Tag Archives: Ghana

My Igbo and Ashanti Akan Jamaican slave ancestors Part 2

 

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If you have seen my first post you know that I dealt with a lot of information both historical and oral traditions and biblical definitions of the Jamaican slaves. I also covered the oral stories of Hebrews in Africa.

For those who want to read the story of what I found when I took the steps back to retrieve my ancestors past. See the link below.

https://blackhistory938.wordpress.com/2017/06/16/my-igbo-slave-ancestor/

In this post I am going to look at who my African relatives were in Africa. I am going to look at the family names and places of residence. I am also going to explore West African history. This post will focus on Africa which has to include the middle east which really is North East Africa. We will  look at the migration from Israel towards the end of this post. Ancestry DNA have also updated their information and I will be using my updated analysis to find out which tribes I am connected to.

 

Below is a list of surnames of DNA matched distant cousins

Nwokocha a Nigerian Igbo Surname. The surname is from The Bight of Biafra. Bordering Nigeria Cameroon Guinea area.

Nwagou which is from The Bight of Biafra Port Harcourt region with people sharing the name as far as Abuja Igbo 

Onu which is also Nigerian.

Olugbala which is a Nigerian Yoruba surname.

Akinwummi which is a Nigerian Yoruba surname. Found in the Lagos region.

Ageypong which is a Ghanaian Ashanti surname.

Lartey a Ghanian Ga surname.

From the above DNA matches my genetic ties are with the Igbo, Yoruba, Ashanti and Ga.

 Below West African tribes and some connections
 ethnic-africa-1
The below is a map of  the different tribes in Nigeria.
nigeria_ethnic_v3
The Yoruba are right next to Benin as are the Hausa Fulani.
This could explain why one of my cousins is matching
the Hausa tribe in the North and Saudi Arabia despite
having no North African DNA.
See DNA below Hausa Fulani??

Ethnicity

Regions: Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Ireland

Trace Regions: Africa Southeastern Bantu, Senegal, Nigeria, Europe West, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Great Britain, Finland/Northwest Russia,

The below is a copy of of feature from my original post. The below DNA is similar to mine.

The below is from an African American 

Screen+Shot+2014-08-30+at+12.15.49+PM

Tribe matches for the above were Bantu and Yoruba

Bantu Ke= 0.370 Mandenka= 0.444 
Maasai= 0.130 Yoruba= 0.685 
Maasai= 0.159 Yoruba= 0.662 
O-Ethiop= 0.110 Yoruba= 0.718 Irish= 0.172 

Here is my breakdown below which points at Akan Esan and Yoruba Hausa and Igbo tribal ancestry for me

HX2171525_EB4566

Population
Nilo_Saharan 1.47 Pct
Ubangian_Congo 1.93 Pct
W_Benue_Congo 58.89 Pct
Eastern_HG 2.17 Pct
E_Benue_Congo 25.56 Pct
Omotic 2.47 Pct
Southern_HG 2.39 Pct
Western_Semitic 5.12 Pct

 

 This information above is significant because with my research and my ancestry matches DNA I am able to chart which groups of people we are connected to. The sophisticated DNA tests such as DNA tribes and others are picking up the West African connection to the middle east. The areas that my family are connected to mirror what the bible says. 2000 years ago some of my direct ancestors were in Saudi Arabia.
My raw DNA points to ancient Palestine Jordan and Libya.
The test states this about the analysis,
EthioHelix Africa K10 + Palestinian – Palestinian acts as a proxy for Middle Eastern ancestry in this case. Results are currently most meaningful for persons who are a mix of African and Middle Eastern
EB4566
Population
Nilo-Saharan 7.44 Pct
East-Africa1 4.65 Pct
Mbuti-Pygmy 2.25 Pct
Eastern-Bantu 21.41 Pct
Khoi-San 3.12 Pct
West-Africa 39.04 Pct
Hadza 2.69 Pct
Biaka-Pygmy 10.73 Pct
Palestinian 5.31 Pct
Omotic 3.37 Pct
For more background on this see these posts if you haven’t already The Queen of sheba The history of Judah Ouidah Whydah Judeo
Yoruba people below
So far my DNA matches South Sudan Oromo tribes South Somalia Bantu and Yoruba Igbo/Ibo. My cousin is matching Oromo & Hausa Fulani.
Having uploaded my own raw data to Gedmatch my own ancient DNA results show I match the Esan, Igbo Hausa Fulani and  Yoruba tribe.
See below  my Ancient asian DNA

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Gambian @ 4.575696
2 Esan @ 7.768073
3 Yoruba @ 7.768073
4 Mota @ 12.071078
5 Hadza @ 13.417694
6 Masai @ 25.794815
7 Somali @ 46.685955
8 Moroccan @ 80.260406
9 Saharawi @ 81.614891
10 Algerian @ 83.698547
11 Yemeni @ 89.642319
12 Libyan @ 90.041283
13 Egyptian @ 93.023880
14 GoyetQ116 @ 97.088066
15 BedouinA @ 98.755363
16 Jordanian @ 101.344734
17 Syrian @ 102.231903
18 Palestinian @ 102.558189
19 Steppe_IA @ 104.329994
20 Jew_Libyan @ 104.358345

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 Sub_Saharan 93.13
2 West_European_Hunter_Gartherer 2.39
3 Natufian 1.95
4 Ancestral_North_Eurasian 1.76
5 Ancestral_South_Eurasian 0.76

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 Gambian 4.77
2 Esan 8.16
3 Yoruba 8.16
4 Mota 12.59
5 Hadza 14.06
6 Masai 27.1
7 Somali 49.08
8 Moroccan 84.37
9 Saharawi 85.73
10 Algerian 87.94
11 Yemeni 94.4
12 Libyan 94.75
13 Egyptian 97.91
14 GoyetQ116 101.79
15 BedouinA 103.97
16 Jordanian 106.72
17 Syrian 107.67
18 Palestinian 107.97
19 Steppe_IA 109.71
20 Turkmen 109.76

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 96% Gambian + 4% Steppe_Eneolithic @ 0.67
2 96% Gambian + 4% Steppe_EMBA @ 0.71
3 93.2% Yoruba + 6.8% Steppe_MLBA @ 0.8
4 93.2% Esan + 6.8% Steppe_MLBA @ 0.8
5 96% Gambian + 4% Steppe_MLBA @ 0.89
6 93.3% Yoruba + 6.7% Ukrainian @ 1.07
7 93.3% Esan + 6.7% Ukrainian @ 1.07
8 95.9% Gambian + 4.1% Steppe_IA @ 1.07
9 93.3% Esan + 6.7% Russian @ 1.11
10 93.3% Yoruba + 6.7% Russian @ 1.11
11 93.4% Yoruba + 6.6% Norwegian @ 1.11
12 93.4% Esan + 6.6% Norwegian @ 1.11
13 96% Gambian + 4% Russian @ 1.12
14 96.1% Gambian + 3.9% Estonian @ 1.13
15 96% Gambian + 4% Finnish @ 1.13
16 96.1% Gambian + 3.9% Lithuanian @ 1.13
17 93.4% Yoruba + 6.6% Hungarian @ 1.14
18 93.4% Esan + 6.6% Hungarian @ 1.14
19 93.4% Yoruba + 6.6% Scottish @ 1.14
20 93.4% Esan + 6.6% Scottish @ 1.14
My first ancestry DNA analysis

Estimate

Benin/Togo
40%
Cameroon, Congo, and Southern Bantu Peoples
22%
Ivory Coast/Ghana
12%
Africa Southeastern Bantu
10%
Nigeria
7%
Iberian Peninsula
2%
Senegal
2%
Mali
2%
England, Wales & Northwestern Europe
1%
Ireland/Scotland/Wales
1%
Europe East
1%
The updated version

Ethnicity Estimate

Benin/Togo49%

Cameroon, Congo, and Southern Bantu Peoples34%

Ivory Coast/Ghana11%

England, Wales & Northwestern Europe5%

Mali1%

DNA land analyses my data like this

Lower Niger Valley

Includes: Yoruba and Esan in Nigeria and Yoruba in (Nigeria) Ibadan

Senegal River Valley

Includes: Mandenka in Senegal and Gambian in Western Gambia

Mende/Akan

Includes: Mende Sierra_Leone_MSL and Mende in Sierra Leone

Balkan

Includes: Albanian in Albania; Bulgarian in Bulgaria and Greek in (2 sites) Greece

Northwest European

Includes: Scottish Argyll_Bute_GBR and British in England; Icelandic in Iceland; Norwegian in Norway and Orcadian in Orkney Islands

My Raw DNA

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 W_African 82.21
2 Wht_Nile_River 8.08
3 NE_European 3.62
4 S_African 2.6
5 Horn_Of_Africa 2.37
6 Mediterranean 0.62
7 Oceanian 0.27
8 Omo_River 0.25
The tribes that  I am connected to are  spread all over
Africa. The African Kingdoms spread across vast areas
in the past.
Over the years there has been endless migrations and
mixing. However many tribes will only have children
with neighbouring tribes. With DNA analysis you can
track the places that your ancestors have been.
 The Hausa are a diverse but culturally homogeneous people based primarily in the Sahelian and Sudanian Daura area of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger, with significant numbers also living in parts of CameroonCôte d’IvoireChadTogoGhana,[1]SudanGabon and Senegal.
The below shows an African Ancestry DNA certificate which confirms the below person’s Ancestry is from the Hausa Fulani tribe in Cameroon.

 

20180206_003430

I decided to explore the possible Saudi Arabia and Yemen connections a little further.

