack the Sudan and sent four hundred men under Pasha Djouder, who left Morocco in 1590. The Songhay, with their bows and arrows, were helpless against powder and shot, and they were defeated at Tenkadibou April 12, 1591, Askia Ishak, the king, offered terms, and Djouder Pasha referred them to Morocco. The sultan, angry with his general’s delay, deposed him and sent another, who crushed and treacherously murdered the king and set up a puppet. Thereafter there were two Askias, one under the Moors at Timbuktu and one who maintained himself in the Hausa states, which the Moors could not subdue. Anarchy reigned in Songhay. The Moors tried to put down disorder with a high hand, drove out and murdered the distinguished men of

p. 34

[paragraph continues]Timbuktu, and as a result let loose a riot of robbery and decadence throughout the Sudan. Pasha now succeeded Pasha with revolt and misrule until in 1612 the soldiers elected their own Pasha and deliberately shut themselves up in the Sudan by cutting off approach from the north.

Hausaland and Bornu were still open to Turkish and Mohammedan influence from the east, and the Gulf of Guinea to the slave trade from the south, but the face of the finest Negro civilization the modern world had ever produced was veiled from Europe and given to the defilement of wild Moorish soldiers. In 1623 it is written “excesses of every kind are now committed unchecked by the soldiery,” and “the country is profoundly convulsed and oppressed.” 1 The Tuaregs marched down from the desert and deprived the Moors of many of the principal towns. The rest of the empire of the Songhay was by the end of the eighteenth century divided among separate Moorish chiefs, who bought supplies from the Negro peasantry and were “at once the vainest, proudest, and perhaps the most bigoted, ferocious, and intolerant of all the nations of the south.” 2 They lived a nomadic life, plundering the Negroes. To such depths did the mighty Songhay fall.

As the Songhay declined a new power arose in the nineteenth century, the Fula. The Fula, who vary in race from Berber mulattoes to full-blooded Negroes, may be the result of a westward migration of some people like the “Leukoæthiopi” of Pliny, or they may have arisen from the migration of Berber mulattoes in the western oases, driven south by Romans and Arabs.

These wandering herdsmen lived on the Senegal River and the ocean in very early times and were not heard of until the nineteenth century. By this time they had changed to a Negro or dark mulatto people and lived scattered in small communities between the Atlantic and Darfur. They were without political union or national sentiment, but were all Mohammedans. Then came a sudden change, and led by a religious fanatic, these despised and persecuted people became masters of the central Sudan. They were the ones who at last broke down that great wedge of resisting Atlantic culture, after it had been undermined and disintegrated by the American slave trade.

Thus Islam finally triumphed in the Sudan and the ancient culture

p. 35

combined with the new. In the Sudan to-day one may find evidences of the union of two classes of people. The representatives of the older civilization dwell as peasants in small communities, carrying on industries and speaking a large number of different languages. With them or above them is the ruling Mohammedan caste, speaking four main languages: Mandingo, Hausa, Fula, and Arabic. These latter form the state builders. Negro blood predominates among both classes, but naturally there is more Berber blood among the Mohammedan invaders.

Europe during the middle ages had some knowledge of these movements in the Sudan and Africa. Melle and Songhay appear on medieval maps. In literature we have many allusions: the mulatto king, Feirifis, was one of Wolfram von Eschenbach’s heroes; Prester John furnished endless lore; Othello, the warrior, and the black king represented by medieval art as among the three wise men, and the various black Virgin Marys’ all show legendary knowledge of what African civilization was at that time doing.

It is a curious commentary on modern prejudice that most of this splendid history of civilization and uplift is unknown to-day, and men confidently assert that Negroes have no history.

http://www.sacred-texts.coFuu/afr/dbn/dbn06.htm

End

See also

Overview of Sudan 

From-Babylon-To-Timbuktu-by-Rudolph-R-Windsor

The Migration of Judah

Egyptians, E-thi-o’-pi-ans, Nubians and Hebrews are the Same Ethnic People: NILE VALLEY: North Africa / Sahara / Horn of Africa and West Asia..

Dr Yosef Ben Yochannan – Black America & Black Indian African Orgins

MA’AT (Truth and Justice), The Spirituality of the African race.   The Bible is a creation of man.

 3 January 2013 | Feature Article
59

Except for the Africans, every race or tribe in the world has its own spirituality and religions. The Jews have kabbalism, Indians Hinduism and Buddhism, Chinese Confucianism, Caucasians Christianity with their own son as the son of God; Arabs Islam with their son as Allah’s messenger. Africans are the only race in the world besotted to their masters’ Gods and yet Africans invented spirituality and religions. This document is a very important one and is for your own good. As a book, it would cost you money to acquire but we are sending it to you free of charge. Do not abuse the gesture, treat the document with respect. If you cannot read all of the document at once because of time constrains, file it to read later to arm yourself well for the future. Every African receiving documents from me is free to post them on their timeline and send copies to everyone they can reach via e-mails, through blogs, other internet groups, sites or newspapers to publish as a means of informing every African alive and mobilizing us into one family.

African ancestors created spirituality and religion with the launch of the Mystery system, 6,112 years ago. They created over 2000 Gods and Goddesses, the first such in the world, with twelve principal deities that included God Ausar, Goddess Auset, Goddess Ma’at and God Heru, the later being the first human Son of God in history. Ethiopians known as Chaldeans, after colonizing what later became Mesopotamia 6,012 years ago, fashioned the Persian religion from the Mystery System. The religion passed through several phases including Albigensianism as its last relic before resurfacing as Zoroastrianism about 2500 years ago. Ethiopians known now in India as the Dravidians, invaded India between 3250 and 2750 BCE, to establish a civilization in the Indus Valley (see Pears Cyclopaedia, Pelham Books), and give India, Hinduism, which combines elements of their beliefs: the caste system, circumcision, magic, witchcraft, with the influence of the Osirian Mystery System. Hindus are polytheists who worshipped a number of nature-gods, including the cow.

Moses, a Nubian and the incestuous child of Pharaoh Seti I and his daughter, Bathia, adopted Akhnatons’ monotheistic version of the Mystery System to give the Hebrews Kabbalah as they migrated in 1230 BCE, after 400 years sojourn in Egypt, in search of their ‘Promised’ land. Prince Siddhartha Gautama, known as Buddha, a Dravidian, was born around 563 BCE among the Sakya people in Kapilavatthu now Lumini in the lowland Terai region of Nepal, dominated then by the Dravidian (Ethiopian) population. His features, including his thick lips, confirm his Dravidian origin. He gave India Buddhism.

Master K’ung or K’ung-fu-tzu (Latinized as Confucius) was Black. He was born around 551 BCE in the feudal state of Lu, in today’s Shantung province of China. He was trying to improve his people’s way of life by reforming their feudal leadership. He preached that destiny was the synonym of Nature and that Nature decides ones class in life. Prayer is unhelpful in this regard but destiny once received could willfully be prevailed upon for wider choices. He discouraged (witchcraft human sacrifice), prevalent in China at the time and advocated that spirits could be respected but kept at a distance because: “If you cannot serve man, how do you know to serve spirits.” He gave China, Confucianism.

Council of Nicaea (325 CE) created the Jesus Christ phantom. Dr. Martyn Percy, the famous canon expert once wrote and I quote: “The Bible did not arrive by fax from heaven.” The Bible is a creation of man. Man, not God, writes history, and history is always from the perspective of the conqueror, not the conquered. It is the elite, the most powerful in society, that defines the society’s reality, and that is exactly what Constantine did after subduing African influence in the world. In Emperor Constantine’s days, the official Roman religion was Sun worship, (i.e. the African Egyptian cult of Sol Invictus or the Invincible Sun). They called it the Jovian Mystery System and Constantine was the Chief priest.

During the reign of Constantine, and over three hundred years after the alleged crucifixion of Jesus, the Christian population had grown to the extent of posing serious threat to the unity of Rome. The Christians were constantly warring with the Pagans and threatening to tear Rome apart. Constantine, a smart opportunist, decided to tinker with both religions to create a monster one. Constantine converted his Sun God worshippers to Christianity by creating an amalgam, a hybrid, a fusion of ‘Pagan’s’ symbols, dates, rituals, and ideas, into the growing Pagan-Christian traditions of the time, to produce something that compromised and overwhelmed both parties. Constantine produced a sacred entity outside the scope of the human world whose power was therefore unchallengeable by mere mortals, and called it the Roman Catholic Church. To do this, he conveyed his 325 CE Council of Nicaea that produced the Nicaea creed.

The problem at the time, was whether Auset, (who was the Virgin Birth Mother in the ancient African Mystery System, imbibed by the Jovian Mystery, which was being adapted by the Church Bishops, should continue to take precedence over her son Heru, as in the ancient African myth). In the end, God Ausar, (re-named Yahweh), retained his double roles as the Holy Ghost (misunderstood by Christians as the universal ‘Spirit’), and as the human ‘God the Father’ in the African Mysteries, 4,425 years earlier, (who became the Christian Ghost Impregnator), of Mother Auset, re-named Mary, with Auset’s Virgin Son, Heru, (renamed Jesus).

In other words, “Holy” and “Virgin Birth,” were transferred to Jesus and Mary, from Heru and Auset. Jesus became born in Bethlehem and acquired higher rank than his contrived mother. He was supposed to be her first child and to have been miraculously conceived. His foster-father was given the name Joseph, and the carpentry profession, to appeal to humility. The name ‘Christ,’ came from the Greek translation of Christos (meaning anointed), taken from the Hebrew title of Messiah. The Bishops at the Nicaea Council in 325 CE, decided that Jesus, who was supposed to have been baptized as, and called Emmanuel before the Conference, was born in Bethlehem in Judea. All these were happening some 325 years after the purported death of Jesus.

Constantine called and chaired the 325 CE, Nicaea Council, which had 219 Bishops in attendance. Many Bishops turned down Constantine’s invitation to the conference. All the issues raised at the Nicaea Council were debated and voted for, including the role of Bishops, the administration of sacraments, and the divinity of Jesus. The Bishops had several sittings at the Council to perfect their strategy in the guise of separating truth from heresy. The story of how Bishop Arius was commanded by the Bishop of Alexandria to quit his beliefs or be declared a heretic, and how Arius’ writing were ordered destroyed, is eloquent of many things that happened when the Christian religion was being formulated. Bishop Arius was beheaded for saying Christ is not God. Read the lost books of the Bible.

There is nothing divine about the Bible. Humans put it together under vicious acrimonious human circumstances. The Christo in you, as preached by Paul, was the Christian emphasis until the Nicaea Council in 325 CE. Christo was not supposed to be an historical person. The vote to make Jesus (Christo), Christ, divine, human/spirit, and the ‘only Son of God,’ was very dicey and close.

The following statement is taken verbatim from ‘The Encyclopaedia Britannica.’ “Constantine himself presided and actively guided the discussions. He personally proposed the crucial formula expressing the relation of Christ to God in the creed issued by the council as of one substance with the Father … .Overawed by the emperor, the bishops, with two exceptions only, signed the creed, many of them much against their inclination…….”

This is the most important creed in Christendom. It was proposed by the Emperor, to the consternation of many of the bishops in attendance. But out of fear not to offend the Emperor, all but two of the Bishops signed the creed. Today, the Church claims that Jesus is some special breed of God, and that the Bible is some divinely inspired document. Jesus’ divinity was critical because if the Pagan God Heru, was divine and the only ‘Son of God,’ the new amalgam could not afford to be less so, as a means of unifying the two warring Roman groups, and the Roman Empire.

The Kushite (Ethiopian) kabala, soaked in magic and the knowledge of the stars, set the tone for the Islamic religion in Persia, 1000 years before Islam. The Persian (Sabaean) version revered the Venus-Sun-Moon and prayed to the sun at different phases of its course. They had no idols or images and no priesthood. They directed their prayers to the seven planets; had 30 days fasting as in Egypt; prayed seven times each day, with their faces turned towards the north, and the prayers taking place during the same phases daily. They believed in a future life and deified their dead ancestors. Zenzen, a sacred spring, Kaaba, a sacred stone, constructed by Ishmael, son of Abraham and Hagar (the Egyptian Black woman), the historical ancestors of all Arabs and Muhammad, and pilgrimage to Mecca as in Moslem times, already existed over one thousand years before the birth of Muhammad in 570 CE. Abdulai Kabiru, known worldwide as Prophet Muhammad, adopted the Kushian religion and reduced the prayers in Islam to compulsory five, to relieve humanity, making the other two prayers optional.

Religion is perhaps the most potent binding force possible. In fact, there is no other binding force as potent and total. It encompasses a people’s outlook, traditions, culture and philosophy of life. The food we eat and how we prepare it, our manner of dressing, the names we bear, the way we speak or rear our children and our attitudes to life generally are controlled by our spiritually influenced cultures and traditions. But because of public persecution and the mental and psychological damage we have suffered as a result of slavery and colonialism, we are ashamed to flaunt what is ours. We hide our native essence behind the ‘popular’ alien ones.

