Tag Archives: Jamaica

Ham & Shem Egyptians Hebrews & Arabs in The land of the blacks Bilad al Sudan

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In this post I am going to examine the descendants of Shem and Ham according to the Bible. I will be exploring oral accounts and scientific and visual evidence of who they were and where they lived also. This post will also explore the modern descendants and what they might look like now and the theories surrounding them.

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Through researching where the ancestors of West African slaves come from I found that many of the tribes share an oral history passed down and even have copies of the Torah or Hebrew Bible that they state they brought from Israel. Some dispute this and it is quite possible that some Africans did move to Israel and then back to Africa. Other tribes as they are proclaiming could have always been in Africa from the beginning.

I don’t know about you, but when I think of black people and who they descend from I think of Ham.  This is an opinion that has been slowly fed to the population over years. We descend from Ham and Ham was cursed however there are some of the opinion that this was fabricated to justify slavery. The entire Nation of Ham was not cursed and only the biblical figure Canaan was technically cursed and if you actually check the bible you will see the error in this conception.


King James Bible
And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.

The curses that would befall Israel if they did not follow the most high on the other hand were

According to Jeremiah 17:4 the children of Israel would be discontinued from their heritage (language, culture, possessions etc…), which would leave room for the question, “Since the children of Israel were discontinued from their heritage, how would they know who they are; and how do we know they exist?”

According to the Hebrew Scriptures the children of Israel are cursed by the sins of their fathers (Matthew 27:24-25) and scattered among all nations until the fullness of the Gentiles (None Israelites) comes (see Romans 11:25, Luke 21:24).

Deuteronomy 28:46 – And they (the curses) shall be upon thee for a sign and a wonder and upon thy seed (children) forever.

This shows us that these curses written in the Scriptures would identify who the children of Israel are because there would be no other way to identify them. 

deut 28:16 Cursed shall you be in the city and cursed shall you be in the field. 

http://webdesign97.tripod.com/hebrewisraelafricanrootsinformationsite/id18.html

“And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.” – Luke 21:24

African history has been white washed and although in this society we state that colour doesn’t matter there continues to be a white washing of history. There has been an attempt to destroy and play down the significance of the African and Asian race in contributing to history. Examples slightly off point before we get into this post,  include the removal of the nose on African statues to try to make their race unidentifiable.

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There has been a visual misinterpretation of biblical figures such as promoting a white Jesus.

 

 

Yet the Pope and many parts of Europe pray to a black Madonna Mary and Jesus.

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Jesus black!! watch this short clip https://youtu.be/IwL4CGf7PDU

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Watch a reconstruction of Adam below

 https://youtu.be/qOgzEj6dR8c

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Artaxerxes III, predecessor of Darius III, from his Tomb at Persepolis

Detail from Darius III's palace

Detail from Darius III's palace

The Persians & Asyrians took the Hebrews into captivity and they went into exile.

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ELAM   עֵילָם   m   Biblical
Possibly means either “hidden” or “eternity” in Hebrew. This was the name of several characters in the Old Testament, including a son of Shem who was the ancestor of the Elamite peoples.

https://www.behindthename.com/names/usage/biblical

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People of The Arabian Peninsula below

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What would be a lookalike to this image below, now??

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How about these descendants?

 

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These tribes are found in Arabia and Asia

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Watch the link below of the Egyptian man forced to classify as white

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1MOYD0yb6P0

 

 

East African DNA

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Click link below to read full post and then press the back button. Or see the below list.

Ham: The Origin of Black Africans and Black Arabs In The Bible

 

From the above link blacks in the Bible

Ham’s Sons (Genesis 10:6)

  1. Cush (Sudan)
  2. Mizraim (Egypt)
  3. Phut (Libya)
  4. Canaan (Israel)

Ham’s Grandsons Through Cush

  1. Seba
  2. Havilah
  3. Sabtah
  4. Raamah
  5. Sabtecha
  6. Nimrod

Ham’s Grandsons Through Mizraim

  1. Ludim
  2. Anamim
  3. Lehabim
  4. Naphtuhim
  5. Pathrusim
  6. Casluhim
  7. Caphtorim

Ham’s Grandsons Through Canaan

  1. Sidon
  2. Heth
  3. Jebusite
  4. Amorite
  5. Girgasite
  6. Hivite
  7. Arkite
  8. Sinite
  9. Arvadite
  10. Zemarite
  11. Hamathite

Interestingly, the sons of Phut are not mentioned, but we know that they existed because Phut’s lineage is mentioned in general several times in scripture.

http://www.blackhistoryinthebible.com/the-hamites/ham-the-father-of-africans/

this post will be exploring the descendants of Ham and Shem highlighting how they mixed to create the Afro Asiatic Africa and Middle East that we know of today.

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Firstly we know that Ham Shem and Japheth were brothers and Noah was their father and everyone in the world descends from this family according to the Bible. Therefore as scientists have proven we descend from a common ancestor.

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Multiple Trajectories of Islam in Africa Islam had already spread into northern Africa by the mid-seventh century A.D., only a few decades after the prophet Muhammad moved with his followers from Mecca to Medina on the neighboring Arabian Peninsula (622 A.D./1 A.H.). Arab conquest of Spain and the push of Arab armies as far as the Indus River culminated in an empire that stretched over three continents, a mere hundred years after the Prophet’s death. Between the eighth and ninth centuries, Arab traders and travelers, then African clerics, began to spread the religion along the eastern coast of Africa and to the western and central Sudan (literally, “Land of Black people”), stimulating the development of urban communities. Given its negotiated, practical approach to different cultural situations, it is perhaps more appropriate to consider Islam in Africa in terms of its multiple histories rather then as a unified movement.The first converts were the Sudanese merchants, followed by a few rulers and courtiers (Ghana in the eleventh century and Mali in the thirteenth century). The masses of rural peasants, however, remained little touched. In the eleventh century, the Almoravid intervention, led by a group of Berber nomads who were strict observers of Islamic law, gave the conversion process a new momentum in the Ghana empire and beyond. The spread of Islam throughout the African continent was neither simultaneous nor uniform, but followed a gradual and adaptive path. However, the only written documents at our disposal for the period under consideration derive from Arab sources (see, for instance, accounts by geographers al-Bakri and Ibn Battuta).

Islamic Influence on African Societies
Islamic political and aesthetic influences on African societies remain difficult to assess. In some capital cities, such as Ghana and Gao, the presence of Muslim merchants resulted in the establishment of mosques. The Malian king Mansa Musa (r. 1312–37) brought back from a pilgrimage to Mecca the architect al-Sahili, who is often credited with the creation of the Sudano-Sahelian building style. Musa’s brother, Mansa Sulaiman, followed his path and encouraged the building of mosques, as well as the development of Islamic learning. Islam brought to Africa the art of writing and new techniques of weighting. The city of Timbuktu, for instance, flourished as a commercial and intellectual center, seemingly undisturbed by various upheavals. Timbuktu began as a Tuareg settlement, was soon integrated into the Mali empire, then was reclaimed by the Tuareg, and finally incorporated into the Songhai empire. In the sixteenth century, the majority of Muslim scholars in Timbuktu were of Sudanese origin. On the continent’s eastern coast, Arabic vocabulary was absorbed into the Bantu languages to form the Swahili language. On the other hand, in many cases conversion for sub-Saharan Africans was probably a way to protect themselves against being sold into slavery, a flourishing trade between Lake Chad and the Mediterranean. For their rulers, who were not active proselytizers, conversion remained somewhat formal, a gesture perhaps aimed at gaining political support from the Arabs and facilitating commercial relationships. The strongest resistance to Islam seems to have emanated from the Mossi and the Bamana, with the development of the Ségou kingdom. Eventually, sub-Saharan Africans developed their own brand of Islam, often referred to as “African Islam,” with specific brotherhoods and practices.

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tsis/hd_tsis.htm

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There is a lot of information out there regarding the Kingdom of Kush which the Bible states was the boundary of Noah’s son through Ham. The Kingdom of Kush stretched to Egypt Ethiopia and Sudan and some suggest through to Arabia and further East.

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On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your offspring I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates,

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Mizraim A son of Ham, and father of various African races, Genesis 10:6, but particularly of the Egyptians, to whom his name was given. Mizraim is also the Hebrew word for Egypt in the Bible, and this country is still called Misr in Arabic.

http://biblehub.com/topical/m/mizraim.htm

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nounplural Negroes.

1.

Anthropology. (no longer in technical use) a member of the peoples traditionally classified   as the Negrorace, especially those who originate in sub-Saharan Africa.

 

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noun: Semite; plural noun: Semites 

  1. a member of any of the peoples who speak or spoke a Semitic language, including in particular the Jews and Arabs.
From modern Latin Semita, via late Latin from Greek Sēm ‘Shem’, son of Noah in the Bible, from whom these peoples were traditionally supposed to be descended.

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Strong’s Concordance
Eber: “region beyond,” a descendant of Shem, also the name of several Israelites

Original Word: עֵ֫בֶר

INT: and Shelah the father of Eber

 

People called Eber in the bible Noun: 

A Gadite chief 1 Chronicles 5:13ᵐ5 Ωβηδᵐ5LΕβερ.

 Benjamite names: a. 1 Chronicles 8:12ᵐ5 Ωβηδᵐ5L Αβερ.

b. 1 Chronicles 8:22 (עֵבֶר van d. H. Ginsb; עֶבֶד Baer),ᵐ5 Ωβδη, A Ωβηδᵐ5L Αβερ.

4 a priest Nehemiah 12:20 ᵐ5L Αβεδ.

So from this we can see that Eber related to Benjamin and Gad and Nehemiah. All of the “Negroes” we learnt according to the bible were not from Ham in the sense of starting a lineage. Eber became the progenitor of the original Jews and Arabs. The Semites.  The Jews or Yudahians came from Joktar Peleg and Eber.

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The path some of the Hebrews took from Jerusalem to West Africa the tribes Ashanti Yoruba  mentioned below in what looks like the Songhai empire area.

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The Jamaican Akan Root

You are Judah! your Root is Akan

Ours is the story of the scriptures.