Kuwaiti native population comprises three distinct genetic subgroups of Persian, “city-dwelling” Saudi Arabian tribe, and nomadic “tent-dwelling” Bedouin ancestry. Bedouin subgroup is characterized by presence of 17% African ancestry; it owes it origin to nomadic tribes of the deserts of Arabian Peninsula and North Africa

Bedouins are “tent-dwelling” nomads who roamed the deserts of Middle East; they epitomize the best adaptation of human life to desert conditions [7]. In much of the Middle East and North Africa, the term Bedouin is used to descriptively differentiate between those (bedu) whose livelihood is based on raising livestock by mainly natural graze and those (hadar) who have an agricultural or urban base [8]. Bedouins are originally desert-dwelling tribes of the Arabian Peninsula and are particularly descendants of (i) those settled in the southwestern Arabia, in the mountains of Yemen; and (ii) those settled in North-Central Arabia. Bedouins started to spread out to surrounding deserts of Middle East (particularly Arabian and Syrian deserts) and North Africa (particularly Sinai Peninsula of Egypt and the Sahara Desert of North Africa

The mitochondrial haplogroup (indication of maternal ancestry) of the Bedouin participant is determined as L3d1a1a [L3d], that is predominantly seen in West-Central Africa—among the Fulani [13], Chadians [13], Ethiopians [14], Akan people [15], Mozambique [14], and Yemen [14]. Kivisild et al.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213596014001299#bb0015

 

the above extract clearly states that this particular participant is Bedouin and related to the Akan and Fulani. Further research has shown that there are middle eastern people’s who share Ghanaian and Nigerian ancestry generations back. When the first African nomads migrated they went to the East.

 OOA

berbera

m10805_mo

m12070_ni

ethipiopids-as-a-separate-race

Now let’s explore this high ancient asian connection

15 BedouinA 103.97
16 Jordanian 106.72
17 Syrian 107.67
18 Palestinian 107.97
19 Steppe_IA 109.71
20 Turkmen 109.7

The region of Palestine is among the earliest sites of human habitation in the world. Archaeological evidence suggests a hunter-gatherer community living a nomadic existence in the region pre-10,000 BCE. In the Early Bronze Age, permanent settlements were founded and agricultural communities developed. Trade was initiated with other regions in the Near East and, because of its location between the cities of Mesopotamia and those of Arabia and Egypt, Palestine became an important trading hub and attracted the attention of Sargon the Great (2334-2279 BCE)

https://www.ancient.eu/palestine/

YorubaMuslim

A study found that the Palestinians, like Jordanians, Syrians, Iraqis, Turks, and Kurds have what appears to be Female-Mediated gene flow in the form of Maternal DNA Haplogroups from Sub-Saharan Africa. Of the 117 Palestinian individuals tested, 15 carried maternal haplogroups that originated in Sub-Saharan Africa. These results are consistent with female migration from eastern Africa into Near Eastern communities within the last few thousand years. There have been many opportunities for such migrations during this period. However, the most likely explanation for the presence of predominantly female lineages of African origin in these areas is that they may trace back to women brought from Africa as part of the Arab slave trade, assimilated into the areas under Arab rule.[160]

turkic-invasions-slavery-routes-in-africa5041-050-8C145322YORUBA MIGRATIONS0013f4b94fa1b2b85221f9e22fd43b8c

Yorubaland spans the modern day countries of NigeriaTogo and Benin,

400px-Yorubaland_Cultural_Area_of_West_Africa

Geophysically, Yoruba land spreads north from the Gulf of Guinea and west from the Niger River into Benin and Togo; In the northern section, Yorubaland begins in the suburbs just west of Lokoja and continues unbroken up to the Ogou tributary of the Mono River in Togo, a distance of around 610 km. In the south, it begins in an area just west of the Benin river occupied by the Ilaje Yorubas and continues uninterrupted up to Porto Novo, a total distance of about 270 km as the crow flies. West of Porto Novo Gbe speakers begin to predominate.

350px-HistoYoruba

See the below

Four of the major coastal tribes of Western Africa: the Yoruba, Igbo, Akan and the Gaa-Adangbe are dissimilar at a glance and evidently geographic neighbours, but very closely related, when examined at the genetic level.

According to this landmark study, there was a 99.9 percent within-population variance, the between-population variance was less than 0.1 percent. This means that Yorubas, Igbos, Gaa and Akan are 99.9 percent similar.

  http://venturesafrica.com/black-panther-is-just-what-it-is/

 

144

The Southern part of Nigeria is Biafra. Biafra borders Cameroon. My DNA shows high Benin/ Togo and Cameroon/Congo

Biafra was once in modern day Cameroon.

nigeria-1

nounplural Ibos (especially collectivelyIbo.

1.

a member of an indigenous black people of southeastern Nigeria, renowned as traders and for their art.

2.

the language of the Ibo, a Kwa language.
Igbo people

Cameroon_CIA_WFB_2006_map

The Bight of Benin was the Slave Coast. You can see Dahomey and Benin in the map below with Cameroon as it’s neighbour.

a7696481c95a51fe969dd914c6cfdd3d--statistics-edinburgh

The Ebo connection to Benin is further supported by Onyebuechi Amene who states the following;

“ Ebo is a Benin name. It was the Binis that went to Igala and
formed the Igala Royal families that took the name to Igala.”

“ The Ebo family of Isiskre still retain their ancestral Bini
names.”

Those captives who came to the Americas from Ghana and Benin (Dahomey) were those known as Ebo or the Mina tribes. In fact a Mina tribe remains in the Kwara State of Yorubaland and refer to themselves as Igbo-Mina using the original Igbo spelling of the name.

It was the Portuguese Jewish slave traders who began selling Ebo captives from Benin to Ghana where they were used to work the Gold Mines. These traders coined the Ebo as “ Mina tribes “ meaning those destined for El-Mina, a Portuguese word meaning “ The Mines “. El-Mina became central to the slave trade in Ghana.

The most powerful amongst the Ebo(Mina) to arrive in Ghana were those called Ewe.

https://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-greater-igbo-nation-by-ishaq-d-al-sulaimani/comment-page-2/#comment-76198

Negroland_and_Guinea_with_the_European_Settlements,_1736

Most of the slaves of Bight of Benin that hailed from Benin itself were imported to South Carolina (36%), Virginia (23%), Gulf Coast (28%) and Florida (9,8%). The top three picked up a few thousand slaves of this Straits (Florida only received 698 slaves from Bight of Benin).[citation needed] Many of those slaves were imported to Louisiana and Alabama (where was famous the case of Clotilde slave ship, that exported between 110 and 160 slaves from Dahomey to Mobile in 1859, between them to Cudjo Lewis (ca. 1840 – 1935), considered the last person born on African soil to have been enslaved in the United States when slavery was still lawful),[2] both belonging to the Gulf Coast. It was in Louisiana where her presence was notable. Indeed, between 1719 and 1731, most of the slaves who came to that place came directly from Benin. They were especially Fon,[3] but many slaves also were of ethnics such as Nago (Yoruba subgroup, although exported mainly by Spanish,[4] when the Louisiana was Spanish) -, Ewe, and Gen. Many of the slaves imported to the modern United States since Benin were sold by the King of Dahomey, in Whydah.[2] [note 1] However, not all the slaves sold in day-present Benin were of there: Many were of other places, but were captured by Dahomeyan warriors.[6] The native slaves from current Benin came from places as Porto-Novo, from where were brought to the port of Ouidah, place in the that was realized the slave shopping. This place brought many slaves

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beninese_Americans

biafra43-2.png

This area is highlighted in my DNA. See my region results of that area below.

20180907_004723.jpg

35de13db2a9115f2ce36c0072c68e7c2

Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa personal account of a slave

That part of Africa known by the name of Guinea, to which the trade for slaves is carried on, extends along the coast above 3400 miles, from the Senegal to Angola, and includes a variety of kingdoms. Of these the most considerable is the kingdom of Benin, both as to extent and wealth, the richness and cultivation of the soil, the power of its king, and the number and warlike disposition of the inhabitants. It is situated nearly under the line, and extends along the coast about 170 miles, but runs back into the interior part of Africa to a distance hitherto I believe unexplored by any traveller; and seems only terminated at length by the empire of Abyssinia, near 1500 miles from its beginning.

This kingdom is divided into many provinces or districts: in one of the most remote and fertile of which, called Eboe, I was born in the year 1745 in a charming fruitful vale named Essaka. The distance of this province from the capital of Benin and the sea coast must be very considerable, for I had never heard of white men or Europeans, nor of the sea: and our subjection to the king of Benin was little more than nominal; for every transaction of the government, as far as my slender observation extended, was conducted by the chiefs or elders of the place.

 

INAUGURalmeetinginbenincity.jpg

The Kingdom of Whydah /ˈhwɪdəˈhwɪdˌɔː/ (YorubaXwédaFrenchOuidah) was a kingdom on the coast of West Africa in the boundaries of the modern nation of Benin. Between 1677 and 1681 it was conquered by the Akwamu, one of the Akan people.[1] It was a major slave trading post. In 1700, it had a coastline of around 16 kilometres (10 mi);[2] under King Haffon, this was expanded to 64 km (40 mi), and stretching 40 km (25 mi) inland.[3]

The name Whydah (also spelt HuedaWhidah, OuidahWhidaw, and Juda[4]) is an anglicised form of Xwéda (pronounced o-wi-dah), from the Yoruba language of Benin. Today the port city of Ouidah bears the kingdom’s name; it is in the far west of the former Popo Kingdom and is where most of the European slave traders lived and worked.

Whidah is also spelt Juda (spoken as Jew-dah/ Yahudah) see the below for historical evidence.

Istealite.PNG

13434917_10207961110284385_8633878494114018912_n2

(Scholars state whydah is a bird but I propose another meaning to the name)

Whydah (also spelt HuedaWhidah, OuidahWhidaw, and Juda[4]

See strongs 3063

3063 [e] וִֽיהוּדָ֔ה
wî-hū-ḏāh,
and Judah

wî·hū·ḏāh = Juda

Englishman’s Concordance

wî·hū·ḏāh — 47 Occurre  nces

Genesis 35:23 
HEB: וְשִׁמְעוֹן֙ וְלֵוִ֣י וִֽיהוּדָ֔ה וְיִשָּׂשכָ֖ר וּזְבוּלֻֽן׃
KJV: and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar,

See strongs 5912

5912 [e] עָכָ֗ן
‘ā-ḵān,
Achan
ā·ḵān 
Englishman’s Concordance

ā·ḵān — 6 OccurrencesJoshua 7:1 
HEB: בַּחֵ֑רֶם וַיִּקַּ֡ח עָכָ֣ן בֶּן־ כַּרְמִי֩
NAS: under the ban, for Achan, the son
KJV: in the accursed thing: for Achan, the son
INT: to the things took Achan the son of Carmi

https://biblehub.com/hebrew/achan_5912.htm

ACHAN a’-kan (`akhan (in 1 Chronicles 2:7 Achar, `akhar, “troubler”): The descendant of Zerah the son of Judah.