Every conquering religion claims superiority over those before it and that life began with its advent. Without destroying what is on the ground there is no space for the new religion to begin to breathe and expand. After 2,000 years of Christianity and 1,500 years of Islam, they remain the minority religions of the world compared with their older spiritual movements in Asia and China. Christianity and Islam draw a significant chunk of their membership from conquered people, especially from Blacks. So, they are religions of coercion rather than of freewill, and that makes them even less spiritual.

We as a group are the most bastardized of people on earth by foreign religions and ideas. Our masters’ baby religions take away our human essence, values and worth, by insisting that our native attributes are evil, primitive, and irrelevant. If we marry in our traditional way, it is barbaric and uncivilized. Our burial rites are savage and ungodly. Our history began with our enslavement and colonization, and our IQ is lower than that of the Chimpanzee. So we openly throw away our African traditions to aspire to the benefits of our masters’ ‘superior’ ways of life. We bleach, hot-comb our hair, answer our oppressors’ names, and aspire to speak, think, and dress like them. Now we are neither White nor Black. If anything, we are half Arab or White and half Black, and we are confused because we cannot progress as a people until we decide who we want to be. And if we choose to become fully Arab or Caucasian, are we acceptable to them? We cannot pull ourselves out of our pains through foreign religions that disrespect our humanity, contributions, and largely treat us as lower than wild animals. To move up, we must demolish what is holding us down. That is why the truth about spirituality is being exposed now and through Africa, the cradle from where life, spirituality and religions began.

For every race or group of people, there must be a guide, a spiritual rallying point, a centre of gravity that holds its children together before it can begin to impact on civilization. We as a people desperately need a common spirituality, a code of ethics and discipline. Unfortunately, our ancestors’ belief systems were usurped, doctored, and cannibalized by other racial groups to suppress and enslave us en-mass. We must re-claim and re-Africanize our long lost, or hidden from us spiritual body of ideas, to suit our purpose and empower and fruitfully propel our collective dreams.

African people must gradually lead the world back to its original glorious path of virtuous civilization terminated abruptly some three thousand five hundred years ago by Yahweh, and two thousand years ago by the West taking their cue from Yahweh. We must return to Ma’at. We must bring back the Ausarian (coined from Ausar) principle of world development, which is the original and ultimate form of civilization. This is democracy based on the tripod principles of African communalism, with Ma’at as the binding force. All African dominated governments of the world are to adopt the Ausarian concept of government. Political parties based on the Ausarian concepts are to be formed to take over their national governments from their current Setian (coined from Set or Seth or Satan), control. All Africans, must stop serving the usurping extraterrestrial deity that has declared war on them, and return to Ma’at for their salvation.

Within a sea of evil, an oasis of good can be created that can steadily grow in concentric circles to eventually and totally overwhelm the evil. The speed at which the concentric circles grow would depend on the dedication of members and the strength of their spirituality. It might make slow progress initially because of possible opposition from the oppressive status quo. It will eventually develop its own momentum and speed that cannot be reversed by anyone from within or without.

We are Africans and we are poised to take back our inheritance as human origin, to repair, guide and lead the world aright with Ma’at. Whether in Africa or the Diaspora, we are a special breed of people. Our ancestors created all the original religious myths that rule the world today. They pioneered civilization and we are proud of them all. The blood of Ausar, Auset, Imhotep, Chaka, Nzingha, Nehenda, Prempeh, Toure, Hannibal, L’overture, Truth, Douglas, Shadd, Tubman, Kuzwayo, Marcus Garvey, DuBois, Azikiwe, Nkrumah, Kenyatta, C.L.R. James, Padmore, Albertina, Martin Luther King, Malcolm X and Mandela runs in our veins.

Religions are deceit instruments through indoctrination for mass exploitation. Spirituality is individual spiritual relationship with the inner self and the universal mind. There is no deity or messiah to worship in spirituality and Ma’at is the mother of spirituality and the source from which all other spiritual veneer branched out in tribal directions: Buddhism, Confucianism. Spirituality nurtures gradually at peculiar one-on-one pace, because while we are all potential gods in our own rights, and masters of our individual fates, we each have responsibility for the well-being of others. Religions and faiths create dichotomy between ‘Gods’ and humans to foster the master or select elite syndrome, to numb followers, to raise a loyal tribe of mindless servants, useful as idiots.

Spirituality works for good and evil as with other sciences, but when used for good only, it is called Ma’at. That was what gave the world, Egypt and her scintillating civilization. Ma’at is the mother of universal spirituality; the most potent spirituality in the world; the highest level of science for humans; the ultimate cosmology; the repository of comprehensive knowledge of the cosmos, and therefore of humanity and creation. Ma’at is an open friendly cosmology, founded on respect for observable truth and logic. The deity of the supreme cosmology is justice, honesty and truth. Ma’at is preoccupied with truth, justice, scholarship and honesty. It is the microcosm of the best of the entire African spiritual firmament and its focus is science and verifiable logic. In other words, members worship intellect and scholarship.

We venerate the pursuit of knowledge and scholarship and we love all of humankind and nature. Because of our love of knowledge, we are the ultimate authority on the alchemic process that can transform our brains into the philosophers’ stone. Human brains are capable of much more than we think. It is an electrically powered and electricity-generating organ, composed of an estimated one hundred billion neurons. Each neuron produces and transmits electrical impulses which travel from the cell body down long fibers called axons to reach a junction, or synapse, with another neuron. At the junction point, the electrical impulses or the fire chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters, cross the synaptic gap to receptors on the next cell. Having received the message, that neuron then generates its own electrical impulse and sends it to other neurons to which it is connected.

Each neuron can be connected to thousands of other neurons, each simultaneously sending and receiving impulses to and from thousands of other neurons–so one neuron can electrically alter millions of other neurons. Studies have shown that ascension can happen in one of two ways, evolutionarily or spiritually. Ascension occurs when a human evolves the ability to use about ninety percent of his or her brain capacity. The ancients who ascended naturally reached this point without the aid of technology. They developed the DNA resequencer, a device capable of making humans so advanced that they could perform telepathy and telekinesis; use superhuman precognition and senses at phenomenal speed and strength; achieve perfect health, the gift to self-heal rapidly and the power to heal by touch; and the ability to use many parts of their mind to fully focus on something. Spiritual ascension can occur through meditation when one is pure of spirit and in the search for enlightenment and has a fully opened mind, and has shed one’s fears and attachment to the mortal world. In the process of ascension through meditation, many beings obtain the same supernatural abilities that users of the DNA resequencer receive.

Developing spiritually in Ma’at, is based on the principles of alchemy, which was created by our ancestors for the development of the human race. The spirit world is enveloped in electromagnetism that connects with our spirit doubles and other realities. Universal laws govern the realities, and man is capable of transcending all of them. That is what spiritual evolution is about. It is the knowledge of these subtle realities, and how to harness them for spiritual advancement based on Thoth’s laws, that ancient Africans chiseled into the fine art (that marries spirituality with science), used largely today by the Jews and some elite secret societies, and which has given us nanotechnology, such as the Internet.

Our ancestors taught that spiritual development or progress is possible in degrees through disciplined intellect, adoption of ethical principles and balance in one’s life. That one needs to allow disciplined subtle forces, to dominate ones physical essence. The secret knowledge the adepts taught, was about the mastery of these subtle forces progressively to achieve higher consciousness. Initiates, through purity of thoughts and actions, meditation, service to humanity, and spiritual discipline, became perfect in the act. Aggregate spiritual energy source then gradually, fully occupies their forms individually, for their astral journeys to their cosmic destination. There is therefore a clean spiritual-cum-scientific way to grow spiritually without getting involved in diabolical witchcraft. How to acquire the power of the spirits and the forces wholesomely and decently is one of the most highly guarded spiritual secrets in the world.

The system is called alchemy, and it was created by an African teacher described by ancient Africans as the “Thrice Greatest:” the greatest of all philosophers, the greatest of all priests, the greatest of all kings. His African names included: “Thoth,” “Tehuti,” and “Theuth.” The West knows him as “Hermes Trismegistus.” He was the world’s first “Adept” or “Master.” The system of alchemy is the only known way of genuine spiritual development, and is through the transmutation of the spirit. The Book of Thoth, written in hieroglyphic symbols, provides the key to the mysteries and how to acquire power of the spirits and other forces. Thoth, the father of alchemy, taught that everything (animal or vegetable), is composed of one common element or matter. That, the motivating principle or active agent of matter, in the evolutionary process, is spirit. That, this active agent or spirit, could be released to achieve transmutation. That transmutation or the ripening of matter is a common phenomenon to all things, leading ultimately to perfection of prime matter in all things, in unity with the kingdom and purpose of Tu-SoS. That, the ripening process, could be speeded up, through the imitation of nature in the laboratory. That when the perfect metal of nature is achieved, a perfect philosophic, (body), gold, or receptacle, is required to contain the released spirit. That this done, further transmutations are possible through the agency of the philosophic gold or the philosopher’s stone, and the rigorous imitation of nature.

Every living entity is composed of the four elements, (Fire, Water, Air, and Earth), in unison. Each element in turn consists of two qualities as follows: Fire (dryness and heat), Water (moistness and coldness), Air (heat and moistness), Earth (moistness and dryness). An element may change into another by substituting one quality for another. For example, if coldness is replaced with heat in water, it changes into air (vapour). In the same way, transmutation is possible in the human stone through images symbolic of death such as torturing, killing, separating etc. Prime matter is possible only by the reduction of each element to its essence and combined with other refined elements, to reach the chaotic state of original matter i.e., Genesis. This seed of things could then be treated in a warm vessel or womb of resurrection of what had been killed. By freeing and purifying one’s own spirit, a reciprocal event occurs in nature, but this could not be done without first creating the philosopher’s stone. This is the fifth element, which is the Prime matter of the world, the Fiat, the Word, the pneumatic Logos, the Spirit of Tu-SoS.

Tu-SoS and Man cannot be united except through a perfect medium of body. There are twelve stages in the alchemic work; each symbolized by a house of zodiac. Before embarking on the process, one must first bring order into his life. You must be a perfectly virtuous being, thinking no evil and doing no evil, to be able to achieve the benefits of the process. Nigredo symbolizes the death stage. This is the stage when matter being worked on is killed and when basic form is broken down to free the spirit contained in it. This usually is the most difficult aspect of the alchemist’s work. Alchemists describe this stage as a descent into hell, a period of great doubts when the subject could go mad and even also commit suicide. Very few people go beyond this stage and no one has a blue print on how to survive it. All anyone can hope for is to resort to prayers and leave everything to blind fate. This stage is symbolized by torture, amputation, dissolution, and calcinations, by burning waters, decapitation, wounding, flaying, drowning, starvation, separation, and grinding. To achieve all these, one must be separated completely from material comfort, be alone even in a crowd, helpless, hopeless, deprived, and starved silly.

The Albedo is often referred to as the dawn state. This is the stage when one is stepping out of the darkness of nigredo; a time of washing and cleansing of the impurities. The stage represents transition from base lead to silver and is often represented by a feminine figure such as the moon or nature. It is associated with the symbol of rebirth. While nigredo represents a moment of spiritual death, albedo represents a moment of baptism but the sun has not yet made an appearance. The Rubedo is the period of totally new awareness. This stage is marked by symbols of royalty and domination signaling the birth of the philosopher’s stone.

Alchemy, a divine art, has been laced with severe secrecy from day one. Thoth taught the art mainly to the sons of kings. Thoth’s alchemy produced the long stream of African leaders, seers and priests, who pioneered learning and civilization for mankind. The science is, in modern times, associated with magic, mysteries, astrology and chemistry. Francis Bacon believed in the philosopher’s stone, which could turn base matter into gold, and in an elixir of life, to give eternal youth. Modern researches into radioactivity confirm the possibility of transmutation of certain elements. To permanently conceal African contributions, the art was labeled Paganism by the elite who stole the science to use it to control the world. They have benefited immensely from it over the years; particularly through their elite Thoth inspired secret societies that now collectively dominate aspects of the original techniques. When the creators of the art play at it, the usurpers call them Pagans to discourage mass involvement, while secretly appropriating the secret to ensure their permanent stranglehold on the rest of humanity, and particularly the authors of the art.

All ancient African Gods, including Ammon, Tehuti, Ausar, Auset, Heru and others have been assigned a number of creative projects to supervise and nurture to success. One-week of every month for seven months ‘Festival of the Gods’ would take place annually in honour of the relevant African Gods at the Menephtheion, to bring together the leading artistes, scholars and entrepreneurs from around the world in the following disciplines:

Fashion/Cosmetics/Hairdressing and styles Painting/Sculpting/Crafts

Poetry/Writing
Film/Theatre/Video
Music
Dance/Comedy
Spiritual (incorporating the annual pilgrimage) 
The Menephtheion (meaning): the mind and heart of the African world, co-ordinates the thinking, focus and actions of the entire African race. The Menephtheion is the international headquarters of the Pan African Movement and the spiritual heartbeat of the African race. The Menephtheion, in fact, is to the African world, what the Vatican is to the Roman Catholic Church. All the leading thinkers of the African race, in or out of the citadels of learning are entitled to apply to come on the board of Muses through self and or third party recommendations and nominations. Send your resume and previously (published or not) original piece of writing or research work in any field of knowledge, aimed at solving any of our problems uniquely, and moving us forward collectively as a race. The board of Muses of the African race meets once a year to review the Black Agenda and scrupulously vet applications received, and those admitted into the board are honoured at a special annual ceremony and become entitled to use the title: Muse of the Menephtheion (mm. letters after name), or ‘Muse’ before name, and to participate at the annual Congress of Muses of the African race.