The prophecies of the Bible accurately describes the series of migrations of the Hebrew Israelites throughout the continent of Africa, especially to West Africa, where the infamous trans-Atlantic slave trade took place. Many of the tribes of West Africa, such as the Ashanti, Fulani, Akan, Yoruba , etc., have oral histories stating that they are descendants of the nation of Israel, and their cultural practices are exactly the same as described in the bible. Therefore, many of the Africans captured and transported to America and throughout the western hemisphere were Hebrew Israelites. History and prophecy validates the claim of many African-Americans that they are actual descendants of the so-called lost tribes of Israel. The Prophecies and Historical Evidence of the Migration of the Scattered Tribes of Israel in Africa

The recent discovery of the Israelite tribe in South Africa named the ‘LEMBA’ tribe, has sparked renewed interest in this subject. If we read and discern the ‘biblical prophecies’ that describe the ‘scattering’ (diaspora)’ of the nation of Israel (the Hebrew Israelites), we will discover that GOD (YAHWEH) has fulfilled his promise to ‘scatter his people Israel throughout ‘ALL’ nations and countries’ and among ‘all tribes,’ especially throughout the continent of Africa.

“And the LORD shall ‘scatter’ (disperse) you among ‘all people’ (tribes), from the one end of the earth even unto the other.” Deuteronomy 28:64.

Read the full article at the link below

https://www.modernghana.com/news/609011/the-jamaican-akan-root.html

 

The African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem are comprised of approximately 2,000 men, women and children residing in three development towns – – Dimona, Arad and Mitzpe Ramon – – in southern Israel. We maintain a vibrant culture which includes a communal lifestyle, a vegan diet, a system of preventive health care and high moral standards – – a holistic approach to life based on righteousness. Our intent is to live according to the laws and prophecies of God.

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As a direct result of their disobedience to the laws and commandments of God, the ancient Hebrew Israelites were held captive by various nations including the Egyptians, Assyrians and Babylonians. In 70 C.E. the remnants of The African Hebrew Israelites were driven from Jerusalem by the Romans into different parts of the world, including Africa. Many Hebrew Israelites migrated to West Africa where they, once again, were carried away captive – this time by Europeans on slave ships – to the Americas along with other African tribes people.

In 1966 our spiritual leader, Ben Ammi, had a vision that it was time for the Children of Israel who remained in America (the land of their captivity) to return to the Holy Land (the land of their origin).

In 1967, after almost two thousand years in the Diaspora, four hundred Hebrew Israelites were inspired by the spirit of God to make an exodus from America. According to plan, they settled in Liberia’s interior to purge themselves of the negative attributes they had acquired in the captivity. After spending a two-and-one-half year period in Liberia, The African Hebrew Israelites were prepared to make the last portion of their journey home, returning to Israel in 1969.

http://africanhebrewisraelitesofjerusalem.com/?page_id=2

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(Nehemiah Chap. 1) Aramaic to English Old Testament

5 And said, I beseech thee, O LORD God of heaven, the great and terrible God, that keepeth covenant and mercy for them that love him and observe his commandments:

6 Let thine ear now be attentive, and thine eyes open, that thou mayest hear the prayer of thy servant, which I pray before thee now, day and night, for the children of Israel thy servants, and confess the sins of the children of Israel, which we have sinned against thee: both I and my father’s house have sinned.

7 We have dealt very corruptly against thee, and have not kept the commandments, nor the statutes, nor the judgments, which thou commandedst thy servant Moses.

8 Remember, I beseech thee, the word that thou commandedst thy servant Moses, saying, [If] ye transgress, I will scatter you abroad among the nations:

9 But [if] ye turn unto me, and keep my commandments, and do them; though there were of you cast out unto the uttermost part of the heaven, [yet] will I gather them from thence, and will bring them unto the place that I have chosen to set my name there.

 

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Understanding The Good News: The Eve’s Erhverhs

And it shall come to pass in that day, that Yahweh shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, from lower Egypt, and from upper Egypt, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth.

Isaiah 11:11-12

The Eve’s Erhverhs is one of the titles given to the Ewe people spread across West Africa. Ethnic groups such as the Ewe of Ghana and Togo, the Ga-Dangme of Ghana and the Yoruba of Nigeria are a part of what scholars call Eve’s Erhverh’s. The ancestors of these groups migrated from Israel after the destruction of the first and second temples and due to other wars and tragedy’s. Sadly, after centuries of living a relatively peaceful life in West Africa they were captured and shipped in the millions to the “new world” in the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

https://eslkevin.wordpress.com/2017/08/23/understanding-the-good-news-the-eves-erhverhs/

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The Definition of Niger

In Spanish, we find another more familiar word that also has the same meaning:

  • Negro: Mid 16th century: via Spanish and Portuguese from Latin niger, nigr- black. – Oxford Dictionary

Spanish is a Latin based language, and Latin was spoken by the Roman conquerors that the Hebrews referred to as Gentiles (Matthew 20:19). The early uses of the word niger and later negro, were not racist, but were more descriptive of skin color. When slaves were brought to the Americas, the descriptive terms were later turned into racial slurs meant to degrade slaves and their descendants.

Simeon – He was surnamed Niger, pronounced “nee-jer”, which means “black skin” in Latin.

Saul – Later renamed Paul, he was from the tribe of Benjamin, and was mistaken for an Egyptian (Acts 21:38).

http://www.blackhistoryinthebible.com/hidden-history/from-niger-to-nigger-simeon-and-the-other-black-apostles/

 

Biafra

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It is a Nation. The word Biafra is coind from two IGBO WORDS ‘bia’ which means COME and ‘fara’ which means LIVE. The people are part of the AFAR ethnic group in the horn of Africa, although CHRISTIANS. They are also from NRI KINGDOM and part of the LOST TRIBE OF ISRAEL.They were amalgameted to be part of Nigeria in 1914 by the British government led by Frederick Lugard. The people of Biafra do not see themselves as NIGERIANS. Between 6 July 1967 and 15 January 1970, about 3.5 million Biafrans were killed in a genocide war led by the British and the Nigerian government when they seceded from Nigeria.They lost the war and were once more integrated into Nigeria.They own the eastern and southern part of Nigeria. They are still seeking for their freedom Independence from Nigeria. The nationality is Biafran.

https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Biafra

Below maps show Deserts of Seth in Biafra, Kingdom of Judah and Euphrates river
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A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden, and there it divided and became four rivers. The name of the first is the Pishon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good; bdellium and onyx stone are there. The name of the second river is the Gihon. It is the one that flowed around the whole land of Cush. And the name of the third river is the Tigris, which flows east of Assyria. And the fourth
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The film, titled “Black Jews, Juifs noir en Afrique,” focuses on a dozen African tribes – in Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon and other countries – each with a Jewish story. Some claim to be descendants of the Bible’s 10 Lost Tribes. Others believe that their ancestors were Jews who emigrated from Judea to Yemen looking for gold.

Rabbinical authorities have not accepted any of the groups as Jewish under halakhah, Jewish law, although all the tribes strive to be recognized as such at some level or another.

Edith Bruder, who has been studying these Jewish groups for more than a decade and wrote the book “The black Jews of Africa, history, identity, religion,” turned to Gavron for the film, which is expected to be released in the coming months.

“In sub-Saharan Africa, you can find ‘Judaic’ tribes in Ghana, Nigeria, Mali, Uganda, Cameroon, South Africa, Zimbabwe and even in Sao Tome and other countries. There are many of them,” Bruder said. “It is really a vast subject.”

The two women are documenting Sabbath celebrations in remote African villages, Ghanaian Jews practicing circumcision and Jewish-African traditional marriage ceremonies. They have even been deep into the forests filming black Jews preparing their “kosher” meals – in their own tradition, the way the Torah explains it simply – not mixing the meat of the veal with its mother’s cow milk.

read more: https://www.haaretz.com/jewish/features/tracing-the-lost-tribes-to-jewish-communities-in-africa-1.458224

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Ramses II

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Haile selassie descendant of King Solomon and Queen Sheba and Menelik below.

 

 

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Ethiopia [N] [E] [H]

(burnt faces). The country which the Greeks and Romans described as “AEthiopia” and the Hebrews as “Cush” lay to the south of Egypt, and embraced, in its most extended sense, the modern Nubia, Sennaar, Kordofan and northern Abyssinia , and in its more definite sense the kingdom of Meroe. ( Ezekiel 29:10 ) The Hebrews do not appear to have had much practical acquaintance with Ethiopia itself, though the Ethiopians were well known to them through their intercourse with Egypt. The inhabitants of Ethiopia were a Hamitic race. ( Genesis 10:6 ) They were divided into various tribes, of which the Sabeans were the most powerful. The history of Ethiopia is closely interwoven with that of Egypt. The two countries were not unfrequently united under the rule of the same sovereign. Shortly before our Saviours birth a native dynasty of females, holding the official title of Candace (Plin. vi. 35), held sway in Ethiopia, and even resisted the advance of the Roman arms. One of these is the queen noticed in ( Acts 8:27 )

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Modern discoveries prove their close racial and linguistic connection with Southern Arabia and particularly with the kingdom of Sheba (the Sabeans), that most powerful people whose extensive architectural and literary remains have recently come to light. The Sabean inscriptions found in Abyssinia go back some 2,600 years and give a new value to the Bible references as well as to the constant claim of Josephus that the queen of Sheba was a “queen of Ethiopia.” The Falashas are a Jewish community living near Lake Tsana, of the same physical type and probably of the same race as other Abyssinians. Their religion is a “pure Mosaism” based upon the Ethiopic version of the Pentateuch, but modified by the fact that they are ignorant of the Hebrew language (Jewish Encyclopedia). It is uncertain when they became Jews. The older scholars thought of them as dating back to the Solomonic era, or at least to the Babylonian captivity. Since the researches of Joseph Halevy (1868), some date within the Christian era has seemed preferable, notwithstanding their ignorance of Talmudic rules. However, the newly discovered fact that a strong Jewish community was flourishing at Syene in the 6th century BC makes it clear that Jewish influence may have been felt in Ethiopia at least that early. Although Abyssinians are noted for their strict adherence to ancient custom, Jewish characteristics are prominent all over the entire country. The opening formula of the king in every official letter–“The Lion of the Tribe of Judah has Conquered!”–is no more Jewish than scores of ordinary phrases and customs. Although it is barely possible that some rites, like circumcision and observance of the Sabbath, may have been received from the ancient Egyptians or Christian Coptics (The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge Encyclopedia) yet a strong Hebrew influence cannot be denied. All travelers speak of the “industry” of the Falashas and of the “kindliness and grave courtesy” of the Abyssinians. Besides those named above there are many communities of mixed races in Ethiopia, but the ancient basis is invariably Negro, Semitic or Egyptian

https://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionary/ethiopia/

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Semitic 
sɪˈmɪtɪk/
adjective
  1. 1.
    relating to or denoting a family of languages that includes Hebrew, Arabic, and Aramaic and certain ancient languages such as Phoenician and Akkadian, constituting the main subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic family.
  2. 2.
    relating to the peoples who speak Semitic languages, especially Hebrew and Arabic.

