Tag Archives: Yoruba

Ancient African ancestors

Researchers studied 121 African populations, four African American populations and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 DNA markers. The study traced the genetic structure of Africans to 14 ancestral population clusters that correlated with ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. The research team demonstrated that there is more genetic diversity in Africa than anywhere else on earth.

They also determined that the ancestral origin of humans was probably located in southern Africa, near the South Africa-Namibian border. Extrapolating the data, scientists were able to map ancient migrations of populations and determined that the exit point of modern humans out of Africa was near the middle of the Red Sea in East Africa. They also provide evidence for ancient common ancestry of geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations in Africa, including Pygmies from central Africa and click-speaking populations from southern and eastern Africa, suggesting the possibility that the original pygmy language may have contained clicks. Overall, they demonstrate remarkable correspondence between cultural, linguistic, and genetic diversity in Africa.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090430144524.html

The San people of southern Africa, who have lived as hunter-gatherers for thousands of years, are likely to be the oldest population of humans on Earth, according to the biggest and most detailed analysis of African DNA. The San, also known as bushmen, are directly descended from the original population of early human ancestors who gave rise to all other groups of Africans and, eventually, to the people who left the continent to populate other parts of the world.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/worlds-most-ancient-race-traced-in-dna-study-1677113.html

Homo sapiens, known casually as “modern humans”, are thought to have first evolved around 195,000 years ago in east Africa – the earliest remains from that time were uncovered near the Omo River in Ethiopia.

It is thought that by 150,000 years ago these early modern humans had managed to spread to other parts of Africa and fossilised remains have been found on the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa.

The earliest homo sapien remains found outside of Africa were discovered in Israel and are thought to be around 100,000 years old. They are remains of a group that left Africa through what is now the Sahara desert during a brief period when the climate grew wetter, turning the desert green with vegetation. This excursion, however, failed and the population died out when the climate started to dry out again.

While there are 14 ancestral populations in Africa itself, just one seems to have survived outside of the continent.

The latest genetic research has shown that it was not until around 70,000 years ago that humans were able to take advantage of falling sea levels to cross into Arabia at the mouth of the Red Sea, which is now known as the Gate of Grief.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/5299351/African-tribe-populated-rest-of-the-world.html

Ethiopian discovery

Kathryn and John Arthur

This rocky area in Mota cave held bones that yielded the first ancient African genome.

In 2011, archaeologists working with Gamo tribesman in the highlands of southwest Ethiopia discovered Mota Cave, 14 metres wide and 9 metres high, overlooking a nearby river. A year later, they excavated a burial of an adult male, his body extended and hands folded below his chin. Radiocarbon dating suggested that the man died around 4,500 years ago — before the proposed time of the Eurasian migrations and the advent of agriculture in eastern Africa.

Advances in ancient DNA technology allow researchers to reap DNA from ever older bones, and the cool, constant temperatures of caves are kind to the molecule. So a team co-led by Ron Pinhasi, an archaeologist at University College Dublin, tested the Mota man’s bones for intact DNA and found enough to sequence his genome 12 times over1.

The man’s genome is, unsurprisingly, more closely related to present-day Ethiopian highlanders known as the Ari than to any other population the team examined, suggesting a clear line of descent for the Ari from ancient human populations living in the area. But further genetic studies show that the Ari also descend from people that lived outside Africa, which chimes with a previous study that discovered a ‘backflow’ of humans into Africa from Eurasia around 3,000 years ago. (Humans first migrated from Africa some 60,000 to 100,000 years ago.)

Eyal Bartov/Alamy

The man found in Mota cave is related to the Ari, modern-day Ethiopian highlanders.

Eurasian influences

Using genetic evidence from Eurasian ancient genomes and present-day populations, the researchers determined that the migrant ancestors of the Ari were closely related to early farmers who moved into Europe from the Near East around 9,000 years ago. Co-author Marcos Gallego Llorente, an evolutionary geneticist at the University of Cambridge, UK, suggests that Middle Eastern farmers later moved south to Africa, bringing new crops to the continent such as wheat, barley and lentils. The team also found vestiges of these migrants’ DNA in people all across sub-Saharan Africa — probably carried by later migrations, such as the expansion of Bantu-speaking groups from West Africa to other parts of the continent around 1,000 years ago.

http://www.nature.com/news/first-ancient-african-genome-reveals-vast-eurasian-migration-1.18531

Genetic studies have shown that after the great migration out of Africa, which happened about 60,000 years ago, some people later returned to the continent.

