Tag Archives: Jamaican slaves

This is the original list of returned escaped slaves in Jamaica.

 Return of the ACCOMPONG Maroons 27TH OCTOBER 1831 CO 140/121

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/MaroonsAccompong.htm

 

Please note this is only one list of escaped slaves and my ancestors were found on a 1809 census aswel ( quoted from memory the record is on one of my other posts) Nanny of the Maroons started the movement of runaway slaves and founded her own towns for them. Maroon Town and Accompong. You can visit my related posts by doing a search in my search bar. Some Maroons were deported to Freetown.

My family are listed. If you are Jamaicans American Haitian your family might be listed too.

OFFICERS

Lieutenant-colonel Andrew White

61

Lieutenant Robert Reid Peate

54

Captain James Rowe

61

Lieutenant Richard Rowe

30

Captain William Dennis Reid

55

Lieutenant John Reid

53

Captain James Dennis Foster

57

Lieutenant John Watson

43

 

PRIVATES

 

William Adlam

54

George Reid

34

John Adlam

22

Robert Hugh Reid

43

Samuel Adlam

18

Thomas Reid

35

Colin Adlam

18

George Roache

39

Charles Austen

44

Thomas Roache

40

Samuel Anderson

26

Samuel Roden

32

Joseph Barrett

26

Charles Rowe

56

Edward Barrett

22

Henry Rowe

35

William Brice

26

Billy Rowe

30

Frank Cross

36

James Rowe

29

John Cross

43

William Rowe (sambo)

40

Thomas Cross

44

Robert Salmon

33

Thomas Cross, jun.

19

Smallin Smith

26

Thomas Currie (mulatto)

23

Quao Smith

22

William Davis

54

Thomas Smith

37

Barnet Dennis (mulatto)

45

Joseph Smith

30

Joseph Dennis (sambo)

29

Barnet Smith

35

Rodger Reid Dennis

55

Cabina Smith

41

William Dowan (mulatto)

26

Alexander Shilletto

31

Alexander Faulkner

26

Thomas Stretch

23

Samuel Faulkner

28

James Stone

38

Matthew Farquharson

37

James Swaby

39

Antonio Flesharkey (quadroon)

21

Robert Virvin

54

John Griffith

56

John Webb

22

Thomas Holliday

26

Thomas White

31

James Haughton

36

John White

21

Charles George Ludwig (quadroon)

22

Robert White

19

Richard Miles

33

Billy Wright

25

Edward Peate

25

Robert Wright

34

Billy Peate

25

William Wright

31

Thomas Peate

24

Samuel Wright

25

John Peate

30

James Wright

19

Samuel Pight

36

Samuel Barrett

18

Lewis Pight

35

James Montague

18

Charles Quarrey

26

 

 

 

 

WOMEN

 

Fanny Austin

53

Ann Rowe

26

Nanny Austin

77

Ellen Rowe

28

Catherine Barrett

51

Bess Rowe

27

Bash Beat

51

Debby Rowe

19

Barbara Boucher

69

Grace Salmon

60

Charlotte Bookay (mulatto)

23

Jane Salmon

31

Bella Brice

23

Bess Salmon

30

Nancy Carr

43

Nancy Salmo [Salmon]

27

Mary Carr

41

Polly Salmon

26

Peggy Carr

37

Jenny Salmon

23

Catherine Cooper

59

Webb Salmon

23

Bella Crisp

36

Susanna Shaw

27

Sophy Currie (mulatto)

21

Bess Shannel (mulatto)

56

Dorothy Darling (sambo)

35

Phœbe Smith

68

Eliza Davis

38

Mary Stretch (mulatto)

25

Jane Dennis

30

Frances Stretch (mulatto)

26

Louisa Dennis

23

Janet Quarrey

20

Catherine Dockery (mulatto)

46

Bess Venhillin

62

Mary Dockery

70

Mary Walpole

36

Dido Falconer

36

Christiana White (sambo)

60

Mary Falconer

60

Elcey White

27

Juba Falconer

23

Manna White

26

Nelly Foster

50

Eliza Johnston White

26

Nancy Griffith

19

Amelia White

24

Mary Griffith

24

Elizabeth Wright

51

Julina Griffith

26

Suckey Wright

51

Dido Holliday

43

Nelly Wright

48

Leah Myers

19

Ann Wright

32

Julina Peate

23

Mary Wright, 1st

32

Eliza Quilman

23

Mary Wright, 2d

25

Leah Quarrey

26

Polly Wright

32

Jenny Reid

73

Susanna Wright

24

Suckey Reid

19

Enthy Wright

25

Nelly Reid

42

Maria Wright

23

Bessy Roache

49

Jane Finlayson Wright

26

Susanna Rowe

60

Grace Wright

25

Lucy Rowe

22

Debby Wright

21

Mary Rowe

36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BOYS

 

William Anderson

5

William Reid

6

Robert Barrett

16

Billy Pight

2

William Barrett

11

James Reid

3

William Banista

16

Alick Roden (mulatto)

4

John Collins

3

William Ricketts

6

James Collins

6

Alexander Russell (mulatto)

3

Robert Cunningham

2

Quao Rowe

18

Colin Cross

8

Thomas Rowe, two months

 

Henry Cross

4

William Rowe

2

William Crosley

7

John Rowe

16

Lewis Degan

16

Charles Samuel Salmon

3

William Dennis

15

Samuel Smith

2

Thomas Dennis

17

James Stone

8

Edward Dennis

11

James Swaby

9

Frederick Dennis

11

Robert Vidal

9

James Donald (quadroon)

14

Charles Watson

6

Robert Furguson

9

William Webb

16

William Furguson

8

Crawford White

15

John Griffith

6

David Shaw White

11

William Holliday

16

James White, 1st

10

John Holliday

2

James White, 2d

4

George Macquirk

5

Boohe Williams

13

George Augustus Maycharge (quadroon)

7

Charles Wright

11

Edward Miles

17

John Wright

10

William Pennycooke (mulatto)

2

Joseph Wright

2

Samuel Albert Pight

2

James Wright

4

Antonio Pight

8

Thomas Wright

 

Charles Pight

10

Quao Wright

2

Robert Peate

3

 

 

 

GIRLS

 

Jane Alexander

4

Jane McLachlan (quadroon)

12

Mary Barrett

11

Crissy Ogilvie (sambo)

15

Nelly Barrett

8

Sarah Palmer (mulatto)

15

Margaret Barrett

6

Kitty Peate

15

Eliza Cross

2

Molly Peate

15

Grace Cross

16

Nancy Peate

12

Sophia Cross

11

Nancy Pight (mulatto)

5

Dorothy Cross

13

Juba Pight, seven months

 

Isabella Cross

11

Mary Anderson, five ditto

 

Mary Cross

9

Sophia Doman, four ditto

 

Sabina Cross

8

Carolina Reid

10

Susanna Cross

10

Margaret Rowe, 1st

15

Rebecca Cross

6

Margaret Rowe, 2d

7

Cecilia Cross

3

Rosanna Rowe

7

Cuba Dennis

15

Elizabeth Russell

5

Bess Farquharson

6

Frances Watson Salmon

2

Agnes Farquharson

4

Polly Salmon

5

Phœbe Falconer (mulatto)

14

Mary Shaw

5

Venue Foster

2

Catherine Shokea

13

Agnes Foster

2

Rosanna Salmon (mulatto)

3

Susanna Flesharskey (quadroon)

15

Frances Stone

3

Lydia Griffith

14

Ann Stone

4

Charlotte Gordon (quadroon)

16

Caroline Jane Thompson

2

Ann Harris

5

Ellen Vervin

17

Jane Holliday

4

Elizabeth Vervin

15

Piercy Holliday

12

Beche Vervin

13

Sally Holliday

8

Sarah Vervin 1st

17

Jane Horton

3

Sarah Wright 2d

3

Nancy Hoffman (mulatto)

9

Susanna Wright

2

Fanny Macquirk

3

Sarah Wright 1st

17

Ann Horton

6

Diana Wright

12

Mary Miles

3

Kitty Wright

13

Isabella Miles

5

Mary Wright 1st

7

Isabella Ludwig

14

Mary Wright 2d

2

Beche Lerman

13

Nelly Wright

5

Caroline Jones

5

Phœbe Wright

10

 

SUPERANNUATED, 1

 

MAJOR James Roache

76

 

 

FROM OTHER TOWNS

 

 

MALES, 3

 

Robert Adlam

10

John Reid

13

Dicky Clerke [Clarke?]