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Shem and Ham have been mixing for centuries and sharing and debating and fighting over scriptures and land.

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Ishmael the Shemite and Egyptian

(28) Concerning Kedar . . .–The name belonged to a tribe of the Bedouin type, descended from Ishmael (Genesis 25:13), and at this time conspicuous as supplying the markets of Tyre with sheep and goats (Ezekiel 27:21). In PP. 120:5 it appears as the representative of the fierce nomadic life of the Arabians. Hazor appears as the name of many cities in Palestine (Joshua 11:1Joshua 15:23;Joshua 19:36), but the combination with Kedar points to quite a different region. The probable explanation is that Jeremiah uses the term (as a like word, haz?rein, is used in Isaiah 42:11 for the “villages” of Kedar) for the region in which the Kedar Arabs had ceased to be nomadic, and had made a permanent settlement. According to Niebuhr (Assur u. Bab., p. 210) it answers to the modern Hadschar in the angle formed by the southern course of the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf.

 

Ishmaelchart1

Genesis 17:20

And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation.

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Genesis 17:23

And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham’s house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God had said unto him.

Genesis 17:25

And Ishmael his son [was] thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.

Genesis 17:26

In the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son.

Genesis 25:12

Now these [are] the generations of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s handmaid, bare unto Abraham:

Genesis 25:13

And these [are] the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam

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Genesis 25:17

And these [are] the years of the life of Ishmael, an hundred and thirty and seven years: and he gave up the ghost and died; and was gathered unto his people.

Genesis 28:9

Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife.

Chronicles-1 1:29

These [are] their generations: The firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; then Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam,

Chronicles-1 1:31

Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael.

Chronicles-1 8:38

And Azel had six sons, whose names [are] these, Azrikam, Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and Hanan. All these [were] the sons of Azel.

Chronicles-1 9:44

And Azel had six sons, whose names [are] these, Azrikam, Bocheru, and Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah, and Hanan: these [were] the sons of Azel.

Chronicles-2 19:11

And, behold, Amariah the chief priest [is] over you in all matters of the LORD; and Zebadiah the son of Ishmael, the ruler of the house of Judah, for all the king’s matters: also the Levites [shall be] officers before you. Deal courageously, and the LORD shall be with the good.

Chronicles-2 23:1

And in the seventh year Jehoiada strengthened himself, and took the captains of hundreds, Azariah the son of Jeroham, and Ishmael the son of Jehohanan, and Azariah the son of Obed, and Maaseiah the son of Adaiah, and Elishaphat the son of Zichri, into covenant with him.

Ezra 10:22

And of the sons of Pashur; Elioenai, Maaseiah, Ishmael, Nethaneel, Jozabad, and Elasah.

Jeremiah 40:8

Then they came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, even Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and Johanan and Jonathan the sons of Kareah, and Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth, and the sons of Ephai the Netophathite, and Jezaniah the son of a Maachathite, they and their men.

Jeremiah 40:14

And said unto him, Dost thou certainly know that Baalis the king of the Ammonites hath sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah to slay thee? But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam believed them not.

Jeremiah 40:15

Then Johanan the son of Kareah spake to Gedaliah in Mizpah secretly, saying, Let me go, I pray thee, and I will slay Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and no man shall know [it]: wherefore should he slay thee, that all the Jews which are gathered unto thee should be scattered, and the remnant in Judah perish?

Jeremiah 40:16

But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam said unto Johanan the son of Kareah, Thou shalt not do this thing: for thou speakest falsely of Ishmael.

Jeremiah 41:1

Now it came to pass in the seventh month, [that] Ishmael the son of Nethaniah the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, and the princes of the king, even ten men with him, came unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and there they did eat bread together in Mizpah.

Jeremiah 41:2

Then arose Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and the ten men that were with him, and smote Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan over the land.

Jeremiah 41:3

Ishmael also slew all the Jews that were with him, [even] with Gedaliah, at Mizpah, and the Chaldeans that were found there, [and] the men of war.

Jeremiah 41:6

And Ishmael the son of Nethaniah went forth from Mizpah to meet them, weeping all along as he went: and it came to pass, as he met them, he said unto them, Come to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam.

Jeremiah 41:7

And it was [so], when they came into the midst of the city, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah slew them, [and cast them] into the midst of the pit, he, and the men that [were] with him.

Jeremiah 41:8

But ten men were found among them that said unto Ishmael, Slay us not: for we have treasures in the field, of wheat, and of barley, and of oil, and of honey. So he forbare, and slew them not among their brethren.

Jeremiah 41:9

Now the pit wherein Ishmael had cast all the dead bodies of the men, whom he had slain because of Gedaliah, [was] it which Asa the king had made for fear of Baasha king of Israel: [and] Ishmael the son of Nethaniah filled it with [them that were] slain.

Jeremiah 41:10

Then Ishmael carried away captive all the residue of the people that [were] in Mizpah, [even] the king’s daughters, and all the people that remained in Mizpah, whom Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had committed to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam: and Ishmael the son of Nethaniah carried them away captive, and departed to go over to the Ammonites.

Jeremiah 41:13

Now it came to pass, [that] when all the people which [were] with Ishmael saw Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that [were] with him, then they were glad.

Jeremiah 41:14

So all the people that Ishmael had carried away captive from Mizpah cast about and returned, and went unto Johanan the son of Kareah.

Jeremiah 41:15

But Ishmael the son of Nethaniah escaped from Johanan with eight men, and went to the Ammonites.

Jeremiah 41:16

Then took Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that [were] with him, all the remnant of the people whom he had recovered from Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, from Mizpah, after [that] he had slain Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, [even] mighty men of war, and the women, and the children, and the eunuchs, whom he had brought again from Gibeon:

Jeremiah 41:18

Because of the Chaldeans: for they were afraid of them, because Ishmael the son of Nethaniah had slain Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, whom the king of Babylon made governor in the land.

Races_mankind

arabs

muhammad-in-the-bible-20-638

 

Family tree of Abraham 2

Extract from rastalivewire Prophet Mohammed the Black Arab

http://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-original-black-arabs-of-arabia-part-4-the-black-stone-the-black-tribe-of-koreysh-black-prophet-mohammed/

Mohammed himself, who was to unite the whole of Arabia, thus appears to have had a prominent African-Kushitic lineage. According to al-Jahiz a renowned Black Arab writer and philosopher of Ethiopian origin who had lived in Baghdad, “…the guardian of the sacred Kaaba–Abd al-Muttalib, “fathered ten Lords, Black as the night and magnificent.” One of these men was Abdallah, the father of Muhammad.

JA Rogers, one of the most pre-eminent of Black African historians had the following to say of Muhammad(pbuh):

“Mohamet, himself, was to all accounts a Negro. A contemporary of his describes him as “large mouthed,” and “bluish-colored, with hair that was neither straight nor curly…Mohamet’s mother was also African. His grandfather, Abd el Motalib, is spoken of as being “very dark.”…A Negroid strain, more or less predominant, ran through the whole. As Keane says, “All who accepted the Koran became merged with the conquerors in a common Negroid population.”

Diop in “Orgin of Civillization” stated forthrightly that:

“….the entire arab people, including the Prophet [Muhammad(pbuh)] is mixed with Negro blood. All educated Arabs are conscious of that fact.”

Ethiopia and the Black Muslim Arabs

In the 5th and 6th century, the pre-eminece of Ethiopia was still putative in the Arabia and surrounding regions. As such, Mecca was teeming with millions of Black Cushitic Arabian and Ethiopian scientists, engineers, soilders, philosophers, writers, social revolutionaries. Besides the probable Ethiopian origins of Muhammed, Islam was deeply associated with Ethiopia, and was overwhelmingly influenced by Ethiopia in terms of the formation of its basic tenets, the elaboration of its doctrine and the development of its philosophy. According to tradition, the first Muslim killed in battle was Mihdja–a Kushitic Black Arab. Another Black Arab that greatly influenced Islam was Bilal, probably of Ethiopian-Yemenite extraction, who was such a pivotal figure in the development of Islam that he has been referred to as “a third of the faith.

” Many of the earliest Muslim converts were original descendants of the ancient Black Arabs,or they were African soliders, administrators, scientist that stayed over from the 70,000 man Ethiopian army that ruled Yemen in these times. In fact, the very survival of the Islamic faith in its most susceptible periodwas due tothe intervention of the Ethiopian King of Axum, who saved the earliest followers of Muhammed seeking refuge in Ethiopia from persecution in Arabia. They were given safety, succor and further education and instruction by the Priests of Ethiopia.

These early teachings underlaid the elaboration and further development of Islamic thought and they remain fundamental in Islamic teachings of today. It is therefore no wonder that Muhammed had instructed his followers to always be kind and considerate to the Ethiopians because they are a kindred nation of great righteousness.

John G Jackson, another pillar of Black History stated in his book “The Story of The Moors In Spain” that:

“At the present time Arabia is inhabited by two distinct races, namely the descendents of the old Adite,Kushite, or Ethiopian race, known under various appellations, and dwelling cheify at the south, the east, and the central parts of the country, but formerly supreme throughout the whole peninsula; and the semitic Arabians—Mohamet’s(pbuh) race—found cheifly in the Hejaz and at the north. In some districts of the country, these races more or less mixed and since the rise of Mohametanism, the language of the Semites, known to us as Arabic, has almost wholly superceded the old Ethiopian or Kushite tongue….”

Taharqo

57da7b742f5f47fa50c3c7933828bf0a--african-history-ethiopia

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fefba493a59b16dd10651aced87e52b0--african-hair-african-beauty

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71c6cc0b00ba33760519670ffdedf2fe--sudan-african-women

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da6a2efea7942e9c6c3ed1651d4f5d2c--sudan-africa

13129539_1134405333246883_1259521139_n

fb72f42a08f0bbfc09752492f018cd13--syrian-women-ethiopian-people

f0f88679307b08f12329dc4d013ad3e6--african-culture-african-history

28f27706ceb80291c473baacb2e365e6--two-men-sudan

Berbers
469ac544488b33610ebeb111502ebf13--timbuktu-mali-tuareg-people

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ethiopia-tutsi-jewish-king-mwambutsaiv-ghana-tutsiisraelitesi-falashaisraelites-nigeria-tsafrica-15608701

9ce1d9d49d4c8f622faa9b79de024759--hebrew-israelite-truths-lamentations

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Igbo-Language-Resourcesghana-anloewe-girls-at-the-hogbetsoto-festival-picture-id549027823images-275images-337B78G5QUCcAAvRwO764b11e24d7ffab554c4665b6abf143e
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BzW5LD_IIAAobaw

OOA_map

I will be constantly updating this post so feel free to check back at a later date for added information and links.