But this study shows that about 3,000 years ago there was a much larger migration than had been thought.

The Neolithic farmers from western Eurasia who, about 8,000 years ago, brought agriculture to Europe then began to return to Africa.

“We know now that they probably corresponded to a quarter of the people that already lived in East Africa (at that time). It was a major backflow, a very sizeable movement of people,” said Dr Manica.

It is unclear what caused this move – potentially changes happening in the Egyptian empire – but it has left a genetic legacy.

“Quite remarkably, we see in Ethiopia about 20% – so a fifth – of the genome of people living there right now is actually of Eurasian origin, it actually comes from these farmers,” explained Dr Manica.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-34479905

Pontus Skoglund knew there had to be more to the story. So the Harvard University evolutionary geneticist and his colleagues obtained DNA from 15 ancient Africans from between 500 and 6000 years ago, some before the Bantu expansion. In addition, Skoglund’s team got DNA data from 19 modern populations across Africa for comparison, including from large groups like the Bantu and smaller ones like the Khoe-San and the Hadza.

For the most part, the ancient DNA was most similar to that of people living in the same places where the bones were found, Skoglund reported. But some interesting exceptions showed intermingling among various groups. “It’s really exciting to see in Africa that there was already this ancient admixture,” says Simon Aeschbacher, a population geneticist from the University of Bern who was not involved with the work. “There must have been population movements in early Africa.”

The ancient genomes indicate that Southern Africans split off from Western Africans several thousand years ago, and subsequently evolved key adaptations that honed their taste buds and protected them from the sun. Around 3000 years ago, herders—possibly from today’s Tanzania—spread far and wide, reaching Southern Africa centuries before the first farmers. But modern Malawians, who live just south of Tanzania, are likely descended from West African farmers rather than local hunter-gatherers, Skoglund says. Indeed, the analysis suggests that West Africans were early contributors to the DNA of sub-Saharan Africans. But even these DNA donors were a hodgepodge of what are now two modern groups—the Mende and the Yoruba. And one ancient African herder showed influence from even farther abroad, with 38% of their DNA coming from outside Africa.

Another study focused on Southern Africa, where some researchers think modern Homo sapiens evolved. Evolutionary geneticist Carina Schlebusch and her colleagues at Uppsala University in Sweden partially sequenced seven ancient genomes: three from 2000-year-old hunter-gatherers and four from 300- to 500-year-old farmers. They also included modern DNA in their analyses.

The more modern farmers did have Bantu DNA in their genomes, but the ancient hunter-gatherers predated the spread of the Bantu, she and her colleagues reported last month on the preprint server bioRxiv. Their other findings parallel Skoglund’s discoveries: Nine percent to 22% of the DNA of these farmers’ modern descendants—including the southern Khoe-San—comes from East Africans and Eurasian herders.

Schlebusch’s analysis reaches even deeper into human history than does Skoglund’s, as her team used the ancient and modern genomes to estimate that the hunter-gatherers she studied split off from other groups some 260,000 years ago, about the age of the oldest H. sapiens fossil.

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/07/first-big-efforts-sequence-ancient-african-dna-reveal-how-early-humans-swept-across

Research by geneticists and archaeologists has allowed them to trace the origins of modern homo sapiens back to a single group of people who managed to cross from the Horn of Africa and into Arabia. From there they went on to colonise the rest of the world.

Genetic analysis of modern day human populations in Europe, Asia, Australia, North America and South America have revealed that they are all descended from these common ancestors.

It is thought that changes in the climate between 90,000 and 70,000 years ago caused sea levels to drop dramatically and allowed the crossing of the Red Sea to take place.

The findings are to be revealed in a new BBC Two documentary series,The Incredible Human Journey, that traces the prehistoric origins of the human species.

Dr Peter Forster, a senior lecturer in archaeogenetics at Anglia Ruskin University in Cambridge who carried out some of the genetic work, said: “The founder populations cannot have been very big. We are talking about just a few hundred individuals.”

See also this African history Timeline https://www.preceden.com/timelines/54992-african-slave-trade-1450-1750

 

links to some Black History posts on this blog.

 

 

 

Click the links below to view the posts.

Think You Can’t Research Your African American Family History? Think Again.

