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MA’AT (Truth and Justice), The Spirituality of the African race.   The Bible is a creation of man.

 3 January 2013 | Feature Article
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Except for the Africans, every race or tribe in the world has its own spirituality and religions. The Jews have kabbalism, Indians Hinduism and Buddhism, Chinese Confucianism, Caucasians Christianity with their own son as the son of God; Arabs Islam with their son as Allah’s messenger. Africans are the only race in the world besotted to their masters’ Gods and yet Africans invented spirituality and religions. This document is a very important one and is for your own good. As a book, it would cost you money to acquire but we are sending it to you free of charge. Do not abuse the gesture, treat the document with respect. If you cannot read all of the document at once because of time constrains, file it to read later to arm yourself well for the future. Every African receiving documents from me is free to post them on their timeline and send copies to everyone they can reach via e-mails, through blogs, other internet groups, sites or newspapers to publish as a means of informing every African alive and mobilizing us into one family.

African ancestors created spirituality and religion with the launch of the Mystery system, 6,112 years ago. They created over 2000 Gods and Goddesses, the first such in the world, with twelve principal deities that included God Ausar, Goddess Auset, Goddess Ma’at and God Heru, the later being the first human Son of God in history. Ethiopians known as Chaldeans, after colonizing what later became Mesopotamia 6,012 years ago, fashioned the Persian religion from the Mystery System. The religion passed through several phases including Albigensianism as its last relic before resurfacing as Zoroastrianism about 2500 years ago. Ethiopians known now in India as the Dravidians, invaded India between 3250 and 2750 BCE, to establish a civilization in the Indus Valley (see Pears Cyclopaedia, Pelham Books), and give India, Hinduism, which combines elements of their beliefs: the caste system, circumcision, magic, witchcraft, with the influence of the Osirian Mystery System. Hindus are polytheists who worshipped a number of nature-gods, including the cow.

Moses, a Nubian and the incestuous child of Pharaoh Seti I and his daughter, Bathia, adopted Akhnatons’ monotheistic version of the Mystery System to give the Hebrews Kabbalah as they migrated in 1230 BCE, after 400 years sojourn in Egypt, in search of their ‘Promised’ land. Prince Siddhartha Gautama, known as Buddha, a Dravidian, was born around 563 BCE among the Sakya people in Kapilavatthu now Lumini in the lowland Terai region of Nepal, dominated then by the Dravidian (Ethiopian) population. His features, including his thick lips, confirm his Dravidian origin. He gave India Buddhism.

Master K’ung or K’ung-fu-tzu (Latinized as Confucius) was Black. He was born around 551 BCE in the feudal state of Lu, in today’s Shantung province of China. He was trying to improve his people’s way of life by reforming their feudal leadership. He preached that destiny was the synonym of Nature and that Nature decides ones class in life. Prayer is unhelpful in this regard but destiny once received could willfully be prevailed upon for wider choices. He discouraged (witchcraft human sacrifice), prevalent in China at the time and advocated that spirits could be respected but kept at a distance because: “If you cannot serve man, how do you know to serve spirits.” He gave China, Confucianism.

Council of Nicaea (325 CE) created the Jesus Christ phantom. Dr. Martyn Percy, the famous canon expert once wrote and I quote: “The Bible did not arrive by fax from heaven.” The Bible is a creation of man. Man, not God, writes history, and history is always from the perspective of the conqueror, not the conquered. It is the elite, the most powerful in society, that defines the society’s reality, and that is exactly what Constantine did after subduing African influence in the world. In Emperor Constantine’s days, the official Roman religion was Sun worship, (i.e. the African Egyptian cult of Sol Invictus or the Invincible Sun). They called it the Jovian Mystery System and Constantine was the Chief priest.

During the reign of Constantine, and over three hundred years after the alleged crucifixion of Jesus, the Christian population had grown to the extent of posing serious threat to the unity of Rome. The Christians were constantly warring with the Pagans and threatening to tear Rome apart. Constantine, a smart opportunist, decided to tinker with both religions to create a monster one. Constantine converted his Sun God worshippers to Christianity by creating an amalgam, a hybrid, a fusion of ‘Pagan’s’ symbols, dates, rituals, and ideas, into the growing Pagan-Christian traditions of the time, to produce something that compromised and overwhelmed both parties. Constantine produced a sacred entity outside the scope of the human world whose power was therefore unchallengeable by mere mortals, and called it the Roman Catholic Church. To do this, he conveyed his 325 CE Council of Nicaea that produced the Nicaea creed.

The problem at the time, was whether Auset, (who was the Virgin Birth Mother in the ancient African Mystery System, imbibed by the Jovian Mystery, which was being adapted by the Church Bishops, should continue to take precedence over her son Heru, as in the ancient African myth). In the end, God Ausar, (re-named Yahweh), retained his double roles as the Holy Ghost (misunderstood by Christians as the universal ‘Spirit’), and as the human ‘God the Father’ in the African Mysteries, 4,425 years earlier, (who became the Christian Ghost Impregnator), of Mother Auset, re-named Mary, with Auset’s Virgin Son, Heru, (renamed Jesus).

In other words, “Holy” and “Virgin Birth,” were transferred to Jesus and Mary, from Heru and Auset. Jesus became born in Bethlehem and acquired higher rank than his contrived mother. He was supposed to be her first child and to have been miraculously conceived. His foster-father was given the name Joseph, and the carpentry profession, to appeal to humility. The name ‘Christ,’ came from the Greek translation of Christos (meaning anointed), taken from the Hebrew title of Messiah. The Bishops at the Nicaea Council in 325 CE, decided that Jesus, who was supposed to have been baptized as, and called Emmanuel before the Conference, was born in Bethlehem in Judea. All these were happening some 325 years after the purported death of Jesus.

Constantine called and chaired the 325 CE, Nicaea Council, which had 219 Bishops in attendance. Many Bishops turned down Constantine’s invitation to the conference. All the issues raised at the Nicaea Council were debated and voted for, including the role of Bishops, the administration of sacraments, and the divinity of Jesus. The Bishops had several sittings at the Council to perfect their strategy in the guise of separating truth from heresy. The story of how Bishop Arius was commanded by the Bishop of Alexandria to quit his beliefs or be declared a heretic, and how Arius’ writing were ordered destroyed, is eloquent of many things that happened when the Christian religion was being formulated. Bishop Arius was beheaded for saying Christ is not God. Read the lost books of the Bible.

There is nothing divine about the Bible. Humans put it together under vicious acrimonious human circumstances. The Christo in you, as preached by Paul, was the Christian emphasis until the Nicaea Council in 325 CE. Christo was not supposed to be an historical person. The vote to make Jesus (Christo), Christ, divine, human/spirit, and the ‘only Son of God,’ was very dicey and close.

The following statement is taken verbatim from ‘The Encyclopaedia Britannica.’ “Constantine himself presided and actively guided the discussions. He personally proposed the crucial formula expressing the relation of Christ to God in the creed issued by the council as of one substance with the Father … .Overawed by the emperor, the bishops, with two exceptions only, signed the creed, many of them much against their inclination…….”

This is the most important creed in Christendom. It was proposed by the Emperor, to the consternation of many of the bishops in attendance. But out of fear not to offend the Emperor, all but two of the Bishops signed the creed. Today, the Church claims that Jesus is some special breed of God, and that the Bible is some divinely inspired document. Jesus’ divinity was critical because if the Pagan God Heru, was divine and the only ‘Son of God,’ the new amalgam could not afford to be less so, as a means of unifying the two warring Roman groups, and the Roman Empire.

The Kushite (Ethiopian) kabala, soaked in magic and the knowledge of the stars, set the tone for the Islamic religion in Persia, 1000 years before Islam. The Persian (Sabaean) version revered the Venus-Sun-Moon and prayed to the sun at different phases of its course. They had no idols or images and no priesthood. They directed their prayers to the seven planets; had 30 days fasting as in Egypt; prayed seven times each day, with their faces turned towards the north, and the prayers taking place during the same phases daily. They believed in a future life and deified their dead ancestors. Zenzen, a sacred spring, Kaaba, a sacred stone, constructed by Ishmael, son of Abraham and Hagar (the Egyptian Black woman), the historical ancestors of all Arabs and Muhammad, and pilgrimage to Mecca as in Moslem times, already existed over one thousand years before the birth of Muhammad in 570 CE. Abdulai Kabiru, known worldwide as Prophet Muhammad, adopted the Kushian religion and reduced the prayers in Islam to compulsory five, to relieve humanity, making the other two prayers optional.

Religion is perhaps the most potent binding force possible. In fact, there is no other binding force as potent and total. It encompasses a people’s outlook, traditions, culture and philosophy of life. The food we eat and how we prepare it, our manner of dressing, the names we bear, the way we speak or rear our children and our attitudes to life generally are controlled by our spiritually influenced cultures and traditions. But because of public persecution and the mental and psychological damage we have suffered as a result of slavery and colonialism, we are ashamed to flaunt what is ours. We hide our native essence behind the ‘popular’ alien ones.

Every conquering religion claims superiority over those before it and that life began with its advent. Without destroying what is on the ground there is no space for the new religion to begin to breathe and expand. After 2,000 years of Christianity and 1,500 years of Islam, they remain the minority religions of the world compared with their older spiritual movements in Asia and China. Christianity and Islam draw a significant chunk of their membership from conquered people, especially from Blacks. So, they are religions of coercion rather than of freewill, and that makes them even less spiritual.

We as a group are the most bastardized of people on earth by foreign religions and ideas. Our masters’ baby religions take away our human essence, values and worth, by insisting that our native attributes are evil, primitive, and irrelevant. If we marry in our traditional way, it is barbaric and uncivilized. Our burial rites are savage and ungodly. Our history began with our enslavement and colonization, and our IQ is lower than that of the Chimpanzee. So we openly throw away our African traditions to aspire to the benefits of our masters’ ‘superior’ ways of life. We bleach, hot-comb our hair, answer our oppressors’ names, and aspire to speak, think, and dress like them. Now we are neither White nor Black. If anything, we are half Arab or White and half Black, and we are confused because we cannot progress as a people until we decide who we want to be. And if we choose to become fully Arab or Caucasian, are we acceptable to them? We cannot pull ourselves out of our pains through foreign religions that disrespect our humanity, contributions, and largely treat us as lower than wild animals. To move up, we must demolish what is holding us down. That is why the truth about spirituality is being exposed now and through Africa, the cradle from where life, spirituality and religions began.

For every race or group of people, there must be a guide, a spiritual rallying point, a centre of gravity that holds its children together before it can begin to impact on civilization. We as a people desperately need a common spirituality, a code of ethics and discipline. Unfortunately, our ancestors’ belief systems were usurped, doctored, and cannibalized by other racial groups to suppress and enslave us en-mass. We must re-claim and re-Africanize our long lost, or hidden from us spiritual body of ideas, to suit our purpose and empower and fruitfully propel our collective dreams.

African people must gradually lead the world back to its original glorious path of virtuous civilization terminated abruptly some three thousand five hundred years ago by Yahweh, and two thousand years ago by the West taking their cue from Yahweh. We must return to Ma’at. We must bring back the Ausarian (coined from Ausar) principle of world development, which is the original and ultimate form of civilization. This is democracy based on the tripod principles of African communalism, with Ma’at as the binding force. All African dominated governments of the world are to adopt the Ausarian concept of government. Political parties based on the Ausarian concepts are to be formed to take over their national governments from their current Setian (coined from Set or Seth or Satan), control. All Africans, must stop serving the usurping extraterrestrial deity that has declared war on them, and return to Ma’at for their salvation.

Within a sea of evil, an oasis of good can be created that can steadily grow in concentric circles to eventually and totally overwhelm the evil. The speed at which the concentric circles grow would depend on the dedication of members and the strength of their spirituality. It might make slow progress initially because of possible opposition from the oppressive status quo. It will eventually develop its own momentum and speed that cannot be reversed by anyone from within or without.

We are Africans and we are poised to take back our inheritance as human origin, to repair, guide and lead the world aright with Ma’at. Whether in Africa or the Diaspora, we are a special breed of people. Our ancestors created all the original religious myths that rule the world today. They pioneered civilization and we are proud of them all. The blood of Ausar, Auset, Imhotep, Chaka, Nzingha, Nehenda, Prempeh, Toure, Hannibal, L’overture, Truth, Douglas, Shadd, Tubman, Kuzwayo, Marcus Garvey, DuBois, Azikiwe, Nkrumah, Kenyatta, C.L.R. James, Padmore, Albertina, Martin Luther King, Malcolm X and Mandela runs in our veins.