Our pre-occupation in Ma’at is to raise members’ self-help efforts to an art through individual involvement, intellect and unity. Our ambition is individual membership involvement and material and spiritual success. Our message is that no individual is alone; we are who we are because we are members of a family, community, society and race. There is no conceited economic baron or leader among us. No competition between members, only love and sharing of our pains and fortunes collectively and honestly. We love our ancestors because they gave us life. Our one name for our ancestors is Ausar. We love humanity because we are all from the same womb. Working patiently and diligently, we hope to use our collective goodwill, abundant physical energy, enthusiasm for hard work, our widow’s mite and love of goodness and truth to build a fortress of virtue and success. This in time would be a magnet on its own to install the ultimate New World Order of virtuous civilization.

Ma’at is not interested in the idle activities of waiting for the return of a Messiah or praying endlessly, which both imply attempts to avoid direct responsibly for one’s actions and self. It is strong on self-empowerment, enlightenment, enrichment, invocation, and the organization of often latent energy to enable the individual excel. It is not fetish but rational, philosophical, pragmatic, and is uncluttered with senseless restrictions. It is lively and boisterous in celebration of the purest essence of life. It is the binding cosmology of our race, and it is not negotiable because before we became Christians or Muslims etc, we were Black and African, and Ma’at represents this peculiar essence in all of us. It represents our souls as a unique people.

When people pray, for instance, it is not to God Yahweh, a White God that we pray, it is to our guardian spirits, or spirits created by us, or spirits that know us individually and care about us, such as of our dead parents, husbands, wives, siblings, children, and close relatives, that we pour out our hearts without knowing that that is what we are doing. They are the only ones whose listening devices or antennas are permanently tuned to us individually, and whose acute undivided attention is forever fixed on us. They are the only ones who take our prayers to heart because they know us intimately and care. They are the ones who try to help as best as possible, despite difficult physical barriers and constraints. They are the ones best positioned to come, and can come quickly to our aid, because they have a stake in our welfare and wellbeing. In some cases, they act out of guilt feeling of having left us abruptly, or so soon before fulfilling certain obligations and commitments owed us as parents, etc.

But when we dump our ancestors for alien ones, we render our saviours and protectors helpless and that is why our pains as a people seem to have no terminal point. Africans are the only race of people in the world worshipping other races’ Gods, Whites, Arabs and so on, and yet we moan endlessly that we are not making progress as a people. We are asking other people’s Gods to liberate us from their children and that is impossibility. Every parent fights to protect his or her own.

Individual spiritual activities. There is a physical and a spiritual nature to man. What tends to happen in real life is that we concentrate all our energies on fulfilling our physical to the detriment of our spiritual needs. In our quests for survival, we crave very hard for material things until such become insatiable and yet our lives remain dodged by all sorts of fear. The fear of losing our properties, loved ones, and of dying so soon, our selves.

We have material comfort and still we remain unfulfilled. Most religions (including Christianity and Islam), insist that we give up material quest for spiritual peace to reign. Even then, pains have refused to abate in the world. African spirituality believes that we can keep our wealth and be free from fear at the same time. That our spiritual and physical nature can be synchronized. That the synchronization requires conscious individual efforts that demand hard work in our chosen careers, unforced, clean, virtuous and wholesome spirit, fasting and healthy eating regime, abstinence from injurious life-threatening habits, and strong devotion to individual meditation. There is nothing mysterious about this. You must give your vocation your best shots at all times; you must be a good person at heart and in spirit; you must eat well and fast now and again, and you must meditate at a given time daily.

Meditate by your-self or with others. Meditation could be for ten, fifteen, thirty or more minutes, depending on the time you have, the complexity of the issues you are ruminating on, convenience, and your physical location at the time. You could meditate whether you are at home or the office or in a public place or in an aircraft, or moving vehicle, including public transport. If you are at home and can find the time, meditation could last for thirty minutes or more.

Choose a time of day or night that suits you best, preferably in the morning, or evening, or at night before going to bed. You should try to stick daily by whatever time you choose, because your spiritual twin would be waiting for you at the time and you can’t afford to keep the spirit waiting. Meditation is not a prayer session.

According to our deputy leader, Charles Roach, ‘prayers raise the mind up to a Supreme Being, outside of physical reality. Meditation taps on inner human forces. Both are therapeutic for the human spirit. Pan-Africa reflection is like preaching to our-selves. Our own inner voice or conscience shapes and informs our duties, obligations and actions. When we meditate, we are not petitioning anyone for anything; nor do we seek salvation through divine intercession. None but ourselves can bring us salvation. We therefore reflect on what we must do to save ourselves. We revisit the lives of our ancestors; we examine other cultures to discover what we can emulate. Meditation and reflection on the past glory and tribulations of our people, as well as pilgrimage to slave ports and transshipment centres, have a transfiguring effect on the individual.’

During meditation, sit if possible, quietly, effecting a relaxed, comfortable, pose. You should sit hassle-free, back erect, on the floor or on a cushion on the floor. It may or may not be a yogi pose since your comfort is paramount. Wear minimum clothing if you are not in public place because your pose or clothes must not cause you pain or distraction. If you cannot meditate sitting on the floor, relax on a chair or bed; close your eyes wherever you are and shut yourself off from the atmosphere around you for the duration of your meditation. You can do it without closing your eyes too, but it is easier to concentrate by blanking out surrounding physical distractions with eyes closed.

Spend the first few minutes, perhaps two to five minutes, quietly without saying a word or trying to think. Take a few deep soft breaths to ease your body. You need to be at peace with yourself, mentally, emotionally and physically. Listen to your heart beat. Let yourself, not just feel, but hear your own heart beat when silent. Then begin to psyche your sub-conscious being, (the deity) inside you. You can do this with others or alone by yourself even in a crowd, with unspoken or quiet spoken words, or murmurs, or you can remain quiet using thoughts only to meditate, accompanied with a tranquil sense of inner peace. You can do it totally with concentrated attention, drawing deeply into your inner self, demanding, psyching, focusing your spiritual half, to synchronize harmoniously with your physical half. There is no Messiah in meditation. If anything, you are your own Messiah, rallying and appropriating to yourself, all possible virtuous spiritual energies which aggregate the ancestral and divine powers of the universe, sometimes called the universal mind to which we all contribute and can partake of or share in.

At home, alone or with others, you can use deep thoughts alone for meditation, or you can combine deep thoughts with or without voice, to psyche your spirit self, demanding what needs to be done. Do this for as long as time permits. Tell your inner self, or the Great Deity inside you, what you want out of life. Detail how and when you want specific projects achieved. Ask for the health and welfare of your family, loved one’s, friends, anything legitimate, reasonable and objective. Be resolute, confident, trusting, assertive.

You must be clean in character, body, and thoughts, to achieve positive results. A thief or sinner would accumulate negative pay back. If you are a worthy person, demand what you want with authority, and confidence. Avoid merely adventurous thoughts. Concentrate and be articulate. After this, stay quiet for two to five minutes. Allow yourself to drift into a trance if you wish, by repeating a word or words concerning your most urgent requirements, or that capture/s your quest precisely and eloquently several times, at each session. You are psyching, and focusing, your spirit twin.

If you want something badly, concentrate on how to achieve it during meditation. Draw up detailed plan of action in your mind during daily meditation and keep refining this for one, two, three, four weeks or even a year or more. Be focused and resolute. Create positive images of fulfillment and identify with them. The length of time it takes to achieve your plans would depend on the hard work you devote to your plans, obstacles put in your way by others, and how spiritually clean you are. Keep quiet again for about two to five minutes to allow your spirit half absorb all you have said and done. If your eyes are closed while meditating, you may or may not need to switch your electric light off. If your electric light is off day or night, you may or may not need to light candle/s. The choice is yours and if you have to light a candle or candles, it could be scented or unscented. Some people meditate with soothing background music and some find this a distraction.

Fasting: Combine meditation with wet fasting for 1, 3 or 7 days, not every time, only during the period of your most urgent and critical quest. During fasting, eat only once in 24 hours. This we call wet fasting. Eat between the hours of 6.00 pm and 8.00 pm, and limit your main meal to not too oily food, which could be rice, beans potatoes, yam, plantains, and vegetables. Your food must not include meat but you can have fish. You can indulge in fasting longer but remember vegetarian diet alone cannot provide you with all the nutrients you need if you limit yourself too long to it. Our dry fasting means not eating in 24 hours. You can indulge in dry fasting for one day in a month, or one day in three months, unless your constitution can take more days. In both wet and dry fasting, you can drink all the water or fruit juices you need, at will. Thanksgiving (Sara): Do thanksgivings to end fasting quests, or once in a month or in three or six months, otherwise. Thanksgiving could be to your virtuous dead parents, patron ancestors, or the universal mind, of which you are part and from which you could draw inner spiritual strength. Sara could include giving of gifts or cash or cooked or uncooked food, to neighbours or total strangers or beggars on the streets. It could also be small gifts to schools or homes or institutions for the destitute. It could be a small get-together at home and is called ‘sara’ in Yoruba, Nigeria, language.

You give within your means and in replacement for what you would have spent on bad habits, such as smoking and alcohol indulgence. You can keep your reasons for the sara to yourself or share them with beneficiaries, (i.e., to thank my ancestors or to tap into virtuous universal energies for what is due to me not to be hindered, or to psyche positive energies around me to continue to work with my inner spiritual force, to strengthen my resolve and focus.

The simple steps listed here are enough to transform your life spiritually and as you become more adept at what you do, you will begin to hear your sub-conscious voice speak to you. Images and signs would begin to manifest in your dreams to sign post your direction. Your personality, intellect, self-discipline, and confidence, would begin to glow, and you would start to lose the fear of death, or any other fear. Turn your body into a clean temple (Cradle) of virtue and the world would be at your feet.

Everything you do counts, the kind of food you eat, your thoughts and actions all the time, your morality, your level of self-discipline and spirituality, all contribute to make you a great success in life. Be honest, open and accommodating, in your man, woman, relationships, and be the best brother or sister, there can be, to your loved ones, other Ma’ats and your friends and neighbours. As you develop spiritually you become immersed in the MA’AT principles of virtuous spirituality in preparation for higher callings in the Ma’at Cosmology.

If you follow our rather simple spiritual regime you would in no time lose all your fears and as you grow in Ma’at’s spirituality, and begin to acquire the power of the gods and a significant measure of control over your material and spiritual destiny. When one is called a member of the Ma’at family, it means the person is holistically focused, and is a strong pillar of strength in society. A Ma’at member is mentally stable and reliable; morally disciplined and upright, and is invariably a great family person. The Ma’at member is a lover of knowledge and an avid reader. Nothing is taboo to read to expand the member’s mind and spiritual horizon.

Group activities in Ma’at. Like kabbalism, Ma’at is a tightly knit family group, influential and directly or indirectly controlling a good chunk of local resources by virtue of hard work. Ma’at members therefore love hard work and hate being idle. They believe nothing comes easy so they put in everything they have, energy, brains and resources to excel. Members meeting place is called the ‘Ma’at,’ or ‘Mwanzo,’ or ‘Cradle,’ (or any other appropriate name in native dialect for the Cradle), just as the Church is to Christians. Members gather at the ‘Ma’at’ on a Sunday (the ancient African feast day), in a boisterous, lively, social gathering and co-operative society-like atmosphere. ‘Ma’at’ branches can add peculiar local flair and embellishments to their merry-making to capture strong community ethos. The gathering is called AFEFE (meaning, Ma’at wind that soothes and caresses), and is laced with happy revelry, suffused with drumming, singing and dancing.

A major event of the day is a lecture by a special guest of honour who may or may not be a member of Ma’at but who is knowledgeable, or is an expert in his field of lecture. The opportunity is used to invite scholars, important people in the community, government, or commerce, to educate the Ma’at members on the latest national issues and debates as they affect their well-being. Every lecture must leave the audience better informed and grateful for attending. A short question and answer session is encouraged after the speaker’s presentation.

After the lecture session, the congregation transforms into Mjane Msaada community empowerment parliament to set up projects, make levies, assign jobs and receive reports, on what have been accomplished. Mjane Msaada requires every member of the Ma’at branch to contribute an agreed levy weekly, (could be fifty, or a hundred or more units of the local currency), into a pool called Mjane Msaada, which the Ma’at branch builds up to finance projects. Members’ contributions are compulsory. So, why pay tithes, thanksgiving, etc., to enrich Priests and Alfas, when you can invest all that money in yourself in the Ma’at? A well run Ma’at branch, is expected to become a successful, efficient and highly respected hub of social, spiritual, cultural, political, intellectual and economic activities in its community within a short time. Three to five years at the most, buying up manufacturing companies, large farms and housing estates for members, office complexes to let, schools, investing in the stock exchange etc., and turning members into millionaires and business tycoons. Members are entitled to receive priority employment advantage in their Ma’at businesses as long as the applicants are qualified for the jobs.