18

 

 

 

FEMALES, 7

 

Ruthy Dennis

49

Fanny Reid

18

Elizabeth Quilman

24

Hannah Reid

13

Eliza Reid

23

Joan Reid

9

Lydia Reid

21

 

 

 

 

 

RESIDING OUT OF TOWN

 

MALES, 35

 

James Alego, Kingston

21

George Smith, Lucea

13

George Allen, Trelawny

10

Kennedy Smith, Ditto

11

Jeremiah Allen, ditto

8

Henry Smith, ditto

8

Allen, ditto

4

William Smith 1st, Westmoreland

37

Allen, ditto

2

William Smith 2d, Dry-Harbour

6

Richard Burrowes, Stoney-Hill

31

William Smith 3d, Lucea

2

Robert Creighton, Westmoreland

24

——–Smith, sambo, Lucea

6

Thomas Creighton, ditto

22

——–Wedderburn, Westmoreland

2

Joseph Creighton, Ditto

19

James White, ditto

10

Thomas Douglass, ditto

14

Robert White, ditto

2

William Fullerton, ditto

21

——–Wright, ditto

2

———–Fullerton, ditto

2

——–Wright, ditto

2

John Hewitt, Spanish-Town

37

Richard Wolf, ditto

11

William Humphries, St. James’s

55

William Wolf, ditto

9

Edward Tullough, Montego-Bay

2

——–Wolf, ditto

4

Robert Shannel, Spanish-Town

15

James Cunningham, Montego-Bay

2

Joseph Shannel, ditto

18

——–Haughton, Westmoreland

2

William Shannel, ditto

19

 

 

 

WOMEN, 36

 

Mary Allen, Kingston

20

Sarah Harrison, St. Elizabeth’s

6

Susanna Adlam, St. James’s

24

Susanna Harrison, ditto

4

Sarah Adlam, ditto

27

Ann Hinds, St. James’s

3

Mary Austin, Westmoreland

51

Bella Inniss, Dry-Harbour

27

Nancy Austin, Rio-Bueno

57

Elizabeth Murray, Falmouth

25

Eliza Clarke, Falmouth

20

Harriot Murray (quadroon), ditto

3

Betsey Clarke, St. James’s

23

Ann Matthewson, Trelawny

6

Jane McGibbon Clarke, ditto

24

Mary Price, Rio-Bueno

26

Eliza Creighton, St. Elizabeth’s

13

Sarah Price, ditto

27

Elizabeth Cross, St. James’s

20

Ann Pight, Trelawny

6

Ann Dennon, Lucea

8

Jane Reid, Westmoreland

24

Bess Fullerton (mulatto), Dry-Harbour

19

Polly Rowe, Falmouth

57

Kitty Fullerton, ditto

25

Hannah Smith, ditto

50

Jane Farquharson, St. James

 

Rachel Smith, ditto

28

Mary Farquharson, ditto

3

Mary Smith, ditto

25

Lucy Haughton, Westmoreland

24

Mary-Ann Tomlinson, Westmoreland

3

Peggy Haughton, ditto

27

Beneba Peate

2

Ann Holliday, Lucea

25

Jane Wannup, Stoney-Hill

60

 

 

 

 

NAMES OF SLAVES

 

MALES, 7

 

Billy Boskew, alias William Rowe to captain Rowe

29

James Foster, to estate of late maroon

41

Charles Reid, to ditto

10

Foster, alias Jacob Alves, to colonel Foster

6

Joe, to ditto

 

John Ogilvie (mulatto), to ditto

14

 

 

Solomon Herbs

2

 

FEMALES, 9

 

Betty, to captain Rowe

8

Dolly, alias Darley, to Molly Dockery

46

Olive, to ditto

33

Rachel, to ditto

47

Phillis 1st, to ditto

32

Betty Graham, to ditto

1

Phillis 2d, alias Elizabeth, to ditto

8

Bessy, to estate of the late colonel Foster

18

Chance, to Molly Dockery

12

 

 

 

Igbo people in Jamaica and America

Watch this visit (see the youtube link) to Maroon Town in Jamaica and listen to them tell their own story. You can then press the back button to come back to this page.

maroon_3_plaque_to_kojo_and_peace_1

wikipedia describes the Igbo as follows

Igbo people in Jamaica were shipped by Europeans onto the island between the 18th and 19th century as forced labour on plantations. Igbo people constituted a large portion of the African population in slave-importing Jamaica. Some slave censuses detailed the large number of Igbo slaves on various plantations throughout the island on different dates throughout the 18th century.[2] Their presence was a large part in forming Jamaican culture as their cultural influence remains in language, dance, music, folklore, cuisine, religion and mannerisms. Many words in Jamaican Patois have been traced to the Igbo language. In Jamaica the Igbo were referred to as either Eboe, or Ibo.[3] However, the majority of African words in Jamaican Patois is from the Asante-Twidialect of the Akan language of Ghana, as Igbo mostly populated the northwestern section of the island.[4]

Igbo people in Jamaica
Eboe
Total population
(N/A)
Regions with significant populations
Primarily Northwestern Jamaica, especially the ports of Montego Bay and St.Ann’s Bay[1]
Languages
English, Jamaican EnglishJamaican Patois
Religion
Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Igbo peopleIgbo Americans

Contents

HistoryEdit

Originating primarily from what was known as the Bight of Biafra on the West African coast, Igbo people were taken in relatively high numbers to Jamaica as slaves, beginning around 1750. The primary ports from which the majority of these enslaved people were taken from were Bonny and Calabar, two port towns that are now in south-eastern Nigeria.[5] The slave ships arriving from Bristol and Liverpool delivered the slaves to British colonies including Jamaica. The bulk of Igbo slaves arrived relatively late, between 1790 and 1807.[6] Jamaica, after Virginia, was the second most common disembarkation point for slave ships arriving from the Bight of Biafra.[7]

Igbo people were spread on plantations on the island’s northwestern side, specifically the areas around Montego Bay and St. Ann’s Bay, and[8]consequently, their influence was concentrated there. The region also witnessed a number of revolts that were attributed to people of Igbo origin. Slave owner Matthew Lewis spent time in Jamaica between 1815 and 1817 and studied the way his slaves organised themselves by ethnicity and he noted, for example, that at one time when he “went down to the negro-houses to hear the whole body of Eboes lodge a complaint against one of the book-keepers”.[9]Olaudah Equiano, a prominent member of the movement for the abolition of the slave trade, was an African-born Igbo ex-slave. On one of his journeys to the Americas as a free man, as documented in his 1789 journal, Olaudah Equiano was hired by a Dr. Charles Irving to recruit slaves for his 1776 Mosquito Shore scheme in Jamaica, for which Equiano hired Igbo slaves, whom he called “My own countrymen”. Equiano was especially useful to Irving for his knowledge of the Igbo language, using Equiano as a tool to maintain social order among his Igbo slaves in Jamaica.[10]