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My Jamaican & American slave ancestors Scott Johnson & Davis

My maternal grandmother spoke of being from Clarendon Jamaica. She was what we call red skin, a fair lady compared to my other side and it showed. She boasted of Indian heritage and had the hair to prove it. She was proud of being from Redhills. They were described as Creole. These black people would have been more likely to be given less strenuous work possibly a house slave rather than a field slave. There was a mentality of remaining light and not mixing with darker people leftover from slavery because they were treated better.

Below French and Portuguese creole people

 

Language in Exile: Three Hundred Years of Jamaican Creole

Barbara LallaJean D’Costa · 2009 · Language Arts & Disciplines

Three Hundred Years of Jamaican Creole Barbara Lalla, Jean D’Costa … Under Hispanic rule in Jamaica the Arawaks (Taino speakers) had contact with Spanish colonists, Portuguese Christians and Jews …

Language in Exile: Three Hundred Years of Jamaican Creole

 

It appears that not only is my mother’s side mixed with Irish but the term Creole in Jamaica referred to people born in America and possibly mixed.

My grandmother and her family I now know was mixed with Polish/Russian Irish and Spanish Portuguese which would have given her an Asian look. I traced  my Polish side to a Coleman spelt Kolmann in Poland or Russia. The Polish Coleman was a war ship builder who travelled to America.

Below an advert for a Ben Coleman or Brown. Notice he is described as of brown complexion and Mexican looking.

images-262

See picture directly below of Spanish Africans owned by Russians. I have an actual image of who I believe to be one of my Spanish ancestors’ and she does not look European she looks like a cross between the two ladies in the picture. I also listened to a documentary which explained that in the past the Jews in Spain were not only European looking but African looking also. I am highlighting this fact as Spanish ancestry does not confirm the appearance of the person.

images-44

So from what I can determine some of my ancestors were taken by Spanish invaders to Spain England and America and Jamaica. The people taken were of African descent their job title was indentured servant. The Spanish slave trader raped his servant. The Spanish appears to relate to both slave and owner in my case and one of the Jewish merchants was an Ashkenazi Jew from Europe. The other part of my Spanish lineage relates to possibly a Sephardic Jew in Spain who was exiled to Africa or Sao Tome and shipped from Elmina castle in Ghana or Benin. Many of the tribes in Africa are related so family members would have been shipped to different places and they would have been direct family members and distant relatives. Once enslaved tribes were mixed together and the slaves had children.

My grandmother said on her grandmothers side there was Indian heritage. I have found that we are related to the Smiths and Davis both of which have relatives in American Indian Choctow areas in America. This is a image of Sallie Newby Smith.

20180223_090002.jpg

Kentucky Counties with Free Negro Slave Owners in 1830
[book source: Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830 compiled and edited by C. G. Woodson, pp.4-6]

  1. Fayette County (13), [Lexington] (15) – Nancy Scott, Peter Whiting, Robert Gray, Charlotte Lewis, Richard Bird, William Tucker, Jesse Smith, Nathan Keifer, Benjamin Tibbs, Jane Brittain, Hannah Travis, Wittshire Brackenridge, Harvey Phillips, Frank Lee, Nicholas Black — Peter Davis, Adam B. Martin, Isaac Howard, William Burk, Benjamin Caulden, Peter Francess, Ben Williams, Anaka Shores, Jer’y Allen, Alexander Allen, Samuel Dunlap, Rhody Clark, Robert Smith

http://nkaa.uky.edu/nkaa/items/show/2080

To add some background to this information there were free people of colour who traded in slaves.

The above video is where an Eboe slave speaks of being taken from Africa to the America’s. The man gives his true account of being enslaved by ‘his own people’. This could have been by the Taino Afro and Portuguese Creole free people who owned slaves during this period. In America it is suggested that during the late 18th century there were more black slave masters than white.

The Portuguese had been importing slaves from Africa for over a century, and the Spanish had enslaved the Indians in Central and South America to work the mines and to grow crops. John Smith had been a slave himself, after being captured by the Turks. He claimed that a beautiful woman helped him escape, a story that parallels his tale of Pocahontas.2

The Virginia colony lacked a legal framework for slavery until 40 years after that date, and the great increase in the slave population did not start until 1700. Tobacco was a labor-intensive crop. Each slave or indentured servant working on a tobacco plantation may have processed 10,000 plants a year. That would require bending over 10,000 times to plant seeds, 10,000 times to dig seedlings from the early planting bed, 10,000 times to plant seedlings in a field…

As plantation agriculture spread up the Potomac River, the demand for field workers exceeded the supply of people in the colonies and England willing to do such work. The economic solution was to obtain laborers from another source – slaves from Africa, imported through the Caribbean islands as well as directly from that continent. In the 1660’s, the demand for labor in Virginia exceeded the supply of indentured servants from England after the end of the civil war there.

slavery was developed in Virginia so planters could acquire a cheap labor force to grow tobacco
slavery was developed in Virginia so planters could acquire a cheap labor force to grow tobacco
Source: Library of Congress, Tyler, His Family and His Allegiance to the South

The Virginia colony revised its laws in that decade to establish that blacks could be kept in slavery permanently, generation after generation. An influx of slaves was spurred at the same time by a drop in the value of sugar grown on Caribbean islands, causing the planters there to sell their “property” to the tobacco farmers in Virginia.3

There is a continuing debate regarding whether racism against blacks preceded the adoption of a legal system upporting lifetime slavery in Virginia, or whether the practice of slavery triggered the colonists’ racist attitudes. Blacks were not automatically slaves in the early colonial days. Some held property, married, and raised families outside the institution of slavery.

In the 1660’s, however, the government of the colony (not the officials in London…) established the legal framework for perpetual servitude based on color. “Every year between 1667 and 1672 the General assembly enacted legislation which increasingly defined a Virginian’s status by skin color. Similar laws followed in 1680, 1682, and 1686. By the final decade of the seventeenth century, those characteristics most associated with the plantation society of the eighteenth century were already evident.”4

 

Johnson, Milly Born in Africa in 1770 listed on the consensus in 1880 in the US Woods, KY mother born in Africa

Johnson, Robert born in 1852 KY mother born in  Frankfort, IN Kentucky Father from Africa 1880 consensus

Smith, Charles S.born in 1844 Tunica County, MS mother from Africa father from Mexico

http://nkaa.uky.edu/nkaa/items/show/3161

 

These Smiths have connections to Foster Davis Taylor and Johnson’s surnames.

Here is the DNA of my Smith DNA matches

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers

Trace Regions: Great Britain, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Ireland, Cameroon/Congo, Finland/Northwest Russia, Iberian Peninsula, Asia Central, Senegal

Ethnicity

Regions: Benin/Togo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Senegal, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo

Trace Regions: Nigeria, Ireland, Great Britain, Mali, Europe East

 

The Davis below is described as half blood indian

SD1139(62-2)+p45.Seminole&CREB

There may also be a connection between my Davis and Mary Black who is possibly the daughter of Chief Black Fox. These connections link the Davis to the Cherokee and Jewish community in Chocotaw.

native_american_map

The Choctaw (In the Choctaw languageChahta)[note 1] are a Native American people originally occupying what is now the Southeastern United States (modern-day AlabamaFloridaMississippi, and Louisiana). Their Choctaw language belongs to the Muskogean language family group.

The Choctaw are descendants of the peoples of the Hopewell and Mississippian cultures, who lived throughout the east of the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. About 1,700 years ago, the Hopewell people built Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork moundlocated in what is central present-day Mississippi. It is still considered sacred by the Choctaw. The early Spanish explorers of the mid-16th century in the Southeast encountered Mississippian-culture villages and chiefs.[2

….

For the Choctaw who remained in or returned to Mississippi after 1855, the situation deteriorated. Many lost their lands and money to unscrupulous whites.[88] The state of Mississippi refused the Choctaw any participation in government.[88] Their limited understanding of the English language caused them to live in isolated groups. In addition, they were prohibited from attending any of the few institutions of higher learning, as the European Americans considered them free people of color and excluded from the segregated white institutions. The state had no public schools prior to those established during the Reconstruction Era.[88]

..

Mississippi Choctaw Delegation to Washington (1914)Edit

From left to right, Chief Wesley Johnson, T. B. Sullivan, Culberson Davis, James E. Arnold, and Emil John.

By 1907, the Mississippi Choctaw were in danger of becoming extinct. The Dawes Commission had sent a large number of the Mississippi Choctaws to Indian Territory, and only 1,253 members remained.[107] Meetings were held in April and May 1913 to try to find a solution to this problem.[108][109][110][111] Wesley Johnson was elected chief of the newly formed Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana Choctaw Council at the May 1913 meeting.[112][113][111] After some deliberation, the council selected delegates to send to Washington, D.C. to bring attention to their plight. Historian Robert Bruce Ferguson wrote in his 2015 article that:

In late January 1914, Chief Wesley Johnson and his delegates (Culbertson Davis and Emil John) traveled to Washington, D. C. … While they were in Washington, Johnson, Davis, and John met with numerous senators & representatives and persuaded the federals to bring the Choctaw case before Congress. On February 5th, their mission culminated with the meeting of President Woodrow Wilson. Culbertson Davis presented a beaded Choctaw belt as a token of goodwill to the President.[112][114][11

 

Below the Cole listed is related to the Davis and Johnson line I am tracing.

The group also included Talking Warrior, Red Fort, Nittahkachee, who was later Principal Chief; Col. Robert Cole and David Folsom, both Choctaw of mixed-race ancestry; Captain Daniel McCurtain, and Major John Pitchlynn, the U.S. interpreter, 

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choctaw

 

Foster, Sallie.
Creek by blood. Files: Report of November 15, 1007, from Commissioner to Five Civilized Tribes. Creek N. B. No. 370. June 19, 1906, application was made to the Commissioner to the Five Civilized Tribes for the enrollment of Sallie Foster, born January 17, 1907. as a citizen by blood of the Creek Nation under the act of April 20, 1906. Said Sallie Foster is a child of Noah Foster, whose name was identified upon the approved roll of Creek Indians opposite No. 477, and Jennatta Foster. February 27, l907. the commissioner rendered his decision denying the application for the enrollment of said child for the reason that sufficient information was not secured to determine whether or not said Jennatta Foster was a Creek citizen, or whether or not she and Noah Foster were married. Said decision was on that date, forwarded to the department. March 4, 1907, the parents of this child appeared before the commissioner and gave testimony in the matter of its enrollment, for which it was found that the child’s mother is enrolled upon the approved roll of Creek citizens opposite No. 3907, as Jennette Johnson, and on that date the commissioner wired the department as follows: “Referring to Creek new-born case of Sallie Foster, transmitted on February 27, 1907, together with decision denying for insufficient evidence, the parents of said child have this evening appeared, and from their testimony mother is identified as Jennette Johnson, opposite Creek Indian roll No. 3907. I therefore recommend that name of said Sallie Foster be this day placed upon Creek newborn schedule and approved. Child 1 year old. Sex, female; blood, full; card No. 370.” 

https://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/surnames-edwards-to-frenchman.htm

 

William E Edwards was described as being Portugese and having dark skin and black wavey hair. At some point he had a plantation in LA.