Every race has her spiritual base. The Caucasians, Rome and Jerusalem; Arabs, Mecca, and are making millions of dollars from thousands of African spiritual tourists and pilgrims yearly. African Pilgrimage, AP, is an annual event, and takes off in March/April of every year. The first AP is planned for 2017 in Nigeria. AP brings together all the ideological tendencies and movements of the African race in celebration of our oneness and triumph as a people, and to pay homage to our illustrious ancestors. AP celebrates the family unity of all the children of Africa, from Cuba, Jamaica, Antigua, Barbados, Brazil, Guyana, Zimbabwe, Europe, USA, Australia, Ghana, South Africa, Nigeria etc. AP is to the African race, what the annual pilgrimage to Mecca is to the Arabs, or to Jerusalem is to the Christians.

With the coming on stream of the African Union (AU), the political sting of the irregular Pan African Congresses of the Pan African Movement has now become largely cosmetic. AP replaces the Pan African Congresses from the 8th Congress, to provide the anchor and propelling force for Black unity and ascendance. All future Pan-African Congresses would be known as AP, the African Pilgrimage. The African Union (AU), despite its constitutional and operational weaknesses, has considerably diluted the political importance of the Pan-African Congresses and almost rendered them irrelevant.

AP would concentrate on the areas of comparative advantage and through moral persuasion, discipline and scholarship, maintain a vibrant lobby on the AU, to ensure comprehensive, fused, and focused, self-fulfillment, advancement, and ascendance, of the entire African race. The African Union (AU) is to be lobbied, to be strengthened, to take care of the political aspirations of the entire Black race, while the Pan-African Movement, known also as (APU) the African Peoples’ Union, concentrates on the spiritual through Ma’at.

Every Black person in the world, every Ma’at member must perform AP, the African Pilgrimage, at least, once in a lifetime. The seven-day long pilgrimage, involves meetings of leaders, cultural ceremonies and events, exhibitions, seminars, spiritual home coming rituals, offers of reverences, and a mammoth carnival procession. Each pilgrim ritually slaughters a goat to the spirits of our ancestors during the pilgrimage week. Every male who has performed the pilgrimage is entitled to use the title ‘Azah’ (or Azahaaze in full) before name. Female counterparts use the title: ‘Azinii’ (or Aziniida in full) before name. Both titles mean spiritually cleansed. AP is expected to grow into one of the biggest, liveliest, spiritually fulfilling, attractive cultural, intellectual, commercial and tourists events and destinations in the world. Calabar or Badagry in Nigeria would serve as the dream venue and permanent site for the annual African Pilgrimage. Calabar has a vibrant spiritual culture and strong physical memory. It was a major seaport for slavery, providing access to slaves from the interior of Africa. In fact, 27% of all African slaves went through the Calabar port, whereas Ghana, Senegal and the Gambia combined, had only 10%.

Badagry was actually our first choice home for the African pilgrimage. That was why we held our first Black Think Tank meeting there in August 1992. The Oba of Badagry was very happy with the prospects and he gave us maximum cooperation and encouragement, but as we got nearer actualization date, the nightmarish congestion on the Expressway from Lagos to Badagry and the lack of amenities in Badagry to support bringing thousands of people there yearly for a day or a week, began to force us to re-order our plans. That is how Calabar came into the picture, the new TINAPA facilities there, were the lure but Calabar on its own confronted us with transportation logistic nightmare. Now we can transfer the annual week-long African spiritual pilgrimage back to Badagry because the Lagos State Government has embarked on expanding the Lagos – Badagry Expressway from four lanes to ten, and would provide a mono-rail and rapid bus services on the route by the end of 2013. Several cities are being developed as additional pilgrimage experience points and include: the Ogun shrine, the Yemoja festival in Oshogbo and the Oro festival in Ogun state. The Igue festival in Benin City, and the Sukur kingdom mountain in Maiduguri. The Kerengwa water falls in Nasarawa with its therapeutic health benefits. Nasarawa also provides the opportunity to visit the God of the Sun at home.

Membership of the Ma’at-Pan-African Movement-African People’s Union is the birthright of every Black person in the world. The right is inherited at birth, the same way we acquire our family names the day we were born. When you subscribe to your Ma’at-Pam-Apu birthright, you are helping to build one of the greatest Movements of people the world has ever known. Ma’at is the spiritual incubator of the Movement. Just as an Israeli is a Jew, nurtured and driven by kabbalism, a Pan-Africanist or Black is first and foremost a member of the Ma’at. Ma’at is the binding cosmology of our race, and it is not negotiable because before we became Christians, or adherents of the Islamic faith etc, we were Black and African, and Ma’at represents this peculiar essence in all of us. It represents our souls as a unique people.

Ma’at family Study Group meetings start with a quiet moment of meditation say for 2 to 5 minutes, depending on choice of the group. Attention at the meetings is given to how to build up membership, and how to help each other grow in legitimate individual activities as a member of an indivisible family group; the promotion of spiritual and social cohesion among members, and the provision of community services to help improve the transformation of our environments generally for public good. Each member volunteers time and resources to help each other and to help solve identifiable, quantifiable projects and activities useful to the group or the neighbourhood, to arrest decay and put them on the path of wealth building for the Ma’at family members. We want people who would help us take back our leadership of the world legitimately with brains and brawns. We want people who by dint of hard work and sharing, as one indivisible family in the Ma’at, would become and are seen to be among the most successful and virtuous human beings in the world. We want to win our respect back as the ancestors of the human race, the origin, the first born, because our time has come and we cannot afford to leave you behind. So, if you are Black, regardless of where you may be living in the world right now, you are an African and that means you are of the cradle, the origin, the first, and the first is the best in any language. Join the potentially one billion members’ strong African revolt.

We are taking back our leadership of the world from where our ancestors were pushed off inelegantly some 2000 years ago. Join us to colonize the world with our African walk, African swagger, African songs, African dance, African fashion, African science, African technology, African creativity, African business acumen, African scholarship, African spirituality, African joy and reverence for life. Join us to start the most thorough, most ennobling, most comprehensive, most profound revolution in human history. Join us to launch mankind’s final revolt – the destruction of hate, oppression, marginalization and racism. Join us to enthrone a world that cares, a world of love, a world that belongs to all who dwell in it. To start a Ma’at branch or to join us is easy. If you are African and do not belong to any religious faith, or you are already a leader, teacher, student, follower or adherent of Ma’at, whether in South America, USA, Canada, the Caribbean, the Pacific, Europe, Asia or Africa, you are welcome to join the universal Ma’at movement now. It is compulsory for all Africans and Blacks worldwide to switch to Ma’at right away, whether they are Christians; Muslims; adherents of traditional African faiths such as Sango, Olokun Ogun, Amadioha etc or followers of other none African religions or spiritual movements. When you switch, you can no longer practice your old faith. All that is required of you is the desire to get a Ma’at branch started or to join one near you. Two books have been prepared for the spiritual revolution. They are (a) The end of knowledge and (b) Ma’at: truth and justice. While waiting for the books, use this document to get started.

We expect you to start by inviting family members, friends and neighbours to join your Study Group and to probably start off with two or three or four members, meeting initially once a week in your home or at a chosen venue. Each member of your group is expected to invite family members, friends and neighbours to every follow-up weekly meeting, which could then be in rotation at the homes of other members that you all agree upon or that volunteer to host such meetings. We expect initially that people living in the same condo, or next door to one another, or neighbouring streets or district, or within a block or two or three of each other, or at a school, college, or work place, would begin to come together weekly as a Ma’at family group to study our two books an thoroughly familiarize themselves with what the Ma’at spirituality and movement is about. Every member of the Ma’at family study group and of Ma’at generally would be expected to get a copy each of our two mobilization books: (a) The end of knowledge and (b) Ma’at, truth and justice, eventually, to assist members individually and as a group in their studies and to serve as guide and reference documents and as comforting spiritual companions for the rest of their individual lives.

When the Study Group has grown into a family of (say twenty or more members), and the group is satisfied that members understand what Ma’at and the Movement are about, the group then elects officers such as Aggar-Ra or Agger-Re and so on, and registers and subscribes to the movement, to receive a reference code to form a street, community, work place, school, state or national Ma’at branch of the Ma’at-Pan African Movement-African People’s Union, and to be entitled as a branch to the following:

(a) A registration code number
(b) ONE BLACK WORLD, the Ma’at-Pam-Apu newsletter.
(c) Join the ‘Reparations’ Brigade.
(d) Join the Ma’at-Pan-Apu Passport (PAP) lobby.
(e) Be guided on repatriation/relocation strategies to Africa, which includes cultivation of dual citizenship of your birth place and of an African country of your choice on the continent. In the first instance, we have acquired acres of rural land in Nigeria (and more acres of land are being negotiated) for those desirous of immediate relocation to Africa.

(f) Join the Ma’at-Pam-Apu.
(g) Participate in ASSAP, the annual African Spiritual Summit and Pilgrimage.

(h) Hold office in Ma’at-Pam-Apu.
(i ) Aspire and if qualified, become a Muse of the Menephtheion (mm.).

(j) And, of course, be a shareholder in the African World Bank (AWB) along with every other African alive, through the Zawadi Kwafrica Fund.

We want people who would help us take back our leadership of the world legitimately with brains and brawns. We want people who by dint of hard work and sharing, as one indivisible family in the Ma’at, would become and are seen to be among the most successful and virtuous human beings in the world. We want to win our respect back as the ancestors of the human race, the origin, the first born, because our time has come and we cannot afford to leave you behind.

So, if you are Black, regardless of where you may be living in the world right now, you are an African and that means you are of the cradle, the origin, the first, and the first is the best in any language. Join the potentially one billion members’ strong African revolt. We are taking back our leadership of the world from where our ancestors were pushed off inelegantly some 2000 years ago. Join us to colonize the world with our African walk, African swagger, African songs, African dance, African fashion, African industry, African science, African technology, African creativity, African business acumen, African scholarship, African spirituality, African joy, reverence and love for life.

Join us to start the most thorough, most ennobling, most comprehensive, most profound revolution in human history. Join us to launch mankind’s final revolt – the destruction of hate, oppression, marginalization and racism, to enthrone a world that cares, a world of love, a world that belongs to all who dwell in it.

NAIWU OSAHON Hon. Khu Mkuu (Leader) World Pan-African Movement); Ameer Spiritual (Spiritual Prince) of the African race; MSc. (Salford); Dip.M.S; G.I.P.M; Dip.I.A (Liv.); D. Inst. M; G. Inst. M; G.I.W.M; A.M.N.I.M. Poet, Author of the magnum opus: ‘The end of knowledge’. One of the world’s leading authors of children’s books; Awarded; key to the city of Memphis, Tennessee, USA; Honourary Councilmanship, Memphis City Council; Honourary Citizenship, County of Shelby; Honourary Commissionership, County of Shelby, Tennessee; and a silver shield trophy by Morehouse College, USA, for activities to unite and uplift the African race.

Naiwu Osahon: the Sage of the New World Order, renowned author, philosopher of science, mystique, leader of the world Pan-African Movement.

Ancient Kemet and Ancient Africa Concepts and key dates

” You have to battle every day to reach your higher conscious” Egyptian concept

19224771_478974395779115_2050279235700215214_nKemet or ‘km.t’ is an Ancient Egyptian word which translates to the “black land” or “the land of the blacks” (Wikipedia states the land of the black soil here but Kemet means black people)  Kemet/’km.t’ was one of the names used by Ancient Egyptians to refer to Egypt.

 

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place which is now the country Egypt. It is one of six historic civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology)[1]with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaohNarmer (commonly referred to as Menes).[2

(Wikipedia https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kemet)

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The New Kingdom followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period. It was Egypt’s most prosperous time and marked the peak of its power.[2]

Maa Aankh

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TASETT - The Red Lands

The Youtube video by Mfundishi Jhutyms entitled The black Gods of Kemet teaches the Kemetic practises. The Egyptians depict brown people on their walls so it is fair to say from evidence that there were a large number of black people in Ancient Kemet at the time.

See the links below of the summary from those that have studied ancient Egypt.

  https://youtu.be/5w6bdcoO9v0

https://youtu.be/HjqYJFIjsB8

This documentary is entitled Christianity stolen from Kemet click here  https://youtu.be/mYmiCBGB2jY

Some of the Deities as we term it for want of a better word, of this period were Horus Isis AMON Amon-Ra, Ra

The Egyptian Isis Moon concept

From this belief of creation came the conception of the ennead, a group of nine divinities, and the triad, consisting of a divine father, mother, and son. Every local temple in Egypt possessed its own ennead and triad. The greatest ennead, however, was that of Ra and his children and grandchildren. This group was worshiped at Heliopolis, the center of sun worship. The origin of the local deities is obscure; some of them were taken over from foreign religions, and some were originally the animal gods of prehistoric Africa. Gradually, they were all fused into a complicated religious structure, although comparatively few local divinities became important throughout Egypt. In addition to those already named, the important divinities included the gods Amon, Thoth, Ptah, Khnemu, and Hapi, and the goddesses Hathor, Mut, Neit, and Sekhet. Their importance increased with the political ascendancy of the localities where they were worshiped. For example, the ennead of Memphis was headed by a triad composed of the father Ptah, the mother Sekhet, and the son Imhotep. Therefore, during the Memphite dynasties, Ptah became one of the greatest gods in Egypt. Similarly, when the Theban dynasties ruled Egypt, the ennead of Thebes was given the most importance, headed by the father Amon, the mother Mut, and the son Khonsu. As the religion became more involved, true deities were sometimes infused with human beings who had been glorified after death. Thus, Imhotep, who was originally the chief minister of the 3rd Dynasty ruler Djoser, was later regarded as a demigod. During the 5th Dynasty the pharaohs began to claim divine ancestry and from that time on were worshiped as sons of Ra. Minor gods, some merely demons, were also given places in local divine hierarchies.