Igbo slaves were known, many a times, to have resorted to resistance rather than revolt and maintained “unwritten rules of the plantation” of which the plantation owners were forced to abide by.[11] Igbo culture influenced Jamaican spirituality with the introduction of Obeah folk magic; accounts of “Eboe” slaves being “obeahed” by each other have been documented by plantation owners.[9] However, it is more likely that the word “Obeah” was also used by Akan slaves, before Igbos arrived in Jamaica.[12] Other Igbo cultural influences are the Jonkonnu festivals, Igbo words such as “unu” “una”, idioms, and proverbs in Jamaican patois. In Maroon music were songs derived from specific African ethnic groups, among these were songs called “Ibo” that had a distinct style.[13]

Igbo slaves were known to have committed mass suicides, not only for rebellion, but in the belief their spirits will return to their motherland.[5][14] In a publication of a 1791 issue of Massachusetts Magazine, an anti-slavery poem was published called Monimba, which depicted a fictional pregnant Igbo slave who committed suicide on a slave ship bound for Jamaica. The poem is an example of the stereotype of Igbo slaves in the Americas.[15][16] Igbo slaves were also distinguished physically by a prevalence of “yellowish” skin tones prompting the colloquialisms “red eboe” used to describe people with light skin tones and African features.[17] Igbo people were hardly reported to have been maroons, although Igbo women were paired with Coromantee(Akan) men so as to subdue the latter due to the idea that Igbo women were bound to their first-born sons’ birthplace. [18]

Archibald Monteith, born Aneaso, was an Igbo slave taken to Jamaica after being tricked by an African slave trader. Anaeso wrote a journal about his life, from when he was kidnapped from Igboland to when he became a Christian convert.[19]

After the slavery era, Igbo people also arrived on the island as indentured servants between the years of 1840 and 1864 along with a majority Congo and “Nago” (Yoruba) servants.[20] Since the 19th century most of the citizens of Jamaica of African descent have assimilated into the wider Jamaican society and have largely dropped ethnic associations with Africa.

RebellionsEdit

Igbo slaves, along with “Angolas” and “Congoes” were most prone to be runaways. In slave runaway advertisements held in Jamaica workhouses in 1803, out of 1046 Africans, 284 were described as “Eboes and Mocoes”, 185 “Congoes”, 259 “Angolas”, 101 “Mandingoes”, 70 Coromantees, 60 “Chamba” of Sierra Leone, 57 “Nagoes and Pawpaws”, and 30 “scattering”. 187 were “unclassified” and 488 were “American born negroes and mulattoes”.[21]

Some popular slave rebellions involving Igbo people include:

  • The 1815 Igbo conspiracy in Jamaica’s Saint Elizabeth Parish, which involved around 250 Igbo slaves,[22] described as one of the revolts that contributed to a climate for abolition.[23] A letter by the Governor of Manchester to Bathurst on April 13, 1816,[24]quoted the leaders of the rebellion on trial as saying “that ‘he had all the Eboes in his hand’, meaning to insinuate that all the Negroes from that Country were under his controul”.[25] The plot was thwarted and several slaves were executed.
  • The 1816 Black River rebellion plot, was according to Lewis (1834:227—28), carried out by only people of “Eboe” origin.[26] This plot was uncovered on March 22, 1816, by a novelist and absentee planter named Matthew Gregory “Monk” Lewis. Lewis recorded what Hayward (1985) called a proto-Calypso revolutionary hymn, sung by a group of Igbo slaves, led by the “King of the Eboes”. They sang:

    Oh me Good friend, Mr. Wilberforce, make we free!
    God Almighty thank ye! God Almighty thank ye!
    God Almighty, make we free!
    Buckra in this country no make we free:
    What Negro for to do? What Negro for to do?
    Take force by force! Take force by force![27]

“Mr. Wilberforce” was in reference to William Wilberforce a British politician, who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade. “Buckra” was a term introduced by Igbo and Efikslaves in Jamaica to refer to white slave masters.[28]

CultureEdit

Among Igbo cultural items in Jamaica were the Eboe, or Ibo drums popular throughout all of Jamaican music.[29] Food was also influenced, for example the Igbo word “mba” meaning “yam root” was used to describe a type of yam in Jamaica called “himba”.[30][31] Igbo and Akan slaves affected drinking culture among the black population in Jamaica, using alcohol in ritual and libation. In Igboland as well as on the Gold Coastpalm wine was used on these occasions and had to be substituted by rum in Jamaica because of the absence of palm wine.[32]Jonkonnu, a parade that is held in many West Indian nations, has been attributed to the Njoku Ji “yam-spirit cult”, Okonko and Ekpe of the Igbo. Several masquerades of the Kalabari and Igbo have similar appearance to those of Jonkonnu masquerades.[33]

LanguageEdit

Much of Jamaican mannerisms and gestures themselves have a wider African origin, rather than specific Igbo origin. Some examples are non-verbal actions such as “sucking-teeth” known in Igbo as “ima osu” or “imu oso” and “cutting-eye” known in Igbo as “iro anya”, and other non-verbal communications by eye movements.[34]

There are a few Igbo words in Jamaican Patois that resulted when slaves were restricted from speaking their own languages. These Igbo words still exist in Jamaican vernacular, including words such as “unu” meaning “you (plural)”,[17] “di” meaning “to be (in state of)”, which became “de”, and “Okwuru” “Okra” a vegetable.[35]

Some words of Igbo origin are “akara”, from “àkàrà”, type of food, also from Ewe and Yoruba;[36]“attoo”, from “átú” meaning “chewing stick”.[37] Idiom such as, via Gullah “big eye”, from Igbo “anya ukwu” meaning “greedy”;[38][39][40]“breechee”, from “mbùríchì”, an Nri-Igbo nobleman;[41]“de”, from “dị” [with adverbial] “is” (to be);[42][43] “obeah“, from “ọbiạ” meaning “doctoring””mysticism”;[44]okra“, from “ọkwurụ”, a vegetable;[35][44]“poto-poto”, from “opoto-opoto”, “mkpọtọ-mkpọtọ” meaning “mud””muddy”, also from Akan;[35]“Ibo”,”Eboe”, from “Ị̀gbò”[45] “se”, from “sị”, “quote follows”, also from Akan “se” and English “say”;[46]“soso”, from sọsọ “only”;[35][47]“unu”,”una”, from “únù”, “you (plural)”.[48]

ProverbsEdit

“Ilu” in Igbo means proverbs,[49] a part of language that is very important to the Igbo. Igbo proverbs crossed the Atlantic along with the masses of enslaved Igbo people. Several translated Igbo proverbs survive in Jamaica today because of the Igbo ancestors. Some of these include:

  • Igbo: “He who will swallow udala seeds must consider the size of his anus”
Jamaican: “Cow must know ‘ow ‘im bottom stay before ‘im swallow abbe [Twi ‘palm nut’] seed”; “Jonkro must know what ‘im a do before ‘im swallow abbe seed.”
  • Igbo: “Where are the young suckers that will grow when the old banana tree dies?”
Jamaican “When plantain wan’ dead, it shoot [sends out new suckers].”
  • Igbo: “A man who makes trouble for other is also making one for himself.”
Jamaican: “When you dig a hole/ditch for one, dig two.”
  • Igbo: “The fly who has no one to advise it follows the corpse into the ground.”
Jamaican: “Sweet-mout’ fly follow coffin go a hole”; “Idle donkey follow cane-bump [the cart with cane cuttings] go a [animal] pound”; “Idle donkey follow crap-crap [food scraps] till dem go a pound [waste dump].”
  • Igbo: “The sleep that lasts for one market day to another has become death.”
Jamaican: “Take sleep mark death [Sleep is foreshadowing of death].”