Religions are deceit instruments through indoctrination for mass exploitation. Spirituality is individual spiritual relationship with the inner self and the universal mind. There is no deity or messiah to worship in spirituality and Ma’at is the mother of spirituality and the source from which all other spiritual veneer branched out in tribal directions: Buddhism, Confucianism. Spirituality nurtures gradually at peculiar one-on-one pace, because while we are all potential gods in our own rights, and masters of our individual fates, we each have responsibility for the well-being of others. Religions and faiths create dichotomy between ‘Gods’ and humans to foster the master or select elite syndrome, to numb followers, to raise a loyal tribe of mindless servants, useful as idiots.

Spirituality works for good and evil as with other sciences, but when used for good only, it is called Ma’at. That was what gave the world, Egypt and her scintillating civilization. Ma’at is the mother of universal spirituality; the most potent spirituality in the world; the highest level of science for humans; the ultimate cosmology; the repository of comprehensive knowledge of the cosmos, and therefore of humanity and creation. Ma’at is an open friendly cosmology, founded on respect for observable truth and logic. The deity of the supreme cosmology is justice, honesty and truth. Ma’at is preoccupied with truth, justice, scholarship and honesty. It is the microcosm of the best of the entire African spiritual firmament and its focus is science and verifiable logic. In other words, members worship intellect and scholarship.

We venerate the pursuit of knowledge and scholarship and we love all of humankind and nature. Because of our love of knowledge, we are the ultimate authority on the alchemic process that can transform our brains into the philosophers’ stone. Human brains are capable of much more than we think. It is an electrically powered and electricity-generating organ, composed of an estimated one hundred billion neurons. Each neuron produces and transmits electrical impulses which travel from the cell body down long fibers called axons to reach a junction, or synapse, with another neuron. At the junction point, the electrical impulses or the fire chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters, cross the synaptic gap to receptors on the next cell. Having received the message, that neuron then generates its own electrical impulse and sends it to other neurons to which it is connected.

Each neuron can be connected to thousands of other neurons, each simultaneously sending and receiving impulses to and from thousands of other neurons–so one neuron can electrically alter millions of other neurons. Studies have shown that ascension can happen in one of two ways, evolutionarily or spiritually. Ascension occurs when a human evolves the ability to use about ninety percent of his or her brain capacity. The ancients who ascended naturally reached this point without the aid of technology. They developed the DNA resequencer, a device capable of making humans so advanced that they could perform telepathy and telekinesis; use superhuman precognition and senses at phenomenal speed and strength; achieve perfect health, the gift to self-heal rapidly and the power to heal by touch; and the ability to use many parts of their mind to fully focus on something. Spiritual ascension can occur through meditation when one is pure of spirit and in the search for enlightenment and has a fully opened mind, and has shed one’s fears and attachment to the mortal world. In the process of ascension through meditation, many beings obtain the same supernatural abilities that users of the DNA resequencer receive.

Developing spiritually in Ma’at, is based on the principles of alchemy, which was created by our ancestors for the development of the human race. The spirit world is enveloped in electromagnetism that connects with our spirit doubles and other realities. Universal laws govern the realities, and man is capable of transcending all of them. That is what spiritual evolution is about. It is the knowledge of these subtle realities, and how to harness them for spiritual advancement based on Thoth’s laws, that ancient Africans chiseled into the fine art (that marries spirituality with science), used largely today by the Jews and some elite secret societies, and which has given us nanotechnology, such as the Internet.

Our ancestors taught that spiritual development or progress is possible in degrees through disciplined intellect, adoption of ethical principles and balance in one’s life. That one needs to allow disciplined subtle forces, to dominate ones physical essence. The secret knowledge the adepts taught, was about the mastery of these subtle forces progressively to achieve higher consciousness. Initiates, through purity of thoughts and actions, meditation, service to humanity, and spiritual discipline, became perfect in the act. Aggregate spiritual energy source then gradually, fully occupies their forms individually, for their astral journeys to their cosmic destination. There is therefore a clean spiritual-cum-scientific way to grow spiritually without getting involved in diabolical witchcraft. How to acquire the power of the spirits and the forces wholesomely and decently is one of the most highly guarded spiritual secrets in the world.

The system is called alchemy, and it was created by an African teacher described by ancient Africans as the “Thrice Greatest:” the greatest of all philosophers, the greatest of all priests, the greatest of all kings. His African names included: “Thoth,” “Tehuti,” and “Theuth.” The West knows him as “Hermes Trismegistus.” He was the world’s first “Adept” or “Master.” The system of alchemy is the only known way of genuine spiritual development, and is through the transmutation of the spirit. The Book of Thoth, written in hieroglyphic symbols, provides the key to the mysteries and how to acquire power of the spirits and other forces. Thoth, the father of alchemy, taught that everything (animal or vegetable), is composed of one common element or matter. That, the motivating principle or active agent of matter, in the evolutionary process, is spirit. That, this active agent or spirit, could be released to achieve transmutation. That transmutation or the ripening of matter is a common phenomenon to all things, leading ultimately to perfection of prime matter in all things, in unity with the kingdom and purpose of Tu-SoS. That, the ripening process, could be speeded up, through the imitation of nature in the laboratory. That when the perfect metal of nature is achieved, a perfect philosophic, (body), gold, or receptacle, is required to contain the released spirit. That this done, further transmutations are possible through the agency of the philosophic gold or the philosopher’s stone, and the rigorous imitation of nature.

Every living entity is composed of the four elements, (Fire, Water, Air, and Earth), in unison. Each element in turn consists of two qualities as follows: Fire (dryness and heat), Water (moistness and coldness), Air (heat and moistness), Earth (moistness and dryness). An element may change into another by substituting one quality for another. For example, if coldness is replaced with heat in water, it changes into air (vapour). In the same way, transmutation is possible in the human stone through images symbolic of death such as torturing, killing, separating etc. Prime matter is possible only by the reduction of each element to its essence and combined with other refined elements, to reach the chaotic state of original matter i.e., Genesis. This seed of things could then be treated in a warm vessel or womb of resurrection of what had been killed. By freeing and purifying one’s own spirit, a reciprocal event occurs in nature, but this could not be done without first creating the philosopher’s stone. This is the fifth element, which is the Prime matter of the world, the Fiat, the Word, the pneumatic Logos, the Spirit of Tu-SoS.

Tu-SoS and Man cannot be united except through a perfect medium of body. There are twelve stages in the alchemic work; each symbolized by a house of zodiac. Before embarking on the process, one must first bring order into his life. You must be a perfectly virtuous being, thinking no evil and doing no evil, to be able to achieve the benefits of the process. Nigredo symbolizes the death stage. This is the stage when matter being worked on is killed and when basic form is broken down to free the spirit contained in it. This usually is the most difficult aspect of the alchemist’s work. Alchemists describe this stage as a descent into hell, a period of great doubts when the subject could go mad and even also commit suicide. Very few people go beyond this stage and no one has a blue print on how to survive it. All anyone can hope for is to resort to prayers and leave everything to blind fate. This stage is symbolized by torture, amputation, dissolution, and calcinations, by burning waters, decapitation, wounding, flaying, drowning, starvation, separation, and grinding. To achieve all these, one must be separated completely from material comfort, be alone even in a crowd, helpless, hopeless, deprived, and starved silly.

The Albedo is often referred to as the dawn state. This is the stage when one is stepping out of the darkness of nigredo; a time of washing and cleansing of the impurities. The stage represents transition from base lead to silver and is often represented by a feminine figure such as the moon or nature. It is associated with the symbol of rebirth. While nigredo represents a moment of spiritual death, albedo represents a moment of baptism but the sun has not yet made an appearance. The Rubedo is the period of totally new awareness. This stage is marked by symbols of royalty and domination signaling the birth of the philosopher’s stone.

Alchemy, a divine art, has been laced with severe secrecy from day one. Thoth taught the art mainly to the sons of kings. Thoth’s alchemy produced the long stream of African leaders, seers and priests, who pioneered learning and civilization for mankind. The science is, in modern times, associated with magic, mysteries, astrology and chemistry. Francis Bacon believed in the philosopher’s stone, which could turn base matter into gold, and in an elixir of life, to give eternal youth. Modern researches into radioactivity confirm the possibility of transmutation of certain elements. To permanently conceal African contributions, the art was labeled Paganism by the elite who stole the science to use it to control the world. They have benefited immensely from it over the years; particularly through their elite Thoth inspired secret societies that now collectively dominate aspects of the original techniques. When the creators of the art play at it, the usurpers call them Pagans to discourage mass involvement, while secretly appropriating the secret to ensure their permanent stranglehold on the rest of humanity, and particularly the authors of the art.

All ancient African Gods, including Ammon, Tehuti, Ausar, Auset, Heru and others have been assigned a number of creative projects to supervise and nurture to success. One-week of every month for seven months ‘Festival of the Gods’ would take place annually in honour of the relevant African Gods at the Menephtheion, to bring together the leading artistes, scholars and entrepreneurs from around the world in the following disciplines:

Fashion/Cosmetics/Hairdressing and styles Painting/Sculpting/Crafts

Poetry/Writing
Film/Theatre/Video
Music
Dance/Comedy
Spiritual (incorporating the annual pilgrimage) 
The Menephtheion (meaning): the mind and heart of the African world, co-ordinates the thinking, focus and actions of the entire African race. The Menephtheion is the international headquarters of the Pan African Movement and the spiritual heartbeat of the African race. The Menephtheion, in fact, is to the African world, what the Vatican is to the Roman Catholic Church. All the leading thinkers of the African race, in or out of the citadels of learning are entitled to apply to come on the board of Muses through self and or third party recommendations and nominations. Send your resume and previously (published or not) original piece of writing or research work in any field of knowledge, aimed at solving any of our problems uniquely, and moving us forward collectively as a race. The board of Muses of the African race meets once a year to review the Black Agenda and scrupulously vet applications received, and those admitted into the board are honoured at a special annual ceremony and become entitled to use the title: Muse of the Menephtheion (mm. letters after name), or ‘Muse’ before name, and to participate at the annual Congress of Muses of the African race.

Our pre-occupation in Ma’at is to raise members’ self-help efforts to an art through individual involvement, intellect and unity. Our ambition is individual membership involvement and material and spiritual success. Our message is that no individual is alone; we are who we are because we are members of a family, community, society and race. There is no conceited economic baron or leader among us. No competition between members, only love and sharing of our pains and fortunes collectively and honestly. We love our ancestors because they gave us life. Our one name for our ancestors is Ausar. We love humanity because we are all from the same womb. Working patiently and diligently, we hope to use our collective goodwill, abundant physical energy, enthusiasm for hard work, our widow’s mite and love of goodness and truth to build a fortress of virtue and success. This in time would be a magnet on its own to install the ultimate New World Order of virtuous civilization.

Ma’at is not interested in the idle activities of waiting for the return of a Messiah or praying endlessly, which both imply attempts to avoid direct responsibly for one’s actions and self. It is strong on self-empowerment, enlightenment, enrichment, invocation, and the organization of often latent energy to enable the individual excel. It is not fetish but rational, philosophical, pragmatic, and is uncluttered with senseless restrictions. It is lively and boisterous in celebration of the purest essence of life. It is the binding cosmology of our race, and it is not negotiable because before we became Christians or Muslims etc, we were Black and African, and Ma’at represents this peculiar essence in all of us. It represents our souls as a unique people.

When people pray, for instance, it is not to God Yahweh, a White God that we pray, it is to our guardian spirits, or spirits created by us, or spirits that know us individually and care about us, such as of our dead parents, husbands, wives, siblings, children, and close relatives, that we pour out our hearts without knowing that that is what we are doing. They are the only ones whose listening devices or antennas are permanently tuned to us individually, and whose acute undivided attention is forever fixed on us. They are the only ones who take our prayers to heart because they know us intimately and care. They are the ones who try to help as best as possible, despite difficult physical barriers and constraints. They are the ones best positioned to come, and can come quickly to our aid, because they have a stake in our welfare and wellbeing. In some cases, they act out of guilt feeling of having left us abruptly, or so soon before fulfilling certain obligations and commitments owed us as parents, etc.

But when we dump our ancestors for alien ones, we render our saviours and protectors helpless and that is why our pains as a people seem to have no terminal point. Africans are the only race of people in the world worshipping other races’ Gods, Whites, Arabs and so on, and yet we moan endlessly that we are not making progress as a people. We are asking other people’s Gods to liberate us from their children and that is impossibility. Every parent fights to protect his or her own.

Individual spiritual activities. There is a physical and a spiritual nature to man. What tends to happen in real life is that we concentrate all our energies on fulfilling our physical to the detriment of our spiritual needs. In our quests for survival, we crave very hard for material things until such become insatiable and yet our lives remain dodged by all sorts of fear. The fear of losing our properties, loved ones, and of dying so soon, our selves.