 See the full story at http://www.isismoontemple.com/temple07beliefs.html

Watch the real black history of us  https://youtu.be/cL7PH4cVZ4k

Amon
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The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1549/1550 BC to 1292 BC. It boasts several of Egypt’s most famous pharaohs, including Tutankhamun, whose tomb was found by Howard Carter in 1922. This dynasty is also known as the Thutmosid Dynasty for the four pharaohs named ThutmosisAmenhotep I (/ˌæmɛnˈhtɛp/[3]) from Ancient Egyptian “jmn-ḥtp” or “yamānuḥātap” meaning “Amun is satisfied” or Amenophis I , (/əˈmɛnfɪs/,[4]), from Ancient Greek Ἀμένωφις ,[5Additionally King Zeserkere (transliterationḎśr-k-R),[6] was the second Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. His reign is generally dated from 1526 to 1506 BC. He was a son of Ahmose Iand Ahmose-Nefertari, but had at least two elder brothers, Ahmose-ankh and Ahmose Sapair, and was not expected to inherit the throne. However, sometime in the eight years between Ahmose I’s 17th regnal year and his death, his heir apparent died and Amenhotep became crown prince.[5] He then acceded to the throne and ruled for about 21 years.[1] Although his reign is poorly documented, it is possible to piece together a basic history from available evidence. He inherited the kingdom formed by his father’s military conquests and maintained dominance over Nubia and the Nile Delta but probably did not attempt to maintain Egyptian power in the Levant. He continued the rebuilding of temples in Upper Egypt and revolutionized mortuary complex design by separating his tomb from his mortuary temple, setting a trend in royal funerary monuments which would persist throughout the New Kingdom. After his death, he was deified as a patron god of Deir el-Medina.[7]R

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighteenth

In the Bible, Solomon himself is said to have been the son of Bath-Sheba (“daughter of Sheba,” i.e. the daughter Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty Thutmose I (Thoth-mos I) Djehuty King Thutmose II Thutmose III …

Click for link 

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From Τουθμωσις (Touthmosis), the Greek form of Egyptian Djhwty-ms meaning “born of Thoth”, itself composed of the name of the Egyptian god THOTH combined with mesu“be born”. Thutmose was the name of four Egyptian pharaohs of the New Kingdom, including Thutmose III who conquered Syria and Nubia.

https://www.behindthename.com/name/thutmose

After the death of Hatshepsut, and Thutmosis III’s later rise to pharaoh of the kingdom, he created the largest empire Egypt had ever seen; no fewer than seventeen campaigns were conducted, and he conquered from Niya in North Syria to the Fourth Cataract of the Nile in Nubia.

Officially, Thutmose III ruled Egypt for almost 54 years, and his reign is usually dated from April 24, 1479 BC to March 11, 1425 BC; however, this includes the 22 years he was co-regent to Hatshepsut. During the final 2 years of his reign, he appointed his son and successor, Amenhotep II, as his junior co-regent. His firstborn son and heir to the throne, Amenemhat, predeceased Thutmose III. When Thutmose III died, he was buried in the Valley of the Kings as were the rest of the kings from this period in Egypt.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thutmose_III

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Taharqo

 

Above Pharaoh Taharqo – The most powerful African in history known as the Emperor of the World

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https://youtu.be/14kKP4ClklQ

Below http://kemetexpert.com/

Relief from the Chapel of Amenirdis, Medinat Habu 

 

As noted the Kings of Dynasty 25 wore two cobras on all of their representations, and were the first royal men to do so. The royal women during this period who were associated with the motif also had the elevated role of being the wife of the God Amun/Imen. On the tomb chapel of Amenirdis she and her successor Shepenwepet both wear the crown of the god (above). As goddesses on the relief the two women are shown with the divine vulture and headdress. However, on statuary they were shown with two cobras and a vulture. It seems likely during this later period that the double cobra and vulture were associated with title and role of God’s Wife of Amun/Imen.

End

https://youtu.be/9lbexNi3Jdw

African ancestors created spirituality and religion with the launch of the Mystery system, 6,112 years ago. They created over 2000 Gods and Goddesses, the first such in the world, with twelve principal deities that included God Ausar, Goddess Auset, Goddess Ma’at and God Heru, the later being the first human Son of God in history. Ethiopians known as Chaldeans, after colonizing what later became Mesopotamia 6,012 years ago, fashioned the Persian religion from the Mystery System. The religion passed through several phases including Albigensianism as its last relic before resurfacing as Zoroastrianism about 2500 years ago. Ethiopians known now in India as the Dravidians, invaded India between 3250 and 2750 BCE, to establish a civilization in the Indus Valley (see Pears Cyclopaedia, Pelham Books), and give India, Hinduism, which combines elements of their beliefs: the caste system, circumcision, magic, witchcraft, with the influence of the Osirian Mystery System. Hindus are polytheists who worshipped a number of nature-gods, including the cow.

Moses, a Nubian and the incestuous child of Pharaoh Seti I and his daughter, Bathia, adopted Akhnatons’ monotheistic version of the Mystery System to give the Hebrews Kabbalah as they migrated in 1230 BCE, after 400 years sojourn in Egypt, in search of their ‘Promised’ land. Prince Siddhartha Gautama, known as Buddha, a Dravidian, was born around 563 BCE among the Sakya people in Kapilavatthu now Lumini in the lowland Terai region of Nepal, dominated then by the Dravidian (Ethiopian) population. His features, including his thick lips, confirm his Dravidian origin. He gave India Buddhism.

Master K’ung or K’ung-fu-tzu (Latinized as Confucius) was Black. He was born around 551 BCE in the feudal state of Lu, in today’s Shantung province of China. He was trying to improve his people’s way of life by reforming their feudal leadership. He preached that destiny was the synonym of Nature and that Nature decides ones class in life. Prayer is unhelpful in this regard but destiny once received could willfully be prevailed upon for wider choices. He discouraged (witchcraft human sacrifice), prevalent in China at the time and advocated that spirits could be respected but kept at a distance because: “If you cannot serve man, how do you know to serve spirits.” He gave China, Confucianism.

Council of Nicaea (325 CE) created the Jesus Christ phantom. Dr. Martyn Percy, the famous canon expert once wrote and I quote: “The Bible did not arrive by fax from heaven.” The Bible is a creation of man. Man, not God, writes history, and history is always from the perspective of the conqueror, not the conquered. It is the elite, the most powerful in society, that defines the society’s reality, and that is exactly what Constantine did after subduing African influence in the world. In Emperor Constantine’s days, the official Roman religion was Sun worship, (i.e. the African Egyptian cult of Sol Invictus or the Invincible Sun). They called it the Jovian Mystery System and Constantine was the Chief priest.

During the reign of Constantine, and over three hundred years after the alleged crucifixion of Jesus, the Christian population had grown to the extent of posing serious threat to the unity of Rome. The Christians were constantly warring with the Pagans and threatening to tear Rome apart. Constantine, a smart opportunist, decided to tinker with both religions to create a monster one. Constantine converted his Sun God worshippers to Christianity by creating an amalgam, a hybrid, a fusion of ‘Pagan’s’ symbols, dates, rituals, and ideas, into the growing Pagan-Christian traditions of the time, to produce something that compromised and overwhelmed both parties. Constantine produced a sacred entity outside the scope of the human world whose power was therefore unchallengeable by mere mortals, and called it the Roman Catholic Church. To do this, he conveyed his 325 CE Council of Nicaea that produced the Nicaea creed.

The problem at the time, was whether Auset, (who was the Virgin Birth Mother in the ancient African Mystery System, imbibed by the Jovian Mystery, which was being adapted by the Church Bishops, should continue to take precedence over her son Heru, as in the ancient African myth). In the end, God Ausar, (re-named Yahweh), retained his double roles as the Holy Ghost (misunderstood by Christians as the universal ‘Spirit’), and as the human ‘God the Father’ in the African Mysteries, 4,425 years earlier, (who became the Christian Ghost Impregnator), of Mother Auset, re-named Mary, with Auset’s Virgin Son, Heru, (renamed Jesus).

In other words, “Holy” and “Virgin Birth,” were transferred to Jesus and Mary, from Heru and Auset. Jesus became born in Bethlehem and acquired higher rank than his contrived mother. He was supposed to be her first child and to have been miraculously conceived. His foster-father was given the name Joseph, and the carpentry profession, to appeal to humility. The name ‘Christ,’ came from the Greek translation of Christos (meaning anointed), taken from the Hebrew title of Messiah. The Bishops at the Nicaea Council in 325 CE, decided that Jesus, who was supposed to have been baptized as, and called Emmanuel before the Conference, was born in Bethlehem in Judea. All these were happening some 325 years after the purported death of Jesus.

https://www.modernghana.com/news/438014/maat-truth-and-justice-the-spirituality-of-the-african-r.html

 

 

The below is a download of the book 2017-11-28-18-06-31--371810049 published originally in 1931

 Hebrewisms of west africa from nile to nigar with the jews

 

ac936aad5b26436840c62575200e816e--a-people-black-people The real Jews Hebrews Asian Semitic Oriental Negroes. Hamitic people.

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The Kingdom

of

Judah Kush and Ham

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Below the 2nd and 4th depictions are Nubians and Egyptians

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The collages that feature below are: Collage/picture board 1 is Nubians collage 2 is Egyptians.

 

 

 

 

Judah was comparable to a young lion for his strength, courage, and vitality and to a mature lion in that the line of Judah contained those of national prominence and kingship, including David and Solomon.

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Horemakhet

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BLACKS IN BIBLICAL ANTIQUITY

 

The presence of Blacks in the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible is rather substantial; fortunately ours is an age that increasingly allows such an important fact to be acknowledged more widely than perhaps ever before. This topic has long been studied by Dr. Gene Rice, Professor of Old Testament, and he has supplied a representative listing of key Old Testament passages that mention, indeed often celebrate, the Black biblical presence:

  • Nimrod, son of Cush, “the first on earth to become a mighty warrior.” Nimrod is also credited with founding and ruling the principal cities of Mesopotamia (Genesis 10:8-12).
  • Hagar, the Egyptian maid of Sarah (Genesis 1621:8-21). If Abraham had had his way, Hagar would have become the forebear of the covenant people (Genesis 17:18).
  • Asenath, daughter of Potiphera, priest of On (Heliopolis), wife of Joseph and mother of Ephraim and Manasseh (Genesis 41:45515246:20), whom Jacob claimed and adopted. (Genesis 48).
  • Moses’ Cushite wife (Numbers 12:1). She was prpbably Zipporah of the Kenite clan of the Midianites (Exodus 2:21-23). If Moses’ Cushite wife is indeed Zipporah, then her father, Jethro, (also called Reuel), would also have been an African. Since Jethro was the priest of Midian (Exodus 2:163:118:1) and the mountain of God where Moses was called was located in Midian (Exodus 3:118:5), and Jethro presided at a meal where Aaron and the elders of Israel were guests (Exodus 18:12), the Kenites may have been the original worshipers of God by the name of the LORD, that is Yahweh (YHWH). Jethro also instructed Moses in the governance of the newly liberated Israelites (Exodus 8:13-27).
  • Phinehas, the grandson of Aaron and a high priest (Exodus 6:25). The name, Phinehas, is Egyptian and means literally, “The Nubian,” or “The Dark-skinned One.”
  • The “mixed multitude that accompanied the Israelites when they left Egypt undoubtedly included various Africans and Asian peoples (Exodus 12:38).
  • The unnamed Cushite soldier in David’s army. He bore the news of Absalom’s death to David, and, in contrast to Ahimaaz, had the courage to tell David the truth about Absalom (2 Samuel 18:213132).
  • Solomon’s Egyptian wife. She was an Egyptian princess and by his marriage to her, Solomon sealed an alliance with Egypt. (1 Kings 3:111:1).
  • The Queen of Sheba. She ruled a kingdom that included territory in both Arabia and Africa. When she visited Solomon, she was accorded the dignity and status of a head of state (1 Kings 10:1-13).
  • Zerah, the Ethiopian. He commanded a military garrison at Gerar in SW Palestine and fought against King Asa of Judah and almost defeated him (2 Chronicles 14:9-15). After Egyptian influence ceased in Palestine, the Cushite soldiers stationed at Gerar settled down and became farmers. Some two centuries after the time of Zerah, the Simeonites took over Gerar “where they found rich, good pasture, and the land was very broad, quiet, and peaceful; for the former inhabitants there belonged to Ham” (2 Chronicles 4:40).
  • Cush, a Benjaminite (heading to Psalm 7). He is identified as Saul in the Talmud.

http://bibleresources.americanbible.org/resource/blacks-in-biblical-antiquity#.WWFM1F8Hq50.wordpress

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The people of Africa which included Israel and Syria developed a variety of religious beliefs. These beliefs have been the basis for the religions we know of today. The Bible is relatively new in comparison to The Dead Sea Scrolls, book of the dead and tablets by the Arkadians, Sumerians and Egyptians.

