Tag Archives: South Africa

The African National Congress

Apartheid (South African English pronunciation: /əˈpɑːrtd/Afrikaans: [aˈpartɦəit]) was a system of institutionalized racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa between 1948 and 1991.[1] Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, and grand apartheid, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race.[2] Prior to the 1940s, some aspects of apartheid had already emerged in the form of minority rule by white South Africans and the socially enforced separation of black South Africans from other races, which later extended to pass laws and land apportionment.[3][4] Apartheid as a policy was embraced by the South African government shortly after the ascension of the National Party (NP) during the country’s 1948 general elections.[5]

Delegation from the SANNC that went to England in 1914 to convey the objections of the African people to the 1913 Land Act

ANC Origins and Background

The African National Congress (ANC) was formed in 1912 as a result of many grievances. This included black dissatisfaction with the South Africa Act of 1910 that established the Union of South Africa, their treatment after the South African War and numerous laws that controlled and restricted black movement and labour.

The end of the South African War (1899-1902) paved the way for the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910. The eight years between the end of the war in 1902 and the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910 was marked by intense negotiations between the four, previously unconnected provinces. Populations of the Cape Province and Natal were considered to owe allegiance to Britain, while Transvaal and the Orange Free State had become independent Boer/Afrikaner republics in 1852 and 1854 respectively. The war was fought over the question of independence of the latter two provinces from British control.

During the eight years of negotiations, it became apparent that delegates of the four provinces were determined to forge a settlement that excluded Africans from meaningful political participation in the envisaged unified South Africa. This galvanised different African political formations, hitherto fragmented and each with a ‘provincial’ appeal, to forge a unified political movement that would challenge the exclusion of Black people. The African People’s Organisation, largely a Cape political formation, the Orange River Colony Vigilance Association and the Transvaal Vigilance Association were all formed during this period.

In 1909, a group of Black delegates from the four provinces met in Waaihoek, Bloemfontein to propose a means to object to the draft South Africa Act, and Union Constitution. This was the South African Native Convention (SANC). A nine man delegation was sent to England. The Convention is considered a precursor to the South African Native National Congress (SANNC). Apart from sympathetic coverage from the British media to the plight of Blacks, little else was achieved by the delegation.

The SANC continued to be active in 1910 and in 1911, objecting to further discriminatory legislation. The need for a permanent body to represent Blacks on a national level was the reason for the transformation of the body into a more representative and dynamic organisation. Pixley ka Isaka Seme, a well educated attorney, and author Solomon Plaatje, pioneered the formation of the South African Native National Congress (SANNC).

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Nelson Mandela in his book Long Walk to Freedom, describes the ANC in this way, “The ANC was the one organization that welcomed everyone, that saw itself as a great umbrella under which all Africans could find shelter.” p110 Nelson Mandela speaks about how under this group different tribes arranged meetings and demonstrations to campaign for the indigenous African rights. The ANC struggled to fight apartheid and many of their leaders were imprisoned. At first they led peaceful rallies but later adopted gorilla warfare  tactics when their voices were not heard. Nelson Mandela encouraged the ANC to participate in Bantu political issues. There was a commission created by the government to develop Bantu areas including Transkei the commission also wanted to create separate black and white areas. Nelson Mandela saw this as separating the people and creating a class system.

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (/mænˈdɛlə/,[1]; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionarypolitician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country’s first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.

His Excellency
Nelson Mandela
OMP RE OM AC CC OJ GCStJ QC GCIH BR
Nelson Mandela on the eve of his 90th birthday in Johannesburg in May 2008

Mandela in Johannesburg on 13 May 2008
1st President of South Africa
In office
10 May 1994 – 14 June 1999
Deputy Thabo Mbeki
F. W. de Klerk
Preceded by F. W. de Klerk
as State President
Succeeded by Thabo Mbeki
Personal details
Born Rolihlahla Mandela
18 July 1918
MvezoCape ProvinceUnion of South Africa
Died 5 December 2013 (aged 95)
Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
Resting place Mandela Graveyard
Qunu, Eastern Cape
Political party African National Congress
Other political
affiliations
South African Communist Party
Spouse(s)
Children 6 (including Makgatho,MakaziweZenani andZindziswa)
Parents Nosekeni Fanny
Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa
Alma mater
Occupation
  • Activist
  • Politician
  • Philanthropist
  • Lawyer
Religion Methodist
Known for Anti-Apartheid Movement
Awards
Notable work(s) Long Walk to Freedom
Website http://www.nelsonmandela.org
Nickname(s)
  • Madiba
  • Dalibunga

Xhosa, Mandela was born in Mvezo to theThembu royal family. He studied law at theUniversity of Fort Hare and the University of the Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer inJohannesburg. There he became involved inanti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1943 and co-founding itsYouth League in 1944. After the National Party‘s white-only government established apartheid—a system of racial segregation that privileged whites—he and the ANC committed themselves to its overthrow. Mandela was appointed President of the ANC’s Transvaalbranch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaignand the 1955 Congress of the People. He was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the banned South African Communist Party (SACP). Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961 and led asabotage campaign against the government. In 1962, he was arrested for conspiring to overthrow the state and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial.