(Joshua 7).

701a3649dfd8c532c53bce18b7021900--ashanti-empire-kumasi-ghana.jpg

Asante and Akan Kingdoms

    Travelling North from Congo you have Guinea Gabon Cameroon Biafra Benin Nigeria Togo Ghana which brings you to the Gold and Slave Coast.

Asante_map-1

The Ashanti are believed to descend from Abyssinians, who were pushed south by the Egyptian forces.[4][5]

Abyssinian people (Ge’ezሐበሻይት), also known as the Habesha or Abesha, are a population inhabiting the Horn of Africa.

Members’ cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the Kingdom of Dʿmt (usually vocalized Diʿamat) and the Kingdom of Aksum.[3] Scholars have classified the Amhara and the Tigreans as Abyssinians proper.[4] The Ge’ez speaking people, minimally affected by Sabaean influence, formed the ethnic and cultural stock for both the pre-Axumite and Axumite states.[5][6] Ge’ez, which is closely related to Tigrinyaand Tigre, is also believed to be the ancestor of the diverse southern Ethiopian Semitic languages including Amharic.[7][8] Together, the Amhara and Tigray constitute over 33% of Ethiopia‘s population (c. 27 million Amhara, 6.1 million Tigray).[9][10]

End

CIMG1219

FANTE people above

My paternal line shared African Ethnicity 

 

Match 1 

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo, 

Trace Regions:   Benin/Togo,

 

Match 2

 

 

 

 

Immediately above in bold my Ghanian cousins DNA whose surname is an Ashanti Akan surname. From the 2 DNA matches above I can see that in my Father’s family line is Ivory Coast/Ghana & Benin/Togo

GHANAIAN DNA sample below

VkYSUgu

gh-4x

In my DNA matches I have Quartey and Lartey Surnames which are Ghanian Akan Ga Dangme 

See the below brief history

The GaDangmes of Ghana are believed to be related by blood to the Igbos of Nigeria.  However, in his book, GA HOMOWO, Charles Nii Ammah (1982) stated that according to oral tradition, the Ga believe they migrated from Israel.  Ammah suggested that the Ga people are descendants of Cush (Benjamin) from the twelfth tribe of Israel.  He contends that the Ga people were really ‘JEWS’ who migrated from “Egypt” and settled on the land they now occupy.

http://gadangme.weebly.com/ga-dangme-origins.html

King Ayi Kushi: the Revered Spiritual and Political Leader.
Ayi Kushi was a revered political and spiritual ruler who is credited with the formation of the Gá State. His son, Ayitey, is said to have marched with the Gá, Dangmes, Obutus, and Awutus to establish the inland kingdom of Ayawaso. The kingdom of Ayawaso’s capital was Okaikoi. Osudoku, at the time, was the epicentre of Dangme culture. Ayi Kushi is described as an illustrious and astute leader, and law-giver who united the Gá-Dangme into a powerful tribe; and set the precedent for the diplomatic and conquering activities of later Gá kings. To strengthen the Gá state, Ayi Kushi encouraged intermarriage between Gás, Dangmes, Akyems, Awutus, Akwapims and Obutus.

https://www.thegadangme.com/ga-mantsemei-list-and-short-descriptions/

The Ga are descended from immigrants who came down the Niger River and across the Volta during the 17th century. The Ga-speaking peoples were organized into six independent towns (Accra, Osu, Labadi, Teshi, Nungua, and Tema). Each town had a stool, which served as the central object of Ga ritual and war magic. Accra became the most prominent Ga town and is now the capital of Ghana.

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ga

Kings of the Ga State

Nii Ayi Kushi (Cush)                                 1510- 1535)                    He led the GaDangmes
to Ayawaso in Ghana.                                                                      Nii Ayite                                                         1535 -1560
Nii Koi Nalai                                                 1560 – 1585

Owura Mampong Okai                               1585- 1610Queen Dode (Dodi) Akaibi                         1610 – 1636          She was said to have reigned with tyranny.

Nii Okaikoi                                                  1635 – 1660

 

akuapem56

The Lartey area and people of Ghana and their history extract from http://www.easternchiefs.org/akuapem/

  • The following 17 principal towns form the Akuapem state, 
    1. Berekuso
    2. Atweasing
    3. Aburi
    4. Ahwerase
    5. Asantema (Obosomase)
    6. Tutu
    7. Mampong
    8. Abotakyi
    9. Amanokurom
    10. Mamfe
    11. Akropong
    12. Abiriw
    13. Odawu,
    14. Awukugua
    15. Adukrom
    16. Apirede 
    17. Larteh.

The story of Larteh Akuapem cannot be told in isolation without a little about the Guans, Ga or Accra, Akyem and Akwamu history.

The indigenous inhabitants on the Akuapem Mountains are the Guans which consists of Larteh (comprising Larteh, Mamfe, Abotakyi, Mampong, Obosomase, and Tutu) and the OKERE or Kyerepong (Comprising Abiriw, Dawu, Awukugua, Adukrom, Apirede, Abonse-Asesieso).

Larteh lies on parallel ridge to the east on the Akonnobepow, while the rest of the towns lie in line along the crest of the main ridge on Bewasebepow.

Legend has it that the founding fathers of Larteh carried with them flint stone to ignite fire, and for this reason the La who traveled from Boni on the Niger Delta fraternized with the Larteh during their journey along the beach.

The people of Larteh, Kpeshie and La originated from the Les who originally occupied the coast before the arrival of the Gá; The La are closely related to the Larteh, the people of Gbese, the Agotimes and the original inhabitants of Osu. However, the oral traditions of the La suggest that their people were part of the original Gá, and that the town was in fact founded by descendants of a brother of Ayi Kushi; hence in constitutional matters the La Mantse deputises for the Gá Mantse in all issues affecting the Gá polity.

After briefly settling at Ayawaso the La seems to have re-located to Ladoku and from thence to Podoku. The Las, under Adjei Onano and Numo Ngmashie his great chief, appear to have been granted land by the king of Nungua who owned all the land between Nungua and Osu; the grant was against the expressed wishes of Borketey Larweh, the priest of Nungua. After a dispute over water rights and alleged murder of a La princess, the Labadis proposed to have a hand each cut off from Sowa, the high priest and Borketey Larweh. After Borketey Larweh’s hand had been cut off the La reneged on their part of the bargain; as a result, Borketey Larweh is said to have vanished into the sea.

Various traditions indicate that Teshie was founded by Nii Mgmashie, a nephew of the mankralo of Labadi. The town soon attracted other Gá-Dangme peoples, including Aseres, Nunguas, Krobos, Obutus, Pramprams. It therefore grew to become one of the principal Gá-Dangme towns.

Due to their location Tema and Kpone tended to feature less prominently in Gá-Dangme history and politics than their present importance suggests. A considerable early presence of Les in the vicinity of Tema was overlain by immigrant Gá and Dangme peoples. Although Kpone is a Dangme town it appears to be more influenced than other Dangme towns by Gá language and culture. With the re-location of people of Tema New Town on Kpone traditional lands it appears that the future of Tema and Kpone is intertwined.

The main Ga goup known as the Tumgwa We led by Ayi Kushie arrived by sea. When the Guans (Lartehs) on the coast saw them on their canoes on sea they looked like ants. Hence the Lartehs refer to them as Nkran (ants). Nkran was later corrupted by the Danes to Akra then to present day Accra. Nkran in the Ga language is Gaga, thus they also started calling themselves Ga. Due to their sheer numbers, the Lartehs thus relocated to the Hills. The Ga are also part of the main Guan group that started the initial migration from the Nubia Empire.

The Guan speaking people live mostly in Ghana though there are some pockets in Togo, Benin and Cote D’Ivoire. Modern historians more or less agree that since time immemorial the Guans have been the original inhabitants of Ghana, because unlike the Akan who arrived from Bouna in the north west, the Ewe from Notsie in Togo in about 1720, the Ga-Adangbe from certain parts in Nigeria and the Mossie-Dagomba group of state who emigrated from the north-east ,the Guans, on the other hand, migrated from nowhere thus Ghana is the ancestral homeland of the Guans. Another school of thought is that the Guans migrated from Israel through Nubia in East Africa to the west of Africa with their capital at Timbuktu.

Even the pockets of the Guans in Togo (The Anyanga), those In Benin (The Gbede, Wese, Okomfo) and the Baule In Cote D’Ivoire claim migrant origin from Ghana. There are numerous studies, which support Guans claim to their autochonous (i.e. aboriginal) status. There is a factual information provided by Professor Adu Boahene who says; neither the Akan nor the Ga-Adangbe found the coastal district of Ghana unoccupied.

asante_map1355183030379-1

Nii-Adam-Kwatei-Quartey

Above the Gbawe Kwatei Head of family, Nii Adam Kwatei Quartey

Quarteys’ all over the world are descendants of the Royal Family of Kpakpatse We clan of the Asεrε group of the Ga speaking people, which is one of the seven quarters (Akutséii) that constituted the Ashiedu Kεtεkε District within the Odododiodioo Constituency of the Ga Mashie Community in Accra. The Asεrε group of people comprises of five different clans which relocated to the coastal settlements of Little Akra (Ga Mashie) after the destruction of Great Akra (Ayawaso) by the Akwamus in the early Sixteen Century.

https://kpakpatseweroyalfamily.wordpress.com/2011/06/18/origin-of-the-ga-people-in-ghana/

Nanny of the Maroons

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Nanny was born into the Ashanti tribe about 1686 in what is now Ghana, West Africa.[4] It is believed that some of her family members were involved in intertribal conflict and her village was captured. Nanny and several relatives were sold as slaves and transported to Jamaica. There she was likely sold to a plantation in Saint Thomas Parish, just outside the Port Royal area. The commodity crop was sugarcane, and the slaves toiled under extremely harsh conditions to cultivate, harvest and process it. Another version of her life tells that she was of royal African blood and came to Jamaica as a free woman. She may have been married to a man named Adou, but had no known children who survived.[3]

As a child, Nanny was influenced by other slave leaders and maroons. She and her “brothers”, Accompong, Cudjoe and Quao, ran away from their plantation and hid in the Blue Mountains area of northern Saint Thomas Parish.[4] While in hiding, they split up to organize more Maroon communities across Jamaica: Cudjoe went to Saint James Parish and organized a village, which was later named Cudjoe Town; Accompong settled in Saint Elizabeth Parish, in a community that came to be known as Accompong Town;[6] and Nanny and Quao founded communities in Portland Parish.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanny_of_the_Maroons

I did not realise that my maroon ancestor was from the same parish in Jamaica as Nanny of the maroons, St Thomas in the East until I re read the information. My maroon ancestor would have surely heard the legacy of Nanny of the Maroons as there were 70 years maximum between them. The stories of some of the Ashanti being in the mountains would have been alive at the time of my ancestor. It is quite possible the Maroons came and released my ancestor and others as this is what they did on many occasions. They released the slaves took them with them, took food and guns and sometimes killed the slave masters and burnt down their buildings before leaving. Nanny’s oral history is that her village was captured during war.  Below we will explore accounts of the Ashanti wars.