We have material comfort and still we remain unfulfilled. Most religions (including Christianity and Islam), insist that we give up material quest for spiritual peace to reign. Even then, pains have refused to abate in the world. African spirituality believes that we can keep our wealth and be free from fear at the same time. That our spiritual and physical nature can be synchronized. That the synchronization requires conscious individual efforts that demand hard work in our chosen careers, unforced, clean, virtuous and wholesome spirit, fasting and healthy eating regime, abstinence from injurious life-threatening habits, and strong devotion to individual meditation. There is nothing mysterious about this. You must give your vocation your best shots at all times; you must be a good person at heart and in spirit; you must eat well and fast now and again, and you must meditate at a given time daily.

Meditate by your-self or with others. Meditation could be for ten, fifteen, thirty or more minutes, depending on the time you have, the complexity of the issues you are ruminating on, convenience, and your physical location at the time. You could meditate whether you are at home or the office or in a public place or in an aircraft, or moving vehicle, including public transport. If you are at home and can find the time, meditation could last for thirty minutes or more.

Choose a time of day or night that suits you best, preferably in the morning, or evening, or at night before going to bed. You should try to stick daily by whatever time you choose, because your spiritual twin would be waiting for you at the time and you can’t afford to keep the spirit waiting. Meditation is not a prayer session.

According to our deputy leader, Charles Roach, ‘prayers raise the mind up to a Supreme Being, outside of physical reality. Meditation taps on inner human forces. Both are therapeutic for the human spirit. Pan-Africa reflection is like preaching to our-selves. Our own inner voice or conscience shapes and informs our duties, obligations and actions. When we meditate, we are not petitioning anyone for anything; nor do we seek salvation through divine intercession. None but ourselves can bring us salvation. We therefore reflect on what we must do to save ourselves. We revisit the lives of our ancestors; we examine other cultures to discover what we can emulate. Meditation and reflection on the past glory and tribulations of our people, as well as pilgrimage to slave ports and transshipment centres, have a transfiguring effect on the individual.’

During meditation, sit if possible, quietly, effecting a relaxed, comfortable, pose. You should sit hassle-free, back erect, on the floor or on a cushion on the floor. It may or may not be a yogi pose since your comfort is paramount. Wear minimum clothing if you are not in public place because your pose or clothes must not cause you pain or distraction. If you cannot meditate sitting on the floor, relax on a chair or bed; close your eyes wherever you are and shut yourself off from the atmosphere around you for the duration of your meditation. You can do it without closing your eyes too, but it is easier to concentrate by blanking out surrounding physical distractions with eyes closed.

Spend the first few minutes, perhaps two to five minutes, quietly without saying a word or trying to think. Take a few deep soft breaths to ease your body. You need to be at peace with yourself, mentally, emotionally and physically. Listen to your heart beat. Let yourself, not just feel, but hear your own heart beat when silent. Then begin to psyche your sub-conscious being, (the deity) inside you. You can do this with others or alone by yourself even in a crowd, with unspoken or quiet spoken words, or murmurs, or you can remain quiet using thoughts only to meditate, accompanied with a tranquil sense of inner peace. You can do it totally with concentrated attention, drawing deeply into your inner self, demanding, psyching, focusing your spiritual half, to synchronize harmoniously with your physical half. There is no Messiah in meditation. If anything, you are your own Messiah, rallying and appropriating to yourself, all possible virtuous spiritual energies which aggregate the ancestral and divine powers of the universe, sometimes called the universal mind to which we all contribute and can partake of or share in.

At home, alone or with others, you can use deep thoughts alone for meditation, or you can combine deep thoughts with or without voice, to psyche your spirit self, demanding what needs to be done. Do this for as long as time permits. Tell your inner self, or the Great Deity inside you, what you want out of life. Detail how and when you want specific projects achieved. Ask for the health and welfare of your family, loved one’s, friends, anything legitimate, reasonable and objective. Be resolute, confident, trusting, assertive.

You must be clean in character, body, and thoughts, to achieve positive results. A thief or sinner would accumulate negative pay back. If you are a worthy person, demand what you want with authority, and confidence. Avoid merely adventurous thoughts. Concentrate and be articulate. After this, stay quiet for two to five minutes. Allow yourself to drift into a trance if you wish, by repeating a word or words concerning your most urgent requirements, or that capture/s your quest precisely and eloquently several times, at each session. You are psyching, and focusing, your spirit twin.

If you want something badly, concentrate on how to achieve it during meditation. Draw up detailed plan of action in your mind during daily meditation and keep refining this for one, two, three, four weeks or even a year or more. Be focused and resolute. Create positive images of fulfillment and identify with them. The length of time it takes to achieve your plans would depend on the hard work you devote to your plans, obstacles put in your way by others, and how spiritually clean you are. Keep quiet again for about two to five minutes to allow your spirit half absorb all you have said and done. If your eyes are closed while meditating, you may or may not need to switch your electric light off. If your electric light is off day or night, you may or may not need to light candle/s. The choice is yours and if you have to light a candle or candles, it could be scented or unscented. Some people meditate with soothing background music and some find this a distraction.

Fasting: Combine meditation with wet fasting for 1, 3 or 7 days, not every time, only during the period of your most urgent and critical quest. During fasting, eat only once in 24 hours. This we call wet fasting. Eat between the hours of 6.00 pm and 8.00 pm, and limit your main meal to not too oily food, which could be rice, beans potatoes, yam, plantains, and vegetables. Your food must not include meat but you can have fish. You can indulge in fasting longer but remember vegetarian diet alone cannot provide you with all the nutrients you need if you limit yourself too long to it. Our dry fasting means not eating in 24 hours. You can indulge in dry fasting for one day in a month, or one day in three months, unless your constitution can take more days. In both wet and dry fasting, you can drink all the water or fruit juices you need, at will. Thanksgiving (Sara): Do thanksgivings to end fasting quests, or once in a month or in three or six months, otherwise. Thanksgiving could be to your virtuous dead parents, patron ancestors, or the universal mind, of which you are part and from which you could draw inner spiritual strength. Sara could include giving of gifts or cash or cooked or uncooked food, to neighbours or total strangers or beggars on the streets. It could also be small gifts to schools or homes or institutions for the destitute. It could be a small get-together at home and is called ‘sara’ in Yoruba, Nigeria, language.

You give within your means and in replacement for what you would have spent on bad habits, such as smoking and alcohol indulgence. You can keep your reasons for the sara to yourself or share them with beneficiaries, (i.e., to thank my ancestors or to tap into virtuous universal energies for what is due to me not to be hindered, or to psyche positive energies around me to continue to work with my inner spiritual force, to strengthen my resolve and focus.

The simple steps listed here are enough to transform your life spiritually and as you become more adept at what you do, you will begin to hear your sub-conscious voice speak to you. Images and signs would begin to manifest in your dreams to sign post your direction. Your personality, intellect, self-discipline, and confidence, would begin to glow, and you would start to lose the fear of death, or any other fear. Turn your body into a clean temple (Cradle) of virtue and the world would be at your feet.

Everything you do counts, the kind of food you eat, your thoughts and actions all the time, your morality, your level of self-discipline and spirituality, all contribute to make you a great success in life. Be honest, open and accommodating, in your man, woman, relationships, and be the best brother or sister, there can be, to your loved ones, other Ma’ats and your friends and neighbours. As you develop spiritually you become immersed in the MA’AT principles of virtuous spirituality in preparation for higher callings in the Ma’at Cosmology.

If you follow our rather simple spiritual regime you would in no time lose all your fears and as you grow in Ma’at’s spirituality, and begin to acquire the power of the gods and a significant measure of control over your material and spiritual destiny. When one is called a member of the Ma’at family, it means the person is holistically focused, and is a strong pillar of strength in society. A Ma’at member is mentally stable and reliable; morally disciplined and upright, and is invariably a great family person. The Ma’at member is a lover of knowledge and an avid reader. Nothing is taboo to read to expand the member’s mind and spiritual horizon.

Group activities in Ma’at. Like kabbalism, Ma’at is a tightly knit family group, influential and directly or indirectly controlling a good chunk of local resources by virtue of hard work. Ma’at members therefore love hard work and hate being idle. They believe nothing comes easy so they put in everything they have, energy, brains and resources to excel. Members meeting place is called the ‘Ma’at,’ or ‘Mwanzo,’ or ‘Cradle,’ (or any other appropriate name in native dialect for the Cradle), just as the Church is to Christians. Members gather at the ‘Ma’at’ on a Sunday (the ancient African feast day), in a boisterous, lively, social gathering and co-operative society-like atmosphere. ‘Ma’at’ branches can add peculiar local flair and embellishments to their merry-making to capture strong community ethos. The gathering is called AFEFE (meaning, Ma’at wind that soothes and caresses), and is laced with happy revelry, suffused with drumming, singing and dancing.

A major event of the day is a lecture by a special guest of honour who may or may not be a member of Ma’at but who is knowledgeable, or is an expert in his field of lecture. The opportunity is used to invite scholars, important people in the community, government, or commerce, to educate the Ma’at members on the latest national issues and debates as they affect their well-being. Every lecture must leave the audience better informed and grateful for attending. A short question and answer session is encouraged after the speaker’s presentation.

After the lecture session, the congregation transforms into Mjane Msaada community empowerment parliament to set up projects, make levies, assign jobs and receive reports, on what have been accomplished. Mjane Msaada requires every member of the Ma’at branch to contribute an agreed levy weekly, (could be fifty, or a hundred or more units of the local currency), into a pool called Mjane Msaada, which the Ma’at branch builds up to finance projects. Members’ contributions are compulsory. So, why pay tithes, thanksgiving, etc., to enrich Priests and Alfas, when you can invest all that money in yourself in the Ma’at? A well run Ma’at branch, is expected to become a successful, efficient and highly respected hub of social, spiritual, cultural, political, intellectual and economic activities in its community within a short time. Three to five years at the most, buying up manufacturing companies, large farms and housing estates for members, office complexes to let, schools, investing in the stock exchange etc., and turning members into millionaires and business tycoons. Members are entitled to receive priority employment advantage in their Ma’at businesses as long as the applicants are qualified for the jobs.

Every race has her spiritual base. The Caucasians, Rome and Jerusalem; Arabs, Mecca, and are making millions of dollars from thousands of African spiritual tourists and pilgrims yearly. African Pilgrimage, AP, is an annual event, and takes off in March/April of every year. The first AP is planned for 2017 in Nigeria. AP brings together all the ideological tendencies and movements of the African race in celebration of our oneness and triumph as a people, and to pay homage to our illustrious ancestors. AP celebrates the family unity of all the children of Africa, from Cuba, Jamaica, Antigua, Barbados, Brazil, Guyana, Zimbabwe, Europe, USA, Australia, Ghana, South Africa, Nigeria etc. AP is to the African race, what the annual pilgrimage to Mecca is to the Arabs, or to Jerusalem is to the Christians.

With the coming on stream of the African Union (AU), the political sting of the irregular Pan African Congresses of the Pan African Movement has now become largely cosmetic. AP replaces the Pan African Congresses from the 8th Congress, to provide the anchor and propelling force for Black unity and ascendance. All future Pan-African Congresses would be known as AP, the African Pilgrimage. The African Union (AU), despite its constitutional and operational weaknesses, has considerably diluted the political importance of the Pan-African Congresses and almost rendered them irrelevant.

AP would concentrate on the areas of comparative advantage and through moral persuasion, discipline and scholarship, maintain a vibrant lobby on the AU, to ensure comprehensive, fused, and focused, self-fulfillment, advancement, and ascendance, of the entire African race. The African Union (AU) is to be lobbied, to be strengthened, to take care of the political aspirations of the entire Black race, while the Pan-African Movement, known also as (APU) the African Peoples’ Union, concentrates on the spiritual through Ma’at.

Every Black person in the world, every Ma’at member must perform AP, the African Pilgrimage, at least, once in a lifetime. The seven-day long pilgrimage, involves meetings of leaders, cultural ceremonies and events, exhibitions, seminars, spiritual home coming rituals, offers of reverences, and a mammoth carnival procession. Each pilgrim ritually slaughters a goat to the spirits of our ancestors during the pilgrimage week. Every male who has performed the pilgrimage is entitled to use the title ‘Azah’ (or Azahaaze in full) before name. Female counterparts use the title: ‘Azinii’ (or Aziniida in full) before name. Both titles mean spiritually cleansed. AP is expected to grow into one of the biggest, liveliest, spiritually fulfilling, attractive cultural, intellectual, commercial and tourists events and destinations in the world. Calabar or Badagry in Nigeria would serve as the dream venue and permanent site for the annual African Pilgrimage. Calabar has a vibrant spiritual culture and strong physical memory. It was a major seaport for slavery, providing access to slaves from the interior of Africa. In fact, 27% of all African slaves went through the Calabar port, whereas Ghana, Senegal and the Gambia combined, had only 10%.