Mandela served 27 years in prison, initially onRobben Island, and later in Pollsmoor Prisonand Victor Verster Prison.

Steve Biko

Bantu Stephen Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a South African anti-apartheid activist. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he was at the forefront of a grassroots anti-apartheid campaign known as the Black Consciousness Movement during the late 1960s and 1970s.

Stephen Biko
Steve Biko Photograph.jpg
Born Bantu Stephen Biko
18 December 1946
Ginsberg, South Africa
Died 12 September 1977 (aged 30)
Pretoria, South Africa
Occupation Anti-apartheid activist
Spouse(s) Ntsiki Mashalaba
Partner(s) Mamphela Ramphele
Children Nkosinathi Biko; Lerato Biko; Samora Biko; Motlatsi Biko;Hlumelo Biko

Raised in a poor Xhosa family, Biko grew up inGinsberg, Eastern Cape. In 1966, he began studying medicine at the University of Natal. Here he was increasingly politicised and rose to a senior position in the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS). He was strongly opposed to the apartheid system ofracial segregation and white-minority rule in South Africa. At the same time he was also frustrated that the anti-apartheid movement, including NUSAS, was dominated by whiteliberals rather than by the blacks who were most disadvantaged by the apartheid system. He developed the view that to avoid white domination, black people had to organise independently and focus on ridding themselves of any sense of racial inferiority. To this end he was a leading figure in the creation of the South African Students’ Organisation (SASO) in 1968. Membership was only open to “blacks“—a term that Biko used in reference not just toBantu-speaking Africans but also Colouredsand Indians—although he retained friendships with several white liberals, and opposed anti-white racism.

Following the 1968 NUSAS conference in Johannesburg, many of its members attended a July 1968 conference of the University Christian Movement at Stutterheim. There, the black African members had a meeting among themselves, deciding that they would hold a further conference in December to discuss the issue of forming an independent black student group.[43] The South African Students’ Organisation (SASO) was officially launched at a July 1969 conference held at the University of the North; there, the group’s constitution and basic policy platform was adopted.[44] The group’s main impetus was on the need for contact between centres of black student activity, including through sport, cultural activities, and debating competitions.[45] Biko was elected as SASO’s first president, while Pat Matshaka was elected vice president and Wuila Mashalaba as secretary.[46]

The security services imprisoned Biko at Walmer Police Station in Port Elizabeth, where he was held in custody for almost a month.[114] On arrival, he was kept naked in a cell for twenty days, with his legs in shackles.[115] During his interrogation, he was severely beaten by one of the ten security police officers,[116] although the exact events have never been ascertained.[117] He received three brain lesions that resulted in a massive brain haemorrhage on 6 September.[118]Following this incident, Biko’s captors forced him to remain standing and shackled to the wall.[119]

 

The Lemba Bantu tribe in South Africa

https://www.ancestry.com/dna/ethnicity/southeast-africa

South East African Bantu History

About 3,000 years ago, a group of Niger-Congo languages called Bantu (meaning “people”) originated in West Africa in an area that includes modern-day Nigeria and Cameroon. Early Bantu speakers farmed yams and oil palms and lived on the edges of forests where resources were richer and they could supplement their diet with bushmeat. A stable and somewhat varied food supply led to population growth, and the people spread in two directions. Some went south along Africa’s west coast, while others headed east across the continent in one of the greatest migrations in human history. Today, Bantu peoples are found throughout much of southern and eastern Africa.

Spread of the Bantu Languages

The South Asia region is the birthplace of both Hinduism and Buddhism, the world’s third- and fourth-largest religions. Islam arrived later, in the 7th century A.D., with the Arab conquest. “The Gate of Islam,” is what the Arab Empire called Pakistan and the country remains primarily Muslim to this day.

Eastern Bantu Migrations

The Eastern Bantu migrations began about 1000 B.C. As they moved toward modern-day Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania, the Eastern Bantu learned to grow grains and smelt iron, which they used to make farming tools. Increased food production led to larger populations, which displaced other peoples along the way as the Eastern Bantu moved into southernmost Africa.

 

Western Bantu Migrations

About 1000 B.C., the Western Bantu moved south from Cameroon along the west coast of Africa, ending up in what we know today as Angola and Namibia. As some groups moved deeper into central Africa’s rainforests and riverine environments, they added fishing to their skills.