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Nefertiti and King Tut above

 

 

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King Tut above and below Tutsi people. Woman in pink Tutsi

 

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THE REIGN OF TUTANKHAMEN.

 (“Living Image of Amen “), King of Egypt, about B.C. 1400.

WHEN and where TUTANKHAMEN was born is unknown, and there is some doubt about the identity of his father. From a scarab which was found in the temple of Osiris at Abydos, 1 we learn that his mother was called Merit-Ra. In the inscription on the red granite lion in the Southern Egyptian Gallery in the British Museum (No. 431), he says that he “restored the monuments of his father, King of the South and North, Lord of the Two Lands, Nebmaatra, the emanation of Ra, the son of Ra, Amenhetep (III), Governor of Thebes.” It is possible that Tutankhamen was the son of Amenhetep III by one of his concubines, and that when he calls this king his father the statement is literally true, but there is no proof of it. On the other hand, Tutankhamen may have used the word “father” simply as a synonym of “predecessor.” The older Egyptologists accepted the statement made by him on the lion that he dedicated to the Temple of Sulb in Nubia as true, but some of the more recent writers reject it. The truth is that the name of Tutankhamen’s father is unknown. He became king of Egypt by

 

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virtue of his marriage with princess ANKHSEN-PAATEN, the third daughter of Amenhetep IV 1, at least that is what it is natural to suppose, but it is possible that he got rid of his immediate predecessor, Smenkhkara, or Seaakara, who married the princess MERITATEN, or ATENMERIT, the eldest daughter of Amenhetep IV, and usurped his throne.

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https://www.pinterest.com/pin/520095456948602404/    Amenhotep IV

When Tutankhamen ascended the throne he was, or at all events he professed to be, an adherent of the cult of Aten, or the “Solar Disk,” and to hold the religious views of his wife and his father-in-law. Proof of this is provided by the fragment of a calcareous stone stele preserved at Berlin (No. 14197), on which he is described as “Lord of the Two Lands, Rakheperuneb, Lord of the Crowns, Tutankhaten, to whom life is given for ever.” 2

He did not at once sever his connection with the cult of Aten, for he started work on a temple, or some other building, of Aten at Thebes. This is certain from the fact that several of the blocks of stone which Heremheb, one of his immediate successors, used in his buildings bear Tutankhamen’s name. It is impossible to describe the extent of Tutankhamen’s building operations, for this same Heremheb claimed much of his work as his own, and cut out wherever possible Tutankhamen’s name and inserted his own in its place. He went so far as to usurp the famous stele of Tutankhamen

 

 

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that Legrain discovered at Karnak in 1905. 1 From this stele we learn that the “strong names” and official titles which Tutankhamen adopted were as follows:–

1. Horus name. KA-NEKHT-TUT-MES

2. Nebti name. NEFER-HEPU-S-GERH TAUI.

3. Golden Horus name. RENP-KHAU-S-HETEP-NETERU

4. Nesu bat name. NEB-KHEPERU-RA

5. Son of Ra name. TUTANKHAMEN

In some cases the cartouche of the nomen contains the signs which mean “governor of Anu of the South” (i.e., Hermonthis). When Tutankhaten ascended the throne he changed his name to Tutankhamen, i.e., “Living image of Amen.”

Our chief authority for the acts of Tutankhamen is the stele in Cairo already referred to, and from the text, which unfortunately is mutilated in several places, we can gain a very good idea of the

 

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state of confusion that prevailed in Egypt when he ascended the throne. The hieroglyphs giving the year in which the stele was dated are broken away. The first lines give the names and titles of the king, who says that he was beloved of Amen-Ra, the great god of Thebes, of Temu and Ra-Heraakhuti, gods of Anu (Heliopolis), Ptah of Memphis, and Thoth, the Lord of the “words of god” (i.e., hieroglyphs and the sacred writings). He calls himself the “good son of Amen, born of Kamutef,” and says that he sprang from a glorious seed and a holy egg, and that the god Amen himself had begotten him. Amen built his body, and fashioned him, and perfected his form, and the Divine Souls of Anu were with him from his youth up, for they had decreed that he was to be an eternal king, and an established Horus, who would devote all his care and energies to the service of the gods who were his fathers.

These statements are of great interest, for when understood as the king meant them to be understood, they show that his accession to the throne of Egypt was approved of by the priesthoods of Heliopolis, Memphis, Hermopolis and Thebes. Whatever sympathy he may have possessed for the Cult of Aten during the lifetime of Amenhetep IV had entirely disappeared when he set up his great stele at Karnak, and it is quite clear that he was then doing his utmost to fulfil the expectations of the great ancient priesthoods of Egypt.

The text continues: He made to flourish again the monuments which had existed for centuries, but which had fallen into ruin [during the reign of Aakhunaten]. He put an end to rebellion and disaffection. Truth marched through the Two Lands [which he

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established firmly]. When His Majesty became King of the South the whole country was in a state of chaos, similar to that in which it had been in primeval times (i.e., at the Creation). From Abu (Elephantine) to the Swamps [of the Delta] the properties of the temples of the gods and goddesses had been [destroyed], their shrines were in a state of ruin and their estates had become a desert. Weeds grew in the courts of the temples. The sanctuaries were overthrown and the sacred sites had become thoroughfares for the people. The land had perished, the gods were sick unto death, and the country was set behind their backs.

The state of general ruin throughout the country was, of course, largely due to the fact that the treasuries of the great gods received no income or tribute on any great scale from the vassal tribes of Palestine and Syria. It is easy to understand that the temple buildings would fall into ruin, and the fields go out of cultivation when once the power of the central authority was broken. Tutankhamen next says that if an envoy were sent to Tchah (Syria) to broaden the frontiers of Egypt, his mission did not prosper; in other words, the collectors of tribute returned empty-handed because the tribes would not pay it. And it was useless to appeal to any god or any goddess, for there was no reply made to the entreaties of petitioners. The hearts of the gods were disgusted with the people, and they destroyed the creatures that they had made. But the days wherein such things were passed by, and at length His Majesty ascended the throne of his father, and began to regulate and govern the

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lands of Horus, i.e., the temple-towns and their estates. Egypt and the Red Land (i.e., Desert) came under his supervision, and every land greeted his will with bowings of submission.

The text goes on to say that His Majesty was living in the Great House which was in Per-Aakheperkara. This palace was probably situated either in a suburb of Memphis or in some district at no great distance from that city. (Some think that it was in or quite near Thebes.) Here “he reigned like Ra in heaven,” and he devoted him self to the carrying out of the “plan of this land.” He pondered deeply in his mind on his courses of action, and communed with his own heart how to do the things that would be acceptable to the people. It was to be expected that, when once he had discarded Aten and all his works, he would have gone and taken up his abode in Thebes, and entered into direct negotiations with the priests of Amen. In other words, Tutankhamen was not certain as to the kind of reception he would meet with at Thebes, and therefore he went northwards, and lived in or near Memphis. Whilst here “he sought after the welfare of father Amen,” and he cast a figure of his “august emanation,” in gold, or silver-gold. Moreover, he did more than had ever been done before to enhance the power and splendour of Amen. The text unfortunately gives no description of the figure of Amen which he made in gold, but a very good idea of what it was like maybe gained from the magnificent solid gold figure of the god that is in the Carnarvon Collection at Highclere Castle, and was exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1922. A handsome silver figure of Amen-Ra, plated with gold, is exhibited in the British Museum (Fifth Egyptian

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[paragraph continues] Room, Table-case I, No. 42). This must have come from a shrine of the god. He next fashioned a figure of “Father Amen” on thirteen staves, a portion of which was decorated with gold tcham (i.e., gold or silver-gold), lapis lazuli and all kinds of valuable stones; formerly the figure of Amen only possessed eleven (?) staves. He also made a figure of Ptah, south of his wall, the Lord of Life, and a portion of this likewise was decorated with gold or silver-gold, lapis lazuli, turquoises and all kinds of valuable gems. The figure of Ptah, which originally stood in the shrine in Memphis, only possessed six (?) staves. Besides this, Tutankhamen built monuments to all the gods, and he made the sacred images of them of real tcham metal, which was the best produced. He built their sanctuaries anew, taking care to have durable work devoted to their construction; he established a system of divine offerings, and made arrangements for the maintenance of the same. His endowments provided for a daily supply of offerings to all the temples, and on a far more generous scale than was originally contemplated.

He introduced or appointed libationers and ministrants of the gods, whom he chose from among the sons of the principal men in their villages, who were known to be of good reputation, and provided for their increased stipends by making gifts to their temples of immense quantities of gold, silver, bronze and other metals. He filled the temples with servants, male and female, and with gifts which had formed part of the booty captured by him. In addition to the presents which he gave to the priests and servants of the temples, he increased the revenues

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of the temples, some twofold, some threefold and others fourfold, by means of additional gifts of tcham metal, gold, lapis lazuli, turquoises, precious stones of all kinds, royal cloth of byssus, flax-linen, oil, unguents, perfumes, incense, ahmit and myrrh. Gifts of “all beautiful things” were given lavishly by the king. Having re-endowed the temples, and made provision for the daily offerings and for the performance of services which were per-formed every day for the benefit of the king, that is to say, himself, Tutankhamen made provision for the festal processions on the river and on the sacred lakes of the temples. He collected men who were skilful in boat-building, and made them to build boats of new acacia wood of the very best quality that could be obtained in the country of Negau. Many parts of the boats were plated with gold, and their effulgence lighted up the river.

The information contained in the last two paragraphs enables us to understand the extent of the ruin that had fallen upon the old religious institutions of the country through the acts of Aakhunaten. The temple walls were mutilated by the Atenites, the priesthoods were driven out, and all temple properties were confiscated and applied to the propagation of the cult of Aten. The figures of the great gods that were made of gold and other precious metals in the shrines were melted down, and thus the people could not consult their gods in their need, for the gods had no figures wherein to dwell, even if they wished to come upon the earth. There were no priests left in the land, no gods to entreat, no funeral ceremonies could be performed, and the dead had to be laid in their tombs without the blessing of the priests.

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During this period of religious chaos, which obtained throughout the country, a number of slaves, both male and female, and singing men, shemaiu, and men of the acrobat class had been employed by the Atenite king to assist in the performance of his religious services, and at festivals celebrated in honour of Aten. These Tutankhamen “purified” and transferred to the royal palace, where they performed the duties of servants of some kind in connection with the services of all the “father-gods.” This treatment by the king was regarded by them as an act of grace, and they were exceedingly content with their new positions. The concluding lines of the stele tell us little more than that the gods and goddesses of Egypt rejoiced once more in beholding the performance of their services, that the old order of worship was reestablished, and that all the people of Egypt thanked the king for his beneficent acts from the bottom of their hearts. The gods gave the king life and serenity, and by the help of Ra, Ptah and Thoth he administered his country with wisdom, and gave righteous judgments daily to all the people.

In line 18 on the Stele of Tutankhamen it is stated that the gifts made by the king to the priests and temples were part of the booty which His Majesty had captured from conquered peoples This suggests that even during his short reign of from eight to ten years he managed to make raids –they cannot be called wars–in the countries which his predecessors had conquered and made dependencies of Egypt. The truth of his

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statement is fully proved by the pictures and inscriptions found in the tomb of Hui in Western Thebes. This officer served in Nubia under Amenhetep IV, and as a reward for his fidelity and success the king made him Prince of Kesh (Nubia), and gave him full authority to rule from Nekhen, the modern Al-kab, about 50 miles south of Thebes, to Nest-Taui 1 or Napata (Jabal Barkal), at the foot of the Fourth Cataract. During the reign of Tutankhamen Hui returned from Nubia to Thebes, bringing with him large quantities of gold, both in the form of rings and dust, vessels of gold and silver, bags full of precious stones, Sudani beds, couches, chairs of state, shields and a chariot. 2 With these precious objects came the shekh of Maam, the shekh of Uait, the sons of all the principal chiefs on both sides of the river from Buhen (Wadi Halfah) to Elephantine, and a considerable number of slaves. Hui and his party arrived in six boats, and when all the gifts were unloaded they were handed over to Tutankhamen’s officials, who had gone to receive them. It is not easy to decide whether this presentation of the produce of Nubia by Hui was an official delivery of tribute due to Tutankhamen, or a personal offering to the new king of Egypt. If Hui was appointed Viceroy of Kesh by Amenhetep IV or his father, it is possible that he was an adherent of the cult of Aten. In this case, his gifts to Tutankhamen were probably personal, and were offered to him by Hui with the set

 

 

 


Click to enlarge

Plate I.
Hui presenting tribute and gifts from vassal peoples to Tutankhamen. From Lepsius, Denkmäler III, 117
.