Badagry was actually our first choice home for the African pilgrimage. That was why we held our first Black Think Tank meeting there in August 1992. The Oba of Badagry was very happy with the prospects and he gave us maximum cooperation and encouragement, but as we got nearer actualization date, the nightmarish congestion on the Expressway from Lagos to Badagry and the lack of amenities in Badagry to support bringing thousands of people there yearly for a day or a week, began to force us to re-order our plans. That is how Calabar came into the picture, the new TINAPA facilities there, were the lure but Calabar on its own confronted us with transportation logistic nightmare. Now we can transfer the annual week-long African spiritual pilgrimage back to Badagry because the Lagos State Government has embarked on expanding the Lagos – Badagry Expressway from four lanes to ten, and would provide a mono-rail and rapid bus services on the route by the end of 2013. Several cities are being developed as additional pilgrimage experience points and include: the Ogun shrine, the Yemoja festival in Oshogbo and the Oro festival in Ogun state. The Igue festival in Benin City, and the Sukur kingdom mountain in Maiduguri. The Kerengwa water falls in Nasarawa with its therapeutic health benefits. Nasarawa also provides the opportunity to visit the God of the Sun at home.

Membership of the Ma’at-Pan-African Movement-African People’s Union is the birthright of every Black person in the world. The right is inherited at birth, the same way we acquire our family names the day we were born. When you subscribe to your Ma’at-Pam-Apu birthright, you are helping to build one of the greatest Movements of people the world has ever known. Ma’at is the spiritual incubator of the Movement. Just as an Israeli is a Jew, nurtured and driven by kabbalism, a Pan-Africanist or Black is first and foremost a member of the Ma’at. Ma’at is the binding cosmology of our race, and it is not negotiable because before we became Christians, or adherents of the Islamic faith etc, we were Black and African, and Ma’at represents this peculiar essence in all of us. It represents our souls as a unique people.

Ma’at family Study Group meetings start with a quiet moment of meditation say for 2 to 5 minutes, depending on choice of the group. Attention at the meetings is given to how to build up membership, and how to help each other grow in legitimate individual activities as a member of an indivisible family group; the promotion of spiritual and social cohesion among members, and the provision of community services to help improve the transformation of our environments generally for public good. Each member volunteers time and resources to help each other and to help solve identifiable, quantifiable projects and activities useful to the group or the neighbourhood, to arrest decay and put them on the path of wealth building for the Ma’at family members. We want people who would help us take back our leadership of the world legitimately with brains and brawns. We want people who by dint of hard work and sharing, as one indivisible family in the Ma’at, would become and are seen to be among the most successful and virtuous human beings in the world. We want to win our respect back as the ancestors of the human race, the origin, the first born, because our time has come and we cannot afford to leave you behind. So, if you are Black, regardless of where you may be living in the world right now, you are an African and that means you are of the cradle, the origin, the first, and the first is the best in any language. Join the potentially one billion members’ strong African revolt.

We are taking back our leadership of the world from where our ancestors were pushed off inelegantly some 2000 years ago. Join us to colonize the world with our African walk, African swagger, African songs, African dance, African fashion, African science, African technology, African creativity, African business acumen, African scholarship, African spirituality, African joy and reverence for life. Join us to start the most thorough, most ennobling, most comprehensive, most profound revolution in human history. Join us to launch mankind’s final revolt – the destruction of hate, oppression, marginalization and racism. Join us to enthrone a world that cares, a world of love, a world that belongs to all who dwell in it. To start a Ma’at branch or to join us is easy. If you are African and do not belong to any religious faith, or you are already a leader, teacher, student, follower or adherent of Ma’at, whether in South America, USA, Canada, the Caribbean, the Pacific, Europe, Asia or Africa, you are welcome to join the universal Ma’at movement now. It is compulsory for all Africans and Blacks worldwide to switch to Ma’at right away, whether they are Christians; Muslims; adherents of traditional African faiths such as Sango, Olokun Ogun, Amadioha etc or followers of other none African religions or spiritual movements. When you switch, you can no longer practice your old faith. All that is required of you is the desire to get a Ma’at branch started or to join one near you. Two books have been prepared for the spiritual revolution. They are (a) The end of knowledge and (b) Ma’at: truth and justice. While waiting for the books, use this document to get started.

We expect you to start by inviting family members, friends and neighbours to join your Study Group and to probably start off with two or three or four members, meeting initially once a week in your home or at a chosen venue. Each member of your group is expected to invite family members, friends and neighbours to every follow-up weekly meeting, which could then be in rotation at the homes of other members that you all agree upon or that volunteer to host such meetings. We expect initially that people living in the same condo, or next door to one another, or neighbouring streets or district, or within a block or two or three of each other, or at a school, college, or work place, would begin to come together weekly as a Ma’at family group to study our two books an thoroughly familiarize themselves with what the Ma’at spirituality and movement is about. Every member of the Ma’at family study group and of Ma’at generally would be expected to get a copy each of our two mobilization books: (a) The end of knowledge and (b) Ma’at, truth and justice, eventually, to assist members individually and as a group in their studies and to serve as guide and reference documents and as comforting spiritual companions for the rest of their individual lives.

When the Study Group has grown into a family of (say twenty or more members), and the group is satisfied that members understand what Ma’at and the Movement are about, the group then elects officers such as Aggar-Ra or Agger-Re and so on, and registers and subscribes to the movement, to receive a reference code to form a street, community, work place, school, state or national Ma’at branch of the Ma’at-Pan African Movement-African People’s Union, and to be entitled as a branch to the following:

(a) A registration code number
(b) ONE BLACK WORLD, the Ma’at-Pam-Apu newsletter.
(c) Join the ‘Reparations’ Brigade.
(d) Join the Ma’at-Pan-Apu Passport (PAP) lobby.
(e) Be guided on repatriation/relocation strategies to Africa, which includes cultivation of dual citizenship of your birth place and of an African country of your choice on the continent. In the first instance, we have acquired acres of rural land in Nigeria (and more acres of land are being negotiated) for those desirous of immediate relocation to Africa.

(f) Join the Ma’at-Pam-Apu.
(g) Participate in ASSAP, the annual African Spiritual Summit and Pilgrimage.

(h) Hold office in Ma’at-Pam-Apu.
(i ) Aspire and if qualified, become a Muse of the Menephtheion (mm.).

(j) And, of course, be a shareholder in the African World Bank (AWB) along with every other African alive, through the Zawadi Kwafrica Fund.

We want people who would help us take back our leadership of the world legitimately with brains and brawns. We want people who by dint of hard work and sharing, as one indivisible family in the Ma’at, would become and are seen to be among the most successful and virtuous human beings in the world. We want to win our respect back as the ancestors of the human race, the origin, the first born, because our time has come and we cannot afford to leave you behind.

So, if you are Black, regardless of where you may be living in the world right now, you are an African and that means you are of the cradle, the origin, the first, and the first is the best in any language. Join the potentially one billion members’ strong African revolt. We are taking back our leadership of the world from where our ancestors were pushed off inelegantly some 2000 years ago. Join us to colonize the world with our African walk, African swagger, African songs, African dance, African fashion, African industry, African science, African technology, African creativity, African business acumen, African scholarship, African spirituality, African joy, reverence and love for life.

Join us to start the most thorough, most ennobling, most comprehensive, most profound revolution in human history. Join us to launch mankind’s final revolt – the destruction of hate, oppression, marginalization and racism, to enthrone a world that cares, a world of love, a world that belongs to all who dwell in it.

NAIWU OSAHON Hon. Khu Mkuu (Leader) World Pan-African Movement); Ameer Spiritual (Spiritual Prince) of the African race; MSc. (Salford); Dip.M.S; G.I.P.M; Dip.I.A (Liv.); D. Inst. M; G. Inst. M; G.I.W.M; A.M.N.I.M. Poet, Author of the magnum opus: ‘The end of knowledge’. One of the world’s leading authors of children’s books; Awarded; key to the city of Memphis, Tennessee, USA; Honourary Councilmanship, Memphis City Council; Honourary Citizenship, County of Shelby; Honourary Commissionership, County of Shelby, Tennessee; and a silver shield trophy by Morehouse College, USA, for activities to unite and uplift the African race.

Naiwu Osahon: the Sage of the New World Order, renowned author, philosopher of science, mystique, leader of the world Pan-African Movement.

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 The History of Ouidah aka Juda, Judea Judah Whydah

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Crowning of the King of Whydah, by Jacob van der Schley (1715-1779)

The Kingdom of Whydah /ˈhwɪdə/ was a kingdom on the coast of West Africa in the boundaries of the modern nation of Benin. Between 1677 and 1681 it was conquered by the Akwamu, one of the Akan people.[1] It was a major slave trading post. In 1700, it had a coastline of around 16 kilometres (10 mi);[2]under King Haffon, this was expanded to 64 km (40 mi), and stretching 40 km (25 mi) inland.[3]

The Kingdom of Whydah was centered in Savi. The last ruler of Whydah was King Haffon, who was deposed in 1727, when Whydah was conquered (and annexed) by the Kingdom of Dahomey.

 
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The name Whydah (also spelt HuedaWhidah or Whidaw) is an anglicised form of Xwéda(pronounced o-wi-dah), from the Yoruba language of Benin. Today the port city of Ouidah, in the far west of the former Popo Kingdom where most of the European slave traders lived and worked, bears the kingdom’s name.

The area gives its name to the native whydah bird, and to pirate captain “Black Sam” Bellamy‘sWhydah Gally, a slave ship turned pirate ship, whose wreck has been explored in Massachusetts.

Life inside WhydahEdit

According to one European account visiting in 1692–1700, Whydah exported some thousand slaves a month, mainly from the interior of Africa. For this reason, it has been considered a “principal market” for human beings. When the king could not supply the European traders with sufficient slaves, he would supplement them with his own wives. Robbery was common. Every thing in Whydah paid a toll to the king, but corruption amongst collectors was endemic. Despite this, the king was wealthy, and clothed in gold and silver—goods of which little was known in Whydah. He commanded great respect, and, unusually, was never seen to eat. The color red was reserved for the royal family.

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The king was considered immortal, despite successive kings dying of natural causes. Interregna, even of only a few days, were met by plundering and anarchy. Wives were isolated and protected by their husbands; fathers with more than two hundred children had been recorded. Three public objects were the subject of devotion: some lofty trees, the sea, and a type of snake. This snake was the subject of many stories and incidents; worshipped perhaps because it ate the rats who would otherwise ruin the harvest.[4] Priests and priestesses were held in high regard, and immune from capital punishment. The king could field 200,000 men, but these were “so weak and cowardly” that they could easily be defeated.[2] In comparison, other estimates range upward from twenty thousand, although contemporary interpretation is generally that these armies were of “overwhelming size”. Battles were normally won by strength of numbers alone, with the weaker side fleeing.[5]

European PresenceEdit

With King Haffon’s rise to power in 1708, European trade companies had established a significant presence in Whydah and were in constant competition to win to King’s favor. The French Company of the Indies presented Haffon with two ships worth of cargo and an extravagant Louis XIV-style throne while the British Royal African Company gifted a crown for the newly appointed King. Such practices illustrate the high level of dependence European traders had on native African powers in the beginning of the 18th century and also the close relationship that emerged between the two entities. This association is further reiterated by the fact that Dutch, British, French, and Portuguese trading company compounds all bordered the walls of Haffon’s royal palace in the city of Savi. These compounds served as important centers of diplomatic and commercial exchange between European companies and the Kingdom of Whydah.