Using DNA to find the common ancestor — The Genealogy Corner

Who do you think you are magazine link. Tracing ancestors worldwide

African ancestry with link to African ancestry DNA site

Analysing trans-atlantic DNA results

The Story in My DNA

My carribean african ancestry DNA

 

Ethnic Origins of Jamaican Runaway Slaves

Haitian DNA Results

 

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AFRICAN🌟 DIASPORA (NEVER🌍FORGET) ONLINE 💻 ENCYCLOPEDIA!AFRICAN DIASPORA (NEVERFORGET) ONLINE ENCYCLOPEDIA!

Historical black figures in Europe and beyond

Links to the slave databases available online

First World War records of service

 

AMER’ICAN, noun A native of America; originally applied to the aboriginals, or copper-colored races, found here by the Europeans. Link below

The slave population of the United States from 1815

In Our Cities: From Slavery to Real Estate Mogul, Biddy Mason Leaves Her Mark on Los Angeles

 

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Inspirational black historical figures and quotes

Harriet Ann Jacob’s incidents in the life of a slave girl

The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano

Olaudah Equiano – life on board – A slaves account

Who the Moors really were.

When Black Men Ruled the World: 8 Things The Moors Brought to Europe – Atlanta Black Star

 

Efik people

GA PEOPLE: GHANA`S TRIBE THAT HAS MAINTAINED ITS AFRICAN TRADITIONS AND CULTURE IN THE MIDST OF WESTERN INFLUENCE IN THE CAPITAL CITY,ACCRA.

Ga Naming patten

The tribe of Ga

The Igbo tribe

Igbo people in Jamaica

 

Stunning pictures of African tribes from “The African Way”

Benin trade and art

Rice production in Nigeria

Nigerian Results (Ancestry DNA)

Road tripping across Nigeria: A Photo Essay — The Five to Nine Traveller

Tracing Cameroon Roots

The Lemba Bantu tribe in South Africa

History And Legacy Of South Africa’s Legendary Warrior, Shaka Zulu. — African Paradise World

Sahel / Interior

PEOPLE OF THE WATER: THE LIBINZA OF THE ISLANDS OF THE NGIRI RIVER, DEMOCRATIC REPUPLIC OF THE CONGO – Part 2: THE WATER..

African ancestry with link to African ancestry DNA site

 

Israelite Tribes

The East African Israelites of Zanjiland

The Bantu Branch of ‘Africans’ are Hebrew Israelites PART I of II

History And Legacy Of Haile Selassie I — African Paradise World

THE YORUBA AND OTHER HEBREW ISRAELITES OF NIGERIA

The tribes Benjamin & Judah

THE HEBREW ISRAELITES AND THE TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE CONNECTION

“BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES “BY ANGELFIRE.COM

Black History Pt 3: The True Identity of the West African Slaves PT 3

Found Biblical heritage of Black Americans Historical Evidence They Are Hebrews ( New Videos Added )

The Igbo and Hebrew Jewish practises.

Exploration of The Hebrews descended from the tribe of GADExploration of The Hebrews descended from the tribe of GAD

Israel’s Covenant Renewal Deuteronomy

 

Developing a connection with your spirit

Spirituality: A focus on the soul “the shift in priorities allows us to embrace our spirituality in a more profound way”

English Bible History

Christianity’s African Roots

History of Judaism

Catholic Church Admits They Made the Change to the Sabbath

The Torah states to worship YHWH. In Hebrew God is associated with Baal and other false God.

So Early Christians Stole From Kamit/Kemet Now What? Pt. 1

“ANCIENT EGYPTIANS WROTE THE BIBLE” BY DR. KWAME NANTAMBU,KENT STATE UNIVERSITY

Metu Neter – Ma’at – 11 Laws of God

The Kemetic Religion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE YORUBA AND OTHER HEBREW ISRAELITES OF NIGERIA

This is not a title of my choosing and as one person pointed out Yoruba land is not in Lagos.The Yoruba have Nigerian ancestry but the tribes are very protective over their own history and feel they are separate.  I personally find it difficult to pinpoint who the Caanites are according to the Bible so omitted the word in my title.

Yorubas and other Canaanite/Israelites of Nigeria

By Jide Uwechia

Ancient Canaanite King

Yorubas and the neighbouring nationalities located in Nigeria have this oral tradition of an origin extraneous to West Africa.

Hugh Clapperton in 1820s reported a work by Sultan Bello, the Caliph of the Sokoto Caliphate, where he asserted that the Yorubas were descended from Canaanite tribe from Palestine.