Below before we look at the Ashanti I have posted a short clip on the African female warriors.

Below from https://amazingbibletimeline.com/blog/ashanti-empire-trade-slaves-guns/

The Rise of the Ashanti Empire

During the 1670s, groups of Akan people from northern Ghana escaped strife in their homeland and flocked to the fertile region around Kumasi. Two of the most powerful clans that migrated to Kumasi were the Bretuo and the Oyoko. At that time, however, the refugees were forced to submit to the powerful Denkyira nation.To assure the Denkyira of his people’s submission, the Oyoko chief Obiri Yeboa sent his nephew Osei Tutu to live with and serve them.

Osei Tutu served as a shield bearer to Boa Amponsem, the chief of the Denkyira. He later fled to the territory of the Akwamu because of the cruelty of the people he served. He worked for the Akwamu chief and quickly rose to prominence there. He also befriended the priest Okomfo Anokye who soon became his firm ally. His uncle, chief Obiri Yeboa, later died in battle, so Osei Tutu was summoned back to his homeland to rule. He continued the conquests made by his uncle and even subdued other groups of Akan people in the area.

Osei Tutu, with the help of Okomfo Anokye and his Akwamu allies, slowly built the Ashanti kingdom. During the 1690s, Osei Tutu and his people declared their independence from the Denkyira. Full-scale war flared out between the Denkyira and the Ashanti in 1699, but the Ashanti emerged victorious in 1701 in the Battle of Feyiase.  

End

ashanti-kingdom.jpg

In their struggle against the suzerain state of Denkyera and lesser neighbouring states, the Asante people made little headway until the accession, probably in the 1670s, of Osei Tutu. After a series of campaigns that crushed all opposition, he was installed as Asantehene, or king of the new Asante state, whose capital was named Kumasi. His authority was symbolized by the Golden Stool, on which all subsequent kings were enthroned.

From the beginning of the 18th century, the Asante supplied slaves to British and Dutch traders on the coast; in return they received firearms with which to enforce their territorial expansion. After the death of Osei Tutu in either 1712 or 1717, a period of internal chaos and factional strife was ended with the accession of Opoku Ware (ruled c. 1720–50), under whom Asante reached its fullest extent in the interior of the country. Kings Osei Kwadwo (ruled c. 1764–77), Osei Kwame (1777–1801), and Osei Bonsu (c. 1801–24) established a strong centralized state, with an efficient, merit-based bureaucracy and a fine system of communications.

In 1807 Osei Bonsu occupied southern Fante territory—an enclave around British headquarters at Cape Coast; in the same year, Great Britain outlawed the slave trade. Declining trade relations and disputes over the Fante region caused friction over the following decade and led to warfare in the 1820s. The Asante defeated a British force in 1824 but made peace in 1831 and avoided conflict for the next 30 years.

In 1863, under Kwaku Dua (ruled 1834–67), the Asante again challenged the British by sending forces to occupy the coastal provinces. In 1869 the British took possession of Elmina (over which Asante claimed jurisdiction), and in 1874 an expeditionary force under Sir Garnet Wolseley marched on Kumasi. Though Wolseley managed to occupy the Asante capital for only one day, the Asante were shocked to realize the inferiority of their military and communications systems. The invasion, moreover, sparked numerous secessionary revolts in the northern provinces. The old southern provinces were formally constituted the Gold Coast colony by the British later in 1874. Asante’s king Kofi Karikari was then deposed, and Mensa Bonsu (ruled 1874–83) assumed power. He attempted to adapt the agencies of Asante government to the changed situation. Although he reorganized the army, appointed some Europeans to senior posts, and increased Asante resources, he was prevented from restoring Asante imperial power by the British political agents, who supported the northern secessionist chiefs and the opponents of central government in Kumasi. The empire continued to decline under his successor, Prempeh I (acceded 1888), during whose reign, on January 1, 1902, Asante was formally declared a British crown colony, the former northern provinces being on the same day separately constituted the Protectorate of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast.

https://www.britannica.com/place/Asante-empire

 

Kumasi (historically spelled Comassie or Coomassie and usually spelled Kumase in Twi)[3] is a city in Ashanti Region, and is among the largest metropolitan areas in Ghana. Kumasi is near Lake Bosomtwe, in a rain forest region, and is the commercial, industrial and cultural capital ofAsanteman. Kumasi is approximately 500 kilometres (300 mi) north of the Equator and 200 kilometres (100 mi) north of the Gulf of Guinea. Kumasi is alternatively known as “The Garden City” because of its many beautiful species of flowers and plants. It is also called Oseikrom (Osei Tutu’s town). Kumasi is described as Ghana’s second city.[4]

AsantemanEdit

Kings Way Road in Kumasi, 1925.

The city rose to prominence in 1695 when it became capital of the Ashanti Confederacy due to the activities of its ruler Osei Tutu. The ruler of Kumasi, known as the Asantehene, also served as ruler of the Confederacy. With their 1701 victory over Denkyira the Asante confederacy became the primary state among the Ashantis.[5]Parts of the city, including the then royal residence, were destroyed by British troops in the Third Anglo-Ashanti War of 1874.

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The Kwa people of Africa include the Ga-Dangbe, Ewe, Akwapim, Fanti, Kwahu, and Akim and Ashanti.

This totally matches what I have found through my DNA analysis. This is is why in my posts you see me looking at Ga Ewe Akan Fanti and Ashanti and Ibo DNA and seeing that I match them. We are the KWA Niger Congo Bantu Afro Asiatic family. It is known but not publicised that the Bantu expanded from Cameroon/Congo to populate the South and North of Africa.

bantu-1 

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Between the 10th and 12th centuries AD the ethnic Akan people migrated into the forest belt of Southern Ghana and established several Akan states:

  • Ashanti The Ashanti Region is known for its major gold bar and cocoa production. The largest city and regional capital is Kumasi.

Before the Ashanti Kingdom had contact with Europeans, it had a flourishing trade with other African states due to the Ashanti gold wealth. Trade with European states began after contact with the Portuguese in the 15th century AD.[6] When the gold mines in the Sahel started to play out, the Ashanti Kingdom rose to prominence as the major player in the gold trade.[5] At the height of the Ashanti Kingdom, the Ashanti people became wealthy through the trading of gold mined from their territory.[5]

Ewe People also known as Evê can be found in Ghana, Togo, Benin, some parts of Nigeria and Ivory Coast, they are part of the Gbe Speaking People and related to the Fon, Mina and Aja people.  According to Professor Amenumey he claimed they originally came from Ketu in Dahomey See this link for the original post Ewe People of Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Benin and Ivory Coast

The Ewes moved into the area which is now Togo from the Niger river valley between the 12th and 14th centuries. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portuguese explorers and traders visited the coast. For the next 200 years, the coastal region was a major raiding center for Europeans in search of slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name “The Slave Coast.”

http://www.worldrover.com/history/togo_history.htmlp

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The Gbe languages (pronounced [ɡbè])[2] form a cluster of about twenty related languages stretching across the area between eastern Ghana and western Nigeria. The total number of speakers of Gbe languages is between four and eight million. The most widely spoken Gbe language is Ewe (3 million speakers in Ghana and Togo), followed by Fon (1.7 million, mainly in Benin). The Gbe languages were traditionally placed in the Kwa branch of the Niger–Congo languages, but more recently have been classified as Volta–Niger languages. They include five major dialect clusters: Ewe, Fon, Aja, Gen (Mina), and Phla–Pherá.

Akan-States

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The Ghanaian diet and staple foods below

I see where Jamaicans get their style of cooking. The above collage could be Jamaican or West Indian.

814px-niger-congo_map_with_delimitation-1-1

Coromantee (derived from the name of the Ghanaian coastal town “Kormantse”), also called Coromantins, Coromanti or Kormantine was the English name given to Akan slaves from the Gold Coast or modern-day Ghana. The term Coromantee is now considered archaic as it simply refers to Akan people, and was primarily used in the Caribbean. Coromantins actually came from several Akan ethnic groups – Ashanti, Fanti, Akyem, etc. – presumably taken as war captives. Owing to their militaristic background and common Akan language, Coromantins organized dozens of slave rebellions in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. Their fierce, rebellious nature became so notorious among white plantation owners in the 18th century that an Act was proposed to ban the importation of people from the Gold Coast despite their reputation as strong workers. The Akans had the single largest African cultural influence on Jamaica, including Jamaican Maroons whose culture and language was seen as a derivation of Akan.Names of some notable Coromantee leaders such as Cudjoe, Quamin, Cuffy, and Quamina correspond to Akan day names Kojo, Kwame, Kofi, and Kwabena, respectively.

Ghana Rising: Coromantee : The Akan Warriors of the New World….

Read more: http://www.city-data.com/forum/americas/1588182-african-country-does-jamaica-have-lot-5.html#ixzz5PfAuAkmp

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Now that I have gained a general understanding of the back ground of these ancestors, I will begin to dig deeper into their tribes. Since doing my DNA test ancestry DNA have further developed their DNA technology. The updates point to me being completely of Akan descent.