While company compounds facilitated the interaction between European traders and native Africans, the true center of European operations in Whydah were the various forts that existed along the coast near the town of Glewe. Owned by the Portuguese Crown, the French Company of the Indies, and the British Royal African Company, the forts were mainly used to store slaves and trading merchandise. Made up of mud walls, the forts provided tolerable protection for the Europeans but were not strong enough to withstand a legitimate attack from the natives. Furthermore, because the forts were located more than three miles inland, cannons could not effectively protect European ships in the harbor and anchored ships could not come to the aid of the forts in times of need. In this sense, while the forts showcased some degree of European influence, the reality was that the Europeans relied heavily on the king for protection and local natives for sustenance and firewood. This relationship would take a drastic turn with the decline of royal authority and increase of internal power struggles throughout the 18th and 19th centuries that gave way to French colonization of the region in 1872. [6]

Takeover by the DahomeyEdit

In 1727, Whydah was conquered by King Agaja of the Kingdom of Dahomey.[4] This incorporation of Whydah into Dahomey transformed the latter into a significant regional power. However, constant warfare with the Oyo Empire from 1728 to 1740 resulted in Dahomey becoming a tributary state of the Oyo.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Whydah

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Ouidah /ˈwdə/, historically called also Whydah /ˈhwdə/Juda,[2] Juida by the French[3] and Ajudá by the Portuguese,[4] formally the Kingdom of Whydah (so named for the Whydah Bird of Paradise), is a city on the coast of the Republic of Benin. The commune covers an area of 364 km2 (141 sq mi) and as of 2002 had a population of 76,555 people.[5]

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The kingdom of Juda use to appear on the West African map

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Guinea, the forest and coastal areas of western Africa between the tropic of Cancer and the equator. Derived from the Berber word aguinaw, or gnawa, meaning “black man” (henceakal n-iguinamen, or “land of the black men”), the term was first adopted by the Portuguese and, in forms such as Guinuia, Ginya, Gheneoa, and Ghinea, appears on European maps from the 14th century onward.

https://www.britannica.com/place/Guinea-region-Africa

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The Jewish presence in Africa began to expand significantly in the second and third centuries of the Christian era, extending not only into the Sahara desert, but also reaching down along the West African coast, and possibly also to some Bantu tribes of Southern Africa (where some 40,000 members of the Lemba tribe still claim Jewish roots). The names of old Jewish communities south of the Atlas mountains, many of which existed well into Renaissance times, can be found in documents in synagogue archives in Cairo.

In addition, Jewish, Arab and Christian accounts cite the existence of Jewish rulers of certain tribal groups and clans identifying themselves as Jewish scattered throughout Mauritania, Senegal, the Western Sudan, Nigeria, and Ghana. Among notable Arab historians referring to their existence are Ibn Khaldun, who lived in the 13th century, a respected authority on Berber history; the famous geographer al-Idrisi, born in Ceuta, Spain in the 12th century, who wrote about Jewish Negroes in the western Sudan; and the 16th century historian and traveler Leon Africanus, a Moslem from Spain who was raised by a Jewish woman working in his family’s household, who is said to have taught him Hebrew and emigrated with the family to Morocco in 1492. Leon Africanus later converted to Catholicism but remained interested in Jewish communities he encountered throughout his travels in West Africa.

History: Jewish Roots in Africa by George E. Lichtblau (1968) – Kulanu.org

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Some ancient African Jewish communities are well known, such those across Mediterranean North Africa as well as some of the Lemba in Ethiopia. Some recent scholarship has claimed Jewish Ancestry for several different groups of the Lemba, even as far further south as Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. These scholars believe that the traditions of people like the Lemba are pre-Second Temple Israelite and have a Southern Arabian (Yemeni) and Ethiopian origin.

Historically several other Jewish groups also existed in the Bilad el-Sudan of West Africa, as well as along the coast and islands of that region. Researchers have claimed the possibility that groups of the Igbo, Ibibio and Annang of South Eastern Nigeria, as well as several clusters in the Cameroon might also have Jewish ancestry. However whether or not this is the case, most of these groups have certainly become non-halachic over the centuries and many are now Christian or Muslim. Even where they have provable Jewish cultural practices, they have often had no access to the Talmud and no knowledge of the later feasts such as Purim and Chanukkah.

Other historical sources recorded Jewish Communities living in the ancient African Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and later Songhay empires for over eight hundred years between 790 and 1600. Some of these Jews had travelled south from Egypt through Chad. Some Jews were forcibly exiled to Africa from Europe, notably from Portugal and Spain. Still others were known to have come to Africa from as far away as Yemen, some originally as war captives.

Some Jewish communities began southward migrations from Morocco (and Egypt) in North Africa, and even from Portugal after Christian persecution of Portuguese Jews. Others were seeking to move away from the increasing Islamic rule in North Africa. Many Jewish groups remained in the Sahara and in Sub-Saharan Africa even after the rise of Islam, in addition to the better known groups in Eastern Central and Southern Africa.

http://www.travelujah.com/blogs/entry/Ancient-African-Jews

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Below Ashanti Ghana & Dahomey Benin Jews

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The Bnai Ephraim (“Children of Ephraim”) from Nigeria, live among the Yoruba nationalities. Their oral history tells that the Bnai Ephraim people came from Morocco after the Jews were banished from the Iberian Pennisula sometime after 1492.

They speak a dialect that is a mixture of Moroccan Arabic, Yoruba, and Aramaic. They are known by the Yoruba people as the “Emo Yo Quaim”, or “strange people”. Unlike other African Israelite communities in Nigeria, the Bnai Ephraim have the Torah, portions of which they keep in their sanctuaries.

The name Lagos borne by the former capital of Nigeria is a Portugese/Iberian name meaning the lake. Lagos is an Island carved up by lagoons, swamps and lakes. Its traditional Nigerian name is Eko.

Thousands of black refugee Jews of Iberia re-settled in the environs of Lagos and Porto Novo (as well as in Cape Verde, Guinea Buissa, and in Sao Tome either as slaves or outlaws). Some groups eventually made it deeper inland and became assimilated into one nationality or the other.

https://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-yoruba-and-other-canaanitehebrew-israelites-of-nigeria/

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Below 1770 map shows kingdom of Juda and Deserts of Seth
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Watch the below clip
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The Untold Story: Revised Edition

Edgar Shaw · 2010 · Reference

Some scholars have located black Jews within the whole Niger River bend; the countries in this territory that have contained Black African Jews include the following: Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Toga, Dahomey, …

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The white line is the river Niger. The map shows the mouths of the Niger as it splits in two in Benin. This map which was made in the 17th century shows the British American and Portuguese Colonists situated on the West African coast.

The Niger River (/ˈnər/French(le) fleuve Nigerpronounced [(lə) flœv niʒɛʁ]) is the principalriver of western Africa, extending about 4,180 km (2,600 mi). Its drainage basin is 2,117,700 km2(817,600 sq mi) in area.[3]6 Its source is in the Guinea Highlands in southeastern Guinea. It runs in a crescent through MaliNiger, on the border with Benin and then through Nigeria, discharging through a massive delta, known as the Niger Delta or the Oil Rivers, into the Gulf of Guinea in theAtlantic Ocean. The Niger is the third-longest river in Africa, exceeded only by the Nile and the Congo River (also known as the Zaïre River). Its main tributary is the Benue River.

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Next door to Dahomey were the Ashanti and Fanti in the Gold Coast Ghana

See below

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Western Africaregion of the western African continent comprising the countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. Western Africa is a term used in the Encyclopædia Britannica to designate a geographic region within the continent of Africa. The term West Africa is also often used to refer to this part of the continent. As conventionally understood, however, West Africa is primarily a political and economic designation and comprises all the areas considered here except Cameroon, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, and the Saharan parts of Mali, Mauritania, and Niger.

https://www.britannica.com/place/western-Africa

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The Fon children

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From the 15th through the 18th century Benin carried on an active trade in ivory, palm oil, and pepper with Portuguese and Dutch traders, for whom it served as a link with tribes in the interior of western Africa. It also profited greatly from the slave trade.

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Yoruba women below

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The first rulers listed in Genesis 4-6 lived in the Chad Basin during the late Holocene. This includes Kain, Seth, Enoch and Noah. At that time Lake Chad had an area of close to 200,000 miles. As the climate changed and the water level receded, what was once a single lake became at least three separate lakes: Lake Chad, Lake Bodele and Lake Fitri. The 10,000 year skeletons unearthed by Paul Sereno at Gobero in Niger were buried on the edge of a paleolake on the northwestern rim of the Chad Basin. The Gobero site is the earliest known cemetery in the Sahara and the large lake was likely another part of Lake Mega-Chad.

Noah and the other Chadic rulers of Genesis controlled commerce on the interconnected waters systems. These were their roads by which they conquered other territories and spread their worldview.

The Oldest Known Language

The "Dufuna boat" is about 4000 years older than the oldest boat found in Egypt.

Chadic is one of the best researched branches of the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. According to Genesis, the first rulers: Kain, Seth and Enoch are associated with the region where Chadic is spoken.  This includes Chad, Northern Cameroon, Northern Nigeria, and Southeastern Niger in an area around Lake Chad. The area is called Bor’No, which means “Land of Noah.” This is the only region on Earth that has place names reflecting the rulers listed in Genesis 4 and 5.

Read more: http://newsrescue.com/discovery-nigerias-borno-biblical-land-noah-genesis-4-5/#ixzz55sbjGbvP

Below Kano in Nigeria and Kanuri inhabitants 

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The name “Borno” is from the name “Bornu” and the name “Bornu” was coined from the word “Bahar-Nuhu”. “Bahar-Nuhu” is a combination of two Arabic words; Bahr (Arabic: بحر) meaning Sea and Nuhu is a name in the holy Quran referring to Prophet Nuhualaihis-salaam (Arabic: نوح ,translit. Nūḥ ) who is also referred to as Noah in the holy Bible (Injila) and the holy Atorah (Old testament). So literally Bahar-Nuhu means the “Sea of Nuhu”. “BAHAR + NUHU” = SEA OF NUHU (SEA OF NOAH)” However the name Bahar –Nuhu transformed over time to become Bornu and later Borno. Bahar-Nuhu => Bornu =>Borno Reason of calling Borno as BaharNuhu:In accordance to the history of Nuhu given in the holy books (Quran, Bible and Torah) that during his lifetime the entire World was once submerged by sea water. Existing archaeological evidences also proved that the entire World (Earth) was once under waterwith no dry spot left. The history also stated that the water disappeared after sometimes probably days, months or years. So after this greatflooding Landsreappeared, mountainswere exposed, Valleys reemerged, rivers and seas came back to live, but land locked Lakes especially the Lake Mega Chad and later Lake Chad referred to as the Bahar-Nuhu remains filled up due to its landlocked low land depression nature withno connectivity to any lower land tributaries like rivers, Seas or Oceans to empty its watersbut the Bahar-Nuhu remains characterized with constant physical shrinking of its surface water since then through direct sinking of the water in to the ground and through Evapo-Transpiration (Water to Air conversion through heat and wind systems). To logically prove this part of history is by observing at the physical geography of the presently shrinking“Bahar-Nuhu” (Lake Chad),which shrank to its present size of just 1,350 km2 (520 mi2) as at 2005 and located at Coordinates 13°0′N 14°0′E,
ORIGIN AND MEANING OF BORNO (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320808718_ORIGIN_AND_MEANING_OF_BORNO [accessed Jan 31 2018].

 

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The Kanuri people (KanouriKanowri, also Yerwa and several subgroup names) are an African ethnic group living largely in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in NigerNigeria and Cameroon. Those generally termed Kanuri include several subgroups and dialect groups, some of whom feel themselves distinct from the Kanuri. Most trace their origins to ruling lineages of the medieval Kanem-Bornu Empire, its client states or provinces. In contrast to neighboring Toubou or Zaghawa pastoralists, Kanuri groups have traditionally been sedentary, engaging in farming, fishing the Chad Basin, and engaged in trade and salt processing.[5]

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Hanoch

(dedicated).

  1. The third in order of the children of Midian. (Genesis 25:4)
  2. Eldest son of Reuben, (Genesis 46:9Exodus 6:14Numbers 26:51 Chronicles 5:3) and founder of the family of the Hanochites. (Numbers 26:5)

 

Strong’s Hebrew

2585. Chanok — four Israelites, sons of Cain, Jered, Midian and 
 Word Origin from the same as chek Definition four Isr., sons of Cain, Jered, Midian
and Reuben NASB Word Usage Enoch (10), Hanoch (6). Enoch.  
/hebrew/2585.htm – 6k

 

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Enoch (18 Occurrences)
 (1.) The eldest son of Cain (Genesis 4:17), who built a city east of Eden in the
land of Nod, and called it “after the name of his son Enoch.” This is ENOCH

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Igbo History Hebrew Exiles of Eri:

Omabala Aguleri · 2014 · History

Some left Zaria/Nok culture areas of Benue Plateau and camped at lgala (1 Chron 3: 22) and ‘Edom’ or ldoma ( Is 63: 1) It was obvious at this stage that the Hebrew Israelites were heading towards the Eastern region…

Benue-Plateau State is a former administrative division of Nigeria

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Jews are made up of the Ancient Southern Kingdom of Israel which was comprised of the Tribes of Judah, Levi and a small portion of Benjamin. They were taken off into Babylonian captivity which eventually ended and some of them decided to stay in Babylon but the majority of them returned to the Land of Israel to rebuild Jerusalem, its walls and the Temple. The descendants of these Jews are who we recognize as the Jewish People today, who now reside on vitually every continent of the world.