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Watch The genetics of the Lemba tribe who are classed as Jewish and Hebrew

https://youtu.be/evjVXWFR80A

Watch a modern Jew confirm the Lemba are genetically Jews descended from Aaron https://youtu.be/545U5UDUp9k

Click the link below to be taken to the full post (extract shown below) at muleyate.blogspot.co.uk

The Only Truth: lemba people (Vhashavhi or Vhalemba)

Watch https://youtu.be/fBc0iWYzu88

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Although they are speakers of Bantu languages related to those spoken by their geographic neighbours, they have specific religious practices and beliefs similar to those in Judaism, which some[who?] suggest were transmitted orally. Today, many Lemba are Christians (including Messianic Jews) or Muslim, and maintain several Jewish practices. Recent genetic analyses have established a partially Semitic (Middle-Eastern) origin for a significant portion of the Lemba population.[3][4]

The name “Lemba” may originate in chilemba, a Swahili word for turbans worn by East Africans or lembi a Bantu word meaning “non-African” or “respected foreigner”.[5] 

 

 


Judaic or Arab links

Many Lemba beliefs and practices can be linked to Judaism. According to Rudo Mathivha,[2] this includes the following:

They call God Nwali.
They observe Shabbat.
They praise Nwali for looking after the Lemba, considering themselves part of the chosen people.
They teach their children to honor their mothers and fathers.
They refrain from eating pork and other foods forbidden by the Torah, and forbid combinations of permitted foods.
Their form of animal slaughter, which makes meats fit for their consumption, is a form of shechita.
They practise male circumcision; (furthermore, according to Junod,[6] surrounding tribes regarded them as the masters and originators of that art).
They place a Star of David on their tombstones.
Lembas are discouraged from marrying non-Lembas, as other Jews are discouraged from marrying other non-Jews.
Circumcision, not marrying non-Lembas, their dietary practices and a suggested relationship between many Lemba clan-names and known Semitic words; e.g., Sadiki, Hasane, Hamisi, Haji, Bakeri, Sharifo and Saidi led W. D. Hammond-Tooke to the conclusion that they were Arabs.[7]

Lemba traditions and culture 

According to some Lemba, they had male ancestors who were Jews who left Judea about 2,500 years ago and settled in a place called Senna, later migrating into East Africa.[8] According to the findings of British researcher Tudor Paurfitt, the location of Senna was more than likely in Yemen, specifically, in the village of Sanāw within the easternmost portion of the Wadi Hadhramaut.[9] The city had a vibrant Jewish population since ancient times, but it dwindled to a few hundred people since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.[10]
According to their oral tradition, the male ancestors of the Lemba came to southeast Africa to obtain gold[7][11]


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All pictures from Google

See this video https://youtu.be/0iNfs_ReRNc

Zimbabwean Lemba men

Many Lemba are Christians and Muslims, but they embrace their Jewish roots

 

By Steve Vickers 
BBC News, Harare

The Lemba people of Zimbabwe and South Africa may look like their compatriots, but they follow a very different set of customs and traditions.

They do not eat pork, they practise male circumcision, they ritually slaughter their animals, some of their men wear skull caps and they put the Star of David on their gravestones.

Their oral traditions claim that their ancestors were Jews who fled the Holy Land about 2,500 years ago.

It may sound like another myth of a lost tribe of Israel, but British scientists have carried out DNA tests which have confirmed their Semitic origin.

These tests back up the group’s belief that a group of perhaps seven men married African women and settled on the continent. The Lemba, who number perhaps 80,000, live in central Zimbabwe and the north of South Africa.

Zimbabwean Lemba women

Lemba women do not have Jewish DNA

And they also have a prized religious artefact that they say connects them to their Jewish ancestry – a replica of the Biblical Ark of the Covenant known as the ngoma lungundu, meaning “the drum that thunders”.

The object went on display recently at a Harare museum to much fanfare, and instilled pride in many of the Lemba.

“For me it’s the starting point,” says religious singer Fungisai Zvakavapano-Mashavave.

“Very few people knew about us and this is the time to come out. I’m very proud to realise that we have a rich culture and I’m proud to be a Lemba.

“We have been a very secretive people, because we believe we are a special people.”

Religion vs culture

The Lemba have many customs and regulations that tally with Jewish tradition.

They wear skull caps, practise circumcision, which is not a tradition for most Zimbabweans, avoid eating pork and food with animal blood, and have 12 tribes.

Tudor Parfitt
 Many people say that the story is far-fetched, but the oral traditions of the Lemba have been backed up by science 
Tudor Parfitt
University of London

They slaughter animals in the same way as Jewish people, and they put the Jewish Star of David on their tombstones.

Members of the priestly clan of the Lemba, known as the Buba, were even discovered to have a genetic element also found among the Jewish priestly line.

“This was amazing,” said Prof Tudor Parfitt, from the University of London.

“It looks as if the Jewish priesthood continued in the West by people called Cohen, and in same way it was continued by the priestly clan of the Lemba.

 

Visit the link in title for full post

 

 

 

Transatlantic journey from West Africa to beyond

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