2017-07-31-20-26-46--1897204905

ReligionEdit

Obeah” refers to folk magic and sorcery that was derived from West African sources. The W. E. B. Du Bois Institute database[12] supports obeah being traced to the “dibia” or “obia” meaning “doctoring”[9] traditions of the Igbo people.[50][51] Specialists in “Obia” (also spelled Obea) were known as “Dibia” (doctor, psychic) practiced similarly as the obeah men and women of the Caribbean, like predicting the future and manufacturing charms.[52][53] In Jamaican mythology, “River Mumma”, a mermaid, is linked to “Oya” of the Yoruba and “Uhamiri/Idemili” of the Igbo.[54]

Among Igbo beliefs in Jamaica was the idea of Africans being able to fly back home to Africa.[55]There were reports by Europeans who visited and lived in Jamaica that Igbo slaves believed they would return to their country after death.[56]

Notable Jamaicans of Igbo descentEdit

A picture of Archibald Monteith's grave in Jamaica, he was an Igbo taken to Jamaica as a slave

Archibald Monteith’s grave. He was an Igbo known as Aneaso and was taken to Jamaica as a slave.
  • Archibald Monteith, an ex-slave who was called “Aneaso” born in Africa, and brought to Jamaica and later wrote an autobiography[19]
  • One of Malcolm Gladwell‘s European ancestors had a child by an Igbo slave, which started off the mixed-race Ford family on Gladwell’s mothers side.[57]

In the case of Nigeria, we know that it was from the East that Jamaicans came. This was in the latter part of the 18th century, especially as the English slave trade came to an end in 1807. This is also the period in which there was a huge inflow of persons from the Congo-Angola area.

This spike in the slave trade in the early 19th century was connected to the development of the coffee industry in Jamaica, following the collapse of coffee in Haiti after the revolution. This occurred mainly in the Dallas mountain overlooking UWI, in Upper Clarendon where my family is from and in the hills of northern Manchester – towards Coleyville and Wait-a Bit in Upper Trelawny.

Eastern Nigeria is classic yam country, especially for white yam (Dioscorea rotundata). Yams festivals are an integral part of their culture, as it is in other parts of Nigeria and Ghana. I speculate that the concentration of yam cultivation in the Trelawny hills, and our own yam festival there, may have to do with this massive Eastern Nigerian inflow at the end of the slave trade. But again, much more research is needed before one can confidently make such an assertion.

It is not possible to declare that the Eastern Nigerian influence in Jamaica – apparent in expressions such as ‘red ibo’ – is Igbo. True, nearly all the Nigerian movies we love to watch in Jamaica are of Igbo origin. Village scenes filled with the assertive females reminds us of rural Jamaica. Most of the well-known Nigerian movie stars, such as Patience Ozokwor, Richard Mofe-Damijo and Emeke Ike, are Igbo.

Undoubtedly, there is a major Igbo influence on Jamaican culture. But Eastern Nigeria is a huge area with many different ethnic groups. Igbo from Aro were deeply involved in the slave trade. But so were Ijaws from the Delta and the Ibibios further east. Indeed, the real centre of the Eastern Nigerian slave trade at the end of 18th century was in the Efik (Ibibio) areas around Creek Town and Duke Town, on the Cross river near the Cameroon border. Again, most enslaved people came from inland rather than from the coast, and would probably have been from weaker Igbo and Ibibi

http://old.jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20080113/focus/focus4.html

https://youtu.be/UikVTBlRIfs

Watch this The tribe of Benjamin Judah and Levi https://youtu.be/Dym6ccCgTus

The 12 tribes of Judah debunked https://youtu.be/-JTQbDOt9AU

And Igbo in Africa (tribe of Gad) https://youtu.be/Vnm9YZt7AuM

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Igbo people in the Atlantic slave trade

The Igbo in the Atlantic slave trade became one of the main ethnic groups enslaved in the era lasting between the 16th and late 19th century. Located near indigenous Igbo territory, the Bight of Biafra (also known as the Bight of Bonny),[1] became the principal area in obtaining Igbo slaves.[2] The Bights major slave trading ports were located in Bonny and Calabar; a large number of these slaves Igbo.[3][4] Slaves, kidnapped or bought from fellow Igbos, were taken to Europe and the Americas by European slave traders.[5] An estimated 14.6% of slaves were taken from the Bight of Biafra between 1650 and 1900, the third greatest percentage in the era of the transatlantic slave trade.[6]

Ethnic groups were fairly saturated in certain parts of the Americas because of planters preferences in certain African peoples.[7] The Igbo were dispersed to colonies such as Jamaica,[8]Cuba,[8] Haiti,[8] Barbados,[9] United States,[10] Belize,[11] Trinidad and Tobago[12] among others. Elements of Igbo culture can still be found in these places. In the United States the Igbo were found common in the state of Maryland and Virginia.[13]

Contents

EffectsEdit

It is estimated that a total of 1.4 million Igbo people were transported (via European ships) across the Atlantic in the era of Atlantic slave trade.[14] Most of these ships were British.[15]

DispersalEdit

Some recorded populations of people of African descent on Caribbean islands recorded 2,863 Igbo on Trinidad and Tobago in an 1813 census;[16] 894 in Saint Lucia in an 1815 census;[17] 440 on Saint Kitts and Nevis in an 1817 census;[18] and 111 in Guayana in an 1819 census.[19][N 1]

BarbadosEdit

Olaudah Equiano was kidnapped and first taken to Barbados

The Igbo were dispersed to Barbados in large numbers. Olaudah Equiano, a famous Igbo author, abolitionist and ex-slave, was dropped off there after being kidnapped from his hometown near the Bight of Biafra. After arriving in Barbados he was promptly shipped toVirginia.[20] At his time, 44 percent of the 90,000 Africansdisembarking on the island (between 1751 and 1775) were from thebight. These Africans were therefore mainly of Igbo origin. The links between Barbados and the Bight of Biafra had begun in the mid-seventeenth century, with half of the African captives arriving on the island originating from there.[21]

HaitiEdit

Some slaves arriving in Haiti included Igbo people who were considered suicidal and therefore unwanted by plantation owners. According to Adiele Afigbothere is still the Creole saying of Ibos pend’cor’a yo (the Ibo hang themselves).[22] Aspects of Haitian culture that exhibit this can be seen in the Ibo loa, a Haitian loa (or deity) created by the Igbo in the Vodun religion.[8]