 

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Judah and Levi are one of these Tribes that traveled far and wide and can be found wherever Hebrews and or Israelites can be found. It is almost certain Judah can be found among the Igbo People. They likely traveled with Gad’s sons Eri, Areli and Arodi with Levi and Zebulon and others such as the Egyptians and Babylonians who made their way to Nigeria.

Even when the Northern Kingdom of Israel was steeped deep I paganism and idolatry Judah faired not much better, but were nonetheless known as the keepers of custom, culture and traditions of the Hebrew People and even today the Jewish Faith is named after their Tribe.

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Because the traditions and customs (Omeana) of the Igbo People parallel that of Judaism in almost every way, testifies to the fact that Judah is most certainly among and apart of the Igbo. The Uda clan of Enugu state say they are from the Tribe of Judah.

Another way that Judah ended up in Nigeria is that the students of Babylonian Jewish Rabbi, Abba ben Ibo due to persecution fled to Africa via the Sahara, Nuba and eventually settled in Nigeria.

Some who claim the Ebonites were a faction or splinter group of the Essenes (some being students of descendants of the students of Rabbi Ibo) fled to Africa after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in 70 A.D.

Furthermore it is believed by some that Rabbi Ibo and even the Ebonites were black and that the word Ebony comes from the Ebo in Ebonite; Ebo meaning poor in monetarily and implied in a spiritual sense of being wealthy. Many ancient cultures revere the color black and the black man as a symbol of great wisdom and prophetic insight. But were some Jews Black?

It is believed that the handmaids Zilpah and Bilah were Canaanite or half Canaanite, thus from Noah’s son Hamm and therefore black women. Thus the tribes of Israel they bore would have been darker than the Tribes Rachel and Leah birthed. Rachel and Leah, like Jacob came from Noah’s son Shem, the father of the Hebrew and Arab peoples and is believed to be dark, but lighter than Hamm.

Also note that Judah had children by Tamar (Gen. 38) who was a Canaanite woman and therefore, black. King Solomon of Judah whose mother was from Sheba was a black woman and Solomon is rumored to have had a son by the Queen of Sheba. Song of Solomon reveals that Solomon definitely had at least one (albeit more) black wife. Also recall that Moses married a Cushite woman. Cush coming from Hamm and his son Canaan, therefore black and thus establishing black Levites such as is found among the Ethiopian Lemba Tribe who DNA tests prove them to be descendants of Levi, possibly sent back with Queen Sheba and the son her and Solomon was said to have with her.

Finally recall Abraham who married Hagar also believed to be a black Egyptian woman. All Egyptians were black people prior to the Hyksos. Thus the door is blown open wide for there to be plenty of black Jews and Hebrews. In fact, the White Jews and Hebrews may very well be in the minority considering all the Lost Tribes. Not to mention the exiles of Judah and Israel and them having children by peoples of the lands where they had been exiled, some of which were black. The Jews and Hebrews who found themselves in Nigeria intermarried with the indigenous people already occupying Nigeria when Gad’s son Eri and the others from Israel came. And so it is entirely plausible and almost certain that there are Jews of Judah among the Igbo.

Professor O. Alaezi in his book Ibo Exodus says on pages 128-129:

“The Ibo towns and villages are Jewish Item, to start with, is from the Jewish name “Etam” (pronounced as it is written in Hebrew) from the family of Zorathites of the tribe of Judah (see I Chronicles 4:3). There is a counterpart Item town, Itam near Utyo in Akwa Ibom, also pronounced as the original Etam.

 

Etam  &  Yaounde below on map

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Our immediate neighbors are also of the same tribe of Judah. Examples. Alayi (see “Alayi” of the tribe of Judah I Chron. 2:31); Ugwueke (of “Eker” of the tribe of Judah – I Chron. 2:27); Edda of “Eldad” (See Numbers 11:27). Akaeze (“Eker Ezer”), and so on. Jewish family names that are still prevalent in Tem include Amaeke (of “Eker), Amukabi (or Umuakabia as written in other parts of Iboland) – of “Abia” I Chron. 3:10); Abieye from ‘Prohet Abieye’, one of the minor Prophets of Israel, Ete from “Ether” – Joshua 15:34), Amabo Okoko (“Akan” I Chron. 1:34). Eleke (“Helek”, – Numbers 6:30); Erinma (of “Eri” – Gen. 46:16); Eke (“Eker”, I Chron. 2:27) Eze (“Ezer”, Neh, 3:19); Offia (“Ophra”, I Chron. 4:13); Ubani (“Uban”, Ezra 2:10) Alaezi (“Eliezer”, Exd. 18:14). Onam or Unam (“Onam” I Chrn. 1:40) Iheaka (“El Iheaka”, one of the attribute nameas of God); Usa (name of person in Okoko Item) from the Hebrew name, Joshua pronounced as Yoshua. ‘J’ is pronounced ‘y’ in Hebrew. We also have Isi or Isi (See “Ishi”, I Chron. 4:20). Examples. Isiosu, Amabo, Okok Item, Umuisi in Igbere, Ishiagu, Isiokpo, Ishi Nnewi, Amichi, Umuichi, etc…”

http://www.hebrewigbo.com/judah.html

 

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The similarity of the Hebrew, Arabic and Aramaic languages was accepted by Jewish and Islamic scholars since medieval times. The languages were familiar to Western European scholars due to historical contact with neighbouring Near Eastern countries and through Biblical studies, and a comparative analysis of Hebrew, Arabic, and Aramaic was published in Latin in 1538 by Guillaume Postel.[13] Almost two centuries later, Hiob Ludolf described the similarities between these three languages and the Ethiopian Semitic languages.[13]However, neither scholar named this grouping as “Semitic”.[13]

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The term “Semitic” was created by members of the Göttingen School of History, and specifically by August Ludwig von Schlözer[14] (1781)[15] and Johann Gottfried Eichhorn[16](1787)[17] first coined the name “Semitic” in the late 18th century to designate the languages closely related to Arabic, Aramaic, and Hebrew.[14] The choice of name was derived from Shem, one of the three sons of Noah in the genealogical accounts of the biblical Book of Genesis,[14] or more precisely from the Koine Greek rendering of the name,Σήμ (Sēm). Eichhorn is credited with popularising the term,[18] particularly via a 1795 article “Semitische Sprachen” (Semitic languages) in which he justified the terminology against criticism that Hebrew and Canaanite were the same language despite Canaan being “Hamitic” in the Table of Nations:[19][18]

In the Mosaic Table of Nations, those names which are listed as Semites are purely names of tribes who speak the so-called Oriental languages and live in Southwest Asia. As far as we can trace the history of these very languages back in time, they have always been written with syllabogramsor with alphabetic script (never with hieroglyphs or pictograms); and the legends about the invention of the syllabograms and alphabetic script go back to the Semites. In contrast, all so called Hamitic peoples originally used hieroglyphs, until they here and there, either through contact with the Semites, or through their settlement among them, became familiar with their syllabograms or alphabetic script, and partly adopted them. Viewed from this aspect too, with respect to the alphabet used, the name “Semitic languages” is completely appropriate.

Previously these languages had been commonly known as the “Oriental languages in European literature.[14][16] In the 19th century, “Semitic” became the conventional name; however, an alternative name, “Syro-Arabian languages“, was later introduced by James Cowles Prichard and used by some writers.[16]

Ancient Semitic-speaking peoplesEdit

14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found inAmarnaEgypt

There are several locations proposed as possible sites for prehistoric origins of Semitic-speaking peoples: Mesopotamia, the Levant, Mediterranean, the Arabian Peninsula, and North Africa, with the most recent Bayesian studies indicating Semitic originated in the Levant circa 3800 BC, and was later also introduced to the Horn of Africa in approximately 800 BC.[20][21]

Semitic languages were spoken across much of the Middle East and Asia Minor during the Bronze Age and Iron Age, the earliest attested being the East Semitic Akkadian of the Mesopotamian and south eastern Anatolian polities of Akkad,Assyria and Babylonia, and the also East Semitic Eblaite language of the kingdom of Ebla in the north eastern Levant. The various closely related Northwest Semitic Canaanite languages included AmoriteEdomiteHebrewAmmoniteMoabitePhoenician (Punic/Carthaginian), SamaritanEkronite and Sutean, encompassed what is today Israel, western, north western and southern SyriaLebanonPalestinian territoriesJordan, the Sinai peninsula, northern parts of the Arabian peninsula and in the case of Phoenician, coastal regions of Tunisia (Carthage), Libya and Algeria, as well as possibly Malta also. Ugaritic was spoken in the kingdom of Ugarit in north western Syria. South Arabian languages (distinct from the later attested Arabic) were spoken in the kingdoms of DilmunMeluhhaShebaUbar and Magan, which in modern terms encompassed part of the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia, and BahrainQatarOman and Yemen. These languages (in the form of Ge’ez) later spread to the Horn of Africa circa 8th century BC. Arabic and the Arabs were attested in Assyrian annals as being in the northern Arabian peninsula from the 9th century BC. Aramaic, a Northwest Semitic language first attested in the 12th century BC in the Levant gradually replaced the East Semitic and Canaanite languages across much of the Near East, particularly after being adopted as the lingua franca of the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC) by Tiglath-Pileser III during the 8th century BC, and being retained by the succeeding Neo-Babylonian Empire and Achaemenid Empires.[22]

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Among its many findings, Ostrer’s paper indicated that Jews have African ancestry — an observation that David Reich, associate professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School, and his colleagues decided to explore further.

Reich’s team analyzed more than half a million DNA markers across the entire genomes of people from seven diverse Jewish populations — including Ashkenazim from northern Europe; Sephardim from Italy, Turkey and Greece, and Mizrahim from Syria, Iraq and Iran. They then compared the genetic data with DNA from 15 sub-Saharan African populations.

Reporting in the April issue of PLoS Genetics, the researchers found that modern day Jews can attribute about 3% to 5% of their ancestry to sub-Saharan Africans, and that the exchange of genes between Jews and sub-Saharan Africans occurred approximately 72 generations, or about 2,000 years, ago.

Lawrence Schiffman, a professor of Hebrew and Judaic studies at Yeshiva University, said two time periods came to mind that could support the geneticists’ findings. The first is during the First Temple Period, between about 950 B.C.E. and 600 B.C.E., when Solomon’s kingdom would have had contact with Africans.

Or, Schiffman said, the mixing of populations could have taken place a bit later, during the Hellenistic period, from about 320 B.C.E. to 30 B.C.E., when Jews were living all over the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and could have come into contact with Africans to the south of them.

Read more:https://forward.com/culture/140721/genes-tell-tale-of-jewish-ties-to-africa/

 

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Kush was the grandson of Noah. The term “Kushite” refers to a vast large area. The various regions of ancient Kush are called by different names, including early Egypt, Eastern Sudan, and Nubia. The Kushite territories were ruled by tribal chiefs and overlords of larger territories. Biblical Kush included Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania. The culture was essentially Nilotic. Some of the ancient Nilotic peoples moved into the Benue Trough. Others moved into Southern Arabia. That is why there is a close linguistic and cultural connection between the Edo of Benin and the Edomites of the Bible.

Linguistic and archaeological evidence supports the biblical picture of Abraham’s ancestors coming from the Upper Nile region that was part of Kush and spreading their culture and religious beliefs by the great water systems across what I’ve termed the ancient “Afro-Asiatic Domnion.” During this period the Sahara was a much wetter region. Genesis tells us that Abraham was a descendant of Kush and of the great Kushite kingdom-builder, Nimrod.

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Hausa of Nigeria above

Hausa’s close relationship to Arabic is due to the common roots that the Kushite languages share with old Arabic. Before Judaism became a distinct world religion, these Afro-Asiatic peoples shared a common worldview and religious practices which the Bible calls Kushite.  The Kushite civilization spread from the Nile Valley into southern Africa and into West Africa.

http://jandyongenesis.blogspot.co.uk/2010/01/conversation-with-hausa-muslim.html

 

The Nubians created the world’s first civilization and that civilization was much older than Egypt. In fact, in 2000, archeologists discovered many facinating artefacts, including glasswork of great beauty and excellent craftsmanship. These were found in Sudan and according to Time Magazine, some artefacts were dated to about 8000 years B.C. Astronomy was also well organized in Nubia during the period and an astronomical observatory dating back to about 7000 B.C. was found in Sudan as well. It is also in Sudan that a large number of ancient cities exist.

The Nubians also built a large number of small pyramids later on in their history but they used a very sophisticated system of tombs to bury their kings. Many were similar in style to the early Egyptian Mastabas. Those of later centuries were small pyramids with chapels built on top and the tombs at the beneath the ground.