Around the 1880s Samuel Johnson a Yoruba christian also wrote a book that made similar claims for Yoruba origins as Sultan Bello’s. In 1880, Johson naively sent this work to the Church Missionary Society in England for review and publication.

The Church Missionary Society suppressed the manuscript upon realizing the explosive information it contained. The Society declared the book lost. It was not until 1923 that Johson’s brother was able to publish an edited copy of this work. Johnson’s thesis was that the Yorubas were descended from Lamurudu (Nimrod) the first King of Mesopotamia. Johnson died in 1901.

1955 S.O. Obiaku, a Nigerian historian and scholar claimed a Meroite origin (Sudan/ancient Ethiopia-Kush) for the Yorubas. Emmanuel Uguhulu another respected Nigerian scholar claimed a Hebrew origin for the Esan tribe. Esan is part of the greater Edo nation, which is related to the Yoruba nation of Nigeria.

Efik traditions claim that the Efiks originated in Palestine, crossed the Sahara and arrived Nigeria via Sudan. The Efiks are located in the south-eastern corner of Nigeria.

Iberian Jews of Yoruba Nationality

The Bnai Ephraim (“Children of Ephraim”) from Nigeria, live among the Yoruba nationalities. Their oral history tells that the Bnai Ephraim people came from Morocco after the Jews were banished from the Iberian Pennisula sometime after 1492.

They speak a dialect that is a mixture of Moroccan Arabic, Yoruba, and Aramaic. They are known by the Yoruba people as the “Emo Yo Quaim”, or “strange people”. Unlike other African Israelite communities in Nigeria, the Bnai Ephraim have the Torah, portions of which they keep in their sanctuaries.

The name Lagos borne by the former capital of Nigeria is a Portugese/Iberian name meaning the lake. Lagos is an Island carved up by lagoons, swamps and lakes. Its traditional Nigerian name is Eko.

Thousands of black refugee Jews of Iberia re-settled in the environs of Lagos and Porto Novo (as well as in Cape Verde, Guinea Buissa, and in Sao Tome either as slaves or outlaws). Some groups eventually made it deeper inland and became assimilated into one nationality or the other.

The Bnai Ephraim provides a living and irrefutable proof of this barely known history of mass Jewish re-settlement in West Africa, between 1492 and 1692, a 200 year non-stop return of Jews to Africa. This set of Moorish refugees are not to be confused with more ancient Hebrew and Canaanite tribes that had been living in Nigeria and other African countries for thousands of years. The Black Jew series on Rasta Livewire deals with the relatively more ancient Hebrews of Africa.

The Bnai Ephraim did not settle with the Yorubas by accident or chance. They recalled that a body of their people had depart Canaan in the ancient times and had settled in the present day Yoruba areas of Nigeria, just like their own group – Bnai Ephraim – had settled in Iberia (Spain and Portugal).

So, when it happened they had to leave Iberia in a hurry to protect their lives and freedom, those Moorish Iberian Jews sailed on their network of ships to Nigeria Africa, near Lagos amongst the Yorubas, their relation by blood, their greater nationality.

Other series on this website will continue to explore the foot-tracks of the Hebrew Israelites of Africa whose stories barely get told. Now, they shall not only be heard, they shall also be seen.

Awake ye ancient Moorish Hebrews of Africa, awake! You have nothing to lose but your ignorance and weakness. The earth is your inheritance and rightful legacy. The truth lies in your history, hidden until these times…

Jide Uwechia
September 1, 2009

https://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-yoruba-and-other-canaanitehebrew-israelites-of-nigeria/comment-page-2/

Source

Tudor Parfitt: “The Construction of Jewish Identities in Africa” in the book “Jews of Ethiopia” Edited by Tudor Parfitt and Emanuela Trevisan Semi. Routledge.

Abderrahman ben-Abdall es-Sadi, “Tarikh es Soudan, Paris, 1900,” (trad. O. Houdas)

Rick Gold , “The Jews of Timbuktu,” Washington Jewish Week, December 30, 1999,

Joseph J. Williams S.J., “Hebrewism of West Africa: From Nile to the Niger with the Jews”

Remy Ilona, “Igbos, Jews in Africa?,” (Volume 1), Mega Press Limited, Abuja, Nigeria, 2004,

Northern Tribes of Nigeria, Volume 1, Oxford, page 66, by C.K. Meek

See also this article

The Ewe people

HOW THE NAME ERVERH (EWE) BECAME HEBREW
As I pointed out in a previous article, the proper pronunciation of the name of my people is Erverh and not Ewe. Erverh is also the proper name of our ancestors, the ancient Israelites. The ancient Israelites were NEVER called Jews or Hebrews. How these names came about is what I will explain now. 