JamaicaEdit

Bonny and Calabar emerged as major embarkation points of enslaved West Africans destined for Jamaica’s slave markets in the 18th century.[23] Dominated by Bristol and Liverpool slave ships, these ports were used primarily for the supply of slaves to British colonies in the Americas. In Jamaica, the bulk of Igbo slaves arrived relatively later than the rest of other arrivals of Africans on the Island in the period after the 1750s. There was a general rise in the amount of enslaved people arriving to the Americas, particularly British Colonies, from the Bight of Biafra in the 18th century; the heaviest of these forced migrations occurred between 1790 and 1807.[24] The result of such slaving patterns made Jamaica, after Virginia, the second most common destination for slaves arriving from the Bight of Biafra; as the Igbo formed the majority from the bight, they became largely represented in Jamaica in the 18th and 19th century.[25]

United StatesEdit

In the United States the Igbo slaves were known for being rebellious. In some states such asGeorgia, the Igbo had a high suicide rate.[26][27][28] Igbo slaves were most numerous in the states of Maryland and Virginia,[29]

In the 19th century the state of Virginia received around 37,000 slaves from Calabar of which 30,000 were Igbo according to Douglas B. Chambers.[29] The Frontier Culture Museum of Virginiaestimates around 38% of captives taken to Virginia were from the Bight of Biafra.[30] Igbo peoples constituted the majority of enslaved Africans in Maryland.[29] Chambers has been quoted saying “My research suggests that perhaps 60 percent of black Americans have at least one Igbo ancestor…”[31]

An American Maroon extract below. He speaks of the Sabbath a Hebrew and Jewish Holy day when he was captured. He is of African heritage but may not be of Igbo descent. However statistics show he probably had an Igbo ancestor.

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CHAPTER III.

      http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/iwilliams/iwilliams.html

        We were captured on a quiet Sabbath morning, about ten o’clock, when the sun was smiling brightly, and leaves were rustling with their forest music. While the good people of the land were on their way to God’s house to pray for all mankind, here were two poor wayfarers shot down deliberately, by permission of the laws of this very land. Our captors tied our hands so tight with hitching straps, that we were fain to cry out in our great agony, but knowing it would be of no avail, and only gratify the malice of our captors we bore it all in silence. They had a large wagon close by, and in this we were driven to King George county jail. Before reaching there my wrists swelled up so that they covered the hitching strap that I was tied with, and I asked Mullen to loosen it a little so as to relieve my misery. He refused with oaths, saying, “You shall never get away from us; we wont give you a chance,” and they struck me repeatedly in the face and kicked each of us. On reaching the jail the sheriff, whose name was Dr. Hunter, came up and looked at us. I then had twenty-nine shot in my right arm and forty in my right leg. The doctor counted the holes in the flesh and said as he gazed at the mangled members, “If they were my niggers I would rather have them shot dead than wounded this way.” He abused them roundly for their bad usage of us, not perhaps so much on the grounds of humanity, as because we had depreciated in value, being not so marketable, and the doctor hated to see good property destroyed. Mullen, Bryant and White dared say nothing in reply to him, for he was rich and they were poor, but they cringed and fawned around him like the curs they were. The doctor then had us removed to a comfortable place, and dressed our wounds himself; he was a skillful man, and soon


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had us on our feet again. We were put in the dungeon or cell where men condemned to be hung were kept, not a very cheerful place to be sure, but I could not help wishing I should meet that fate rather than be a slave again. I thought of the many sad, desperate men this cell had held, and wondered what their inmost secret feelings were with death staring them in the face, and life’s moments ebbing swiftly away.

        Doctor James, the slave dealer who had bought me from Ayler, was at this time away, further south in Georgia, with a large gang of slaves he had taken there to sell. Knowing this fact the sheriff telegraphed to James’ partner in Richmond, and he came on at once, but when he saw how crippled we were he refused to pay the six hundred dollars reward offered for us both, and told Sheriff Hunter to keep us in the jail until James came back. We were well treated while there, which was about twenty-eight days, and during that time my thoughts were directed to Him whom I never knew before. I felt that without His help I would never be free, and I prayed to my Great Father above to be with me in this time of trouble, and in His wisdom I relied. I felt a consciousness of His near presence and it seemed as though some unseen power personally addressed me.

        It was impossible to escape from the cell we were confined in. As before stated it was the one in which condemned murderers and those convicted of the most heinous offences were incarcerated. It was very strong and constantly guarded; but Providence seemed to be helping us, for after being in it for about ten days Banks was taken very ill with malarial fever, owing a good deal to the damp walls, and we were removed to a roomier and pleasanter cell up-stairs. It had two windows, one of which faced the jailor’s house, and the other was on the opposite side. We had more light than in the dungeon, and altogether it was a vast improvement for us. Nothing could arouse me, however, from the despondent feeling, which weighed me down like a heavy cloud. Promptly as the sun arose I would greet him with a good morning, and as he sank in the west in all his scarlet splendor I would say farewell, hoping I would not live to see him again,


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for I longed to die and be out of a world that stifled all of my best feelings, and in which on every side I met with only curses and blows.

        Shortly after being put in this upper cell I commenced to look around for a means of escape. I pulled off one of the legs of a stove that was stored in a corner of our room, and with this I pried off a board on the side of our cell and found a small strip of iron about a foot long in one corner, which I managed to rip off, and then I put back the board so that everything would look undisturbed. With this iron strip I worked unceasingly on the east window, when I could do so unobserved, but all my efforts seemed in vain; it was too strong for me. The last day we were to be in our prison had come. It was Thursday. How well do I remember it and the sinking feeling that oppressed my heart when the jailor informed us that our master, Dr. James, had returned from Georgia and was now in Fredericksburg, expecting to be at the jail next morning. All hope seemed to leave me and I fully expected to spend my future days in slavery. After a while I grew more composed over the bad news of master’s return, and repeated with a calm sort of desperation that I would rather die than see the man that bought me. I then prayed to God that if I was to be captured again not to let me escape out of there, but if I could get away for Him to show me in His wisdom what to do. I had prayed both night and day up to this time and now began to think God had given me up. I got up and walked to the window, saying: “Window, I will never try you again unless in God’s name I am told to do so.” I turned away and started right across the floor to the opposite side to try and break the other window open. I knew it was the last day I had any chance and I felt desperate. Just at that moment I heard a voice say distinctly to me: “Go back to the window you have left. Since you have declared to do what is ordered in My name I will be with you.” I stood still and dared not move either back or forward. The mysterious voice was still ringing in my ears and I felt as one dazed; I feared to go back until my mind became impressed with the idea that it really was


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the voice of the Great Master I had heard. He had taken pity on me in my extremity and would now help me. Something seemed to say, “Whose name did you invoke?” and I cried aloud, “God’s name.” I then went right back to the window and an unseen power directed me just what to do. Remember, I had been at work at this window for many weary days and nights and only a few minutes previously had exerted all my strength to burst it open, but in vain. Now, after leaving it and then coming back again in obedience to the mysterious mandate, I was not five minutes in splitting the bottom sill, in which the grates were fastened. While taking out the sash I accidentally broke two of the panes of glass, and this I felt would betray me and lead to discovery of our plans. Now that I knew that all things were ready for us to escape at night this one accident spoiled it all. The guard had to come in twice before nightfall and see if everything was right, and I felt he could not help but notice the broken panes. I put in the sash, broke off the fragment of glass left, put all the pieces in the stove, and listened for the footfall of our jailor. Our fate hung on a very slender thread, for if he saw anything was wrong all was lost, and as the broken glass was so plain before him it seemed almost impossible not to perceive it. At last a heavy tramp was heard and I tried to hold my breath as he came in. How eagerly we both noticed his every movement. The door grated harshly on the rusty hinges and he entered quickly, giving us a searching glance. Then, seeing we were quietly resting, he passed on and deliberately walked up to the broken window and looked out. We thought we were lost, but no; God seemed to blind his mind, and though he saw with his eyes he did not realize that anything was amiss; and finally, after looking for several moments turned unconcernedly on his heel and left us. Then I fell on my knees and said, “Surely, Lord, Thou art with us,” and something seemed to murmur in reply, “all will yet be well.” But we had still another ordeal to go through, for after supper he would return to see if everything was safe for the night. The minutes were like hours. Our fate seemed to hang on the turn of a die, and we ardently longed for