WHO ARE THE DESCENDANTS OF THE ANCIENT NUBIANS TODAY

The birth of Nubianism or the return of the Nubian consciousness, study of Nubian history, reverence for Nubian culture and the recognition of the Nubian blood and lineage started in Nubia, right there in the South of Egypt, where to be Nubian is to belong to the world’s longest lasting civilization and the belonging to a people with the longest lasting kingship on earth. It may be surprising to note that the Nubian monarchy continues to exist today and Nubians continue to have their king, although the land of Nubia is occupied by invaders (and their culture, religions and laws) who originally migrated from the northern Semitic lands, and who have mixed in with some Sudanese to create a new type of people similar to South Africa’s coloreds, who are now engaged in a racist war of genocide, enslavement of Black men, women and Chiildren and some of the most putrid racism found anywhere on earth (except against Blacks in India, Latin America and Indonesia where in these places, extermination of Black people is routine).

Today, the Nubas of the Nuba Mountains are direct descendants of the ancient Nubians (see http://community.webtv.net/paulnubiaempire go to the Youth Site, or click to http://community.webtv.net/nubianem/ ) The Nuer People of Sudan, the Dinkas and a number of “Nilotic” peoples as well as many people in East Africa of Bantu linguistic origins are also of Nubian origins. In fact, although it is said that the Bantu ( Ba-Ntu ) migrated from Nigeria to populate the rest of Southern Africa about five thousand years ago, there is a significant of what appears to be close linguistic similarities between some Nilotic and ancient Egyptian and Cushite languages with the Bantu Languages, both of which originated in the Sahara. These similarities include the “Ba” prefix to name nationalities, such as “Ba-luba” “Ba-kongo,” or the “N’ to denote persons and groups, such as “Ntu” (probably nation or people) or Ndabaningi (a person’s name) or “N-g-r” (God in ancient Egyptian) or the word “N-t-y-r” (Nature, God, sacred in ancient Egyptian).

Hence, these tall and medium height peoples of Africa who are spread from Ethiopia and Somalia to West Africa and south to Zululand are all connected. They were once spread as far as Tukey and Southern Europe in Preshitoric times and as far as Fiji and ancient Mexico. One of the most important migrations of Africans to the Americas occurred about 600 B.C., when groups of people from West Africa who worshipped Shngo the Thunder Element and who used the axe, migrated to Mexico about 600’s B.C. and introduced their religions. According to Sitchin ( http://www.ancientamerica.com )
Blacks with Egyptian connections migrated to Mexico about 3113 B.C. and on that date, itroduced the first calendar to Mexico. Others have pointed out that the Olmecs were a combination of West Africans and Nubians (see “A History of the African-Olmecs pub by 1stBooks Library, http://www.1stbooks.com ).

The distances between the two cultures are thousands of miles apart, however, both the Carthaginians and Pharaoh Nikau sent people to West Africa to trade between 600 B.C. and 450 B.C. respectively. The West Africans and Nubians most likely collaborated with each other and had cultural contact.

http://www.raceandhistory.com/cgi-bin/forum/webbbs_config.pl?md=read;id=471

 

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BIAFRA STANDS FOR Biafuruya”. Biafuru gini? Bia furu ebube nke Chineke!

COME AND SEE THE GLORY OF GOD.

 

Urban Dictionary: Biafra

It is a Nation. The word Biafra is coined from two IGBO WORDS ‘bia’ which means COME and ‘fara’ which means LIVE. The people are part of the AFAR ethnic group in the horn of Africa, 

 

 

Below and above Ethiopian Afar tribe

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West African Mali tribe below
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Afar, Ophir and the Mists of History – Orville Jenkins
http://www.orvillejenkins.com › peoples › afar…

The relationship between the Afar people of today and the ancient references to the mysterious Ophir. … They are mentioned by Muhammad in the Quran as one of the People of the Book, along with Jews and Christians …
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Ophir (/ˈfər/;[1] HebrewאוֹפִירModern Ofir Tiberian ʼÔp̄îr) is a port or region mentioned in the Bible, famous for its wealth. King Solomon received a cargo of gold, silver, sandalwood, pearls, ivory, apes, and peacocks from Ophir every three years.
Ophir in Genesis 10 (the Table of Nations) is said to be the name of one of the sons ofJoktan.[Note 1] The Books of Kings and Chronicles tell of a joint expedition to Ophir by King Solomon and the Tyrian king Hiram I from Ezion-Geber, a port on the Red Sea, that brought back large amounts of gold, precious stones and ‘algum wood‘ and of a later failed expedition by king Jehoshaphat of Judah.[Note 2] The famous ‘gold of Ophir’ is referenced in several other books of the Hebrew Bible.[Note 3]

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The Afar language (AfarQafaraf) (also known as ’Afar AfAfarafQafar af) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the family’s Cushitic branch. It is spoken by the Afar people inhabiting DjiboutiEritrea and Ethiopia.

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The Ethiopian Orthodox Tawähïdo Church maintains the tradition that the Queen of Sheba mentioned in 1 Kings 10, after her visit with King Solomon, had a son name Menelik who became the first monotheistic king of Ethiopia. Church tradition also holds that the eunuch of Candace mentioned in Acts 8 was Axumite and was the first to preach the Gospel in Ethiopia. While it is likely that Christianity first came into Ethiopia as early as the first century, the fourth century is the terminus ante quem for the introduction of the Gospel in Ethiopia as several notable historians and Church fathers attest to the presence of an established church hierarchy in Ethiopia during this time. The Egyptian Pope Athanasius as well as the fourth-century Roman historian Rufinus mention a Syrian slave named Frumentius who was raised in the imperial court of Ethiopia who evangelized the royal family. After being ordained the first official bishop of Ethiopia by Athanaius, Frumentius discipled the Ethiopian king Ezana who was the first king of Axum to introduce Christianity as the state religion of Ethiopia. Shortly after this time, Ethiopia received a group of missionaries called the Nine Saints who have been thought to have come from Syria and who further advanced the growth of Christianity especially in the northern rural provinces. The Nine Saints introduced monastic practices, opened monasteries that still survive today, and taught the Miaphysite doctrine of Christ existing in one person and one united nature—which was the reigning view in Egypt and Syria. The Ethiopian Church’s name Täwahïdo means “being made one” or “unified” and is based on this fundamental doctrine. One of the Nine Saints—Abba Garima—is thought to have been the translator of the Garima Gospels—translations of the Gospel accounts in the ancient Ethiopian language which is still used in liturgy called Ge’ez. Originally thought to have been translated in the twelfth century, recent radiocarbon analysis has firmly placed these manuscripts in the fifth century during the time of the Nine Saints. This makes the Garima Gospels not only the oldest surviving Ge’ez manuscripts, but the earliest biblical manuscripts from any country accompanied with decorated paintings. While the Byzantine Roman Empire frequently persecuted Miaphysite (“one-nature”) Christians in Syria, Egypt and Nubia, an alliance was formed with Ethiopia to rescue persecuted Christians in the Arabian Peninsula. 
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Beta Israel (Hebrewבֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל‎, Beyte (beyt) YisraelGe’ezቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta ‘Isrā’ēl?, modernBēte ‘Isrā’ēlEAE: “Betä Ǝsraʾel”, “House of Israel” or “Community of Israel”[4]), also known as Ethiopian Jews (Hebrewיְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה‎: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge’ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews that developed and lived for centuries in the area of Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia. Most of these peoples have emigrated to Israel since the late 20th century.[5]
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AfricaEdit

Biblical scholars, archaeologists and others have tried to determine the exact location of Ophir. Vasco da Gama‘s companion Tomé Lopes reasoned that Ophir would have been the ancient name for Great Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, the main center of sub-African trade in gold in the Renaissance period — though the ruins at Great Zimbabwe are now dated to the medieval era, long after Solomon is said to have lived. The identification of Ophir with Sofala in Mozambique was mentioned by Milton in Paradise Lost (11:399-401), among many other works of literature and science.

Another, more serious, possibility is the African shore of the Red Sea, with the name perhaps being derived from the Afar people living in the Danakil desert (EthiopiaEritrea) between Adulis and Djibouti.

 

Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the Carthaginians, who dwelt in North Africa, in modern-day Tunisia. This name, that later gave the rich Roman province of Africa and the subsequent medieval Ifriqiya, are from which the name of the continent Africa is ultimately derived, seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe originally, however, see Terence for discussion. The name is usually connected with Phoenician afar, “dust”,

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It must be noted clearly that the Sudan received the first wave of Hebrew Israelite who went mainly to Ethiopia from Yemen via Bab El Mandeb in 1876 BC, about 30 years after Patriarch Joseph ended up in Ethiopia.

Some Yemeni Hebrew Israelite trickled into Sudan and after being herders and raiders they became heavily involved in slavery in central and eastern Sudan, upper Kush, and Kordofan.

Moses also fled Ethiopia and lived in Sudan for at least 20 years. He married Zipporah the daughter of Jethro (Arabic شعيب Shu-ayb) the priest of Midian in Nubian Sudan. That period ended by the Exodus led by Moses in 1446 BC.

Many of these Hebrew Yemeni Israelite intermarried and remained behind in the Sudan and Ethiopia. In Ethiopia they formed the Falasha community “Beta Israel” while in Sudan they are regarded as “Arabs”.

https://tariganter.wordpress.com/2017/07/16/the-israelite-in-sudan-and-the-jews-in-the-land-of-the-mahdi/

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the  Jews in Dongola are now classed as Arab see the 2 pictures below..

 

 

The Christian Kingdom of Dongola

One of the most distinct features of the Kingdom of Dongola is that it was a Christian Kingdom. It is recorded that during the 6 th century BC, Christianity was propagated in the Nile Valley from Aswan all the way south to the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile at modern day Khartoum. The Byzantine missionaries were responsible for the spread of Christianity in this region. As a result of the Byzantine ecclesiastical writers, information was recording regarding the successor states of the Kingdom of Kush at this point of history. According to the writers, this part of the Nile was divided into three parts – Nobatia, Makuria, and Alwa (the southern-most state), all of which were converted to Christianity. Whilst Nobatia and Makuria were united, Alwa remained a separate state on its own, perhaps until the beginning of the 16 th century.

https://janakesho1.wordpress.com/2016/01/23/kingdom-of-makuria-dongola/

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The Fulani Tribe below

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The Falasha below

 

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JEWS IN SPAIN AND PORTUGAL 

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The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin.

 

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In the seventh century, many Spanish Jews fled persecution under the Visigoths to North Africa, where they made their homes in the Byzantine-dominated cities along the Mediterranean coast. Others arrived after the expulsion from Iberia. Remnants of longstanding Jewish communities remain in Morocco, Tunisia, and the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla. There is a much-diminished but still vibrant community on the island of Djerba in Tunisia. Since 1948 and the war to establish Israel, which aroused hostility in Muslim lands, most other North African Jews emigrated to Israel.

Of the seventh century immigrants, some moved inland and proselytized among the Berber tribes. A number of tribes, including the JarawaUled Jari, and some tribes of the Daggatun people, converted to Judaism.[1] Ibn Khaldun reported that Kahina, a female Berber warlord who led the resistance against the Muslim Arab conquests of North Africa in the 680s and 690s, was a Jew of the Jarawa tribe. With the defeat of the Berber rebellion, none of the Jewish communities was initially forced to convert to Islam.[2]

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Africa

 

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The most ancient communities of African Jews are the EthiopianSephardi, and Mizrahi Jews of North Africa and the Horn of Africa.

North African Sephardim are a distinct sub-group of Sephardi Jews, who descend from exiled Iberic Jewish families of the late 15th century and North African Maghrebi Jewish communities that had settled mostly in MoroccoAlgeriaTunisia and Libya. Several Iberic jewish families also emigrated back to the Iberian Peninsula to form the core of the jewish community of Gilbraltar.

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 Israelite Migration to Northern and Western Africa

After the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple many Hebrews fled into Africa.  Between the periods of Pompey and Julius Ceasaer about 1,000,000 Hebrews fled to Africa.  The Hebrews hid and lived in Africa for over 1,500 years from 70 A.D. to 1619 A.D.