 

As we have established the Ewe and Ga tribes are part of the Niger Congo Kwa Akan language group.

On the below map the Akan are again shown to be part of the Niger Congo people’s, Kwa and Volta Congo.

1280px-Map_of_the_Volta–Congo_languages.svg

2Ghana-map-langues

The above puts the Ga subgroup right in the heart of Accra. This map reflects my findings on my Akan ancestors who were almost certainely from western Ghana. Research suggests my DNA is reflective of the Ga Ewe and Ashanti living in and near Accra.

ghana-ashanti-ewe-map

jul-17-1-1-gap2_1

Below is the Ghanaian region identified in my DNA.

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Records and DNA analysis indicate that some of my ancestors were from Accra.

See my below results. My ancestors seem to be from this South west region and also further to the East.

20180907_005333

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Earlier I mentioned having a DNA match with the surname Ageypong which is a Ashanti surname. Some of my ancestors were from the area above, especially Akropong and Larteh.

Now let’s briefly explore the ancient history of the Akans

ancient egyptians and the akana people – ResearchGate
DOC https://www.researchgate.net › links › Ak…

The descendants of Ancient Egyptians (Akans) and the Assyrians (Assin) are currently living in the African continent. … Those Akan groups and some of the present day smaller tribes, who form minorities in West Africa as a whole, all wandered from the Ancient civilisations in the Mesopotamia and the Ancient world.
Akan people – Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Akan_p…

The Akan are a meta-ethnicity predominantly speaking Central Tano languages and residing in the southern regions of the former ... They migrated from the north, they went through Egypt and settled in Nubia (Sudan).
Ghana: 12 million

Ivory Coast: 9 million

End
Now we will look at where North Mesopatamia  and the ancient world was.
494px-Neo_babylonia_empire_540_bc.svg
The above shows according to Akan history they were from the dark area above.
DNA tribe analysis and oral tradition suggest the migration patterns below 1000-2000 years ago.
Akan_people_(Migration_Pattern_Origin_&_Ethnogenesis)
The below is a migration pattern for Nigeria and Cameroon descendant using DNA. Accra is right next to the blue marker Lagos. The continent had not yet been divided as it is today.
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Other tribes like the Ga took the below pattern

20180830_115535

Below is a picture of the area in South Sudan that is identified in my DNA  from my actual results.

20180906_121151

In the South of Sudan in the same region live a tribe called the Azande tribe.

m10526_od

The Azande people and Congo people are neighbours and probably have the same ancestors .

Azande people

old-man-with-hat-A8122X5fu5XRhi

Congo people

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ForestPygmy2.a

 

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DNA analysis of West Africans
E-1b1a-map-_Africa-_Arabia-_Iran-_Pakistan
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For the next part we will look briefly at historical and biblical factors.
The whole region that includes what the Bible calls the Land of Canaan, Palestine and Israel was an extension of the African mainland before it was artificially divided from the main African continent by the manmade Suez Canal.
Second World War correspondents introduced the new name Middle-East for the portion of the land separated from the African mainland.
Before the Second World War the whole region now called Middle-East was known as North-Eastern Africa.
Ancient wagons in the Bible journeyed from these regions to the mainland of Africa on foot (Gen 46:5-7).
Historians Flavius Josephus, Celus, Plutarch, Tacitus, Eusebius, and Diodorus confirm that the original Hebrew were a group of Ethiopians and Egyptians who were forced to leave Egypt and migrate with their caravans on foot to this Land which Canaan ruled, a Land of Africans in North-Eastern Africa.
This is the Land of Africa where Abraham lived for 10 years and married Hagar the Egyptian (Gen 15: 3).
The borders of this land that Canaan and his African descendants lived in and ruled, according to the Bible (Gen 10: 19), extended “from Sidon as thou comest to Gerar unto Gaza and goest unto Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zoboim, even unto Lasha.”
This is the land that was known as North-Eastern Africa.”
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See possible Ashan above close to Beersheba
Ashan Achan Achar Akan??? Ashanti??
ASHAN PEOPLE
Below evidence of  black people in Arabia.
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Below 1813 Arabia
f81a6e8edb981f7299084f01873e125d
Sixteen Views of Places in the Persian Gulph… Forces… Against the Arabian Pirates No 3. Muskat from the Harbour – Apr 1813 Temple, R Clark, I William Haines, William
Click this link below to watch an afro palestinian confirm the above information. West African “Negros” blacks were in Palestine for thousands of years. Some of those that moved to West Africa were sold into slavery.
africaIsrael_Stattered_1_1
9780195390643
afr-ethnicities-n-america-caribbean

 

Below is from bible hub

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

ASHAN

a’-shan (`ashan): An unknown site in the domain of Judah (Joshua 15:42), possessed by Simeon (Joshua 19:7), and mentioned among the priests’ cities in 1 Chronicles 6:59. (44) = Joshua 21:16(`ayin is a corruption of `ashan). Chorashan (or Borashan), which was probably the site of some reservoir in the Southwest part of Judah (1 Samuel 30:30), is the same as Ashan.

6228. Ashan — a place in Judah and later in Simeon
6227, 6228. Ashan. 6229 . a place in Judah and later in Simeon. Transliteration:
Ashan Phonetic Spelling: (aw-shawn’) Short Definition: Ashan.
/hebrew/6228.htm – 6k

1536_bigMap Of Israel And Judah books of the bible maps geography and the bible bible history 695 X 1061

JudahNegevCities

953b. Bor Ashan — “smoking pit,” a place in Judah
Bor Ashan. 953a, 953b. Bor Ashan. 954 . “smoking pit,” a place in Judah.
Transliteration: Bor Ashan Short Definition: Bor-ashan.
/hebrew/953b.htm – 5k

Strong’s Hebrew

Achar. Achan is probably called Achar, from the trouble he occasioned.

Joshua 7:1-5 But the children of Israel committed a trespass in the accursed thing: …

Achan.
accursed.

Deuteronomy 7:26 Neither shall you bring an abomination into your house, lest you …

Achan(troubler), an Israelite of the tribe of Judah, who, when Jericho and all that it contained were accursed and devoted to destruction, secreted a portion of the spoil in his tent. For this sin he was stoned to death with his whole family by the people, in a valley situated between Ai and Jericho, and their remains, together with his property, were burnt. (Joshua 7:19-26) From this event the valley received the name of Achor (i.e. trouble). [ACHOR, VALLEY OF] (B.C. 1450.)

ACHANa’-kan (`akhan (in 1 Chronicles 2:7 Achar, `akhar, “troubler”): The descendant of Zerah the son of Judah who was put to death, in Joshua’s time, for stealing some of the “devoted” spoil of the city of Jericho (Joshua 7). The stem `akhan is not used in Hebrew except in this name. The stem `akhar has sufficient use to define it. It denotes trouble of the most serious kind-Jacob’s trouble when his sons had brought him into blood feud with his Canaanite neighbors, or Jephthah’s trouble when his vow required him to sacrifice his daughter (Genesis 34:30 Judges 11:35).

The Ghanian Slave forts below

 

 

Ham & Shem Egyptians Hebrews & Arabs in The land of the blacks Bilad al Sudan

land-of-ham-and-shem-map1.jpg

Aah+let+s+not+nitpick+towards+the+end+of+ancient+egypt+_d77c789ca2abfa94cb7d23e6a71697a6

In this post I am going to examine the descendants of Shem and Ham according to the Bible. I will be exploring oral accounts and scientific and visual evidence of who they were and where they lived also. This post will also explore the modern descendants and what they might look like now and the theories surrounding them.

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ramsesIII

 

 

Through researching where the ancestors of West African slaves come from I found that many of the tribes share an oral history passed down and even have copies of the Torah or Hebrew Bible that they state they brought from Israel. Some dispute this and it is quite possible that some Africans did move to Israel and then back to Africa. Other tribes as they are proclaiming could have always been in Africa from the beginning.

I don’t know about you, but when I think of black people and who they descend from I think of Ham.  This is an opinion that has been slowly fed to the population over years. We descend from Ham and Ham was cursed however there are some of the opinion that this was fabricated to justify slavery. The entire Nation of Ham was not cursed and only the biblical figure Canaan was technically cursed and if you actually check the bible you will see the error in this conception.


King James Bible
And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.

The curses that would befall Israel if they did not follow the most high on the other hand were

According to Jeremiah 17:4 the children of Israel would be discontinued from their heritage (language, culture, possessions etc…), which would leave room for the question, “Since the children of Israel were discontinued from their heritage, how would they know who they are; and how do we know they exist?”

According to the Hebrew Scriptures the children of Israel are cursed by the sins of their fathers (Matthew 27:24-25) and scattered among all nations until the fullness of the Gentiles (None Israelites) comes (see Romans 11:25, Luke 21:24).

Deuteronomy 28:46 – And they (the curses) shall be upon thee for a sign and a wonder and upon thy seed (children) forever.

This shows us that these curses written in the Scriptures would identify who the children of Israel are because there would be no other way to identify them. 

deut 28:16 Cursed shall you be in the city and cursed shall you be in the field. 

http://webdesign97.tripod.com/hebrewisraelafricanrootsinformationsite/id18.html

“And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.” – Luke 21:24

African history has been white washed and although in this society we state that colour doesn’t matter there continues to be a white washing of history. There has been an attempt to destroy and play down the significance of the African and Asian race in contributing to history. Examples slightly off point before we get into this post,  include the removal of the nose on African statues to try to make their race unidentifiable.

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images-426

egyptian-status-noses

Picture 196

There has been a visual misinterpretation of biblical figures such as promoting a white Jesus.

 

 

Yet the Pope and many parts of Europe pray to a black Madonna Mary and Jesus.

images-2312017-10-31-21-07-53-821685372017-10-31-21-07-49--1123122457

73c2ecd923dec966a944880e18ce2a64--god-jesus-jesus-christ

 

 

 

57d11e0380e706e82b6e9214d39cd5a7--truth-hurts-black-man                    dca1c29578a6736c57175dad149d52d6--jesus-son-black-jesusimages-266

Jesus black!! watch this short clip https://youtu.be/IwL4CGf7PDU

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Watch a reconstruction of Adam below

 https://youtu.be/qOgzEj6dR8c

Darius_III
Artaxerxes III, predecessor of Darius III, from his Tomb at Persepolis

Detail from Darius III's palace

Detail from Darius III's palace

The Persians & Asyrians took the Hebrews into captivity and they went into exile.