There was also a William Edwards Owner of Fellowship Hall in St Andrew, Jamaica. Deceased by 1809.

Below is a Portuguese Native

560821faf113b77d2d6f61968c10df78--jamaica-portuguese.jpg

Below Arawak Indians

Here is a distant Edward DNA match below

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Europe West

Trace Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Senegal, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Native American

 

The below shows a Slave owner by the name of Davis.

DawesSnippet

Afro -Native American Indian descendants below

This side of my Jamaican family originated in America.

Recently Ancestry DNA has located 3rd and 4th cousin matches for me by the names of Chang Chung & Chong. This line share Mali Senegal and Spain in common.

Below are their results

Ethnicity

Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Mali, Ivory Coast/Ghana

Trace Regions: Senegal, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Africa North, Native American, Iberian Peninsula

Ethnicity

Regions: Asia East, Benin/Togo, Polynesia, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Ireland/Scotland/Wales

Trace Regions: Great Britain, Nigeria, Asia Central, Mali, Africa North, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Europe West, European Jewish, Iberian Peninsula, Europe South, Scandinavia, Senegal

detailed-political-map-of-east-asia-2004-preview

Ethnicity

Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Ireland/Scotland/Wales

Trace Regions: Senegal, Mali, Great Britain

 

Below Sheila Chong the first Miss Jamaica

sheilachong

I also found these listings shown directly below

Chong or Green, Aldred Louis, son of Thomas Chong & Eugenia Green, res Kingston.  Sponsors Phoebe Wilson & L. G. Hopkin, b 2/18/1907, bap 3/7/1907 by E. Armon Jones, p. 28 #478

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/c/cjind1.htm

 

Chang, Hermine Maria b 1932. F= Wellington Chang. VIII, 78 #570

Chang, Theresa b 1933. F= Joseph Chang. VIII, 119 #847

Chang, Veronica L. b 1931. F= Willie Kee Chang. VIII, 26 #178

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/m/MethodistKgn06.htm

 

The name Hermine Maria appears in my Spanish line. The names Hermine and Maria are used repeatedly through the Lopez and Pérez line. It appears Lopez and Chang intermarried. I will be researching this further. Online I saw a Pérez and Chang descendant born in 1907 who lived in Novia Scotia Canada. If this is a distant relation it would explain the Spanish and Asian connection. 

 

Central and West Asian connections are clear through the DNA of some of my cousins. The Native American has Asian and African central hunter gatherers DNA, in my family. From what I can piece together the mixing of my mother’s side occurred in America in the Chocotaw areas. So far I have found evidence of the African Spanish Russian and Chinese and Mexican ancestors mixing from the 1600s. Further down we will see some DNA results of such admixture.

Wikipedia states

The Asian Caribbean populations were the result of Coolie slaves and indentured labourers that were brought here by the Coolie Trade to work in mines, sugar plantations etc,

 

Asians in Jamaica below

Some of my family were transported to St Thomas-in-the-East later moving to Clarendon.

map-of-clarendon-jamaica.jpg

Neighbouring towns to Clarendon include St Elizabeth St Ann. This line of the family also lived in Kingston.

saint-thomas

Family Connections Scott’s Johnson Gordon Pérez Cole Watt Watson Burton Fuller Bent Davis Fernandez

 

This Mary Burton below is a likely relative. The Mary below is likely of Greek admixture.  She could also be a person from the same plantation. The description Mulattoe confirms she is considered mixed. The name Mary Burton as a first or middle name is popular with this family line.

9. Mary Burton Constantine – born Jul 20 1821 in Kingston, Jamaica. Baptised Mary Burton daughter of John Constantine and his wife Eleanor free Mulattoes, 19 Dec 1820.

Constantine (name) – Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Constant…

Jump to Constantine as a surname · Constantine (/ˈkɒnstəntaɪn/ or /ˈkɒnstəntiːn/; Latin: Cōnstantīnus, Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, Kōnstantînos) is a masculine given name and surname which is derived from the Latin name Constantinus, a hypocoristic of the first names Constans and Constantius, both meaning “constant, steadfast” in Latin.

 

Annie L. Burton was born in Clayton, Alabama in 1858. Her mother was a house slave but ran away from the plantation after being whipped but returned after the Civil War when all slaves had been freed.

Burton moved to Boston where she became a domestic servant. She married in 1888 a man who worked as a valet in Braintree.

In 1909 Burton published her book, Memories of Childhood’s Slavery Days and a short biography of Abraham Lincoln.

The Burton DNA matches I have are below, in bold is what we have in common.

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Iberian Peninsula, Native American, Benin/Togo, Italy/Greece

Trace Regions: Senegal, Europe West, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo, Asia South, Caucasus, Great Britain, Ireland, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers

Ethnicity

Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Senegal

Trace Regions: Scandinavia, Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Europe West, Asia Central, Native American, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Great Britain, Finland/Northwest Russia, European Jewish

 

I found it quite interesting that Annie L Burton was a house slave. It can be quite revealing to search a family surname connection. We wont always be related to the people but there are many clues out there to where people have been scattered to and who were the main buyers and sellers during the slave trade. My guess is that as Eboe slaves, as described by the slave owners, they were more favourable. Also through rape Some slaves were  bred out in America and the Carribean specifically to create a whiter version of “The negroe”  Hence the terms Quadroon and Mulatto and the one drop of black blood rule. They were a lighter caste of black which was was preferred. Slaves were treated in humanely however some were treated worse. Becoming like, and pleasing to the master would have afforded slaves certain  privileges and work. To this day in Jamaica people still use skin lightening soaps (ie bleaching soaps)  to make themselves lighter. I can spot this line of family in my ancestry matches since they are mainly what we call red skin in contrast to some black people.

Red complexioned people of South & West African descent

Asian looking subsaharan Africans

images-372

The 21st-century San and Khoi peoples resemble those represented by the ancient Sangoan skeletal remains. These Late Stone Age people in parts of southern Africa were the ancestors of the Khoisan people who inhabited the Kalahari Desert.

 

images-735

 

The Scott family ethnicity

My grandmother said this part of the family had Indian ancestry. I expected to have Indian ancestry but I found it instead in my DNA matches.  My grandmothers family were brought to Jamaica from America. It was in America that she would have had close connections to her American Indian and Asian family. From my ancestry DNA matches the connection appears to be at least 4 generations back from me. There are 2 possibilities: 1 my mother carries a small amount of Asian DNA possibly 1-5% that was not passed to me. 2 The Asian ancestor was my grandmothers great great grandmother through marriage and not blood. I have found that I have subsaharan DNA and also Mali and Senegal. Mali and Senegal are considered afro asiatic.

I have also seen YouTube videos and read posts of people who have retested especially because the Native Indian or Indian DNA being missing and it has been picked up a second time with a different company. Some companies show a less than 1% result where as Ancestry DNA doesn’t. DNA does not discount family accounts. This part of my ancestry has Mali Ivory Coast Ghana Nigeria Cameroon, Congo African south eastern Bantu Iberian Peninsula Finland/Russia Europe East Ireland in common.

 

Since writing this post I have uploaded my raw DNA to a few sights and 2 of them picked up my asian ancestry at 7% and Native American at less than 1%. It also picked up that I have ancient Mediterranean and Melenasian, Palestinian Khosian and Sans DNA.

 

Population African Amerindian ASI Basal Iran-Mesolithic Neolithic Oceanic EHG SEA Siberian WHG
Clovis_Amerindian 0.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Iberian_Chalcolitic 1.90 0.00 0.37 0.00 0.00 75.19 0.15 2.29 0.00 0.00 20.10
Iboussieres39 6.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 93.84
Population
Pygmy 4.32 Pct
West-Asian
North-European-Mesolithic 0.24 Pct
Indo-Tibetan
Mesoamerican 0.08 Pct
Arctic-Amerind
South-America_Amerind
Indian 0.55 Pct
North-Siberean
Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic 0.39 Pct
Samoedic 0.42 Pct
Indo-Iranian 0.52 Pct
East-Siberean
North-East-European 2.44 Pct
South-African 0.13 Pct
North-Amerind 0.14 Pct
Sub-Saharian 87.73 Pct
East-South-Asian
Near_East 2.83 Pct
Melanesian
Paleo-Siberian
Austronesian 0.21 Pct

  Check out this red complexioned lady’s indigenous Arawak Jamaican ancestry

The Scott family

Ethnicity

Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali, Great Britain, Cameroon/Congo, Ireland

Trace Regions: Africa Southeastern Bantu, Nigeria,

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Europe West, Mali

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Native American, Europe East, Scandinavia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa North

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Mali, Benin/Togo

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Senegal, Asia Central, Africa North, Middle East, Native American, Finland/Northwest Russia, Ireland

 

 Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Benin/Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Europe West, Mali

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Native American, Europe East, Scandinavia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa North

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Great Britain, Senegal, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers

Trace Regions: Ireland, Polynesia, Asia Central, Asia East, Finland/Northwest Russia, Europe West, Scandinavia, Native American, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu

 

Ethnicity

Regions: Ireland, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Scandinavia, Great Britain, Europe West

Trace Regions: Cameroon/Congo, Iberian Peninsula, Europe East, Nigeria, Senegal, Italy/Greece, Asia South

 

I found this list of E1b1a Arabian By blood DNA that confirms my findings of my Scott ancestors.

20180908_192333.jpg

 

Looking through my DNA matches I can see that the Asian connections relate to Asia South and Asia Central.

The Americas and Carribean became the mixing pot.

There is a record of Eliza Mary Scott Torode in Cape Town South Africa in 1907 born around 1864. There are further Scott’s Fullers Smiths and Anderson’s (who are related in my family line) shown to be living in Gaueteng South Africa. From the 19th century onwards there is a family living close to Freestate. I suspect they were deported back to Africa in the 18th Century.