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the moments to fly quicker. “Hope deferred truly maketh the heart sick,” and I fairly yearned to be out in the fresh air once more. Would the long, long day never go by, dragging along slowly, so slowly? We heard the heavy metalic pendulum with its steady tick, and from time to time the clock would sonorously strike the hour. I prayed that God would blind the jailor’s eyes and mind as before, so that he would not see or realize what had been done. Thus silently and prayerfully we awaited his coming. The slanting rays of the sun told us that night was coming on and soon her dark mantle began to fold around our prison home. Under her friendly veil we would make one last desperate effort to free ourselves again. At last the tread of our jailor was heard, and for a moment I wished the earth would open and swallow me, so fearful had I become of discovery. I, who knew not the meaning of nerves, felt completely unstrung, and I quivered and shook with fear. Banks lay close by me, and I said to him: “Remember Daniel was saved even when in the lion’s den, and we will yet be saved from these human tigers.” As if to verify what I had said, the guard gave but a casual glance around, staid only a few moments, and left. To paint the relief we felt were impossible. I clasped Banks and he me, and looking into each other’s eyes we both breathed one mighty prayer of thankfulnes to the great overruling power that we felt had saved us.

 

He also states regarding their religious beliefs as slaves the below:

The worthy ministers who performed the services were pretty actively employed in the obituary line of business, at this time, but they were fully equal to the occasion and had great command of language. Many of them could not read or write, but they would express themselves in their own peculiar phraseology, and, as they burned with a fiery zeal, it made up for defects of education. Taking into consideration the uncultured state of their hearers, these worthy men gave good satisfaction. Having great powers of imagery and felicity of expression, they would often astonish their educated white hearers, by the fluent, eloquent language used, and the many quaint expressions and original


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interpretations of Scripture made by these earnest souls often showed a vein of thought of a high order.

        We had our regular Wednesday night prayer meetings at each other’s houses, but they were held at the discretion of our master, and if the edict went forth that we could have none, we were obliged to hold them by stealth, like the Covenanters of old in Scotland. If we had a local minister he would preside, otherwise we would manage among ourselves. There would seldom be silence in our meetings, waiting for each other to speak, as I am told there is often in a white man’s prayer meeting. We were always ready, that is the religious ones, to testify, and felt much better for doing so. Some of the ministers were not allowed to preach if the master was arbitrary or down on them for something, as was frequently the case

And also


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three days and then when I said farewell, he replied: “You will never see me any more on earth; let us try and meet above.”

        I have often seen Africans not long out who could not speak English. They were chiefly Zulus, and were tatooed across the chest with stars. After a time they would begin to pick up some of our language, and then they would want us to be friendly and social with them. I remember them using these words, “You dem all come over and visit we dem all and we uns will go over and see you uns.” I heard of some that believed in voodouism and fetishism, but never saw any of their religious rites performed, though I believe that further south they practiced many superstitious observances.

End

Slavery (17th century – 1865)Edit

The first people of Nigerian ancestry in what is now the modern United States were imported as slaves or indentured laborers from the 17th century onwards.[3] Calabar, Nigeria, became a major point of export of slaves from Africa to the Americas during the 17 and 18th centuries. Most slave ships frequenting this port were English.[4] Most of the slaves of Bight of Biafra – many of whom hailed from the Igbo hinterland – were imported to Virginia (which accounted for 60% of the Biafra´s slaves imported to United States, as well most of all slaves of Virginia) and South Carolina (arriving there the 34% of the Biafra´s slaves), surpassing in together the 30.000 slaves hailing from the Bight. These colonies were followed fundamentally by Maryland (where arrived the 4% of the Biafra´s slaves imported to United States, arriving more of 1,000 people of the Bight).[citation needed]

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Under conditions in the European colonies, most English masters were not interested in the tribal origins, and often did not bother to record them at all, or if they did, accurately. After two and three centuries of residence in the United States and the lack of documentation because of enslavement, African Americans have often been unable to track their ancestors to specific ethnic groups or regions of Africa. More to the point, like other Americans, they have become a mixture of many different ancestries. Most slaves who came from Nigeria were likely to have been Igbo,[5] Yoruba, and Hausa. Other ethnic groups, such as the Fulani and Edo people were also captured and transported to the colonies in the New World. The Igbo were exported mainly to Maryland[6] and Virginia.[7] They comprised the majority of all slaves in Virginia during the 18th century: of the 37,000 African slaves imported to Virginia from Calabar during the eighteenth century, 30,000 were Igbo. In the next century, people of Igbo descent were taken with settlers who moved to Kentucky. According to some historians, the Igbo also comprised most of the slaves in Maryland,[7] although other sources say that most there were from Gambia.[citation needed]This group was characterized by rebellion and its high rate of suicide, as the people resisted the slavery to which they were subjected.

Some Nigerian ethnic groups, such as the Yoruba, and some northern Nigerian ethnic groups, had tribal facial identification marks. These could have assisted a returning slave in relocating his or her ethnic group, but few slaves escaped the colonies. In the colonies, masters tried to dissuade the practice of tribal customs. They also sometimes mixed people of different ethnic groups to make it more difficult for them to communicate and band together in rebellion.[8]

 

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Missionaries when they came to Nigeria were dumbfounded to discover when they came to evangelize the Igbo People that the Igbo’s practiced many Hebraic/Jewish customs which they could not have learned from anyone else, it had to come from ancient practice of their people from antiquity; for they had no Bibles and met no one with a Bible until the missionaries came along.

They found that the Igbo’s practiced:

  • Eating of animals that meet the Biblically clean requirements as well as the complete draining of blood from the animal as well as other laws concerning Kashrut
  • The use of ritual washings like unto the mikvah
  • Washing of Hand before and after meals
  • Has a concept of clean and unclean, acceptable and abominable or taboo
  • Animal sacrifice like unto the Levitical sacrificial system
  • Believe in a Supreme, All-Powerful Deity (Chukwu) above all other deities
  • Circumcision on the 8th day as well as had the naming ceremony of the 8 day old child
  • Giving names that bear the name or title of G-d within it
  • Separation of menstruating women 
  • Adah or Ada the name of the second woman mentioned in the Bible after Eve/Chavah (Gen. 4:19-20) and is also the title used to address the first born daughters of Igbo families
  • The keeping a lunar calendar
  • Shemita and Jubilee years: The annulment of debt and servitude every seven and fifty years
  • The concept of a lifetime servant (Odibo) – Deut. 15:12-14, Ex. 21:2-6
  • Burying their dead facing East, the direction of Jerusalem and the Promised Land
  • Burying their dead as quickly as possible 
  • Sitting Shiva (seven day mourning period where one sits on low stools, remains unkempt and shave their head in grief) 
  • Belief in a resurrection
  • Send the body’s home of Igbos who die outside of Igboland to be buried, like Joseph and Jacob desiring not to be buried in a pagan or foreign land 
  • Lengthy funeral ceremonies such as found in Gen. 50:1-3
  • Preference of Inheritance and leadership was given to the first born and passed down through the fathers
  • Sung prior to and carried a type of Ark into battle when they went to war
  • Hospitality like unto the traditions and legends know of Abraham Offering water, meal and lodging to travelers
  • The Yam Festival is like unto Shavuot (Feast of Weeks) and the Ovala Festival in the fall is like unto Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles)
  • Conversation and deliberate among men and leaders like that of Rabbi’s and students in a Yeshiva
  • Levirate type marriages, brothers marrying deceased brothers wives to carry on the brothers name
  • Marriage negotiations (Onye-aka-ebe) between families, like unto the story of Isaac and Rebecca
  • Polygamy 
  • A type of, “Cities of Refuge,” where an Igbo who has committed a crime can seek refuge in his mother’s natal home, known in Igbo as, “Ikunne”
  • The concept of Sanctuary, similar to the Igbo Osu caste concept where a victim of violence may flee to the altar (alusi) for divine protection (I Kings 2:28-30)
  • Shunning of those who willingly break Igbo laws
  • Shunning of those who marry outside of the Igbo people
  • Laws against sexual perversion, incest and the like, they had to marry among their people but outside their immediate tribal clan
  • Justice and punishment for certain crimes followed the lines of,  “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” 
  • A rule of Torah (Law) was developed and was passed down by Eri
  • No jails or penal system
  • Rite of passage into adulthood
  • Governance of the people by a conglomerate of tribal elders and judges prior to the institution of kingship dynasties
  • The coronation of the Kings have rituals and customs that closely remember that of the coronation of Kings of Judah and Israel 
  • Symbolic attire and accessories of the Kings and Elders closely resembled that of Kings and Tribal leaders of Judah and Israel
  • Igbo idioms are very much like, and carry similar meanings as Solomon’s book of Proverbs


These among many other Jewish laws and customs that we will get into great depth here shortly were found to be kept by the Igbo people and sadly, the Christian missionaries forced them to abandon many of these Hebraic practices because though they resembled Biblical worship of G-d, they believed many have been done away with due to the advent of Messiah and they believed they practiced these customs unto pagan gods and as such should be abandoned. The Igbo’s are slowly beginning to return to the pre-missionary practices, desiring to return to their Hebraic roots.

One Igbo man named Avraham, a Cantor of the Natsari Jewish community in Nigeria said,

“In a nutshell, every law as stated in the Torah was being practiced by our forefathers before the advent of Christianity. Except that our fathers went into idol worship, but they still kept the tradition as was handed over to them by their forefathers.”

Read the full story http://www.hebrewigbo.com/cultural.html

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Christ's migration into Egypt mappath of the ancient hebrews

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The deaf and dumb (as they put it) Hebrew African was described as AS BLACK AS THE ACE OF SPADES

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Zondervan's Bible Dictionary, definition of HAM

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See this runaway slave register where some of the slaves still have their African names in Jamaica.

Jamaica Runaway Slaves: 19th Century

Read From-Babylon-To-Timbuktu-by-Rudolph-R-Windsor

The tribe of Ga

Ancestry DNA shows I have an African ancestor by the name of Quartey. I searched the name in Google and found they are descendants of the Ga tribe from Accra Ghana. I am going to research this tribe and continue to update this post with my findings. My DNA shows I am 7% Nigerian and 12% Ivory Coast Ghana.

SHEIKH MUSTAFA’S INTRODUCTION IS BELOW type his name into Google to find his blog or check out my re blogs.

INTRODUCTION by SHEIKH MUSTAFA

Quarteys’ all over the world are descendants of the Royal Family of Kpakpatse We clan of the Asεrε group of the Ga speaking people, which is one of the seven quarters (Akutséii) that constituted the Ashiedu Kεtεkε District within the Odododiodioo Constituency of the Ga Mashie Community in Accra. The Asεrε group of people comprises of five different clans which relocated to the coastal settlements of Little Akra (Ga Mashie) after the destruction of Great Akra (Ayawaso) by the Akwamus in the early Sixteen Century. Among them is the Kpakpatse We Royal Family, whose history we shall discuss in this discourse.

That is the end of SHEIKH MUSTAFA quote.

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History and Cultural Relations

The Ga have lived in southern Ghana for more than a thousand years. They largely displaced or intermarried with the indigenous Kpeshi people, established their system of rotating slash-and-burn horticulture, and eventually adopted maize as a primary staple as opposed to the earlier millet. The date of the earliest settlement at Accra is not known, but that settlement was flourishing by the fifteenth century. Accra developed from a series of contiguous settlements formed at different times by different peoples who developed a coherent but flexible sense of Ga identity.

The growth of Accra was stimulated by the arrival of the Europeans, the first being the Portuguese, who built a small fort there in 1482. In the seventeenth century the English, Dutch, Swedes, and Danes established spheres of influence, entering into a preexisting coastal trade. Further growth came with the destruction of the original capital, Ayawaso, 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers) northwest of Accra, by the Akwamu kingdom in 1677. After being in a tributary relationship with the Akwamu until 1730, Accra regained and largely maintained its independence until it was occupied by the British in 1874. By the beginning of the nineteenth century Accra had a population of approximately 7,500 to 10,000 and was well developed, with extensive interior and exterior trade connections. Merchants in Accra acted as middlepersons in the trade of slaves, gold, and other commodities between the Europeans and the Asante kingdom to the north. From the 1820s on European missionaries arrived in the area and had a substantial impact.

Ga ethnicity was constructed out of many strands because of the multiplicity of trade contacts, religious influences, founding ethnicities, and cross-cultural contacts fostered by intermarriage. A common saying at Asere is, “There is no such thing as a pure Ga.” Not only were many European and inland African ethnicities represented in Accra over hundreds of years, but also the lateral coastal connections produced migrations of Brazilian, Sierra Leonean, and Nigerian families, who formed clans and assumed Ga identity.

Around the turn of the twentieth century Accra experienced a series of disasters, including famines, a fire in 1894, an earthquake in 1906, bubonic plague, and the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, as well as continuous emigration of skilled laborers. A severe earthquake in 1939 destroyed much of Central Accra and gave added impetus to settle in new suburban settlements such as Kaneshie and Adabraka.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences-and-law/anthropology-and-archaeology/people/ga

 

The tribe of Ga are descendants of GAD and are the hebrew Israelites. They left Egypt and migrated to Ghana via Nigeria and Ethiopia there is much discussion around this on the internet.

http://www.ghanadot.com have great information regarding this. Below is a quote from their blog.


The Ga-Dangmes claim to be descendants DAN and GAD, the fifth and seventh sons of Jacob. Biblical history suggests that Jacob, whom God named YISRAEL had Leah as his wife who gave birth to four sons for him. When Leah noticed that she had passed child-bearing age, she gave her maid servant, ZILPAH to wife. Through Zilpah, Jacob had Dan and Gad and four more sons. Jacob has two sons with Rachel. Gad’s fifth son was Eri who later formed a clan known as Erites (Genesis 30:9, Genesis 46:16, Numbers 26:15-19 and Deuteronomy 3:12; Genesis 30:4-8 3:12.The descendant of Eri, son of Gad are believed to have founded the Nri Kingdom around 900 A.D of the South Eastern and parts of the mid-western Igboland in Nigeria with other tribes of Levi, Zebulon, Ephraim and possibly more. In the Book of numbers, the Bible had made extensive references to the children of Israel, which includes Gad and Dan and their children (Numbers 1:1-54).