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KJV_Isaiah_20-4.jpg

 

Ck7IoYxUgAAYKps

ELAM   עֵילָם   m   Biblical
Possibly means either “hidden” or “eternity” in Hebrew. This was the name of several characters in the Old Testament, including a son of Shem who was the ancestor of the Elamite peoples.

https://www.behindthename.com/names/usage/biblical

640px-Sumer1

People of The Arabian Peninsula below

sephardic-hebrew-men

Bolwh06IgAApKVo

Xaaji

What would be a lookalike to this image below, now??

guards

How about these descendants?

 

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These tribes are found in Arabia and Asia

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Watch the link below of the Egyptian man forced to classify as white

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1MOYD0yb6P0

 

 

East African DNA

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Click link below to read full post and then press the back button. Or see the below list.

Ham: The Origin of Black Africans and Black Arabs In The Bible

 

From the above link blacks in the Bible

Ham’s Sons (Genesis 10:6)

  1. Cush (Sudan)
  2. Mizraim (Egypt)
  3. Phut (Libya)
  4. Canaan (Israel)

Ham’s Grandsons Through Cush

  1. Seba
  2. Havilah
  3. Sabtah
  4. Raamah
  5. Sabtecha
  6. Nimrod

Ham’s Grandsons Through Mizraim

  1. Ludim
  2. Anamim
  3. Lehabim
  4. Naphtuhim
  5. Pathrusim
  6. Casluhim
  7. Caphtorim

Ham’s Grandsons Through Canaan

  1. Sidon
  2. Heth
  3. Jebusite
  4. Amorite
  5. Girgasite
  6. Hivite
  7. Arkite
  8. Sinite
  9. Arvadite
  10. Zemarite
  11. Hamathite

Interestingly, the sons of Phut are not mentioned, but we know that they existed because Phut’s lineage is mentioned in general several times in scripture.

http://www.blackhistoryinthebible.com/the-hamites/ham-the-father-of-africans/

this post will be exploring the descendants of Ham and Shem highlighting how they mixed to create the Afro Asiatic Africa and Middle East that we know of today.

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Firstly we know that Ham Shem and Japheth were brothers and Noah was their father and everyone in the world descends from this family according to the Bible. Therefore as scientists have proven we descend from a common ancestor.

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Multiple Trajectories of Islam in Africa Islam had already spread into northern Africa by the mid-seventh century A.D., only a few decades after the prophet Muhammad moved with his followers from Mecca to Medina on the neighboring Arabian Peninsula (622 A.D./1 A.H.). Arab conquest of Spain and the push of Arab armies as far as the Indus River culminated in an empire that stretched over three continents, a mere hundred years after the Prophet’s death. Between the eighth and ninth centuries, Arab traders and travelers, then African clerics, began to spread the religion along the eastern coast of Africa and to the western and central Sudan (literally, “Land of Black people”), stimulating the development of urban communities. Given its negotiated, practical approach to different cultural situations, it is perhaps more appropriate to consider Islam in Africa in terms of its multiple histories rather then as a unified movement.The first converts were the Sudanese merchants, followed by a few rulers and courtiers (Ghana in the eleventh century and Mali in the thirteenth century). The masses of rural peasants, however, remained little touched. In the eleventh century, the Almoravid intervention, led by a group of Berber nomads who were strict observers of Islamic law, gave the conversion process a new momentum in the Ghana empire and beyond. The spread of Islam throughout the African continent was neither simultaneous nor uniform, but followed a gradual and adaptive path. However, the only written documents at our disposal for the period under consideration derive from Arab sources (see, for instance, accounts by geographers al-Bakri and Ibn Battuta).

Islamic Influence on African Societies
Islamic political and aesthetic influences on African societies remain difficult to assess. In some capital cities, such as Ghana and Gao, the presence of Muslim merchants resulted in the establishment of mosques. The Malian king Mansa Musa (r. 1312–37) brought back from a pilgrimage to Mecca the architect al-Sahili, who is often credited with the creation of the Sudano-Sahelian building style. Musa’s brother, Mansa Sulaiman, followed his path and encouraged the building of mosques, as well as the development of Islamic learning. Islam brought to Africa the art of writing and new techniques of weighting. The city of Timbuktu, for instance, flourished as a commercial and intellectual center, seemingly undisturbed by various upheavals. Timbuktu began as a Tuareg settlement, was soon integrated into the Mali empire, then was reclaimed by the Tuareg, and finally incorporated into the Songhai empire. In the sixteenth century, the majority of Muslim scholars in Timbuktu were of Sudanese origin. On the continent’s eastern coast, Arabic vocabulary was absorbed into the Bantu languages to form the Swahili language. On the other hand, in many cases conversion for sub-Saharan Africans was probably a way to protect themselves against being sold into slavery, a flourishing trade between Lake Chad and the Mediterranean. For their rulers, who were not active proselytizers, conversion remained somewhat formal, a gesture perhaps aimed at gaining political support from the Arabs and facilitating commercial relationships. The strongest resistance to Islam seems to have emanated from the Mossi and the Bamana, with the development of the Ségou kingdom. Eventually, sub-Saharan Africans developed their own brand of Islam, often referred to as “African Islam,” with specific brotherhoods and practices.

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tsis/hd_tsis.htm

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There is a lot of information out there regarding the Kingdom of Kush which the Bible states was the boundary of Noah’s son through Ham. The Kingdom of Kush stretched to Egypt Ethiopia and Sudan and some suggest through to Arabia and further East.

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Abrahams-Descendants

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On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your offspring I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates,

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Mizraim A son of Ham, and father of various African races, Genesis 10:6, but particularly of the Egyptians, to whom his name was given. Mizraim is also the Hebrew word for Egypt in the Bible, and this country is still called Misr in Arabic.

http://biblehub.com/topical/m/mizraim.htm

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nounplural Negroes.

1.

Anthropology. (no longer in technical use) a member of the peoples traditionally classified   as the Negrorace, especially those who originate in sub-Saharan Africa.

 

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noun: Semite; plural noun: Semites 

  1. a member of any of the peoples who speak or spoke a Semitic language, including in particular the Jews and Arabs.
From modern Latin Semita, via late Latin from Greek Sēm ‘Shem’, son of Noah in the Bible, from whom these peoples were traditionally supposed to be descended.

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Strong’s Concordance
Eber: “region beyond,” a descendant of Shem, also the name of several Israelites

Original Word: עֵ֫בֶר

INT: and Shelah the father of Eber

 

People called Eber in the bible Noun: 

A Gadite chief 1 Chronicles 5:13ᵐ5 Ωβηδᵐ5LΕβερ.

 Benjamite names: a. 1 Chronicles 8:12ᵐ5 Ωβηδᵐ5L Αβερ.

b. 1 Chronicles 8:22 (עֵבֶר van d. H. Ginsb; עֶבֶד Baer),ᵐ5 Ωβδη, A Ωβηδᵐ5L Αβερ.

4 a priest Nehemiah 12:20 ᵐ5L Αβεδ.

So from this we can see that Eber related to Benjamin and Gad and Nehemiah. All of the “Negroes” we learnt according to the bible were not from Ham in the sense of starting a lineage. Eber became the progenitor of the original Jews and Arabs. The Semites.  The Jews or Yudahians came from Joktar Peleg and Eber.

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The path some of the Hebrews took from Jerusalem to West Africa the tribes Ashanti Yoruba  mentioned below in what looks like the Songhai empire area.

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The Jamaican Akan Root

You are Judah! your Root is Akan

Ours is the story of the scriptures.

The prophecies of the Bible accurately describes the series of migrations of the Hebrew Israelites throughout the continent of Africa, especially to West Africa, where the infamous trans-Atlantic slave trade took place. Many of the tribes of West Africa, such as the Ashanti, Fulani, Akan, Yoruba , etc., have oral histories stating that they are descendants of the nation of Israel, and their cultural practices are exactly the same as described in the bible. Therefore, many of the Africans captured and transported to America and throughout the western hemisphere were Hebrew Israelites. History and prophecy validates the claim of many African-Americans that they are actual descendants of the so-called lost tribes of Israel. The Prophecies and Historical Evidence of the Migration of the Scattered Tribes of Israel in Africa

The recent discovery of the Israelite tribe in South Africa named the ‘LEMBA’ tribe, has sparked renewed interest in this subject. If we read and discern the ‘biblical prophecies’ that describe the ‘scattering’ (diaspora)’ of the nation of Israel (the Hebrew Israelites), we will discover that GOD (YAHWEH) has fulfilled his promise to ‘scatter his people Israel throughout ‘ALL’ nations and countries’ and among ‘all tribes,’ especially throughout the continent of Africa.

“And the LORD shall ‘scatter’ (disperse) you among ‘all people’ (tribes), from the one end of the earth even unto the other.” Deuteronomy 28:64.

Read the full article at the link below

https://www.modernghana.com/news/609011/the-jamaican-akan-root.html

 

The African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem are comprised of approximately 2,000 men, women and children residing in three development towns – – Dimona, Arad and Mitzpe Ramon – – in southern Israel. We maintain a vibrant culture which includes a communal lifestyle, a vegan diet, a system of preventive health care and high moral standards – – a holistic approach to life based on righteousness. Our intent is to live according to the laws and prophecies of God.

…..

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As a direct result of their disobedience to the laws and commandments of God, the ancient Hebrew Israelites were held captive by various nations including the Egyptians, Assyrians and Babylonians. In 70 C.E. the remnants of The African Hebrew Israelites were driven from Jerusalem by the Romans into different parts of the world, including Africa. Many Hebrew Israelites migrated to West Africa where they, once again, were carried away captive – this time by Europeans on slave ships – to the Americas along with other African tribes people.

In 1966 our spiritual leader, Ben Ammi, had a vision that it was time for the Children of Israel who remained in America (the land of their captivity) to return to the Holy Land (the land of their origin).