George E. Lichtblau author of “Jewish Roots in Africa” had this to say in his book about the Hebrew dispersion into Africa:
Pressed under sweeping regional conflicts, Jews settled as traders and warriors in Yemen, the Horn of Africa, Egypt, the kingdom of Kush and Nubia, North African Punic settlements (Carthage and Velubilis), and areas now covered by Mauritania. More migrants followed these early Jewish settlers to Northern Africa…’ 

Rudolf R Windsor author of “Babylon to Timbuktu” said this in his book on page 120:

‘The black Jews who migrated to the Sudan from the North converged with the Jews migrating from the eastern Sudan to the countries of the Niger River…There is much proof, and still much more to be revealed by scholars, that there existed prior to the slave trade and subsequent to it many tribes, colonies, and kingdoms in West Africa’.

https://glithehiddentruth.weebly.com/hebrew-israelites-dispertion.html

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Hebrew migration above and Bantu migration below

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Africa is identified in various Jewish sources in connection with Tarshish and Ophir.[1] The Septuagint,[2] and Jerome,[3] who was taught by Jews, and very often the Aramaic Targum on the Prophets, identify the Biblical Tarshish with Carthage, which was the birthplace of a number of rabbis mentioned in the Talmud. Africa, in the broader sense, is clearly indicated where mention is made of the Ten Tribes having been driven into exile by the Assyrians and having journeyed into Africa.[4] Connected with this is the idea that the river Sambation is in Africa. The Arabs, who also know the legend of the Beni Musa (“Sons of Moses”), agree with the Jews in placing their land in Africa.

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According to certain local Malian legends a mention in the Tarikh al-Sudan may have recorded the first Jewish presence in West Africa with the arrival of the first Zuwa ruler of Koukiya and his brother, located near the Niger River. He was known only as Za/Zuwa Alayman (meaning “He comes from Yemen”). Some local legends state that Zuwa Alayman was a member of one of the Jewish communities that were either transported or voluntarily moved from Yemen by the Ethiopians in the 6th century C.E. after the defeat of Dhu Nuwas. The Tarikh al-Sudan, states that there were 14 Zuwa rulers of Kukiya after Zuwa Alyaman before the rise of Islam in the region.[5]There is debate on whether or not the Tarikh es-Soudan can be understood in this manner.

https://blackhistory938.wordpress.com/2017/07/05/jews-of-bilad-el-sudan/

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Mali region below

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Mali Jews say they came from Yemen

 

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                                           HAM & SHEM                                                           Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic)[3] or Semito-Hamitic,[4] is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.[5]It includes languages spoken predominantly in West AsiaNorth Africa, the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel

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The Sahel part of Africa includes (from west to east) parts of northern Senegal, southern Mauritania, central Mali, northern Burkina Faso, the extreme south of AlgeriaNiger, the extreme north of Nigeria, central Chad, central and southern Sudan, the extreme north of South Sudan, EritreaCameroonCentral African Republic and extreme north of Ethiopia.[4]

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Historically, the western part of the Sahel was sometimes known as the Sudan region.[5] This belt was roughly located between the Sahara and the coastal areas of West Africa.

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My DNA below covering Sub-Saharan, West and South East Africa. The Bantu DNA is spread as far as the horn of Africa Ethiopia Kenya Somalia.

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The star of David was used on the West African coins

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Star of DavidThe Star of David, also know as the Magan David (Shield of David), has been a symbol associated with Judaism for centuries. A stone bearing the Star of David in a synagogue in the Galilee dates back to the 3rd century. It is believed to have been used as a decorative design.

A Star of David was used in the year 1108 in the Leningrad Codex, which is the oldest complete edition of the Hebrew Bible in existence. The term, Magan David,was used as early as the 11th century as a name for the God of Israel, where God is compared to a shield in the divine protection of King David.

A 12th century text, Eshkol ha-Kofer, a work on the Ten Commandments, refers to the Shield of David.

Coins found in the 13th century bear the Star of David.

The Star of David was used in a medieval Tanakh manuscript from 1307 in Spain.

https://www.jewishgiftplace.com/Jewish-Star-of-David.html

 

And on second thoughts I should add some research about this star.

 

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The idolotrous Babylonians, Egyptians and Assyrians used it.

The Israelites worshiped star gods, such as Remphan and Chiun.

Solomon used it in worship of false gods and to invoke the powers of Satan.

The Antichrist Beast of Revelation, the Roman Catholic Church, uses it.

The Jesuit-controlled ultra-wealthy Rothchild family uses it to steal the worlds wealth.

Satanists, Luciferians, astrologers and witches use it to invoke the power of demons.

The six-sided star numerically equals 666 (6 points, 6 triangles, 6-sided hexagon).

It’s on Israel’s flag because the Antichrist Jesuits control the state of Israel.

Christians shouldn’t have anything to do with the six-pointed star, as it is Satanic.
This ‘mark of the beast’ identifies people groups that are Antichrist.

The six-sided star was used by Babylonian astrologers for Sun worship.

Sigilla Solis 666 Coin Babylonian astrologers divided the starry heavens into 36 constellations (ten days each). These were represented by different amulets called “Sigilla Solis,” or the Sun Seal.

These amulets were worn by the pagan priests and they contained all the numbers from 1 to 36. By these figures they claimed to be able to foretell future events.

Adding the numbers of any column either horizontally or vertically, and also the two diagonals crossing the square, the total is the same — 111.

The sum of the six columns, either horizontally or vertically, is 666.

So 666 is a number associated with pagan sun-worship, which originated in the mysteries of ancient pagan Babylon.

Sun worship, which is really Satan worship, has existed for thousands of years and is still worshiped to this very day by Mystery Babylon, the Roman Catholic Church and the global elite in the world.

The Israelites worshiped the star of foreign gods and were punished for it.

Israel adopted the six-pointed star in the wilderness due to their apostasy. The mark of Cain was worshiped by the Israelites in the wilderness as the star of Remphan, which represents the god Saturn, also called Chiun.

But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves.“ Amos 5:26

Just before being stoned to death by the Jews, Stephen accused the Jewish leaders, “And you took up the tent of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, the figures which you made” “in order to worship them.” Acts 7:43

Saturn worship is Satan worship.

Satan got Solomon to worship him through false gods.

After his marriage to Pharaoh’s daughter in 922 B.C., Solomon gave himself up to witchcraft and idolatry, and built altars to Moloch, Ashtoreth and Remphan, the ancient Egyptian ‘Star‘ god.

This is very significant, because Solomon was a man of wisdom, who was allowed to build the temple of God; yet late in his life Satan caused him to worship and build altars to false gods, and use the hexagram to invoke the powers of Satan.

King Solomon reintroduced the 6-Pointed Star to the Kingdom of Israel, so the Talisman of Saturnbecame known as the Seal of Solomon

Talisman of Saturn

The Six-Pointed Star is engraved on the Talisman of Saturn which is used in ritual magic.

A bull’s head is enclosed in a six-pointed star, and surrounded by letters composing the name Rempha, the planetary genius of Saturn, according to the alphabet of the Magi.

The bull represents Moloch worship and ultimately, Satan worship.

Satanists, Occultist and Freemasons venerate King Solomon, who owned a magic ring that was engraved with the Seal of Solomon, which gave him power over the invisible monarchy of demons. (The History And Practice Of Magic, Vol. 2)

http://christianitybeliefs.org/end-times-deceptions/

The star of David may have a pagan history but some people do not look into the history of it. There are people who have a clean heart and the deception  is not their fault. However these symbols have crept into all religions. I just wanted to emphasis how the star of David and palm tree that was associated with the bible was used by the British in West Africa to represent us. I think they knew who we were all along.

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The Fall of Solomon
For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods: and his heart was not perfect with the Lord his God, as was the heart of David his father.5. For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.6. And Solomon did evil in the sight of the Lord, and went not fully after the Lord, as did David his father.7. Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon.8. And likewise did he for all his strange wives, which burnt incense and sacrificed unto their gods.9. And the Lord was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned from the Lord God of Israel, which had appeared unto him twice, 10. And had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods: but he kept not that which the Lord commanded.11. Wherefore the Lord said unto Solomon, Forasmuch as this is done of thee, and thou hast not kept My covenant and My statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy servant.12. Notwithstanding in thy days I will not do it for David thy father’s sake: but I will rend it out of the hand of thy son.13. Howbeit I will not rend away all the kingdom; but will give one tribe to thy son for David My servant’s sake, and for Jerusalem’s sake which I have chosen.’ — 1 KINGS xi.4-13.
 

 

The Palm Tree


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Ezekiel 41:18-20, 25

And it was made with cherubim and palm trees, so that a palm tree was between a cherub and a cherub; and every cherub had two faces;…

 

 

 

The Palm tree represented in the bible

The cherubim and the palm trees were closely associated; both were largely represented, and they were found in close conjunction: “a palm tree was between a cherub and a cherub.” Both of them pictured the righteous man in the sanctuary of God, but while the cherub signified the good man at his best bringing himself and all that he had as an offering to God, the palm tree stood for the good man as one who had been made what he was by the services of the sanctuary; the one was enlarged and ennobled humanity brining its offering to God, the other was that same humanity gaining its goodness and worth from God and from his house. “The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree,” said the psalmist (Psalm 92:12). And there is very good reason why that tree should be taken as a type or picture of the righteous man; there is also excellent reason why the prominence of the palm tree in the prophet’s vision should picture the truth that man’s goodness is the fair and excellent result of much communion with God.

http://biblehub.com/sermons/auth/clarkson/the_significance_of_the_palm_trees.htm

 

 

Notice in the below pictures the similarity between The  Great Wall of Benin and the fortification of Israel and Judah.

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The English word Jew continues Middle English Gyw, Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which had elided (dropped) the letter “d” from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, which, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both Jews and Judeans / “of Judea.[47]

The Greek term was originally a loan from Aramaic Y’hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrewיְהוּדִי‬,Yehudi (sg.); יְהוּדִים‬, Yehudim (pl.), in origin the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob.[48]

The Hebrew word for Jew, יְהוּדִי‬ ISO 259-3 Yehudi, is pronounced [jehuˈdi], with the stress on the final syllable, in Israeli Hebrew, in its basic form.[49] The Ladino name is ג׳ודיו‬, Djudio (sg.);ג׳ודיוס‬, Djudios (pl.); Yiddishייִד‬ Yid (sg.); ייִדן‬, Yidn (pl.).

The etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g., يَهُودِيّ yahūdī (sg.), al-yahūd (pl.), in Arabic, “Jude” in German, “judeu” in Portuguese, “juif” in French, “jøde” in Danish and Norwegian, “judío” in Spanish, “jood” in Dutch, “żyd” in Polish etc., but derivations of the word “Hebrew” are also in use to describe a Jew, e.g., in Italian (Ebreo), in Persian (“Ebri/Ebrani” (Persianعبری/عبرانی‎)) and Russian (Еврей, Yevrey).[50] The German word “Jude” is pronounced [ˈjuːdə], the corresponding adjective “jüdisch” [ˈjyːdɪʃ] (Jewish) is the origin of the word “Yiddish”.[51] (SeeJewish ethnonyms for a full overview.)

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews

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AFRA above Biafra The Benjamin tribe

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 FMeaningof Afra: “color of earth; dust”Origin of Afra: Arabic; Hebrew

https://nameberry.com/babyname/Afra

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The below was posted on http://www.pbs.org/wonders/Episodes/Epi3/ouidah.html

Ouidah was a densely populated, prosperous kingdom located on the Slave Coast of West Africa in what is now Benin. It rose to prominence as an exporter of slaves in the late 17th century and flourished for about sixty years before falling to the inland kingdom of Dahomey in 1727. Before the 17th century, the Aja peoples who populated the region of Ouidah and that of its inland predecessor, the kingdom of Allada, had not developed a commercial or maritime tradition and supported themselves with lagoon fishing, agriculture, and hunting. Increased competition for trade along the West African coast by the French, English, Dutch, and Portuguese, from the second half of the 16th century on, gradually reoriented the people of the Slave Coast towards the sea and the Atlantic trade. In the 1650s, Ouidah started breaking away from Allada and establishing itself as a powerful polity of warriors, slavers, and traders. In 1671 the French moved their trading factory from Allada to Ouidah, and the English and Portuguese were soon to follow. At the height of its commercial prosperity in the first two decades of the 18th century, Ouidah controlled the export of between fifteen and twenty thousand slaves a year. Neighboring Dahomey’s wars of conquest stretched southward to the coastal region in the 1720s, disrupting trade and blocking trade routes from the interior. After Dahomey conquered and pacified Ouidah in 1727-28, the Dahomian king appointed bureaucratic officials to administer Ouidah as the principal port and commercial capital of the kingdom. For over a century more, Ouidah remained a center of the Atlantic slave trade under the patronage of the kings of Dahomey. The abolition of the Brazilian slave trade in 1851 and the installation of a British consul in Lagos rang the death knell of the Atlantic slave trade, and by 1865 palm oil had entirely replaced slaves in Ouidah’s export market.  By Zayde Antrim at http://www.pbs.org/wonders/Episodes/Epi3/ouidah.html

 

 

Ouidah The homeland of voodoo

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2018-01-06-13-26-21--31707115