Biblical history strongly lends support to the claim by Ga-Dangmes that they are HEBREW ISRAELITES due to the fact Ga-Dangme names are found throughout the OLD TESTAMENT. Examples are: NIIKOILAI (Rev:2, 6, 15); AMASA (2 Samuel 17, 25; 1 Chronicle 33 20-21 DJAANI/JANNE, 2 Timothy 3: 8; AMON, 2 Chronicle 33: 20-21; ASHALE (ASAHEL), 1 Chronicle 2:16, 2 Samuel 2: 18-19.

King AYI KUSHI, spelled Cush in Hebrew, Genesis 10: 6 Jeremiah 13:23, Isaiah 18:12) led the Ga-Dangmes from Cush in Jerusalem to Ayawaso and was the founder of the GA DYNASTY. It is believed that the Ga-Dangmes Kingdom at AYAWASO was the first Kingdom in GHANA. It is interesting that Queen Dode (Dodi) Akabi’s name DODI is a Hebrew Name. Also, the name of the hunter, KADI, who found a group people at OSU DOKU and introduced them to the Nungua Mantse, is a Hebrew name. The Nungua Mantse, in consultation with the Ga Mashi Mantse gave Osu lands to the “KADI GBOI” as people of Osu were referred to.

Ga-Dangmes custom of circumcision of their male born and their patriarch traditions further lend support to their Hebrew Israelites origins (Genesis 17: 1-12). The HOMOWO FESTIVAL (the PASSOVER) celebrated by the Ga-Dnagmes supports their claim that they are Hebrew Israelites, descendants of children of Jacob (Exodus 13: 1-10); Exodus 12: 1-50; Numbers 9:1-5

According to Abbey in his book KEDZI AFO JORDAN (1968), Ga-Dangmes tradition during which they put money in the coffins of their deceased relatives prior to burial is an ancient Hebrew Israelites custom. In ancient Israel of the Bible, the deceased were said to be buried across the river Jordan. Coins placed in the coffins of the deceased believing that  their spirits will use it in “paying” for their passage across the River Jordan. The “abayan”, cloth belonging to the deceased, which is torn to pieces, and each piece placed on the left wrist of the deceased relatives and very close friends, is an ancient Jewish custom. Also, the DIPO or OTUFO customs of the Ga-Dangmes are said to be ancient Hebrew Israelites customs. These and ancient traditional customs still observed by Ga-Dangmes clearly lend credence to their claim that they are of Hebrew Israelites origins.

End of extract from Ghana. Com blog

Through my own research I have found that the Ga-Dnagmes believe in one supreme being and an evil being who we would call Satan in Europe society. The tribe also believe there are good and bad spirits. The tribe believe that our ancestors guide us through life. People are held accountable in this community for their actions. Many people would have you believe that all of these people worship deities and animals and spirits which is not the case. There are good and bad types of worship and the bad takes the direction of black magic, spirit worship and sacrifices to a number of God’s in my opinion and the opinion of some of the Ghanian community. A documentary I watched discussed this very point and even the indigenous Igbo of the land are aware of this and confirm the difference in the 2 religions. An interesting point is that for 1000s of years there have been people who believed in one God. Religion unfortunately has used it’s power to dominate and rule over certain people claiming all men worshiped numerous God’s and therefore had to be taken under control. Slavery is heavily documented in The Bible and Quran and historical documents breathe life to the story.

Fort James was built in 1673 in Accra as a trading port.  It appears that the slaves were shipped straight from Ghana to Jamaica and other ports that I have yet to explore. In researching my heritage I identified that my paternal line traces back to Accra Ghana. I stored the picture below as my investigations led to Elmina Ghana. Many slaves were transported from the castle below.

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Elmina is conveniently located at the shore line providing a means of transporting the slaves at the time. This castle was used in Ghana to ship the slaves across the continent.

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Some of the people enslaved were described as AKAN  in the slave records. These Africans were from The slavery Gold Coast and would likely have spoken a number of languages which are still in use today.

 

Currently English is the official language of Ghana and the Ga are a mixture of peoples concentrated in the capital, many first-language Ga speakers also know English, one or more of the Akan languages (Fante or Twi), and/or Ewe. These are the languages that they speak in that area.

Further information can be found online http://www.encyclopedia.com they state the following:

The oldest area of settlement in Accra, now known as Central Accra, is composed of seven quarters, among which Asere, Abola, and Gbese are oldest and considered to be the most traditionally Ga. Otublohum originally was settled by people from Akwamu and Denkyera to the northwest. These four quarters make up Ussher Town, the area placed under Dutch jurisdiction in the seventeenth century. The other three quartersAlata or Nleshi, Sempe, and Akanmadzeare said to be of later origin. Alata was settled by Nigerian workers imported to construct a European fort. These three quarters are commonly called James Town and formed the original area of British jurisdiction at Accra. Asere is by far the largest quarter in terms of population and area. All quarters have clan houses known as wekushia, the original homes of Ga patrilineages, and chiefs called mantsemei.

Extract above from http://www.encyclopedia.com

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Ghanian Tour Guide

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My DNA interestingly enough shows the migration of africans down the coast of Africa from Mali and Senegal down to Nigeria Ghana Benin Togo Cameroon and Congo

It is also to be noted that the tribe of Ga are no longer just found in Africa. There are claims that the chereokee Indians and native Americans also originate from this tribe. I will be exploring their heritage and other tribes later in this blog.

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A personal account of St George Castle in Elmina is below by the New York Times

http://www.nytimes.com/1990/11/25/travel/the-slave-fortresses-of-ghana.html?pagewanted=all

Elmina, 93 miles west of Accra, at the western edge of Ghana’s central region, is different. Here the highway looks out on coconut groves lining the beach, and the massive weight of St. George’s Castle, at the end of the bay’s long sweep, is clear even from a distance. Here the contrasts that characterize Europe’s first footholds on the continent make themselves felt: the gray and white of the stone against the turquoise and green of the sea, the fortified solidity of the structure against the airy openness of the horizon.

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Built in 1482 by the Portuguese in the area they called Mina de Ouro (the gold mine), after they found vast quantities of the precious metal there, the castle is the oldest European structure in sub-Saharan Africa. For more than 100 years the area around Elmina was the center of a thriving trade in gold, ivory and peppers, which the Africans supplied in abundance, and cloth, beads, metals and hardware, which the Portuguese brought from Europe.

After two unsuccessful attempts to take it, the Dutch captured the castle in 1637 with an assault from the land. Mindful of similar threats, they built Fort Coenraadsburg on St. Iago Hill, where it keeps watch to this day over St. George’s rear. The great castle then became the African headquarters of the Dutch West Indies Company, whose business was supplying the needs of the New World’s great plantations. Foremost among these was the need for labor; the Dutch became the slave trade’s masters.

Elmina’s storerooms were converted to dungeons as other European powers built lodges and forts on what became known as the Gold Coast and began competing fiercely for their share of the trade from the mid-1600’s on. The building that once housed a Portuguese Catholic Church became Elmina’s slave market, where African dealers brought their captives, many of them victims of tribal wars. By the 18th century an estimated 68,400 slaves were exported from Africa each year, of whom about 41,000 came from West Africa, according to published accounts of the times. Of those, 10,000 left Elmina’s shores when the castle was operating at full capacity, according to Ghana’s Museums and Monuments Board.

See also The Ga-Dangme of Ghana

Major Ethnic Groups Of Ghana

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