 


Click to enlarge

Plate II.
Red granite lion with an inscription on the base stating that it was made by Tutankhamen. It was dedicate by him to the temple of Sulb, in the Third Cataract in the Egyptian Sudan, when he “restored the monuments of his father, Amenhetep III.
British Museum, Southern Egyptian Gallery, No. 431
.

 

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purpose of placating the restorer of the cult of Amen. Be this as it may, the gold and silver and precious stones from Nubia were most acceptable to the king, for they supplied him with means for the re-endowment of the priests and the temples.

Egyptologists, generally, have agreed that the scenes in Hui’s tomb representing the presentation of gifts from Nubia have a historical character, and that we may consider that Tutankhamen really exercised rule in Nubia. But there are also painted on the walls scenes in which the chiefs and nobles of Upper Retennu (Syria) are presenting the same kinds of gifts to Tutankhamen, and these cannot be so easily accepted as being historical in character. In his great inscription, Tutankhamen says explicitly that during the reign of Aakhunaten it was useless to send missions to Syria to “enlarge the frontiers of Egypt,” for they never succeeded in doing so. But he does not say that he himself did not send missions, i.e., make raids, into some parts of Phoenicia and Syria, and it is possible that he did. It is also possible that some of the Syrian chiefs, hearing of the accession of a king who was following the example of Thothmes III and honouring Amen, sent gifts to him with the view of obtaining the support of Egyptian arms against their foes.

Exactly when and how Tutankhamen died is not known, and his age at the time of his death cannot be stated. No tomb of his has been found in the mountains of Tall al-‘Amarnah, and, up to the present, there is no evidence that he had a tomb specially hewn for him in the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings. During the course of his excavations in this Valley, Mr. Theodore Davis found a tomb which he believed to be that of

objects in the British Museum that bear the name of Tutankhamen are few, the largest and most important being the granite lion which he placed in the temple built by Amenhetep III at Sulb (the “Soleb” of Lepsius), about half-way up the Third Cataract on the left or west bank. Several scarabs 2 and a bead bearing his prenomen or nomen are exhibited in Table-Case B. (Fourth Egyptian Room), and also the fragment of a I model of a boomerang in blue glazed faience in Wall-Case 225 (Fifth Egyptian Room), No. 54822. Two fine porcelain tubes for stibium, or eye-paint, are exhibited in Wall-Case 272 (Sixth Egyptian Room). The one (No. 27376) has a dark bluish green colour and is inscribed “Beautiful god, Lord of the Two Lands, Lord of Crowns, Neb-kheperu-Ra,

 

 

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giver of life for ever” and the other (No. 2573), which is white in colour, is inscribed with the names of his wife and himself. A writing palette bearing the king’s prenomen 1 was found at Kurnah during the time of the French Expedition, and this and the other objects mentioned above suggest that the royal tomb was being plundered during the early years of the XIXth century.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/egy/tut/tut04.htm

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Moses Was Taught African Wisdom

“And Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and in deeds.” – Acts 7:22

Long before the Greeks calculated the angels of a triangle, the Egyptians had put that and many other things into practice. There are also subtle facts that aren’t in the Bible, but we know to be true:

  • Moses spoke Egyptian and Hebrew.
  • Moses learned to read and write in Egypt.
  • Moses was familiar with Egyptian religion.

Moses Was An African Prince

We get a glimpse of this in the Old Testament, but it is in the New Testament that we find out that Moses was known as the son of Pharaoh’s daughter. However, when he became old enough to do so, he rejected his African royal status to join his own people.

“By faith Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter; Choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season;” – Hebrews 11:24-25

Pharaoh was king of Egypt, which meant that his daughter was a princess, and her sons would be considered princes of Egypt (just like the movie). Under the right circumstances, Moses could’ve become a Pharaoh, but he chose to reject his status.


Additional Note: Moses was a Hebrew by blood, but an Egyptian based on where he was born and raised. Just like Americans are called so because they were born in America. Moses was born and raised in Egypt, and only lived in Egypt until he was 40 years old.

http://www.blackhistoryinthebible.com/the-shemites/moses-the-black-egyptian-prince-that-wrote-the-torah/

 

Moses marries a cushite Ethiopian
Numbers 12.1–13

                     Aaron and Miriam Jealous of Moses

While they were at Hazeroth, Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married (for he had indeed married a Cushite woman);and they said, ‘Has the Lord spoken only through Moses? Has he not spoken through us also?’ And the Lord heard it. Now the man Moses was very humble, more so than anyone else on the face of the earth. Suddenly the Lord said to Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, ‘Come out, you three, to the tent of meeting.’ So the three of them came out.Then the Lord came down in a pillar of cloud, and stood at the entrance of the tent, and called Aaron and Miriam; and they both came forward. And he said, ‘Hear my words:
When there are prophets among you,
I the Lord make myself known to them in visions;
I speak to them in dreams. 
Not so with my servant Moses;
he is entrusted with all my house. 
With him I speak face to face—clearly, not in riddles;
and he beholds the form of the Lord.
Why then were you not afraid to speak against my servant Moses?’ And the anger of the Lord was kindled against them, and he departed.

 When the cloud went away from over the tent, Miriam had become leprous, as white as snow. And Aaron turned towards Miriam and saw that she was leprous. Then Aaron said to Moses, ‘Oh, my lord, do not punish us for a sin that we have so foolishly committed. Do not let her be like one stillborn, whose flesh is half consumed when it comes out of its mother’s womb.’ And Moses cried to the Lord, ‘O God, please heal her.’

http://bible.oremus.org/?ql=296122204

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20160716_172106 The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXV, alternatively 25th Dynasty or Dynasty 25), also known as the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite Empire, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period that occurred after the Nubian invasion of Ancient Egypt.

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The 25th dynasty was a line of rulers originating in the Nubian Kingdom of Kush – in present-day northern Sudan and southern Egypt – and most saw Napata as their spiritual homeland. They reigned in part or all of Ancient Egypt from 760–656 BC.[1] The dynasty began with Kashta‘s invasion of Upper Egypt and culminated in several years of both successful and unsuccessful war with the Mesopotamian based Assyrian Empire. The 25th Dynasty’s reunification of Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, and also Kush (Nubia) created the largest Egyptian empire since the New Kingdom. They assimilated into society by reaffirming Ancient Egyptian religious traditions, temples, and artistic forms, while introducing some unique aspects of Kushite culture.[2] It was during the 25th dynasty that the Nile valley saw the first widespread construction of pyramids (many in modern Sudan) since the Middle Kingdom.[3][4][5]

 

After the Assyrian kings Sargon II and Sennacherib defeated attempts by the Nubian kings to gain a foothold in the Near East, their successors Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal invaded Egypt and defeated and drove out the Nubians. War with Assyria resulted in the end of Kushite power in Northern Egypt and the conquest of Egypt by Assyria. They were succeeded by the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, initially a puppet dynasty installed by and vassals of the Assyrians, the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian Invasion. The fall of the Twenty-fifth dynasty also marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt.

The forgotten kingdom of kush documentary

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Above Jules Laurens 1847 painting of People in Tehran Iran

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Cush
Ham’s son
Cush, also spelled as Kush, was, according to the Bible, the eldest son of Ham, who was a son of Noah. Wikipedia
Children: NimrodSabtahSebaRaamahHavilahSabtecah
Parents: HamNa’eltama’uk
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Nimrod revealed

The Bible states…

Cush was the father of Nimrod, who grew to be a mighty warrior on the Earth. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; that is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the LORD.” The centers of his kingdom were BabylonErechAkkad and Calneh in Shinar (Genesis 10:8-10).

Many consider this to be a positive, complimentary testimony about Nimrod. It is just the opposite! First, a little background study is necessary.

Cultural Connections in the Ancient Near East

Besides the stories of the Creation and Flood in the Bible there ought to be similar stories on clay tablets found in the cultures near and around the true believers. These tablets may have a reaction, or twisted version, in their accounts of the Creation and Flood.

In the post-Flood genealogical records of Genesis 10 we note that the sons of Ham were: CushMizraimPut and Canaan. Mizraim became the Egyptians. No one is sure where Put went to live. And it is obvious who the Canaanites were. Cush lived in the “land of Shinar” which most scholars consider to be Sumer. There developed the first civilization after the Flood. The sons of Shem-the Semites-were also mixed, to some extent, with the Sumerians.

The Babylonian Flood Story is told on the 11th tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic, almost 200 lines of poetry on 12 clay tablets inscribed in cuneiform script. A number of different versions of the Gilgamesh Epic have been found around the ancient Near East, most dating to the seventh century BC. The most complete version came from the library ofAshurbanipal at Nineveh. Commentators agree that the story comes from a much earlier period, not too long after the Flood as described in the story. —(ABR file photo)

Copyrighted.

Found at Khorsabad, this eighth century BC stone relief is identified as Gilgamesh. The best-known of ancient Mesopotamian heroes, Gilgamesh was king of Uruk in southern Mesopotamia. His story is known in the poetic Gilgamesh Epic, but there is no historical evidence for his exploits in the story. He is described as part god and part man, a great builder and warrior, and a wise man in the story. Not mentioned in the Bible, the author suggests Gilgamesh is to be identified with Biblical Nimrod (Genesis 10:8-12). —Dr. David Livingston, Associates for Biblical Research

We suggest that Sumerian Kish, the first city established in Mesopotamia after the Flood, took its name from the man known in the Bible as Cush.

The first kingdom established after the Flood was Kish, and the name “Kish” appears often on clay tablets. The early post-Flood Sumerian king lists (not found in the Bible) say that “kingship descended from heaven to Kish” after the Flood. (The Hebrew name “Cush,” much later, was moved to present-day Ethiopia as migrations took place from Mesopotamia to other places.)

The Sumerians, very early, developed a religio-politico state which was extremely binding on all who lived in it (except for the rulers, who were a law unto themselves). This system was to influence the Ancient Near East for over 3000 years. Other cultures which followed the Sumerian system were AccadBabylon,Assyria, and Persia, which became the basis of Greece and Rome’s system of rule. Founded by Cush, the Sumerians were very important historically and Biblically.

Was “Nimrod” Godly or Evil?

First, what does the name Nimrod mean? It comes from the Hebrew verb marad, meaning “rebel.” Adding an “n” before the “m” it becomes an infinitive construct, “Nimrod.” (see Kautzsch 1910: 137 2b, also BDB 1962: 597). The meaning then is “The Rebel.” Thus “Nimrod” may not be the character’s name at all. It is more likely a derisive term of a type, a representative, of a system that is epitomized in rebellion against the Creator, the one true God. Rebellion began soon after theFlood as civilizations were restored. At that time this person became very prominent.

In Genesis 10:8-11 we learn that “Nimrod” established a kingdom. Therefore, one would expect to find also, in the literature of the ancient Near East, a person who was a type, or example, for other people to follow. And there was. It is a well-known tale, common in Sumerian literature, of a man who fits the description. In addition to the Sumerians, the Babylonians wrote about this person; the Assyrians likewise; and the Hittites. Even in Israel, tablets have been found with this man’s name on them. He was obviously the most popular hero in the Ancient Near East.

https://christiananswers.net/dictionary/nimrod.html

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Auset represents female energy and the womb

Hru and Set

 

The Kemetic tree of life principles deals with astrology, the cosmos, religion, science, nutrition and ancient yoga and mathmatics and the life force energy. From the ancient Egyptians we see many things that have been adapted through civilisation. In the Youtube video by Mfundishi Jhutyms he speaks about how the Deities were representations of The God within ourselves. He states there were around 18 Trinity Concepts before Jesus for example the story of Heru and Sebek.

Within Egyptian mythology we also see the miraculous conception story which I have covered in my previous posts and which can be found easily online and in Egyptian history books.

Some of my posts include The Pagan Origin Of The Word “AMEN” (True or false???)and The Torah states to worship YHWH. In Hebrew God is associated with Baal and other false God.

Those posts above touch on my discoveries regarding the origins of certain words and stories used in religion and where they appear to originate from.

Kemetic Tree of Life

There are people who follow the practises of ancient Kemet and the Egyptians even today. These Google pictures below show some of the people following the teachings.

 

 

 

 

 

The osiris and Isis are the distortation of Osoro and Assase which in Ga means heaven and earth. This was a comment made by someone of Ga descent in relation to the Kemetic practises.

Having Christian family members and a Christian background I’m going to be honest I didn’t even want to look at this side of ancient black history. It is known that during the dynastys of ancient Egypt they worshipped a number of gods or idols. Kemet however is a place that cannot be ignored by any hopeful cultural historian or genealogist,  or anyone interested in those sectors. Time and time again I have been presented with evidence that suggests that the Kemetic system and traditions predate the bible and large sections of the Bible mirror the Kemetic mythical stories. I would go as far as to agree with other researchers and say a large number of the stories have been lifted from the walls of Kemet and Egypt. Legends mythical stories and folklore have been dressed up and names changed and the books have been edited to suit the laws of man and certain empires instead of to serve the Creator Omnipresent life-giving force.