In 1967, after almost two thousand years in the Diaspora, four hundred Hebrew Israelites were inspired by the spirit of God to make an exodus from America. According to plan, they settled in Liberia’s interior to purge themselves of the negative attributes they had acquired in the captivity. After spending a two-and-one-half year period in Liberia, The African Hebrew Israelites were prepared to make the last portion of their journey home, returning to Israel in 1969.

http://africanhebrewisraelitesofjerusalem.com/?page_id=2

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(Nehemiah Chap. 1) Aramaic to English Old Testament

5 And said, I beseech thee, O LORD God of heaven, the great and terrible God, that keepeth covenant and mercy for them that love him and observe his commandments:

6 Let thine ear now be attentive, and thine eyes open, that thou mayest hear the prayer of thy servant, which I pray before thee now, day and night, for the children of Israel thy servants, and confess the sins of the children of Israel, which we have sinned against thee: both I and my father’s house have sinned.

7 We have dealt very corruptly against thee, and have not kept the commandments, nor the statutes, nor the judgments, which thou commandedst thy servant Moses.

8 Remember, I beseech thee, the word that thou commandedst thy servant Moses, saying, [If] ye transgress, I will scatter you abroad among the nations:

9 But [if] ye turn unto me, and keep my commandments, and do them; though there were of you cast out unto the uttermost part of the heaven, [yet] will I gather them from thence, and will bring them unto the place that I have chosen to set my name there.

 

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Understanding The Good News: The Eve’s Erhverhs

And it shall come to pass in that day, that Yahweh shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, from lower Egypt, and from upper Egypt, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth.

Isaiah 11:11-12

The Eve’s Erhverhs is one of the titles given to the Ewe people spread across West Africa. Ethnic groups such as the Ewe of Ghana and Togo, the Ga-Dangme of Ghana and the Yoruba of Nigeria are a part of what scholars call Eve’s Erhverh’s. The ancestors of these groups migrated from Israel after the destruction of the first and second temples and due to other wars and tragedy’s. Sadly, after centuries of living a relatively peaceful life in West Africa they were captured and shipped in the millions to the “new world” in the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

https://eslkevin.wordpress.com/2017/08/23/understanding-the-good-news-the-eves-erhverhs/

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The Definition of Niger

In Spanish, we find another more familiar word that also has the same meaning:

  • Negro: Mid 16th century: via Spanish and Portuguese from Latin niger, nigr- black. – Oxford Dictionary

Spanish is a Latin based language, and Latin was spoken by the Roman conquerors that the Hebrews referred to as Gentiles (Matthew 20:19). The early uses of the word niger and later negro, were not racist, but were more descriptive of skin color. When slaves were brought to the Americas, the descriptive terms were later turned into racial slurs meant to degrade slaves and their descendants.

Simeon – He was surnamed Niger, pronounced “nee-jer”, which means “black skin” in Latin.

Saul – Later renamed Paul, he was from the tribe of Benjamin, and was mistaken for an Egyptian (Acts 21:38).

http://www.blackhistoryinthebible.com/hidden-history/from-niger-to-nigger-simeon-and-the-other-black-apostles/

 

Biafra

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It is a Nation. The word Biafra is coind from two IGBO WORDS ‘bia’ which means COME and ‘fara’ which means LIVE. The people are part of the AFAR ethnic group in the horn of Africa, although CHRISTIANS. They are also from NRI KINGDOM and part of the LOST TRIBE OF ISRAEL.They were amalgameted to be part of Nigeria in 1914 by the British government led by Frederick Lugard. The people of Biafra do not see themselves as NIGERIANS. Between 6 July 1967 and 15 January 1970, about 3.5 million Biafrans were killed in a genocide war led by the British and the Nigerian government when they seceded from Nigeria.They lost the war and were once more integrated into Nigeria.They own the eastern and southern part of Nigeria. They are still seeking for their freedom Independence from Nigeria. The nationality is Biafran.

https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Biafra

Below maps show Deserts of Seth in Biafra, Kingdom of Judah and Euphrates river
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A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden, and there it divided and became four rivers. The name of the first is the Pishon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good; bdellium and onyx stone are there. The name of the second river is the Gihon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Cush. And the name of the third river is the Tigris, which flows east of Assyria. And the fourth
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The film, titled “Black Jews, Juifs noir en Afrique,” focuses on a dozen African tribes – in Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon and other countries – each with a Jewish story. Some claim to be descendants of the Bible’s 10 Lost Tribes. Others believe that their ancestors were Jews who emigrated from Judea to Yemen looking for gold.

Rabbinical authorities have not accepted any of the groups as Jewish under halakhah, Jewish law, although all the tribes strive to be recognized as such at some level or another.

Edith Bruder, who has been studying these Jewish groups for more than a decade and wrote the book “The black Jews of Africa, history, identity, religion,” turned to Gavron for the film, which is expected to be released in the coming months.

“In sub-Saharan Africa, you can find ‘Judaic’ tribes in Ghana, Nigeria, Mali, Uganda, Cameroon, South Africa, Zimbabwe and even in Sao Tome and other countries. There are many of them,” Bruder said. “It is really a vast subject.”

The two women are documenting Sabbath celebrations in remote African villages, Ghanaian Jews practicing circumcision and Jewish-African traditional marriage ceremonies. They have even been deep into the forests filming black Jews preparing their “kosher” meals – in their own tradition, the way the Torah explains it simply – not mixing the meat of the veal with its mother’s cow milk.

read more: https://www.haaretz.com/jewish/features/tracing-the-lost-tribes-to-jewish-communities-in-africa-1.458224

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Ramses II

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Haile selassie descendant of King Solomon and Queen Sheba and Menelik below.

 

 

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Ethiopia [N] [E] [H]

(burnt faces). The country which the Greeks and Romans described as “AEthiopia” and the Hebrews as “Cush” lay to the south of Egypt, and embraced, in its most extended sense, the modern Nubia, Sennaar, Kordofan and northern Abyssinia , and in its more definite sense the kingdom of Meroe. ( Ezekiel 29:10 ) The Hebrews do not appear to have had much practical acquaintance with Ethiopia itself, though the Ethiopians were well known to them through their intercourse with Egypt. The inhabitants of Ethiopia were a Hamitic race. ( Genesis 10:6 ) They were divided into various tribes, of which the Sabeans were the most powerful. The history of Ethiopia is closely interwoven with that of Egypt. The two countries were not unfrequently united under the rule of the same sovereign. Shortly before our Saviours birth a native dynasty of females, holding the official title of Candace (Plin. vi. 35), held sway in Ethiopia, and even resisted the advance of the Roman arms. One of these is the queen noticed in ( Acts 8:27 )

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Modern discoveries prove their close racial and linguistic connection with Southern Arabia and particularly with the kingdom of Sheba (the Sabeans), that most powerful people whose extensive architectural and literary remains have recently come to light. The Sabean inscriptions found in Abyssinia go back some 2,600 years and give a new value to the Bible references as well as to the constant claim of Josephus that the queen of Sheba was a “queen of Ethiopia.” The Falashas are a Jewish community living near Lake Tsana, of the same physical type and probably of the same race as other Abyssinians. Their religion is a “pure Mosaism” based upon the Ethiopic version of the Pentateuch, but modified by the fact that they are ignorant of the Hebrew language (Jewish Encyclopedia). It is uncertain when they became Jews. The older scholars thought of them as dating back to the Solomonic era, or at least to the Babylonian captivity. Since the researches of Joseph Halevy (1868), some date within the Christian era has seemed preferable, notwithstanding their ignorance of Talmudic rules. However, the newly discovered fact that a strong Jewish community was flourishing at Syene in the 6th century BC makes it clear that Jewish influence may have been felt in Ethiopia at least that early. Although Abyssinians are noted for their strict adherence to ancient custom, Jewish characteristics are prominent all over the entire country. The opening formula of the king in every official letter–“The Lion of the Tribe of Judah has Conquered!”–is no more Jewish than scores of ordinary phrases and customs. Although it is barely possible that some rites, like circumcision and observance of the Sabbath, may have been received from the ancient Egyptians or Christian Coptics (The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge Encyclopedia) yet a strong Hebrew influence cannot be denied. All travelers speak of the “industry” of the Falashas and of the “kindliness and grave courtesy” of the Abyssinians. Besides those named above there are many communities of mixed races in Ethiopia, but the ancient basis is invariably Negro, Semitic or Egyptian

https://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionary/ethiopia/

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Semitic 
sɪˈmɪtɪk/
adjective
  1. 1.
    relating to or denoting a family of languages that includes Hebrew, Arabic, and Aramaic and certain ancient languages such as Phoenician and Akkadian, constituting the main subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic family.
  2. 2.
    relating to the peoples who speak Semitic languages, especially Hebrew and Arabic.

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Shem and Ham have been mixing for centuries and sharing and debating and fighting over scriptures and land.

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Ishmael the Shemite and Egyptian

(28) Concerning Kedar . . .–The name belonged to a tribe of the Bedouin type, descended from Ishmael (Genesis 25:13), and at this time conspicuous as supplying the markets of Tyre with sheep and goats (Ezekiel 27:21). In PP. 120:5 it appears as the representative of the fierce nomadic life of the Arabians. Hazor appears as the name of many cities in Palestine (Joshua 11:1Joshua 15:23;Joshua 19:36), but the combination with Kedar points to quite a different region. The probable explanation is that Jeremiah uses the term (as a like word, haz?rein, is used in Isaiah 42:11 for the “villages” of Kedar) for the region in which the Kedar Arabs had ceased to be nomadic, and had made a permanent settlement. According to Niebuhr (Assur u. Bab., p. 210) it answers to the modern Hadschar in the angle formed by the southern course of the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf.

 

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Genesis 17:20

And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation.

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Genesis 17:23

And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham’s house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God had said unto him.

Genesis 17:25

And Ishmael his son [was] thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.

Genesis 17:26

In the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son.

Genesis 25:12

Now these [are] the generations of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s handmaid, bare unto Abraham:

Genesis 25:13

And these [are] the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam

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Genesis 25:17

And these [are] the years of the life of Ishmael, an hundred and thirty and seven years: and he gave up the ghost and died; and was gathered unto his people.

Genesis 28:9

Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife.