Paper: “An Act of Deportation”: The Jamaican Maroons’ Journey from Freedom to Slavery and Back Again, 1796–1836 (124th Annual Meeting (January 7-10, 2010))
https://aha.confex.com › webprogram

8 Jan 2010 · Nova Scotia became a crossroads in the late eighteenth-century Atlantic World and African Diaspora. A sojourn of sorts for thousands of free and enslaved blacks, with some on their way to Africa,

Gauteng and Surrounding area tribes below

685px-Map_of_South_Africa_with_English_labels.svg

 

 

                     The European Johnson DNA match I have

Ethnicity

Regions: Great Britain, Scandinavia, Ireland, Europe West, Caucasus

Trace Regions: Iberian Peninsula, Asia Central, Europe East, Finland/Northwest Russia

 

The black Johnson ancestry matches below

The first 2 ethnicity results below are from matches who are Native to Africa, I note that they have no trace Regions. My cousins in America Canada and The Carribean Islands along with myself have Cameroon/Congo most have South Eastern Bantu and Mali

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Ivory Coast/Ghana

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana

Trace Regions: Benin/Togo, Mali

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Benin/Togo

Trace Regions: Senegal, Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Scandinavia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Cameroon/Congo, Melanesia, Mali

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu

Trace Regions: Senegal, Benin/Togo, Polynesia, Native American, Finland/Northwest Russia, Europe West, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Asia Central

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Cameroon/Congo, Senegal, Benin/Togo, Mali

Trace Regions: Ireland, Middle East, Polynesia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Africa North, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Mali, Senegal

Trace Regions: Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain, Finland/Northwest Russia, Cameroon/Congo, Ireland, Europe West, Asia Central, Scandinavia, Iberian Peninsula, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Native American

Ethnicity

Regions: Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Great Britain, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Cameroon/Congo

Trace Regions: Senegal, Asia Central, Mali, Caucasus

Ethnicity

Regions: Ivory Coast/Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Cameroon/Congo, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Great Britain

Trace Regions: Italy/Greece, Benin/Togo, Europe West, Europe East, Native American, Ireland, Polynesia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Scandinavia

 

In summary the Creole appears to refer to African Portuguese Spanish Native American Indian Taino mixed  with Russian Polish Irish/British blood. My cousins who have indigenous Native Indian DNA. I share ancestry with some Puerto Ricans, Spanish, Portuguese and Native American’s.

Below are some results of people with this type of admixture. Ancestry DNA goes back to 5th to 8th cousins (not more than 1000 years but other tests go further back. One of my cousin DNA matches has done some of the other advanced ancestry tests. The test proved that her ancestors were in Saudi Arabia 2000 years ago and are part of the Hausa tribe.

5THWUE9FGkfEEMn31sAcONlwpuuQ

D1Pdk2l3hggN82awZ95PF

Obviously not my dad below

Dad-ADNA-Ethnicity-Estimate-Native-American

The+Peoples+of+North+America

 

My cousin’s Davis ancestry Arawak/Taino Indian DNA below

Ethnicity

Regions: Asia South, Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Great Britain, Senegal, Ivory Coast/Ghana

Trace Regions: Scandinavia, Asia Central, Iberian Peninsula, Melanesia, Mali, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Europe West, Europe East

Slave descendants called Davis

Lucinda

Lucinda Davis – Former Slave in Creek Nation Photo Courtesy Oklahoma Historical Society above

 

 

 

Sallie Johnson  born in 1856. Death 1900 ish

 Spouse: Alfred Reed  Birth: Sep 1853

Children 1 F: Caroline Reed Birth: Jun 1880

2 F: Rosa L. Reed Birth: Apr 1883

3 F: Viola Reed Birth: 8 Nov 1884 Spouse: Henry Davis

4 M: Frank Claude Reed Birth: 25 Dec 1888
Death: Mar 1969 Spouse: Minnie Jackson
Spouse: Willie May

5 M: Alfred Reed Birth: Nov 1888

6 F: Mattie Reed Birth: May 1891

7 F: India Lee Reed Birth: Mar 1893

8 M: Charles Walter Reed Birth: 11 Nov 1894
Death: Dec 1976 Spouse: Erma Lee Duncan

The Johnson’s slaveowner John Caldwell Johnson was deceased in January 1856. 

http://johnsonfamilyofkempercounty.com/jacks-twenty-children/sallie-johnson-reed-1856-between-1900-1908/

 

The Davis & Foster ancestors from St Elizabeth Jamaica

Below Edward Davis and other YORUBA former slaves who returned to Sierra Leone Freetown from Jamaica.

944420_10151489643683519_1254110802_n1-1

1797
[Name] Lancaster Estate
[Crop] sugar, rum, cattle, hire of enslaved people

Property of Charles Foster a minor under the care and direction of William Hay Davis Esq. Account filed by Samuel Barry as overseer for the period 01/01/1797 to 31/12/1797.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/24 34

 

 

 

 

https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/estate/view/3026

ladydavis1

Davis DNA

Ethnicity

Regions: Asia South, Nigeria, Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Great Britain, Senegal, Ivory Coast/Ghana

Trace Regions: Scandinavia, Asia Central, Iberian Peninsula, Melanesia, Mali, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Europe West, Europe East

Ethnicity

Regions: Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Nigeria, Ireland, Senegal

Trace Regions: Asia Central, Ivory Coast/Ghana, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Europe West, Great Britain, Mali, Europe East, Finland/Northwest Russia, Africa Southeastern Bantu, Italy/Greece, Iberian Peninsula

Ethnicity

Regions: Great Britain, Benin/Togo, Cameroon/Congo, Ireland, Europe East, Scandinavia

Trace Regions: Senegal, Nigeria, Mali, Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers, Europe West, Iberian Peninsula, Asia South, Ivory Coast/Ghana, European Jewish, Africa Southeastern Bantu

 

Looking specifically at the Europe East line, my DNA which also shows as Russian Polish in some of my DNA matches. I traced ancestry to a Russian ancestor who built war ships that were used in Poland.

Ancestry DNA shows almost identical Regions for Europe East and Jewish. The Slave merchants in Benin, Dahomey were Portuguese and Spanish. During key periods the Jewish were persecuted in Spain and Portugal and many left. The king of Spain also sent Jewish people to Sao Tome Island.

The below are not my results but are to dig deeper into this European ancestry.

AncestryItalb

AncestryDNA+detail+Jewish+results

It is clear that my Europe East comes from a Jewish Slave merchant due to the history of Spain during the 14th and 17th century and my DNA. 

 

Possible African Tribe connections

IGBO

Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.

They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.

Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Jonkonnu, a parade held in Jamaica, is attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. The Igbo also influenced language with actions such as “sucking-teeth” coming from the Igbo “ima osu” and “cutting-eye” from Igbo “iro anya”.

Words were added to Jamaican Patois when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,”di” to be (in state of)”, which became “de”.

(Photo shows:an Igbo bride in Nigeria, with “red colouring similar to some Jamaicans).

Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.

They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.

Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Jonkonnu, a parade held in Jamaica, is attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. The Igbo also influenced language with actions such as “sucking-teeth” coming from the Igbo “ima osu” and “cutting-eye” from Igbo “iro anya”.

Words were added to Jamaican Patois when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,”di” to be (in state of)”, which became “de”.

(Photo shows:an Igbo bride in Nigeria, with “red colouring similar to some Jamaicans). Originating primarily from the Bight of Biafra in West Africa, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, arriving after 1750. Besides Virginia, Jamaica was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from Biafra.

They were spread on plantations around Montego Bay and Savanna-la-Mar. Igbo slaves resorted to resistance rather than revolt. Many of them committed suicide because they believed after death, they would return to their homeland.

Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by their “yellow” skin tones. Today, in Jamaica, “red eboe” is used to describe people with light skin tones and African features. Igbo women were paired with Coromantee (Akan) men to subdue the men because of the belief that the women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace.

Jonkonnu, a parade held in Jamaica, is attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. The Igbo also influenced language with actions such as “sucking-teeth” coming from the Igbo “ima osu” and “cutting-eye” from Igbo “iro anya”.

Words were added to Jamaican Patois when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,”di” to be (in state of)”, which became “de”.

(Photo shows:an Igbo bride in Nigeria, with “red colouring similar to some Jamaicans)

via faajihub.com

images-256

Native to African

EWE

benin1-3

Ewe

They are particularly found in southern Togo (formerly French Togoland), Volta Region in southeastern Ghana (formerly British Togoland), and in southwestern parts of Benin. The Ewe region is sometimes referred to as the Ewe nation or Eʋedukɔ́ region (Togoland in colonial literature). Wikipedia

 

YORUBA

Yoruba2a

yorubaland_map-1

The will of John Scott Owner of Clarendon Park in Clarendon, Tower Hill in St Mary, and The Retreat St Thomas-in-the-East, Jamaica.

Scott, Honorable John heirs of, Retreat 234/ 30

 

1807 [EA] – 1811 [LA] → OWNER
1817 [EA] – 1823 [LA] → PREVIOUS OWNER
1809 [EA] – 1811 [LA] → OWNER
1800 [EA] – 1801 [LA] → OWNER

 

Addresses (1)

Garboldisham Hall, Garboldisham, Norfolk, East Anglia, England

Plotted in St Thomas-in-the-East as a sugar estate with a cattle mill and a windmill in James Robertson’s 1804 map of Jamaica.

To the King’s most excellent Majesty, this map of the island of Jamaica, constructed from actual surveys. . . (London, J. Robertson, 1804), based on Robertson’s survey of the county of Surrey which he compeleted in 1798.
1810
[Number of enslaved people] 261(Tot)
[Name] Retreat
[Stock] 157

Registered to Hon. John Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1811) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/AL11STIE.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in for 1810.

See below link

https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146633646

 

saint-thomas

The below shows the Lennox plantation and the dates it was owned by Scotts.

Estate Information (29)

What is this?

1763
[Name] Lennox
[Crop] Sugar

Plotted in Westmoreland in Thomas Craskell’s 1763 map of Jamaica as a sugar estate with a cattle mill.

Thomas Craskell’s Map of the County of Surry in the Island of Jamaica (1763)
1797
[Name] Lennox Plantation
[Crop] sugar, rum

Belonging to the heirs of George Scott, Esq, dec. Account given by Samuel Jeffries and James Mures, executors. Account filed by Samuel and James Bell, overseers.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/22 157
1798
[Name] Lenox Estate
[Crop] sugar, rum

Belonging to the heirs of George Scott Esq deceased under the care and direction of Samuel Jeffries acting executor for his estate in Jamaica. Account filed by David Bell as overseer for the year ending 31/12/1798.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/24 208
1799
[Number of enslaved people] 301(Tot)
[Name] Lenox and Hopetown

Registered in Westmoreland in Balcarres’ letter to the Duke of Portland, dated 22/03/1800, taken at a vestry convened for that purpose 15/11/1799 and subsequent days. No ownership details given.