Consider this post on
 https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140731021811-281975326-the-name-moses-amenhotep-iv-kemetic-sources-of-the-bible-by-dr-faheem-judah-el

THE NAME MOSES – Amenhotep IV “Kemetic Sources Of the Bible by Dr. Faheem Judah-EL

THE NAME MOSES – Amenhotep IV “Kemetic Sources Of the Bible” by Dr. Faheem Judah-EL”


THE NAME MOSES, – In the name Moses, the “S” at the end of the name is drawn from the Greek translation of the biblical name. Without the last letter “S”, so the name would be Mose. In both Hebrew and Kemetic, the short vowels although always pronounced were never 
written . If we take away the two vowels, O and E from the name, we are left with only two consonants “M” and “S” “MS” which is pronounced as
“Mos” as in Mos Def.

Mos was part of many compound Kemetic names such as Ptah-mos and Tuth-mos, and by the way if your name is Thomas – To-mos – it is Ptah-Mos in the Kemetic so you are still in the family. If we take away the two vowels o and e from Moshe (The Hebrew name for Moses) we are left with only two consonants, m and sh. As the Hebrew “SH” is the equivalent of the Kemetic “S”, one is able to conclude that the Hebrew word “Moshe” and the Kemetic “Mos” are one and the same.

The biblical explanation of the name Moses is incorrect. The IsRaElites called him “MOS” to indicate that he was the legitimate son of Amenhotep III and the rightful heir to his father’s throne.

As many generations passed, the biblical editors who had no true knowledge of Moses’ original Kemetic name, attempted to provide a Hebrew explanation of the name, of course without its kemetic origin. The later biblical editors also tried to remove any possible link between Moses and his position as the Pharoah of Kemet.

Another example is the mis-pronunciation of the name Rameses, here the emphasis is not stressed on the word “Ram”- Rameses, but the emphasis should be on “Ra”, as Ra-Mesu,

From the Kemetic Rmssu meaning “son of Ra”, composed of the name of the supreme Kemetic Neter “RA” combined with the Kemetic root mes “son” or mesu “be born, or born of.”

Amenhotep III The source of the biblical “Solomon”

Amenhotep IV The source of the biblical Moses. Amenhotep / Moses worshiped (Revered) the Aton/Adon (Adonai). The Aton like Adon had no image, Adonai means my Lord in Hebrew. The hymn to Aton by Amenhotep (Akhenaton) is a mirror image of Psalm 104 which was written much later.

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https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/jun/07/oldest-homo-sapiens-bones-ever-found-shake-foundations-of-the-human-story

This quote is from the guardian and the archaeologist and scientist who worked on the findings of the morrocan human remains. “For me, claiming these remains are Homo sapiensstretches the meaning of that term a bit,” Shea added. “These humans who lived between 50,000-300,000 years ago are a morphologically diverse bunch. Whenever we find more than a couple of them from the same deposits, such as at Omo Kibish and Herto in Ethiopia or Skhul and Qafzeh in Israel, their morphology is all over the place both within and between samples.”

But Jessica Thompson, an anthropologist at Emory University in Atlanta, said the new results show just how incredible the Jebel Irhoud site is. “These fossils are the rarest of the rare because the human fossil record from this time period in Africa is so poorly represented. They give us a direct look at what early members of our species looked like, as well as their behaviour.

“You might also look twice at the brow ridges if you saw them on a living person. It might not be a face you’d see every day, but you would definitely recognise it as human,” she said. “It really does look like in Africa especially, but also globally, our evolution was characterised by numerous different species all living at the same time and possibly even in the same places.”

End

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I am by no means an expert and this blog is a correlation of my research and research of others. The first thing I actually came across about 8 years ago was “When we ruled” shown below by Robin Walker. A friend attended one of his courses in England Birmingham and purchased his book which I was able to read

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The below is the opinion of Robin Walker he is a lecturer in African Studies. I have added relevant images from Google.

Since this article below has been posted new bones dating older than the Ethiopian  bones which were oldest in the world have been  found in Morocco.

1. The human race is of African origin. The oldest known skeletal remains of anatomically modern humans (or homo sapiens) were excavated at sites in East Africa. Human remains were discovered at Omo in Ethiopia that were dated at 195,000 years old, the oldest known in the world.

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2. Skeletons of pre-humans have been found in Africa that date back between 4 and 5 million years. The oldest known ancestral type of humanity is thought to have been the australopithecus ramidus, who lived at least 4.4 million years ago.

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3. Africans were the first to organise fishing expeditions 90,000 years ago. At Katanda, a region in northeastern Zaïre (now Congo), was recovered a finely wrought series of harpoon points, all elaborately polished and barbed. Also uncovered was a tool, equally well crafted, believed to be a dagger. The discoveries suggested the existence of an early aquatic or fishing based culture.

4. Africans were the first to engage in mining 43,000 years ago. In 1964 a hematite mine was found in Swaziland at Bomvu Ridge in the Ngwenya mountain range. Ultimately 300,000 artefacts were recovered including thousands of stone-made mining tools. Adrian Boshier, one of the archaeologists on the site, dated the mine to a staggering 43,200 years old.

5. Africans pioneered basic arithmetic 25,000 years ago. The Ishango bone is a tool handle with notches carved into it found in the Ishango region of Zaïre (now called Congo) near Lake Edward. The bone tool was originally thought to have been over 8,000 years old, but a more sensitive recent dating has given dates of 25,000 years old. On the tool are 3 rows of notches. Row 1 shows three notches carved next to six, four carved next to eight, ten carved next to two fives and finally a seven. The 3 and 6, 4 and 8, and 10 and 5, represent the process of doubling. Row 2 shows eleven notches carved next to twenty-one notches, and nineteen notches carved next to nine notches. This represents 10 + 1, 20 + 1, 20 – 1 and 10 – 1. Finally, Row 3 shows eleven notches, thirteen notches, seventeen notches and nineteen notches. 11, 13, 17 and 19 are the prime numbers between 10 and 20.

6. Africans cultivated crops 12,000 years ago, the first known advances in agriculture. Professor Fred Wendorf discovered that people in Egypt’s Western Desert cultivated crops of barley, capers, chick-peas, dates, legumes, lentils and wheat. Their ancient tools were also recovered. There were grindstones, milling stones, cutting blades, hide scrapers, engraving burins, and mortars and pestles.

7. Africans mummified their dead 9,000 years ago. A mummified infant was found under the Uan Muhuggiag rock shelter in south western Libya. The infant was buried in the foetal position and was mummified using a very sophisticated technique that must have taken hundreds of years to evolve. The technique predates the earliest mummies known in Ancient Egypt by at least 1,000 years. Carbon dating is controversial but the mummy may date from 7438 (±220) BC.

 

8. Africans carved the world’s first colossal sculpture 7,000 or more years ago. The Great Sphinx of Giza was fashioned with the head of a man combined with the body of a lion. A key and important question raised by this monument was: How old is it? In October 1991 Professor Robert Schoch, a geologist from Boston University, demonstrated that the Sphinx was sculpted between 5000 BC and 7000 BC, dates that he considered conservative.

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9. On the 1 March 1979, the New York Times carried an article on its front page also page sixteen that was entitled Nubian Monarchy called Oldest. In this article we were assured that: “Evidence of the oldest recognizable monarchy in human history, preceding the rise of the earliest Egyptian kings by several generations, has been discovered in artifacts from ancient Nubia” (i.e. the territory of the northern Sudan and the southern portion of modern Egypt.)

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10. The ancient Egyptians had the same type of tropically adapted skeletal proportions as modern Black Africans. A 2003 paper appeared in American Journal of Physical Anthropology by Dr Sonia Zakrzewski entitled Variation in Ancient Egyptian Stature and Body Proportions where she states that: “The raw values in Table 6 suggest that Egyptians had the ‘super-Negroid’ body plan described by Robins (1983). The values for the brachial and crural indices show that the distal segments of each limb are longer relative to the proximal segments than in many ‘African’ populations.”

11. The ancient Egyptians had Afro combs. One writer tells us that the Egyptians “manufactured a very striking range of combs in ivory: the shape of these is distinctly African and is like the combs used even today by Africans and those of African descent.”

 

12. The Funerary Complex in the ancient Egyptian city of Saqqara is the oldest building that tourists regularly visit today. An outer wall, now mostly in ruins, surrounded the whole structure. Through the entrance are a series of columns, the first stone-built columns known to historians. The North House also has ornamental columns built into the walls that have papyrus-like capitals. Also inside the complex is the Ceremonial Court, made of limestone blocks that have been quarried and then shaped. In the centre of the complex is the Step Pyramid, the first of 90 Egyptian pyramids.

13. The first Great Pyramid of Giza, the most extraordinary building in history, was a staggering 481 feet tall – the equivalent of a 40-storey building. It was made of 2.3 million blocks of limestone and granite, some weighing 100 tons.

14. The ancient Egyptian city of Kahun was the world’s first planned city. Rectangular and walled, the city was divided into two parts. One part housed the wealthier inhabitants – the scribes, officials and foremen. The other part housed the ordinary people. The streets of the western section in particular, were straight, laid out on a grid, and crossed each other at right angles. A stone gutter, over half a metre wide, ran down the centre of every street.

15. Egyptian mansions were discovered in Kahun – each boasting 70 rooms, divided into four sections or quarters. There was a master’s quarter, quarters for women and servants, quarters for offices and finally, quarters for granaries, each facing a central courtyard. The master’s quarters had an open court with a stone water tank for bathing. Surrounding this was a colonnade.

16 The Labyrinth in the Egyptian city of Hawara with its massive layout, multiple courtyards, chambers and halls, was the very largest building in antiquity. Boasting three thousand rooms, 1,500 of them were above ground and the other 1,500 were underground.

17. Toilets and sewerage systems existed in ancient Egypt. One of the pharaohs built a city now known as Amarna. An American urban planner noted that: “Great importance was attached to cleanliness in Amarna as in other Egyptian cities. Toilets and sewers were in use to dispose waste. Soap was made for washing the body. Perfumes and essences were popular against body odour. A solution of natron was used to keep insects from houses . . . Amarna may have been the first planned ‘garden city’.”

18. Sudan has more pyramids than any other country on earth – even more than Egypt. There are at least 223 pyramids in the Sudanese cities of Al Kurru, Nuri, Gebel Barkal and Meroë. They are generally 20 to 30 metres high and steep sided.

19. The Sudanese city of Meroë is rich in surviving monuments. Becoming the capital of the Kushite Empire between 590 BC until AD 350, there are 84 pyramids in this city alone, many built with their own miniature temple. In addition, there are ruins of a bath house sharing affinities with those of the Romans. Its central feature is a large pool approached by a flight of steps with waterspouts decorated with lion heads.

20. Bling culture has a long and interesting history. Gold was used to decorate ancient Sudanese temples. One writer reported that: “Recent excavations at Meroe and Mussawwarat es-Sufra revealed temples with walls and statues covered with gold leaf”.

21. In around 300 BC, the Sudanese invented a writing script that had twenty-three letters of which four were vowels and there was also a word divider. Hundreds of ancient texts have survived that were in this script. Some are on display in the British Museum.

22. In central Nigeria, West Africa’s oldest civilisation flourished between 1000 BC and 300 BC. Discovered in 1928, the ancient culture was called the Nok Civilisation, named after the village in which the early artefacts were discovered. Two modern scholars, declare that “[a]fter calibration, the period of Nok art spans from 1000 BC until 300 BC”. The site itself is much older going back as early as 4580 or 4290 BC.

23. West Africans built in stone by 1100 BC. In the Tichitt-Walata region of Mauritania, archaeologists have found “large stone masonry villages” that date back to 1100 BC. The villages consisted of roughly circular compounds connected by “well-defined streets”.

24. By 250 BC, the foundations of West Africa’s oldest cities were established such as Old Djenné in Mali.

25. Kumbi Saleh, the capital of Ancient Ghana, flourished from 300 to 1240 AD. Located in modern day Mauritania, archaeological excavations have revealed houses, almost habitable today, for want of renovation and several storeys high. They had underground rooms, staircases and connecting halls. Some had nine rooms. One part of the city alone is estimated to have housed 30,000 people.

26. West Africa had walled towns and cities in the pre-colonial period. Winwood Reade, an English historian visited West Africa in the nineteenth century and commented that: “There are . . . thousands of large walled cities resembling those of Europe in the Middle Ages, or of ancient Greece.”

27. Lord Lugard, an English official, estimated in 1904 that there were 170 walled towns still in existence in the whole of just the Kano province of northern Nigeria. human race is of African origin. The oldest known skeletal remains of anatomically modern humans (or homo sapiens) were excavated at sites in East Africa. Human remains were discovered at Omo in Ethiopia that were dated at 195,000 years old, the oldest known in the world.

http://www.whenweruled.com/

http://www.africanholocaust.net/news_ah/whenweruled.html

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sphinx the African Holocaust link for points 28-100 from Robin Walkers book.

The book itself is packed with information diagrams and illustrations of the dynastys of ancient Kemet before Portuguese European and all other colonies entered Africa.

Click here to watch African culture  A 40 MINUTE DOCUMENTARY. 

Click the below link for a great FREE pdf on African Civilisation

Introduction_to_the_Study_of_African_Classical_Civilizations_Runoko_Rashidi

See also this absolutely great website packed with free download able pdfs, booklets and Ebooks http://www.lojsociety.org/study.html

 


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links to all Black History posts in this blog.

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