Chronicles-1 1:29

These [are] their generations: The firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; then Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam,

Chronicles-1 1:31

Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael.

Chronicles-1 8:38

And Azel had six sons, whose names [are] these, Azrikam, Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and Hanan. All these [were] the sons of Azel.

Chronicles-1 9:44

And Azel had six sons, whose names [are] these, Azrikam, Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and Hanan: these [were] the sons of Azel.

Chronicles-2 19:11

And, behold, Amariah the chief priest [is] over you in all matters of the LORD; and Zebadiah the son of Ishmael, the ruler of the house of Judah, for all the king’s matters: also the Levites [shall be] officers before you. Deal courageously, and the LORD shall be with the good.

Chronicles-2 23:1

And in the seventh year Jehoiada strengthened himself, and took the captains of hundreds, Azariah the son of Jeroham, and Ishmael the son of Jehohanan, and Azariah the son of Obed, and Maaseiah the son of Adaiah, and Elishaphat the son of Zichri, into covenant with him.

Ezra 10:22

And of the sons of Pashur; Elioenai, Maaseiah, Ishmael, Nethaneel, Jozabad, and Elasah.

Jeremiah 40:8

Then they came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, even Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and Johanan and Jonathan the sons of Kareah, and Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth, and the sons of Ephai the Netophathite, and Jezaniah the son of a Maachathite, they and their men.

Jeremiah 40:14

And said unto him, Dost thou certainly know that Baalis the king of the Ammonites hath sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah to slay thee? But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam believed them not.

Jeremiah 40:15

Then Johanan the son of Kareah spake to Gedaliah in Mizpah secretly, saying, Let me go, I pray thee, and I will slay Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and no man shall know [it]: wherefore should he slay thee, that all the Jews which are gathered unto thee should be scattered, and the remnant in Judah perish?

Jeremiah 40:16

But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam said unto Johanan the son of Kareah, Thou shalt not do this thing: for thou speakest falsely of Ishmael.

Jeremiah 41:1

Now it came to pass in the seventh month, [that] Ishmael the son of Nethaniah the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, and the princes of the king, even ten men with him, came unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and there they did eat bread together in Mizpah.

Jeremiah 41:2

Then arose Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and the ten men that were with him, and smote Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan over the land.

Jeremiah 41:3

Ishmael also slew all the Jews that were with him, [even] with Gedaliah, at Mizpah, and the Chaldeans that were found there, [and] the men of war.

Jeremiah 41:6

And Ishmael the son of Nethaniah went forth from Mizpah to meet them, weeping all along as he went: and it came to pass, as he met them, he said unto them, Come to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam.

Jeremiah 41:7

And it was [so], when they came into the midst of the city, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah slew them, [and cast them] into the midst of the pit, he, and the men that [were] with him.

Jeremiah 41:8

But ten men were found among them that said unto Ishmael, Slay us not: for we have treasures in the field, of wheat, and of barley, and of oil, and of honey. So he forbare, and slew them not among their brethren.

Jeremiah 41:9

Now the pit wherein Ishmael had cast all the dead bodies of the men, whom he had slain because of Gedaliah, [was] it which Asa the king had made for fear of Baasha king of Israel: [and] Ishmael the son of Nethaniah filled it with [them that were] slain.

Jeremiah 41:10

Then Ishmael carried away captive all the residue of the people that [were] in Mizpah, [even] the king’s daughters, and all the people that remained in Mizpah, whom Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had committed to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam: and Ishmael the son of Nethaniah carried them away captive, and departed to go over to the Ammonites.

Jeremiah 41:13

Now it came to pass, [that] when all the people which [were] with Ishmael saw Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that [were] with him, then they were glad.

Jeremiah 41:14

So all the people that Ishmael had carried away captive from Mizpah cast about and returned, and went unto Johanan the son of Kareah.

Jeremiah 41:15

But Ishmael the son of Nethaniah escaped from Johanan with eight men, and went to the Ammonites.

Jeremiah 41:16

Then took Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that [were] with him, all the remnant of the people whom he had recovered from Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, from Mizpah, after [that] he had slain Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, [even] mighty men of war, and the women, and the children, and the eunuchs, whom he had brought again from Gibeon:

Jeremiah 41:18

Because of the Chaldeans: for they were afraid of them, because Ishmael the son of Nethaniah had slain Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, whom the king of Babylon made governor in the land.

Races_mankind

arabs

muhammad-in-the-bible-20-638

 

Family tree of Abraham 2

Extract from rastalivewire Prophet Mohammed the Black Arab

http://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-original-black-arabs-of-arabia-part-4-the-black-stone-the-black-tribe-of-koreysh-black-prophet-mohammed/

Mohammed himself, who was to unite the whole of Arabia, thus appears to have had a prominent African-Kushitic lineage. According to al-Jahiz a renowned Black Arab writer and philosopher of Ethiopian origin who had lived in Baghdad, “…the guardian of the sacred Kaaba–Abd al-Muttalib, “fathered ten Lords, Black as the night and magnificent.” One of these men was Abdallah, the father of Muhammad.

JA Rogers, one of the most pre-eminent of Black African historians had the following to say of Muhammad(pbuh):

“Mohamet, himself, was to all accounts a Negro. A contemporary of his describes him as “large mouthed,” and “bluish-colored, with hair that was neither straight nor curly…Mohamet’s mother was also African. His grandfather, Abd el Motalib, is spoken of as being “very dark.”…A Negroid strain, more or less predominant, ran through the whole. As Keane says, “All who accepted the Koran became merged with the conquerors in a common Negroid population.”

Diop in “Orgin of Civillization” stated forthrightly that:

“….the entire arab people, including the Prophet [Muhammad(pbuh)] is mixed with Negro blood. All educated Arabs are conscious of that fact.”

Ethiopia and the Black Muslim Arabs

In the 5th and 6th century, the pre-eminece of Ethiopia was still putative in the Arabia and surrounding regions. As such, Mecca was teeming with millions of Black Cushitic Arabian and Ethiopian scientists, engineers, soilders, philosophers, writers, social revolutionaries. Besides the probable Ethiopian origins of Muhammed, Islam was deeply associated with Ethiopia, and was overwhelmingly influenced by Ethiopia in terms of the formation of its basic tenets, the elaboration of its doctrine and the development of its philosophy. According to tradition, the first Muslim killed in battle was Mihdja–a Kushitic Black Arab. Another Black Arab that greatly influenced Islam was Bilal, probably of Ethiopian-Yemenite extraction, who was such a pivotal figure in the development of Islam that he has been referred to as “a third of the faith.

” Many of the earliest Muslim converts were original descendants of the ancient Black Arabs,or they were African soliders, administrators, scientist that stayed over from the 70,000 man Ethiopian army that ruled Yemen in these times. In fact, the very survival of the Islamic faith in its most susceptible periodwas due tothe intervention of the Ethiopian King of Axum, who saved the earliest followers of Muhammed seeking refuge in Ethiopia from persecution in Arabia. They were given safety, succor and further education and instruction by the Priests of Ethiopia.

These early teachings underlaid the elaboration and further development of Islamic thought and they remain fundamental in Islamic teachings of today. It is therefore no wonder that Muhammed had instructed his followers to always be kind and considerate to the Ethiopians because they are a kindred nation of great righteousness.

John G Jackson, another pillar of Black History stated in his book “The Story of The Moors In Spain” that:

“At the present time Arabia is inhabited by two distinct races, namely the descendents of the old Adite,Kushite, or Ethiopian race, known under various appellations, and dwelling cheify at the south, the east, and the central parts of the country, but formerly supreme throughout the whole peninsula; and the semitic Arabians—Mohamet’s(pbuh) race—found cheifly in the Hejaz and at the north. In some districts of the country, these races more or less mixed and since the rise of Mohametanism, the language of the Semites, known to us as Arabic, has almost wholly superceded the old Ethiopian or Kushite tongue….”

Taharqo

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f0f88679307b08f12329dc4d013ad3e6--african-culture-african-history

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Berbers
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9ce1d9d49d4c8f622faa9b79de024759--hebrew-israelite-truths-lamentations

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I will be constantly updating this post so feel free to check back at a later date for added information and links.

This is the original list of returned escaped slaves in Jamaica.

 Return of the ACCOMPONG Maroons 27TH OCTOBER 1831 CO 140/121

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/MaroonsAccompong.htm

 

Please note this is only one list of escaped slaves and my ancestors were found on a 1809 census aswel ( quoted from memory the record is on one of my other posts) Nanny of the Maroons started the movement of runaway slaves and founded her own towns for them. Maroon Town and Accompong. You can visit my related posts by doing a search in my search bar. Some Maroons were deported to Freetown.

My family are listed. If you are Jamaicans American Haitian your family might be listed too.

OFFICERS

Lieutenant-colonel Andrew White

61

Lieutenant Robert Reid Peate

54

Captain James Rowe

61

Lieutenant Richard Rowe

30

Captain William Dennis Reid

55

Lieutenant John Reid

53

Captain James Dennis Foster

57

Lieutenant John Watson

43

 

PRIVATES

 

William Adlam

54

George Reid

34

John Adlam

22

Robert Hugh Reid

43

Samuel Adlam

18

Thomas Reid

35

Colin Adlam

18

George Roache

39

Charles Austen

44

Thomas Roache

40

Samuel Anderson

26

Samuel Roden

32

Joseph Barrett

26

Charles Rowe

56

Edward Barrett

22

Henry Rowe

35

William Brice

26

Billy Rowe

30

Frank Cross

36

James Rowe

29

John Cross

43

William Rowe (sambo)

40

Thomas Cross

44

Robert Salmon

33

Thomas Cross, jun.

19

Smallin Smith

26

Thomas Currie (mulatto)

23

Quao Smith

22

William Davis

54

Thomas Smith

37

Barnet Dennis (mulatto)

45

Joseph Smith

30

Joseph Dennis (sambo)

29

Barnet Smith

35

Rodger Reid Dennis

55

Cabina Smith

41

William Dowan (mulatto)

26

Alexander Shilletto

31

Alexander Faulkner

26

Thomas Stretch

23

Samuel Faulkner

28

James Stone

38

Matthew Farquharson

37

James Swaby

39

Antonio Flesharkey (quadroon)

21

Robert Virvin

54