Papers Presented to the House of Commons of the 7th May 1804, Respecting the Slave Trade (Houses of Parliament, 1804) section G p. 38.
1799
[Name] Lennox
[Crop] Sugar

Plotted In Westmoreland as a sugar estate with a cattle mill in James Robertson’s 1804 map of Jamaica.

To the King’s most excellent Majesty, this map of the island of Jamaica, constructed from actual surveys. . . (London, J. Robertson, 1804), based on Robertson’s survey of the county of Cornwall which he compeleted in 1799.
1799
[Name] Lenox Estate
[Crop] sugar, rum

Property of George Scott Esq deceased under the care and direction of Samuel Jeffries attorney. Account filed by David Bell as overseer for the year ending 31/12/1799.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/26 93
1800
[Name] Lenox Estate
[Crop] sugar, rum, some cattle

Property of George Scott Esq deceased under the care and direction of Samuel Jeffries attorney for the estate. Account filed by Peter McAdam as overseer for the year ending 31/12/1800.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/27 102
1801
[Name] Lenox Estate
[Crop] sugar and rum

Belonging to Hutchinson Scott Esq, under the care and direction of Samuel Jeffries Exor to the Estate of George Scott Esq deceased. Account filed by John Wylie as overseer.

Accounts Produce, Jamaica Archives 1B/11/4/29 71
1810
[Number of enslaved people] 297(Tot)
[Name] Lennox and Hopeton
[Stock] 445

Registered to Hutchieson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1811) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/AL11Westmd.htm. The 1811 almanac was based on the givings-in of the March Quarter for 1810, hence the earlier evolution date.
1811
[Number of enslaved people] 316(Tot)
[Name] Lenox and Hopeton
[Stock] 307

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1812) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/a1812co1.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1815
[Number of enslaved people] 219(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 185

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1816) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/AL15west.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1817
[Number of enslaved people] 291(Tot) 146(F) 145(M)
[Name] Lenox Sugar Estate and Hopeton Penn

In the possession of Hutchison Scott as owner.

T71/178 252-255
1817
[Number of enslaved people] 313(Tot)
[Name] Lenox and Hopeton
[Stock] 393

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1818) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/1818al14.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1819
[Number of enslaved people] 270(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 235

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1820) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/Al20p14.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1820
[Number of enslaved people] 290(Tot) 142(F) 148(M)
[Name] Hopeton Pen and Lenox Estate

In the possession of Robert K. Senior and Joseph Stone Williams as agents to Hutchison Scott.

T71/179 Book 26 4
1820
[Number of enslaved people] 249(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 225

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1821) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/al1821_10.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1821
[Number of enslaved people] 249(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 29

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1822) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/Al22p14.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1823
[Number of enslaved people] 291(Tot)
[Name] Lenox Estate and Hopeton Pen

In the possession of Hutchison Scott as proprietor of Lenox Estate and Hopeton Pen.

T71/180 Book 9 21-22
1823
[Number of enslaved people] 253(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 223

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1824) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/AL24west.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1825
[Number of enslaved people] 279(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 202

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1826) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/1826al16.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1826
[Number of enslaved people] 279(Tot)
[Name] Lenox
[Stock] 7

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1827) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/a1827al10.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1826
[Number of enslaved people] 299(Tot) 146(F) 153(M)
[Name] Lenox and Hopeton Estates

In the possession of Hutchison Scott as proprietor.

T71/181 95-96
1827
[Number of enslaved people] 323(Tot)
[Name] Lenox and Hopeton
[Stock] 269

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1828) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/1828al16.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1828
[Number of enslaved people] 317(Tot)
[Name] Lenox and Hopeton
[Stock] 262

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1829) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/al29west.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1829
[Number of enslaved people] 308(Tot) 152(F) 156(M)
[Name] [no name given]

In the possession of Hutchison M. Scott as proprietor or owner. Assumed to be Lennox and Hopeton.

T71/186 [unpaginated]
1830
[Number of enslaved people] 333(Tot)
[Name] Lenox and Hopeton
[Stock] 207

Registered to Hutchison Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1831) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/1831west.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1831
[Number of enslaved people] 328(Tot)
[Name] Lennox and Hopeton
[Stock] 235

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1832) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/al32west.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1832
[Number of enslaved people] 320(Tot)
[Name] Lennox and Hopeton
[Stock] 203

Registered to Hutchinson Scott.

Jamaica Almanac (1833) transcribed at http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/AL33Westmd.htm. The almanac was based on the givings-in of the previous March Quarter, hence the earlier evolution date.
1832
[Number of enslaved people] 308(Tot) 154(F) 154(M)
[Name] [no name given]

In the possession of Hutchison Scott as owner. Appears to be an amalgamation of Hopeton and Lennox.

T71/188 214

https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/estate/view/6542

Golden Grove, Jamaica

St Thomas

List of Original Negroes on Golden Grove Estate, Living this 30th June 1790.

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/Mslavegg.htm

In census records slaves are listed as being mainly either coromantee or Eboe on the Golden Grove Plantation. The Scott’s Hall Maroons are recorded as handing over Maroons that they captured. When my Maroon ancestor was handed in it was by Maroons which I didn’t understand for a while.

The History of Jamaica(1774), to have been the site of “the first rebellion of importance, on record, [which] happened in the year 1690, when between three and four hundred slaves, belonging to…  Sutton’s plantation in Clarendon… killed the white man entrusted with the care of it and seized upon a large store of fire arms… [after which they] proceeded to the next plantation, and murdered the overseer…”[3]

I read some of the records of what they did to Maroons if they were captured. Maroons would be killed in painful slow ways such as having their hands cut off and bleeding death. Death by castration to name a few. Oral accounts state that when the treaty was signed by only one group of the Maroons The Ashanti, the Koromantee Maroons were not happy about it. The Maroons who received their own land were bound by the treaty to keep the peace between the Maroons and plantation owners and police.

Golden Grove Sugar Factory. St. Thomas, Jamaica

by Julaine Schexnayder
(New Iberia, LA USA)

Golden Grove Sugar Factory. St. Thomas, Jamaica

For tourists and natives alike here is a photo of a beautiful place, off the beaten path. 

We have visited this area, in St. Thomas Parish in the southeast near the coast, several times in recent years. If it is unique and unusual places you are looking for, this is one of them.

Golden Grove, which now consists of a sugar plantation and factory, was established in 1734. The company employs a large number of workers seasonally and year round.

http://www.my-island-jamaica.com/golden-grove-sugar-factory-st-thomas-jamaica.html

A 2 hour audio Jamaican man explains African history before slavery below

https://youtu.be/WiAgA_xjVcU

See these records of St Elizabeth Plantation owners link below

Bennett, Frances Ann, Montrose 46/ 48

Bennett, Joseph, Spring Garden 30/ 16

Bennett, Montague deceased, Spice Grove 21/ 1

Bennett, Thomas, Spring Garden 21/ 2

Bent, Ann R., 7

Bent, Henry, Cherry Moia 6/ 5

Bent, John B., Cotton Tree Hill 8/ 20

Bent, Margaret Powell, 4

Bent, Nicholas, Tryall 13

Bent, Stephen, Mango Hill 3/ 6

Bent, Susanna E., 17

Brown, Charlotte, 5

Brown, Eleanor, 7

Bruce, John and Alexander, 14/ 3

Burt, Mary, 10

Burton, Catherine, 3/ 10

Burton, Frances T., 16

Burton, George William deceased, 5/ 40

Burton, John, Mount Providence 1/ 8

Burton, John, 7/ 14

Burton, Judith Ann, 7/ 20

Burton, Nicholas, 3

Burton, Nicholas, 9

Ebank, Caleb, 15/ 109

Ebanks, A. J. B. and M., 16/ 30

Ebanks, Ann M., 4/ 4

Ebanks, Anthony, 22/ 10

Ebanks, Augustus senior, 3/ 2

Ebanks, Benjamin, Castle Cary 2

Ebanks, Eliza G., 3/ 10

Ebanks, John, 9/ 27

Ebanks, John, 15/ 5

Ebanks, Margaret P., 4/ 1

Ebanks, Mary, 8

Ebanks, Richard, 7/ 28

Edwardes, John, 12/ 2

Edwardes, Margaret, Cool Retreat 5

Edwardes, Margaret, 13

Elliott, David, 2/ 5

Ellison, Henry, 3/ 2

Esson, Andrew, Pond Side 12/ 165

Exton, Margaret, 15/ 20

Facey, Thomas, 6/ 20

Facey, William, 5/ 10

Farquharson, Charles, Spring Vale 132/ 330

Fergusson, Robert, 10/ 20

Johnson, John, 8/ 2

Johnson, John, 1/ 1

Johnson, Samuel, 6/ 40

Johnson, William, 10

Scott, F. Hutchinson, 3/ 16

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/Al20p13.htm

 

ST. THOMAS IN THE EAST, AND ST. DAVID

Custos Rotulorum, and Chief Judge, Hon. Simon Taylor, Esq.

Assistant judges and of the Quorum[Esquires]

*Hon. John Scott

*Hon. Henry Shirley

*K. Osborn

+Hon. C. Bryan

*Samuel Delpratt

Peter Robertson

Robert Logan

William Vick

*William Bryan

Robert Telfer

Thomas Leigh

John Kelly

+William Holgate

N. A. Grant

William Ker

Robert Ferguson

*William Milner

James Codrington

John Stewart

Thomas McKenzie

*John Carlyle

James Ouchterlony

Thomas Thomson

Samuel Thomson

Commissioners of the Supreme Court, James Ouchterlony, William Kerr, John Myrie, Esqs.

Clerk of the Peace and Court, Isaac Panton, Esq.

Clerk of the Vestry, F. F. Hill, Esq.

Coroner, William Vick, Esq.