Most people assume the ancient Israelites were called Jews. It may be surprising to people to find the literal word ‘Jew’ is not in the entire original text of the Bible. There is no name like that in either the Old or the New Testaments. The original Hebrew of the Old Testament uses the word ‘Yehudim’, meaning ‘Judahite’. The original Greek of the New Testament uses the word ‘Ioudaios,’ meaning ‘Judean.’ Earlier translations kept these original names. Unfortunately, the word ‘Jew’ has replaced them in recent times.

In fact, the mere fact that certain people identify by the name “Jew,” shows they are not direct descendants of the ancient Israelites. This is because the direct descendants of the ancient Israelites retained the name of their ancestors, which was Erverh (corrupted as Ewe).

The name, “Hebrew,” on the other hand is the English translation of the name pronounced Erverh. The Israelites wrote their name in Hebrew with symbols that are represented the letters “IVRI” in English. IVRI is pronounced Erverh. You can check this by doing a Google search on IVRI.

HOW IVRI (ERVERH) BECAME HEBREW
A direct translation of the name of the Israelites would read IVRI (pronounced Êrverh). However, in time, this true name of the Israelites took a backseat. What replaced the name of the Israelites is a great departure from the truth. To make matters worse, the name Hebrew comes from a double translation from the original name. Let me explain what I mean by all of that.

The name ‘Hebrew,’ is the English translation of the name pronounced Erverh from Latin. That means the first translation of the name of the Israelites into Latin was the first step. This first step dropped and lost the proper pronunciation of Erverh. With the proper pronunciation lost in translation, in came the second step, which is the new Latin name’s translation into what we have now in English as Hebrew. 

The following is how it all unfolded. From the time of Abraham until the time of Jesus Christ, the world knew the Israelites as Erverh. In fact, Jesus and all his apostles were Erverh. This name became lost after the death of Christ, two thousand years ago, when the Roman Empire ruled the Middle East. 

Around the time of Christ, Judea the home of the Israelites became a province of the Roman Empire. The national language of the Roman Empire was Latin; therefore, all the literature people wrote and read was in Latin. Available Books not originally written in Latin were all translated into it. Included in these translations were the Hebrew Scriptures. The name IVRI pronounced Erverh translated into Latin became, ‘Hebraicus.’ This name Hebraicus, as you can see yourself, is nowhere near the pronunciation of Erverh.

Some years later the Roman Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity. He subsequently changed the religion of the entire Empire to Christianity – the birth of Christendom. For the next thousand years, Latin was the dominant language in Christendom and the Latin translation of the Bible was the de-facto book. If you did not read Latin, you did not know what you were missing. Salvation was in the Latin book.

The reformation in Europe, led by Martin Luther changed the status quo. Before then, only the small-educated minority who read Latin knew of what was in the scriptures. After the reformation, translation of the Bible began in other European languages including English. This opened up an unprecedented access to Bible information to anyone who could read his or her local language.

However, there was a problem. All these translations were from the Latin version instead of the original language. 

Therefore, instead of using the original name IVRI (Erverh), the translated Latin name Hebraicus carried into the European languages, which included English. The name “Hebrew,” is the result of translating the Latin “Hebraicus,” into English. Thus, the name, “Hebrew” is the result of a double translation of the original name Erverh. 

Had the translation been from the original texts with the name that is represented by the English letters IVRI (Erverh), you’d never have heard the name Hebrew. Instead the proper name Erverh is what people will know as the name of the Israelites.

So there you have it! The proper pronunciation in the native language of the ancient Israelites’ designation, commonly known, as “Hebrew” in English is “IVRI” pronounced Erverh (erH-VerH). 

https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Erverh-Ewe-Means-Hebrew-212587

READ MORE
If you are interested in reading more, the story continues at: 
http://m.mawuvi.com/site/trial/sample-pages#2936

See also The Migration of Judah

Black History Pt 1: The True Identity of the West African Slaves PT 1

The Igbo and Hebrew Jewish practises.