Poundkeeper Morant-Bay, T. O’Brien Warren

Poundkeeper St. Davids, James Henderson

Collecting Constable St. Thomas in the East, John Noble

Collecting Constable St. David’s, J. Ouchterlony

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/AL08List2.htm

MORANT DIVISION

Allen, Agnes, 8

Beckford, Honorable Nathaniel deceased, Spring Garden 184/ 37

Berwick, Newell, 14/ 2

Buchan, William, Church Hill 32

Champneys, Sir Thomas, Nutt’s River 264/ 27

Chapman, Jane, 6

Collard, J. M. deceased, Stoney Gut 85/ 42

Cope, John Freeman, Belvidere 351/ 113

Crean, Eleanor estate of, 6

Downie, Margaret, 10

Dunkerly, James, Greenwood Castle 4

Durham, Sarah, 4

Edwards, Ann, 12

Ellis, Richard, 10/ 4y

Fergusson and Blair, Roselle 158/ 100

Fitch, Joseph estate of, York and Mount Prosperous 141/ 33

Fitzgerald, George, 15/ 1

Fleck, Henry, 18/ 2

Forbes, William, 8

Foulis, John, Arshdeal 34/ 18

Galloway, Rachel Reid, 18

Gildea, Margaret, 3

Gwynn, A. deceased, Middleton 169/ 11

Hamilton, Charlotte, 8

Hardie, Mary, 7/ 5

Hicks, John W., Pembroke Hall and Hicks’ Hall 193/ 13

Homan, Mary, 5

Hurst, Harriet, 4

Jackson, Joseph, 10

Jordan, Margaret, 9

Kennedy, Margaret, 24/ 4

Laurie, William Kennedy, Woodhall 149/ 2

Logan, Thomas, 28/ 4

Mallet, Mary Ann, 8

Marks, Elizabeth, 4

McCourtie, Thomas, 4/ 10

McGibbon, John deceased, Wilmington 33

McGregor, Alexander, 4

McGregor, Patrick, 3/ 1

Miles, Philip John, Golden Valley 185/ 23

Milne, Alexander, 5/ 2

McKay, Philip, 4/ 2

McKenzie, Cecilia, 6

McQueen, Neil, 4

Munro, Catherine, 6

O’Hagan, Michael, 6

Osborn, Kean, Montpelier 174

Paterson, Duncan D., Bannockburn 58/ 2

Pedley, John, Stanton 201/ 36

Poole, Nicholas W., 1/ 4

Porteous, James, Bonhill and Lochaber 55/ 22

Reallo, John N., 6

Reid, Rachael, 18

Riley, Ann, 6

Robertson, Margaret, 6

Scholar, Charles, 10/ 4

Scott, Charles, Hermitage 62/ 22

Scott, Honorable John heirs of, Retreat 234/ 30

Snodgrass, Hew deceased, 4/ 4

Spence, Hugh, 10/ 3

Stewart, John, 7

Stoddart, Ann, 18

Strathie, Mary, 10

Taylor, Ebenezer 134/ 8

Taylor, George Watson, Burrowfield 84/ 145

Taylor, Honorable Simon and Sir John heirs of, Lyssons 515/ 66

End

1790 ALMANAC

PUBLIC OFFICERS

Link to site for Jamaican family search 

Stephen Fuller Esq., Agent for the Island in Great Britain

William Duncan Esq., Agent General

Colonel E. M. Despard, Superintendent at the Bay of Honduras

John James, Esq., Commander of all the Maroons

James Mont. James, Esq., Superintendent of Trelawny Town

Peter Ingram Esq., Superintendent of Charles Town

Alexander Forbes, Esq., Superintendent of Accompong Town

Charles Douglas Esq., Superintendent of Moore Town

John Sp. Brodbelt, junior, Esq., Superintendent of Scott’s Hall Town

William Dunlop Esq., Notary Public

William Holgate Esq., Auditor General of the Revenue

William Smith Esq., Master of the Revels

John Clement Esq., Public Messenger

G. S. Sutherland Esq., Clerk of the Markets

John Edward Shackleford, Esq., Island Store Keeper

James Murry Esq., Acting ditto

Thomas Dancer, M.D., Botanist, and Physician to the Bath

Dr. Francis Rigby Brodbelt, Surgeon to the Spanish Town Gaol

Mr. Lawrence Hunter, Surgeon to the Kingston Gaol

Mr. Alexander Aikman, King’s Printer

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

William Dunlop Esq.,Secretary of the Island

Deputies

Kingston, Robert Boog Esq.

Savanna-la-Mar, George Murray Esq.

Port Antonio, James Charlton

Montego Bay, Donald Campbell

Lucea, Nathaniel Gray

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Eliphalet Fitch Esq.Receiver General

Deputies

Spanish Town, James Jones Esq.

Port Antonio, Mr. John Harris

Montego Bay, McLaurin Gillies

Lucea, Mr. William Brown

Savanna-la-Mar, George Murray Esq.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Alexander Robertson Esq.,Naval Officer

Deputies

Lucea, Donald Malcolm Esq.

Port Antonio, Mr. George Minot

Sav. la Mar, George Murray Esq.

Montego Bay, E. Montague Esq.


LIST OF SURVEYORS IN COMMISSION

[Surname/Given Name]

Brown Alexander

Burt Alexander

Burton Edward

Brydone ___

Clarke Robert

Campbell William

Cawley Stephen

Dalton Peter

Edgar Archibald

Ferguson James

Forbes Al.

Foss Matthew

Fraser William

Grant Patrick

Graham Robert

Gordon Robert

Gibson Robert

Kirkwood Robert

Leslie Robert

McDowal, J.

Munro Thomas

Morris Samuel

Murdoch John

Pierce William

Rome John

Ranken Alexander

Rosindell Robert

Smellie William

Sherriff Alexander

Syms James

Sutherland John

Schaw Edward

Savory Samuel

Speering Charles

Trought, Nicholas

Turnbull Archibald

Voce William

Whitaker John

Wilson Hugh

 

End

5e2fe5beb8f834ceb0346dd9915d3852--brazil-black-people

 

This is the original list of returned escaped slaves in Jamaica.

 Return of the ACCOMPONG Maroons 27TH OCTOBER 1831 CO 140/121

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/MaroonsAccompong.htm

 

Please note this is only one list of escaped slaves and my ancestors were found on a 1809 census aswel ( quoted from memory the record is on one of my other posts) Nanny of the Maroons started the movement of runaway slaves and founded her own towns for them. Maroon Town and Accompong. You can visit my related posts by doing a search in my search bar. Some Maroons were deported to Freetown.

My family are listed. If you are Jamaicans American Haitian your family might be listed too.

OFFICERS

Lieutenant-colonel Andrew White

61

Lieutenant Robert Reid Peate

54

Captain James Rowe

61

Lieutenant Richard Rowe

30

Captain William Dennis Reid

55

Lieutenant John Reid

53

Captain James Dennis Foster

57

Lieutenant John Watson

43

 

PRIVATES

 

William Adlam

54

George Reid

34

John Adlam

22

Robert Hugh Reid

43

Samuel Adlam

18

Thomas Reid

35

Colin Adlam

18

George Roache

39

Charles Austen

44

Thomas Roache

40

Samuel Anderson

26

Samuel Roden

32

Joseph Barrett

26

Charles Rowe

56

Edward Barrett

22

Henry Rowe

35

William Brice

26

Billy Rowe

30

Frank Cross

36

James Rowe

29

John Cross

43

William Rowe (sambo)

40

Thomas Cross

44

Robert Salmon

33

Thomas Cross, jun.

19

Smallin Smith

26

Thomas Currie (mulatto)

23

Quao Smith

22

William Davis

54

Thomas Smith

37

Barnet Dennis (mulatto)

45

Joseph Smith

30

Joseph Dennis (sambo)

29

Barnet Smith

35

Rodger Reid Dennis

55

Cabina Smith

41

William Dowan (mulatto)

26

Alexander Shilletto

31

Alexander Faulkner

26

Thomas Stretch

23

Samuel Faulkner

28

James Stone

38

Matthew Farquharson

37

James Swaby

39

Antonio Flesharkey (quadroon)

21

Robert Virvin

54

John Griffith

56

John Webb

22

Thomas Holliday

26

Thomas White

31

James Haughton

36

John White

21

Charles George Ludwig (quadroon)

22

Robert White

19

Richard Miles

33

Billy Wright

25

Edward Peate

25

Robert Wright

34

Billy Peate

25

William Wright

31

Thomas Peate

24

Samuel Wright

25

John Peate

30

James Wright

19

Samuel Pight

36

Samuel Barrett

18

Lewis Pight

35

James Montague

18

Charles Quarrey

26

 

 

 

 

WOMEN

 

Fanny Austin

53

Ann Rowe

26

Nanny Austin

77

Ellen Rowe

28

Catherine Barrett

51

Bess Rowe

27

Bash Beat

51

Debby Rowe

19

Barbara Boucher

69

Grace Salmon

60

Charlotte Bookay (mulatto)

23

Jane Salmon

31

Bella Brice

23

Bess Salmon

30

Nancy Carr

43

Nancy Salmo [Salmon]

27

Mary Carr

41

Polly Salmon

26

Peggy Carr

37

Jenny Salmon

23

Catherine Cooper

59

Webb Salmon

23

Bella Crisp

36

Susanna Shaw

27

Sophy Currie (mulatto)

21

Bess Shannel (mulatto)

56

Dorothy Darling (sambo)

35

Phœbe Smith

68

Eliza Davis

38

Mary Stretch (mulatto)

25

Jane Dennis

30

Frances Stretch (mulatto)

26

Louisa Dennis

23

Janet Quarrey

20

Catherine Dockery (mulatto)

46

Bess Venhillin

62

Mary Dockery

70

Mary Walpole

36

Dido Falconer

36

Christiana White (sambo)

60

Mary Falconer

60

Elcey White

27

Juba Falconer

23

Manna White

26

Nelly Foster

50

Eliza Johnston White

26

Nancy Griffith

19

Amelia White

24

Mary Griffith

24

Elizabeth Wright

51

Julina Griffith

26

Suckey Wright

51

Dido Holliday

43

Nelly Wright

48

Leah Myers

19

Ann Wright

32

Julina Peate

23

Mary Wright, 1st

32

Eliza Quilman

23

Mary Wright, 2d

25

Leah Quarrey

26

Polly Wright

32

Jenny Reid

73

Susanna Wright

24

Suckey Reid

19

Enthy Wright

25

Nelly Reid

42

Maria Wright

23

Bessy Roache

49

Jane Finlayson Wright

26

Susanna Rowe

60

Grace Wright

25

Lucy Rowe

22

Debby Wright

21

Mary Rowe

36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BOYS

 

William Anderson

5

William Reid

6

Robert Barrett

16

Billy Pight

2

William Barrett

11

James Reid

3

William Banista

16

Alick Roden (mulatto)

4

John Collins

3

William Ricketts

6

James Collins

6

Alexander Russell (mulatto)

3

Robert Cunningham

2

Quao Rowe

18

Colin Cross

8

Thomas Rowe, two months

 

Henry Cross

4

William Rowe

2

William Crosley

7

John Rowe

16